John Kerry’s Communist Connections

:
John Kerry’s Fellow Travellers*
A 5-part series exposing John Kerry’s Communist connections. http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1198744/posts

Part 1: John Kerry’s Red Roots: Richard Kerry’s LeftWing Legacy
By Fedora *NOTE: The term “fellow traveller” as used in this article series refers to someone who is not a member of the Communist Party (CP) but regularly engages in actions which advance the Party’s program. Some apparent fellow travellers may actually be “concealed party members”: members of the CP who conceal their membership. Which of these classifications is applicable to the Kerrys is a question this series leaves unresolved. This series does not argue for any direct evidence of Richard or John Kerry or other members of the Kerry family belonging to the CP. What this series does argue for is a consistent pattern of the Kerry family working with Communists and Communist fellow travellers in a way that advances the Communist program. Introduction Previous articles have drawn attention to the liberal foreign policy orientation of John Kerry’s father Richard Kerry. This article digs deeper into Richard Kerry’s background, exploring how his foreign policy views were influenced by Communist fellow travellers from Harvard Law School and the State Department, and how this influence was in turn passed on from Richard Kerry to his children. Foreground: Richard Kerry’s Career in Brief Summary of Richard Kerry’s Career Notes: 1915 Born Embraced legal teachings of Oliver Wendell Holmes and Louis Brandeis

c.1930- Educated at Andover, Yale, and Harvard 1940 Law School c.1941Served in Army Air Corps c.1943 19441945 Taught at Groton School

19451949 19491951 19511954 19541956 19561958 19581962 19622000 2000

Law partner at Palmer, Dodge, Chase & Davis Office of General Counsel for the Navy State Department: Bureau of United Nations Affairs State Department: Legal advisor to U.S. Mission to Berlin and U.S. Attorney for Berlin State Department: Special assistant to Walter F. George, special ambassador to NATO State Department: Chief of political section of American embassy in Norway Retired from State Department, worked 5 years as law partner of Ernest Sheldon at Sheldon & Kerry Died Worked under Dean Acheson Worked for James Conant, met Jean Monnet

Richard Kerry was educated during the 1930s at Andover, Yale, and Harvard Law School, from which he graduated in 1940. He specialized in international law and embraced the legal teachings of former Harvard Law School professors Oliver Wendell Holmes and Louis Brandeis. After his graduation from law school, he served in the Army Air Corps in World War II and taught at Groton School from 1944-1945 before taking a job with the Massachusetts law firm of Palmer, Dodge, Chase & Davis. In 1949 he moved to Washington to work for the Office of General Counsel for the Navy, in the hope that this would help him land a job in the State Department. From 1951 to 1954 he worked for the State Department as an attorney for the Bureau of United Nations Affairs, where he subscribed to a firm belief in the UN vision of a postwar global government. In late 1954 he accepted a post in Germany as a legal advisor to the U.S. Mission to Berlin and U.S. Attorney for Berlin, working under German High Commissioner James Conant. While working under Conant in Berlin he became involved in NATO diplomacy and European unification issues, and he established relationships with prominent European politicians involved in these issues, notably French politician Jean Monnet. In 1956 he was transferred to serve as special assistant to President Eisenhower’s special ambassador to NATO, Walter F. George. Then from 1958 to 1962 he served as the chief of the political section of the American embassy in Norway. After retiring from the State Department in 1962 he spent five years working as the law partner of Ernest Sheldon in the Pepperell, Massachusetts law firm of Sheldon & Kerry. During his career with the State Department, Kerry adopted the view of diplomats in the Truman administration who saw the Soviet threat as primarily a political threat to Europe rather than a military or ideological threat to global capitalism and democracy. Accordingly, he advocated that NATO and European unification should be higher priorities for US foreign policy than containing or rolling back Communism. This position put him increasingly at odds with Eisenhower’s Secretary of State John Foster Dulles

and later with the Kennedy administration. In 1962 he retired from diplomatic service because he felt that no one was listening to his views, and he became a disgruntled critic of US foreign policy. From 1965 on he opposed American involvement in Vietnam. In 1990, he wrote a book which attacked the premises of US foreign policy during the Cold War, particularly during the Eisenhower and Reagan administrations. Echoing Kennedy-Johnson administration advisor McGeorge Bundy, he characterized Dulles’ ideological opposition to the Soviet Union as an oversimplified “either/or” dualism, and advocated instead what in his eyes was a more sophisticated relativism. As he put it, “Casting issues in the form of polar choices (for example: isolationism vs. interventionism) readily leads to the conclusion that if one is wrong, the other must be right. In a more relative view of the issue, both are likely to be wrong.”1 Background Part 1: Richard Kerry’s Alma Mater: Harvard Law School The Brandeis-Frankfurter Apparatus (some select members) Louis Brandeis Covertly engaged in Influenced Richard Supreme Court activism from the bench via Kerry’s legal Justice 1916-1939 Frankfurter philosophy Harvard Law School professor 1914-1939; Supreme Court Justice 1939-1962 Staffed Judicial Branch and Taught at Harvard Franklin Roosevelt Law School while administration with Richard Kerry was a Brandeis’ agents student Hired Brandeis’ and Frankfurter’s recommendations to Roosevelt administration In 1945 Hiss cofounded what would become the State Department’s Bureau of UN Affairs, where Richard Kerry began working in 1951

Felix Frankfurter

General Counsel to Agricultural Jerome Frank Adjustment Administration (AAA), 1933-1935 Alger Hiss, Lee Pressman, Nathan Witt, and others Hired to AAA starting in 1933, went on to other government agencies

Recommended by Frankfurter and hired by Frank to AAA

Benjamin Cohen and Thomas Corcoran

Key Roosevelt administration advisors, 19331941

Hosted nightly meetings of Frankfurter’s associates to promote pro-Communist legislation, pushed for Frankfurter’s appointment to the Supreme Court Former law clerks for Frankfurter, spied on Roosevelt administration for Frankfurter

Worked with Joseph Rauh, Office of Edward Emergency Prichard, and Management, Philip Graham 1941-1942

Niels Bohr

Physicist; consultant to Manhattan Project, 19431945

Traded classified information on the Manhattan Project with Frankfurter, joined Frankfurter in trying to persuade the Allies to share atomic secrets with the Soviets

