Introling 3 - Phonetics / Phonology 1

http://docs.google.com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w...

Introduction to English Linguistics (Part 1)
Cornelius Puschmann, M.A. introling.ynada.com

Topics covered in the next three sessions 1. The sounds of English (phonetics) 2. Sounds and their meaning (phonology) 3. Applying phonetics and phonology

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11/21/2007 11:29 PM

How do humans produce speech sounds? 3.Introling 3 ..com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w.. Phonetic transcription 2 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM .google. Phonetics/Phonology Contents of this session A few things we'll look at today: 1. The sounds of English Session 3. What are phonetics and phonology about? 2. How can speech sounds be accurately described? 4.Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs.

e. Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans vs. i.. males vs. voice" Both phonetics and phonology are concerned with speech sounds.google. English spelling often gives us no useful information about how a word is pronounced 3.Introling 3 . physical dimension of sounds phonology is about their abstract function in a language. The key difference between the two fields is that phonetics is about the concrete. African Americans vs. young people vs.. old people etc) differences in speech often play an important role What are phonetics and phonology about? phon = Greek "sound.com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w. When comparing how different people use language (corporate executives vs. blue-collar workers. Why should we care? Why phonetics and phonology are important 1. lexicon) are affected by how words sound when spoken in sequence 4. 3 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM . females. If we want to accurately describe human language we need to know the technical terms for describing its sounds 2. with the noises that humans produce to communicate.Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs. Frequently other areas of language (grammar.

.google. 20) Questions in phonetics and phonology Phonetics What kinds of speech sounds are there? What physical organs are required to produce speech sounds? How exactly is a certain sound produced? How can a sound be accurately represented? Phonology What sounds in a language differentiate meaning? What role do stress.. rhythm and pitch play? How are sounds put together in connected speech? 4 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM .Introling 3 . A quick comparison Phonetics language use (= parole) language-independent form concrete phone [] = any sound "as it is" Phonology language as a system (= langue) language-dependent function abstract phoneme // = a sound that distinguishes meaning in a language (taken from Kortmann p.Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs.com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w.

while the second word is pronounced American. American) but it does not distinguish meaning. Phones. In English. The difference between [ɑə] and [æ] marks separate varieties of English ("British" vs.dance Imagine the first word is pronounced British. Phones. This means that /h/ and /m/ are phonemes in English and that they form a minimal pair.com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w. the two sounds are therefore allophones (variants) of the same phoneme.mouse H and m distinguish meaning. as in "dAHnce". a bit like "dAEnce".. because exchanging one sound for the other gives us a different word. phonemes and allophones If we are talking about a sound in its meaning-distinguishing role in a language.Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs. Example: dance .. we are talking about a phoneme.google. phonemes and allophones There are many examples in English where a noticeably different sound does not produce a different meaning. 5 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM .Introling 3 . How do we know whether something is meaning-distinguishing? Example: house .

However. The Evolution of Speech) Dual function of articulatory organs The human vocal tract has evolved in a specific way that allows us to produce sounds more efficiently than other primates.T.Introling 3 . 6 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM . all of our articulatory organs still have dual functions (survival and speech). Evolution of the human vocal tract (taken from W..google.Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs. Fitch.com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w..

. path. uncle consonants the air stream through the glottis is partly or completely blocked can be voiceless or voiced voiceless: car. end. orange. zebra 7 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM . vowels air flows freely through the upper vocal tract always voiced examples: ant. India.google.. otherwise it is voiceless. barn.Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs. The human vocal tract Basic types of speech sounds voiced vs voiceless: if the air stream makes the vocal cords vibrate then a sound is voiced. fan.Introling 3 . sea voiced: garden. van.com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w.

behind the teeth.g.google. at the roof of the mouth Manner How is a speech sound articulated? E. behind the lips..Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs. Example for the articulation of the voiceless plosives [p].. [t] and [k] 8 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM . by rolling (or trilling) This allows us to describe the final sound of the word English /ɑɪŋɡlɪʃ/ ʃ as a voiceless palato-alveolar (place) fricative (manner). by slowly releasing air.Introling 3 .g.com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w. by building air pressure and then suddenly releasing it. Place and manner of articulation Place Where in the vocal tract is a speech sound articulated? E.

Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs. Manner of articulation? fish? voiceless labiodental (lips + teeth) fricative 9 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM . What's in a sound 1.com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w. Place of articulation? 3. Voiced or voiceless? 2. Place of articulation? 3. Voiced or voiceless? 2.Introling 3 ... Manner of articulation? fish? What's in a sound 1.google.

Manner of articulation? sing? What's in a sound 1.com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w.Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs. Manner of articulation? sing? voiced velar nasal 10 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM .google. What's in a sound 1... Place of articulation? 3. Voiced or voiceless? 2.Introling 3 . Place of articulation? 3. Voiced or voiceless? 2.

Manner of articulation? banana? What's in a sound 1. Place of articulation? 3.com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w.. Voiced or voiceless? 2.. Place of articulation? 3.Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs. Manner of articulation? banana? voiced bilabial plosive 11 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM .Introling 3 . What's in a sound 1. Voiced or voiceless? 2.google.

reference.Introling 3 ..Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs.com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w. Place and manner of articulation of consonants (Wikipedia.. cf.google. 28) The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) developed by the International Phonetic Association last revised in 2005 based on Latin alphabet 107 letters to represent speech sounds across languages widely used for transcribing languages see http://dictionary.com/ for one of many resources that give you the transcription of a word along with its spelling 12 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM . also Kortmann p.

track /θ/ thing. kindergarden..com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w.. sing 13 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM .Introling 3 . kindergarden. sing Examples for sound descriptions /k/ voiceless velar plosive car. teeth /ŋ/ ringer.google. Examples for sound descriptions /k/ car. track /θ/ voiceless dental fricative thing. teeth /ŋ/ voiced velar nasal ringer.Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs.

google. Examples for transcriptions /θɪŋ/ /fɪʃ/ /θru/ /ɑlæŋgwɪdʒ/ /prəɕnʌnsiɑeɪʃən/ /ɑpɑtiɕoʊ/ 14 of 14 11/21/2007 11:29 PM ..Introling 3 .com/PresentationView?docID=dgq7mbwx_63djvg4w.Phonetics / Phonology 1 http://docs..

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