To set Richard Kerry’s career in context, it is informative to begin with his law school career and his enthusiasm for the teachings of former Harvard Law School professor Louis Brandeis. Prior to Kerry’s entrance into law school, Brandeis and his associate Felix Frankfurter were two of the most prominent Communist fellow travellers in the United States, and had used Harvard Law School as a base to place political allies in the US government. Brandeis had been a political activist before President Wilson appointed him to the Supreme Court in 1916. After his appointment he continued his political activity by covertly using Frankfurter as his chief agent, setting up what may be called “the Brandeis-Frankfurter apparatus”. Among other functions Frankfurter performed for Brandeis’ apparatus, a key one was recommending Harvard Law graduates to work for Brandeis, his fellow Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, and the Executive Branch of the federal government. Frankfurter continued to perform this and other functions on Brandeis’ behalf until 1937, after which he branched off to form his own apparatus in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations and the Supreme Court. 2 The Brandeis-Frankfurter apparatus engaged in various covert activities supportive of domestic subversives and Soviet agents. These included advising the Wilson administration to aid the Bolshevik government,3 using Harvard Law Review to oppose anti-espionage laws, organizing Harvard Law professors to petition clemency for convicted subversives, ,4 and recommending Harvard Law graduates who were later exposed as Soviet agents for government jobs in the Roosevelt administration. Among the Harvard Law graduates recommended to the Roosevelt administration by Frankfurter and hired by his agent Jerome Frank were Soviet spies Alger Hiss, Lee Pressman, and Nathan Witt. Hiss went on to become prominent in the State Department, cofounding the State Department’s UN branch before he was exposed as a spy in 1948.5 Through agents such as Hiss, the Brandeis-Frankfurter apparatus branched out into all departments of the Roosevelt administration. In 1934 Congressman Frederick Britten observed that a group of 10 to 18 Frankfurter associates met nightly in the home of Benjamin Cohen and Thomas Corcoran to "promote Communistic legislation".6 During World War II, Frankfurter used his former law clerks Joseph Rauh, Edward Prichard, and Philip Graham to coordinate spying on various agencies of the Roosevelt administration through what Rauh and Prichard called “the Goon Squad”: a group of 15 to 20 second-line bureaucrats which included White House aide Laughlin Currie, a Soviet spy.7 Meanwhile Frankfurter and physicist Niels Bohr conspired in trading topsecret information with each other about the Manhattan Project, as part of an effort to try to persuade the Allies to share the secrets of the atomic bomb with the Soviet

Union. Some top-secret Manhattan Project papers that passed between Frankfurter and the military supervisor of the Manhattan Project, General Leslie Groves, were later found in the private papers of Manhattan Project consultant Robert Oppenheimer, whose security clearance was later revoked after he was charged with being a security risk.8 US intelligence regarded Brandeis and Frankfurter’s political activity as suspicious. Several Army intelligence informants and analysts identified Brandeis and Frankfurter as key leaders of US Communism. 1920 Army intelligence reports described Brandeis and Frankfurter as Soviet propagandists, noting that Brandeis had been in contact with Soviet agent Santeri Nuorteva.9 In 1921 future FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover noted Frankfurter’s links to the radical labor group Amalgamated Clothing Workers and described Frankfurter as engaging in "communistic propaganda activities".10 A 1945 FBI wiretap investigation of leaks from the Soviet ambassador to journalist Drew Pearson revealed that Frankfurter was colluding with Pearson. Follow-up wiretaps on Pearson and Brandeis-Frankfurter apparatus member Thomas Corcoran revealed that Corcoran and Rauh-Prichard-Graham Goon Squad member Laughlin Currie had conspired to protect State Department official John Stewart Service from being prosecuted in connection with the leaking of classified government documents to the pro-Communist publication Amerasia.11 Richard Kerry entered Harvard Law School in 1937, two years before Frankfurter left Harvard Law for the Supreme Court. When Kerry arrived at Harvard he was “enamored of the legal teachings of Oliver Wendell Holmes and Louis Brandeis”12, who had looked to Frankfurter to recommend Harvard Law School graduates to be their law clerks.13 After Kerry graduated from Harvard Law, he went on to the State Department, where he worked under one of Frankfurter’s most prominent political allies. Background Part 2: Kerry and the Frankfurter Apparatus in the State Department Frankfurter’s Apparatus in the Truman State Department and the Eisenhower and Kennedy Eras (select members) Recommended by Frankfurter to Roosevelt administration; defended Frankfurter from charges of State Department, Communism during 1941-1953; Secretary Supreme Court confirmation of State, 1949-1953; Dean hearings; advised Democratic Party senior Acheson Frankfurter of daily statesman on foreign developments in Truman policy issues, 1953administration; 1971 recommended appointments to Kennedy cabinet and advised Kennedy administration Paul Nitze Director of Acheson State Department’s

Secretary of State when Richard Kerry joined State Department in 1951; influenced Kerry’s views on NATO and European unification

Joined Acheson in forming Influenced Richard Democratic government-in- Kerry’s foreign policy

Policy Planning Staff, 1950-1953; Acheson’s chief political ally, 1953-1960; recommended by Acheson to Kennedy State Department for possible promotion to Secretary of State

exile during Eisenhower administration and developing foreign policy platform for Kennedy administration

views

John McCloy

Recommended next High Commissioner for High Commisioner Acheson and Nitze’s favored Occupied Germany, for Occupied alternative to Eisenhower’s 1949-1952; Chairman Germany to be Secretary of State John of Council on Foreign James Conant, for Foster Dulles Relations, 1953-1970 whom Richard Kerry would work Acheson’s son-in-law; law partner at Acheson’s law firm, Covington & Burling, c.1947-1951; CIA agent, 1951-1960 Influenced Richard Kerry’s foreign policy views; uncle of John Kerry’s college roommate; influenced John Kerry’s decision to enlist in officer corps Influenced Richard Kerry’s foreign policy views; uncle of John Kerry’s college roommate

William Bundy

Career promoted by Frankfurter and Acheson; contributed to Alger Hiss’ defense fund

William Bundy’s brother; recommended by Frankfurter for job McGeorge Career promoted by at Harvard University; Bundy Frankfurter Dean of Faculty of Arts & Sciences at Harvard University, 1953-1960

By the time Richard Kerry began his career at the State Department in 1951, Frankfurter’s apparatus in the Executive Branch had become centered around Dean Acheson, who was then the Truman administration’s Secretary of State. Acheson’s relationship to the Brandeis-Frankfurter apparatus dated back to 1920, when Frankfurter had sent Acheson from Harvard to clerk for Brandeis in Washington.14 Acheson originally entered government service in 1933 as part of the same pool of Frankfurter recommendations as Jerome Frank, the Brandeis-Frankfurter agent who hired Alger Hiss to the Roosevelt administration.15 After a temporary return to a civilian legal career, he made a favorable impression on President Roosevelt by helping Frankfurter defend himself during his Supreme Court confirmation hearings from questions about his Communist associations, and he was recruited back to government service.16 Joining Roosevelt's State Department in 1941, Acheson was assigned projects where he worked closely with Soviet spy Harold Glasser, who was the Treasury Department's representative to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA),17 and Soviet spy Harry Dexter White, who was the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.18 After Roosevelt's death in 1945, he was promoted to serve

as Undersecretary of State under Truman’s new Secretary of State James Byrnes,19 another of Frankfurter's associates. 20 While serving under Byrnes and his successor George Marshall, and later while serving as Secretary of State himself, Acheson maintained an intimate relationship with Frankfurter, strolling with him on a daily basis to discuss developments in the Executive Branch.21 Acheson's promotion to Undersecretary of State had been part of a reorganization of the State Department which removed an anti-Communist faction led by Adolf Berle and Joseph Grew and installed a new hierarchy under Byrnes. This new hierarchy included Alger Hiss and others who were later accused of Soviet espionage, which later raised suspicions of Acheson.22 Acheson initially shared the Roosevelt administration's optimistic attitude towards US-Soviet cooperation. He was described as "friendly to the Soviet Union" in a 1945 endorsement for his appointment as Under Secretary of State written by pro-Communist journalist I.F. Stone,23 who was recently accused of having been an undercover KGB agent. 24 From late 1945 through early 1946, Acheson and another Brandeis-Frankfurter apparatus member, David Lilienthal,25 drafted a proposal for sharing nuclear technology with the Soviet Union, working with input from Stimson, Frankfurter’s associate John McCloy,26 and Soviet spy Robert Oppenheimer.27 During this period, in May 1946, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover warned President Truman that Acheson, Acheson’s assistant Herbert Marks, and McCloy were members of a Soviet atomic spy ring.28 Acheson seems to have gradually and reluctantly changed his optimistic attitude towards US-Soviet cooperation over the course of November 1945 to August 1946, as Stalin's imperialistic intentions became increasingly evident even to most of his former supporters.29 However, Acheson joined the growing opposition to the Soviet Union with the qualification that he was endorsing limited intervention against Stalin in certain strategic areas, not global containment of the Soviets and not an ideological war against Communism.30 Ideologically he remained a committed liberal and political partisan, and he took a leading role in the defense of accused spies Alger Hiss,31 Laughlin Currie, 32 John Stewart Service,33 and John Carter Vincent. 34 His defense of Hiss prompted Senator Joseph McCarthy to scrutinize his background.35 When McCarthy fell out of favor he was preparing an investigation of Acheson’s son-in-law William Bundy for Bundy’s contribution to Alger Hiss’ defense.36 The victory of Dwight Eisenhower in the 1952 Presidential election repudiated Acheson’s foreign policy, and Acheson resigned in disgrace from his position as Secretary of State, to be replaced by a man he despised, John Foster Dulles. Out of power, Acheson and his former assistant Paul Nitze sought to regain influence by forming a Democratic government-in-exile aligned with Dulles’ critics. Dulles’ critics spent much of the Eisenhower administration trying to get Dulles replaced by John McCloy and otherwise attempting to influence Eisenhower through McCloy and the Council on Foreign Relations, an influential foreign policy think tank which McCloy then chaired. Acheson’s critique of Dulles included an argument against Dulles’ emphasis on nuclear deterrence and in favor of strengthening NATO’s conventional capability as a non-nuclear deterrent. Acheson and Nitze’s foreign policy ideas were adopted into Adlai Stevenson’s 1956 Presidential campaign and John Kennedy’s 1960 Presidential campaign. With Kennedy’s election Acheson regained his former influence for the course of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. He recommended several of Kennedy’s cabinet

appointments, and attempted unsuccessfully to convince Kennedy to appoint Nitze Undersecretary of State to groom him for eventual promotion to Secretary of State.37 Richard Kerry joined the State Department in 1951 while Acheson was still Secretary of State. He began his State Department career as attorney for the Bureau of United Nations Affairs, an area of the State Department where Acheson and Hiss had previously worked.38 The foreign policy views he developed while working in the State Department, as expressed in his later book, reflect the influence of Acheson and such associates of Acheson as Paul Nitze, William Bundy, and William’s brother McGeorge Bundy.39 William and McGeorge’s nephew Harvey H. Bundy III later became John Kerry’s roommate. Harvey introduced John to William, who discussed the Vietnam War with John and influenced his decision to enlist in the officer corps.40 In 2004 Harvey’s son Hollister Bundy, who is Kerry’s godson, helped raise funds for Kerry’s campaign by emailing out an endorsement titled “’Uncle Johnny’ Kerry for President”.41 Background Part 3: Kerry, Conant, and Monnet’s “Atlantic Partnership” Richard Kerry’s Atlantic partners Chemist; President of Harvard University, 1933-1953; consultant to Manhattan Project James and Atomic Energy Commission, Conant 1942-1953; High Commissioner for Occupied Germany, 19531955; US Ambassador to West Germany, 1955-1957 Businessman representing French interests in US; financial advisor to Allies on war mobilization, 1940-1945; Jean promoted European unification Monnet after 1945 through means such as the European Coal and Steel Community, European Defense Community, and Bilderberg Group Political ally of Frankfurter, Acheson, Harvey Bundy, and Served by Robert Oppenheimer; Richard Kerry recommended by McCloy as legal counsel to be High Commissioner for Occupied Germany Worked with Frankfurter, McCloy, and Acheson during World War II; joined Acheson and George Ball in promoting “Atlantic Partnership” model of US-European relations after war

Met Richard Kerry and influenced his foreign policy views on NATO and European unification

After the State Department transferred Kerry to Europe, he went on to work with other associates of Frankfurter and Acheson there. In 1954 the State Department sent Richard Kerry to Germany to serve as legal advisor to German High Commissioner James Conant. Conant, a former chemist, had previously served as Dean of Harvard, where he had developed a relationship with Felix Frankfurter and close Frankfurter associates such as Dean Acheson and Harvey Bundy (father of William and McGeorge).42 While at Harvard he had also served as a consultant to the Manhattan Project and later, at Acheson’s invitation,43 to the nascent Atomic Energy Commission, where he worked with Robert Oppenheimer to encourage sharing of US nuclear

technology with the Soviet Union.44 Conant was later recommended to Acheson for the post of German High Commissioner by his predecessor in that position, John McCloy.45 When Conant left Harvard for Germany to replace McCloy, McGeorge Bundy became Dean of Faculty of Arts & Sciences at Harvard.46 Conant’s activity at Harvard had come under FBI surveillance for his protection of Communist professors, leading J. Edgar Hoover to complain that Conant “had more or less condoned the employment of professors who might have communist backgrounds.”47 The FBI also monitored Conant’s relationship with Robert Oppenheimer, whom Conant had approved for the Manhattan Project even after being warned that Oppenheimer was a security risk due to his Communist background. In February 1947 an FBI wiretap picked up a call where Oppenheimer urged Conant to influence Congress in the Atomic Energy Commission nomination of David Lilienthal,48, a Frankfurter apparatus member.49 Several of Conant’s scientific colleagues informed the FBI that they viewed Conant as a political ally of a pro-Oppenheimer clique at Los Alamos which opposed US atomic weapons programs such as the H-bomb program.50 Conant’s appointment as German High Commissioner in February 1953 was opposed by conservative politicians, including Joseph McCarthy.51 During 1953 McCarthy’s investigations led the State Department to request the resignation of five members of Conant’s staff, which Conant resisted, appealing for help to McCloy.52 Then from March through June 1954, Conant became involved in the defense of Oppenheimer when Oppenheimer’s security clearance was under review for revocation.53 It was shortly after this in late 1954 that Richard Kerry became Conant’s legal counsel. Conant proved unsupportive of CIA operations in Germany and uncooperative with German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. Adenauer and the CIA came to distrust him, and John Foster Dulles eventually had him replaced in 1957.54 Meanwhile in 1956, Kerry was transferred to a new post as special assistant to President Eisenhower’s special ambassador to NATO, Walter F. George, a conservative Southern Democrat, who soon died in August 1957.55 While working for Conant, Kerry’s interest in NATO diplomacy and European unification issues led him to develop a relationship with French politician Jean Monnet, a European associate of Frankfurter, Acheson, and McCloy. Monnet had become friends with McCloy while working on Wall Street with him in the 1930s.56 He became friends with Frankfurter while taking refuge in the United States after France fell in 1940, and Frankfurter introduced him to Washington political circles.57 Monnet relied on Frankfurter and McCloy to rally US support for Charles de Gaulle’s French Resistance movement,58 and he joined Frankfurter, Acheson, and McCloy in promoting the LendLease program.59 After the war Monnet and Acheson promoted an “Atlantic Partnership” policy of US-European relations centered around NATO and a unified Europe, and opposed to the nationalistic vision of postwar Europe promoted by de Gaulle.60 Richard Kerry shared Monnet and Acheson’s enthusiasm for NATO and European unification. While attending conferences on European unification issues Kerry met Monnet, and he later introduced his son John to Monnet. In his book he developed a view of US-European relations echoing Monnet and Acheson’s view, and he chided fellow diplomat George Ball for not learning from his relationship with Monnet, writing, “It is particularly difficult to account for Ball’s delusion in the perspective of his

accomplishments and his exposure to French politics from his years of collaboration with Jean Monnet . . .”61 Center Stage: Richard Kerry’s Legacy: Peggy and John The Kerry family’s foreign policy views Advocated UN global government; regarded NATO and European Richard Kerry unification as higher priorities than containing Communism Peggy Kerry Worked at UN Opposed Opposed aid Vietnam War to Contras in 1965+ 1980s Opposed Vietnam War 1967+

John Kerry

Opposed Opposed aid Described Western colonialism as bigger Vietnam War to Contras threat to Third World than Communism 1965+ 1984+

Through his echoing of Acheson and Monnet’s foreign policy views, Richard Kerry represented the legacy of the Acheson State Department within the Eisenhower administration.. Kerry in turn passed this legacy on to his children. His daughter Peggy as well as his son John adopted his liberal foreign policy views, including his opposition to the Vietnam War. Peggy was John’s older sister and political mentor. In 1952 when she was in fifth grade and John was in third grade, she joined a club at school supporting Democratic Presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson, and John helped her sell Stevenson campaign buttons. Later in 1968, after graduating from Smith College and moving to Greenwich Village, she joined the Village Independent Democrats (VID),62 an activist group which had been formed by Stevenson’s supporters following his unsuccessful 1956 Presidential campaign and came to be known as “the most liberal Democratic club in the state”.63 While working with VID, Peggy became involved in the antiwar movement, which led antiwar feminist Bella Abzug to introduce her to Sheldon Ramsdell of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) in order to recruit her help in organizing 1969 antiwar rallies for the Vietnam Moratorium Committee (VMC). Peggy in turn recruited her brother John to help fly antiwar speaker Adam Walinsky to VMC rallies, introducing John to the antiwar movement.64 Peggy went on to work for the ACLU, the New York Civil Liberties Union, Planned Parenthood, and the State Department’s UN mission. She currently works as the nongovernmental organization (NGO) liaison at the State Department’s UN mission, as meanwhile she works for her brother’s campaign.65 Like Peggy, John also adopted Richard’s foreign policy views and opposition to the Vietnam War. During the 1950s John argued during a debate that the United States should open relations with Communist China,66 a foreign policy position Acheson had originally introduced to the State Department in 1949 following the advice of John Stewart Service and John Carter Vincent.67, two political allies of Soviet spy Laughlin Currie.68 In 1965, John echoed his father’s opposition to John Foster Dulles’ anti-

Communism by arguing, “It is the specter of Western Imperialism that causes more fear among Africans and Asians than communism, and thus it is self-defeating.” In 1966 John gave a speech opposing the Vietnam War in words which echoed his father’s criticism of the “polar choices” of “isolationism vs. interventionism”, saying, “What was an excess of isolationism has become an excess of interventionism.” After John returned from Vietnam in 1969, his father challenged him to become more outspoken in his opposition to the war.69 Richard would also advise John during his Senate career as he opposed the Reagan administration’s support of the Contras.70 Conclusion The influence of Felix Frankfurter’s apparatus in the Acheson State Department was reflected in Richard Kerry’s enthusiasm for the UN, his relationship with Jean Monnet, his advocacy of European unification, and his opposition to John Foster Dulles’ Cold War policies, which underlaid his opposition to the Vietnam War and the Contras. From these roots sprang John Kerry’s foreign policy views, which would lead him to fake his way out of Vietnam and join Communist front groups in opposing the Vietnam War. Next: “Part 2: Forging a Paper Hero: The Mystery of Kerry’s Medals” Notes
1

Richard J. Kerry, Star-Spangled Mirror: A Father’s Legacy Shapes John Kerry’s Worldview, with foreword by Franklin Foer, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2004 (1990); “In Memoriam: 1940-1949: Richard J. Kerry ‘40”, Harvard Law School, http://www.law.harvard.edu/alumni/bulletin/2001/spring/memoriam_main.html; Douglas Brinkley, Tour of Duty: John Kerry and the Vietnam War, New York: William Morrow, 2004, 19-30; Elizabeth Shelburne, “The Thoughtful Soldier: Douglas Brinkley, the author of Tour of Duty, on John Kerry’s conflicted but heroic service in Vietnam”, Atlantic Unbound, http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/interviews/int2004-03-10.htm, March 10, 2004; Franklin Foer, “Kerry’s World: Father Knows Best”, CBS News, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/03/02/opinion/main603542.shtml, March 2, 2004; Don Eriksson, “John Kerry’s roots come close to home—Groton”, Pepperell Free Press, http://www.pepperellfreepress.com/Stories/0,1413,109~5521~2162728,00.html, May 21, 2004.
2

For details on Brandeis and Frankfurter’s relationship, see Bruce Allen Murphy, The Brandeis/Frankfurter Connection: The Secret Political Activities of Two Supreme Court Justices, Oxford University Press, 1982; Garden City: Anchor Books, 1983.
3 4

Murphy, 50-51.

Murphy, 54; James Chace, Acheson: The Secretary of State Who Created the American World, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998, 45, 48-49; Kai Bird, The Chairman: John J. McCloy and the Making of the American Establishment, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, 53; Athan Theoharis and John Stuart Cox, The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition, Temple University, 1988; New York: Bantam Books, 1990, 72.

5

On the role of Brandeis, Frankfurter, and Frank in the appointments of Hiss, Pressman, and Witt, see Murphy, 33, 113-116 (cf. Roosevelt and Frankfurter: Their Correspondence, 1928-1945, annotator Max Freedman, Little, Brown and Company, 1967, 7-9); John Chabot Smith, Alger Hiss: The True Story, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976, 10-12; Joseph P. Lash, Dealers and Dreamers: A New Look at the New Deal, New York: Doubleday, 1985, 111, 217-218; Kenneth S. Davis, FDR: The New Deal Years, 1933-1937, A History,, New York: Random House, 1986, 275-281.
6 7

Lash, 7.

Murphy, 204-245, esp. 224. On Currie’s espionage activity, see John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999; New Haven: Yale Nota Bene, 2000, 145-150.
8

Murphy, 296-302; James G. Hershberg, James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993, 195-200, 812n16; Haynes and Klehr, 327-330; Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors, Washington: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2000, 203, 264-277. Cf. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, New York: Basic Books, 1999, 116-118; Bird, The Chairman, 417, 422-426; Chace, 125. Cf. “SPY CASES—UNITED STATES: Atomic Bomb Spies: Pavel Sudoplatov”, The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials, with Essays, Reviews, and Comments, http://intellit.muskingum.edu/spycases_folder/bomb_folder/bombsudoplatov.html (cached at http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:6FwW_NohBFIJ:intellit.muskingum.edu/spycase s_folder/bomb_folder/bombsudoplatov.html+niels+bohr+spy&hl=en) (August 23, 2004).
9

B-1, Report 5, November 25, 27, 1918, U.S. National Archives, College Park, MD (hereafter NACP), RG 165, Military Intelligence Division (hereafter MID) 10110-920; B1, Report 11, December 17, 1918, NACP, RG 165, MID 10110-920; Captain John B. Trevor to MID Director, February 19, 1919, NACP, RG 165, MID 10110-920, 245-18 (6); “Judaism and the Present World Movement—A Study,” September 29, 1919, NACP, RG 165, MID 10110-920, 245-15 (1), 6, 15-16; Captain W.L. Moffat to MID Director, March 8, 1920, NACP, RG 165, MID 10565-115; August 19, 1919, NACP, RG 165, MID 101101194 (157-159); Captain W.L. Moffat to Captain Robert Snow, March 1920, NACP, RG 165, MID 10565-115; Major H.A Strauss, September 13, 1919, NACP, RG 165, MID 24518 (3-8); Captain Henry Frothingham to MID Director, February 19, 1920, NACP, RG 165, MID 10110-1727; “Bolshevik Activities”, February 5, 1920, U.S. NACP, RG 165, MID 10110-1194 (300).
10

L. Lanier Winslow to William L. Hurley, March 7, 1921 and Hurley to J. Edgar Hoover, March 15, 1921, NACP, RG 59, 000-1612; Department of Justice, General Intelligence Bulletin 44, April 2, 1921, 6, NACP, RG 165, MID 10110-4283; Colonel Gordon Johnston to MID Director, April 17, 1920, MID 10110-1534; J. Edgar Hoover to William L. Hurley, June 10, 1920, NACP, RG 59, 800.11-97; J. Edgar Hoover to Marlborough Churchill, June 15, 1922 and Colonel Sherman Miles to military attaché London, June 22, 1922, NACP, RG 165, MID 245-26 (1-2); J. Edgar Hoover to General Dennis E. Nolan,

November 18, 1920, NACP, RG 165, MID 245-18; Theoharis and Cox, 76n-77n (cf. 166n).
11

Theoharis and Cox, 258-269, esp. 266; John Earl Haynes, Red Scare or Red Menace? American Communism and Anticommunism in the Cold War Era, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996, 52-55; Romerstein and Breindel, 168.
12 13 14

Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 21. Murphy, 186.

Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas, The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, 87-90, 125-126; Chace, 38-52, 59-61.
15 16 17

Chace, 61-62; Murphy, 111-112, 115-117. Chace, 74-76; Isaacson and Thomas, 137-139.

Report, USS Internal Security Subcommittee, April 14, 1953, cited in Archibald E. Roberts, Major, Victory Denied, 1966, http://www.republicusa.org/research/unfiles/communist_godfathers.html#reffive (July 21, 2001). Cf. Chace, 94-97. On UNRAA and Glasser, cf. Haynes and Klehr, 118, 125128, 203-205.
18 19 20 21 22

Chace, 97-102. On White, cf. Haynes and Klehr, 138-145. Chace, 108-109. Murphy, 240-241 245, 254-255, 276, 320-321. Chace, 197, 200-201, 227, 357-358.

Chace, 130-131; Robert P. Newman, Owen Lattimore and the "Loss" of China, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992, 139-140; William F. Buckley, Jr. and L. Brent Bozell, McCarthy and His Enemies: The Record and Its Meaning, Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1995 (1954), 9-17; Arthur Herman, Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator, New York: The Free Press, 2000, 94.
23 24 25 26

Isaacson and Thomas, 322. Romerstein and Breindel, 432-439. On Frankfurter and Lilienthal, see Murphy, 117; Davis, 93-94.

On Frankfurter and McCloy, see Bird, The Chairman, 47-50, 53-56, 121, 125, 130-131, 170, 425, 482-483.

27

Chace, 117-129; Bird, The Chairman, 237-238, 260-264, 275-282; Isaacson and Thomas, 314-346, 350-351, 356-362; Hershberg, 258-278.
28

J. Edgar Hoover to George E. Allen (to be passed to HST), May 29, 1946, President’s Secretary Files—Subject File, Box 167, “Subject File—FBI—Atomic Bomb” folder, Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Mo.; Hershberg, 394, 856n10; Bird, The Chairman, 280-281, 412; Peter Grose, Operation Rollback: America's Secret War Behind the Iron Curtain, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000, 82.
29

Chace, 135-136, 151-155, 180, 439-440; Isaacson and Thomas, 321-323, 338-340, 350-351, 362-369.
30 31 32

Chace, 168-169; Isaacson and Thomas, 364-365. Chace, 193-196, 225-229, 237-240.

Acheson represented Currie when he was accused of beng a Communist in 1948: Newman, 74. On Currie's espionage activity, see Haynes and Klehr, 145-150.
33 34 35 36

Chace, 238; Newman, 362. Chace, 359-360; Isaacson and Thomas, 557; Bird, The Chairman, 392. Chace, 226-229, 237-240, 311-312.

Herman, 228; Kai Bird, The Color of Truth: McGeorge Bundy and William Bundy: Brothers in Arms: A Biography, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998, 106-107, 155-157, 163-169; Bird, The Chairman, 413. On Frankfurter and the Bundy family, see Murphy, 201-202; Bird, The Color of Truth, 30-32, 66, 73, 99-101, 104, 188. Cf. Godfrey Hodgson, The Colonel: The Life and Wars of Henry Stimson, 1867-1950, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990, 246-247; Bird, The Chairman, 121, 182.
37

On Acheson political activity during the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations and its relation to Nitze and McCloy’s activity, see Douglas Brinkley, Dean Acheson: The Cold War Years, 1953-1971, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992, 6-202; Isaacson and Thomas, 563-564, 570-572, 580-583; 589-641; Paul H. Nitze, Tension Between Opposites: Reflections on the Practice and Theory of Politics, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1993, 144-148; Strobe Talbott, The Master of the Game: Paul Nitze and the Nuclear Peace, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988, 59-88; Bird, The Chairman, 389-544, esp. 386-388, 446-447, 450, 473-475.
38

See Note 17; Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography, New York: Random House, 1997, 225-226; Herman, 110; Romerstein and Breindel, 48-50.
39

Cf. Kerry, 17-19, 25, 46-48, 52, 55n, 125, 161, and esp. Kerry’s critique of US “bad manners” towards Europe on 73-85 (cf. Acheson’s similar critique of Dulles recorded in Brinkley, Dean Acheson, 23, 31-32, 45-46, 67).
40

Brinkley, Tour of Duty, , 40-42, 57-58.

41

Email from Hollister Bundy, “From Hollister: ‘Uncle Johnny” Kerry for President”, January 30, 2004, forwarded by Alexander Wood to NY4Kerry – New Yorkers for John Kerry, http://groups.yahoo.com/group/NY4Kerry/message/840, January 30, 2004 (August 18, 2004).
42

On Conant and Frankfurter, see Hershberg, 72-73, 78, 87-88, 90, 99, 107, 196-198. On Conant and Acheson, see Hershberg, 264. On Conant and the Bundy family, see Hershberg, 127-128, 294-304.
43 44

Hershberg, 263; cf. Isaacson and Thomas, 357.

Hershberg, 165-168, 194-207, 306, 308, 313-319, 322-348, 357-358, 470-478, 487490, 599, 601-605, 676-682.
45 46 47

Hershberg, 642-647. Bird, The Color of Truth, 117-153.

Personal Letter, J. Edgar Hoover to Francis Walter, February 16, 1959, FBI 61-75824053; Theoharis and Cox, 356-357; Hershberg, 392, 416, 623, 625.
48

J. Robert Oppenheimer to James B. Conant telephone conversation, February 17, 1947, FBI JRO File Serial 100-17828-148; Hershberg, 313-319.
49 50 51 52 53 54 55

Murphy, 117; Davis, 93-94; cf. Hershberg 308, 473, 477-478.

Hershberg, 487-490, 596-597; cf. 599. Hershberg, 650-651. Hershberg, 655-657. Hershberg, 676-682. Hershberg, 653, 660-667, 668-673, 688-689, 692, 695.

See “George, Walter Franklin, 1878-1957”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=G000131 (June 9, 2004).
56 57 58 59

Bird, The Chairman, 97. Cf. 104-106, 183, 336-337, 344, 405. Murphy, 212-215, 227-233. Bird, The Chairman, 182-183.

Murphy, 214-215; Brinkley, Dean Acheson, 1-2; Bird, The Chairman, 120-125; Isaacson and Thomas, 195. Cf. Thomas E. Mahl, Desperate Deception: British Covert Operations in the United States, 1939-1944, Washington: Brassey’s, 1998, 166 on Frankfurter and Acheson’s role in the Destroyer Deal.

60 61 62

Brinkley, Dean Acheson, 102-103, 131, 186-196. Kerry, x, xii, 83.

Ed Gold, ”Kerry’s big sister lending a hand in her own way”, The Villager, http://www.thevillager.com/villager_42/kerrysbigsister.html, Volume 73, Number 42, February 18-24, 2004 (June 18, 2004); ”Kerry’s Elder Sister is New York Delegate”, http://www.usatoday.com/news/politicselections/nation/president/2004-07-28-peggykerry_x.htm?POE=NEWISVA, July 28, 2004 (August 22, 2004).
63

Village Independent Democrats, http://www.villagedemocrats.com/vid_story.htm (August 22, 2004).
64

Gerald Nicosia, Home to War: A History of the Vietnam Veterans’ Movement, New York: Crown Publishers, 2001, 49; Brinkley, 337; Gold; ”Kerry’s Elder Sister is New York Delegate”.
65 66 67 68

Gold; ”Kerry’s Elder Sister is New York Delegate”. Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 34; Foer; Kerry, xii.

Herman, 121-128, 168; Chace, 168, 210-224.

Cf. Theoharis and Cox, 258-269; John Earl Haynes, Red Scare or Red Menace? American Communism and Anticommunism in the Cold War Era, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996, 52-55; Romerstein and Breindel, 168; Newman, 89-90.
69

Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 61-62; Jacob Leibenluft, “Kerry '66: 'He was going to be president': In JFK's shadow, a headstrong Kerry makes his run for the White House”, YaleDailyNews.com, http://www.yaledailynews.com/article.asp?AID=21803, February 14, 2003 (June 18, 2004); Foer; Kerry, xii-xiii.
70

Kerry, xi, xiii; cf. 109-112, 117n22, 155-159.

John Kerry’s Fellow Travellers
A 5-part series exposing John Kerry’s Communist connections.

Part 2: Forging a Paper Hero: The Mystery of Kerry’s Medals
By Fedora *NOTE: The term “fellow traveller” as used in this article series refers to someone who is not a member of the Communist Party (CP) but regularly engages in actions which advance the Party’s program. Some apparent fellow travellers may actually be “concealed party members”: members of the CP who conceal their membership. Which of these classifications is applicable to the Kerrys is a question this series leaves unresolved. This series does not argue for any direct evidence of Richard or John Kerry or other members of the Kerry family belonging to the CP. What this series does argue for is a consistent pattern of the Kerry family working with Communists and Communist fellow travellers in a way that advances the Communist program. Introduction Part 1 of this series, "John Kerry’s Red Roots", described how Kerry and his father’s foreign policy views were influenced by a faction of the State Department led by Dean Acheson, protégé of the Communist fellow traveller Felix Frankfurter. This article continues Kerry’s story, highlighting the contradictions in Kerry’s account of his military service and exposing how he managed to conceal his left-wing background by cloaking himself in the guise of a war hero. A Reluctant Warrior Hawk or Dove? Kerry’s Changing Story ”It is the specter of Western Imperialism that causes more fear 1965 speech among Africans and Asians than communism, and thus it is selfat Yale defeating.” 1970 ”When he approached his draft board for permission to study for a interview with year in Paris, the draft board refused and Kerry decided to enlist in Harvard the Navy.” Crimson "I had a sense of duty and obligation. I could have gone to law 1996 school, like. . .many of my friends did. I chose not to. . .I think those interview with of us who were lucky enough to go to a place like Harvard or Yale Boston Globe owed something to our country. A sharing of the risks, if you will." ”Despite that, Kerry said he never considered not serving, as did 2004 many members of his generation. ‘First of all, it was 1965,’ Kerry said. interview with ‘The Tonkin Gulf, supposedly, had just taken place. . .It wasn't until ABC News two years later, in 1967, when the first draft card was burned — it

wasn't until then that the march on the Pentagon took place, and I was in uniform. . .So I think there was a transition that took place in our generation and in America, from the time that I raised my hand and was sworn in and made the decision until the time in 1968 … when I was a much less committed soldier. But I was nevertheless a soldier with a sense of duty and responsibility.’" Contrary to the impression left by Kerry’s current posture as someone who “defended this country as a young man”, he actually tried to avoid going to Vietnam, and when this failed, he tried to enlist for what he thought would be non-combat duty. Biographies following Kerry’s account trace Kerry’s decision to enlist to the influence of a discussion between Kerry and his roommate’s uncle, William Bundy, during the winter of Kerry’s junior year (1964-1965). Bundy, an old political ally of Felix Frankfurter and Dean Acheson then working in the State Department,1 was the uncle of Harvey Hollister Bundy III, John Kerry’s roommate at Yale from 1962-1966. Bundy visited his nephew in the winter of 1964-1965 to encourage him and his suitemates to serve in Vietnam, and reportedly this visit persuaded Kerry to enlist in the officer corps.2 Kerry says he decided to enlist “out of a sense of duty and obligation [that] those of us who were lucky enough to go to a place like Harvard or Yale owed something to our country [—a] sharing of the risks, if you will”, and he “never considered not serving”, he claims.3 But if Bundy’s appeal to Kerry’s patriotic duty had persuaded him to go to Vietnam by the winter of 1964-1965, his subsequent words and actions seem self-contradictory. Kerry publicly expressed opposition to the war in speeches at Yale in 1965 and 1966.4 He tried unsuccessfully to persuade the draft board to let him study abroad in France before he finally enlisted in February 1966, according to a version of the story he gave in 1970 after he had joined the antiwar movement.5 However thirty years later when Kerry was touting his record as a war hero, he boasted, “I could have gone to law school, like. . .many of my friends did. I chose not to.”6 After Kerry had failed to avoid military service, he followed Bundy’s advice and enlisted to be an officer. He initially considered joining the Air Force like his father, but rejected this option when his father warned him that combat flying might taint his enjoyment of recreational flying.7 Instead in February 1966 he enlisted in the US Naval Reserve (not the Navy, as incorrectly stated in several Kerry biographies).8 Soon after his appointment as a Reserve Officer that winter, he expressed a preference for assignment to a Patrol Craft Fast (PCF), or “Swift Boat”.9 At this time Swift Boats were used primarily for a coastal interdiction mission called Operation Market Time,10 which involved relatively less risk of combat action than other assignments, so Kerry assumed his requested assignment would not involve combat. As he put it in a 1986 book, “I didn’t really want to get involved in the war. . .When I signed up for the swift boats, they had very little to do with the war. They were engaged in coastal patrolling and that’s what I thought I was going to be doing.”11 But unknown to Kerry, by the time he arrived in Vietnam, Swift Boat duty had become more hazardous. In October 1968, under newly-appointed commander of Naval operations in Vietnam Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, Jr. and his assistant Captain Roy “Latch” Hoffmann, Operation Market Time’s relatively less hazardous coastal patrol mission had

been subordinated to a new, more comprehensive Mekong Delta interdiction mission called Operation SEALORDS, which involved using Swift Boats for more hazardous duties. By the time Kerry arrived on November 17, Swift Boats were being used in the first phase of the operation.12 Kerry’s Mysterious Medals Purple Heart #1: December 2, 1968 Documentary Record No after-action report released by Kerry campaign; medical report shown to select reporters but not released. Oral Record Kerry: “I never saw where the piece of shrapnel had come from.” Witness William Schacte: “Kerry nicked himself with a M-79.” Physician Louis Letson: “The story he told was different from what his crewmen had to say about that night. According to Kerry, they had been engaged in a firefight. . .Some of his crew confided that they did not receive any fire from shore, but that Kerry had fired a mortar round at close range to some rocks on shore. The crewman thought that the injury was caused by a fragment ricocheting from that mortar round when it struck the rocks. That seemed to fit the injury which I treated. What I saw was a small piece of metal sticking very superficially in the skin of Kerry's arm. The metal fragment measured about 1 cm. in length and was about 2 or 3 mm in diameter. . .I simply removed the piece of metal by lifting it out of the skin with forceps. I doubt that it penetrated more than 3 or 4 mm. It did not require probing to find it, did not require any anesthesia to remove it, and did not require any sutures to close the wound. The wound was covered with a band-aid.” Kerry was initially stationed with Coastal Division 14 at Cam Ranh Bay, a port base considered the safest assignment in Vietnam. There on December 2, two weeks after arriving, during an incident where no after-action report of enemy fire has been released, Kerry suffered a minor shrapnel injury to his arm, for which he was awarded his first Purple Heart. Kerry told his biographer Douglas Brinkley that “I never saw where the piece of shrapnel had come from”. According to witness Lieutenant William Schachte (later a Rear Admiral), “Kerry nicked himself with a M-79” grenade launcher by improperly firing it. After being treated for his injury by Dr. Louis Letson—who recalls being surprised that Kerry bothered coming in for medical attention, since the thornsized piece of shrapnel was barely hanging in Kerry’s arm and was easily removed with a tweezers—Kerry applied for a Purple Heart. His request was initially denied by his superior Grant Hibbard, per Purple Heart eligibility requirements that “the wound for which the award is made must have required treatment by a medical officer” and Purple Hearts are not to be awarded for “accidents. . .not related to or caused by enemy

action” or for “self-inflicted wounds. . .involving gross negligence”. Hibbard later acquiesced to the award after receiving some correspondence—from whom he does not recall. After controversy had arisen over the circumstances of the award, Kerry reportedly showed Boston Globe reporters a 1-page document describing the treatment of the injury in the following terms: “Shrapnel in left arm above elbow. Shrapnel removed and apply Bacitracin dressing. Ret to duty.” The Kerry campaign failed to answer the Boston Globe reporters’ questions about whether or not Kerry remembered receiving enemy fire or having the Purple Heart application questioned by a superior officer, but Kerry in a USA Today interview later remembered “someone raising a question”. Later, after Schachte, Letson, and Hibbard’s accounts of Kerry’s wound were publicized, readers of Brinkley’s biography discovered a passage quoting an entry from Kerry’s war diary written after December 11 where Kerry recorded that “we hadn’t been shot at yet”. After this was pointed out, Kerry’s campaign acknowledged that Kerry’s wound may have been self-inflicted.13 Four days after the December 2 incident, Kerry was transferred to a more dangerous unit, Costal Division 11 at An Thoi, an isolated base on an island near an enemy position. Brinkley’s biography records that Kerry was opposed to this reassignment. Witnesses Tedd Peck and William Franke report that Kerry began to complain he had not volunteered for this type of risky assignment and to demand that he be transferred back to safer coastal patrol duty. According to Peck and Franke, Kerry’s superiors decided that the easiest way to deal with Kerry was to get rid of him. After a week with Coastal Division 11, Kerry was transferred on December 13 to Coastal Division 13 in Cat Lo, which had wider, less dangerous rivers. There he joined a unit which provided support to Zumwalt’s Operation SEALORDS.14 Within a few weeks Kerry was reassigned back to An Thoi, where his crewman Steve Gardner states that he filed a false after-action report to cover up a January incident involving the accidental shooting of a child. Kerry’s fellow officer George Bates similarly states that Kerry habitually overreacted to threatening situations by using excessive force, including on one occasion burning down a random village where there was no sign of enemy presence.15 During the month of January, Kerry was chosen to be one of a group of officers to be personally introduced to Admiral Zumwalt and General Creighton Abrams on the 22nd.16 Zumwalt’s Pentagon colleague W. Scott Thompson later recalled the Admiral complaining that “young Kerry had created great problems for him and the other top brass, by killing so many non-combatant civilians and going after other non-military targets. ‘We had virtually to straitjacket him to keep him under control,’ the admiral said. ‘Bud’ Zumwalt got it right when he assessed Kerry as having large ambitions—but promised that his career in Vietnam would haunt him if he were ever on the national stage.”17 Then-Captain Hoffmann (later a Rear Admiral) similarly recalls that in March, to deal with Kerry’s habitual failure to obey orders, he made a special trip to Kerry’s unit to deliver a warning that anyone who failed to obey orders in the future would be shipped to Saigon without further notice.18

Purple Heart #2: February 20, 1969 Documentary Record After-action and casualty reports: “KERRY SUFFERED SHRAPNEL WOUNDS IN HIS LEFT THIGH, WHEN PCF 94 CAME UNDER INTENSE A/W AND ROCKET FIRE”. Oral Record Kerry’s account to Douglas Brinkley: “PCF 94 had taken a rocketpropelled grenade off the port side. . .Kerry felt a piece of hot shrapnel bore into his left leg.” Witness Robert Hildreth: No rocket or rifle fire. Coastal Division 11 Swift Boat gunner Van Odell: Kerry’s crew mentioned selfinflicted M-79 wound. A month after his meeting with Zumwalt, on February 20, Kerry suffered another minor shrapnel injury, for which he was awarded a second Purple Heart. The after-action and casualty reports for the incident stated that “KERRY SUFFERED SHRAPNEL WOUNDS IN HIS LEFT THIGH, WHEN PCF 94 CAME UNDER INTENSE A/W [automatic weapons] AND ROCKET FIRE”. However the officer of the boat accompanying Kerry’s, Robert “Rocky” Hildreth, states that Kerry filed a false after-action report describing enemy fire which did not occur. A sailor on another Swift Boat in Kerry’s division, Van Odell, recalls that when Kerry’s crew came back that day, he heard them say Kerry had faked a Purple Heart with a self-inflicted wound from an M-79 grenade launcher.19 Silver Star: February 28, 1969 Documentary Record Three versions of citation, first including and last two omitting mention of Kerry shooting man behind hootch, third version bearing signature of John Lehman who denies signing it. Oral Record Kerry to New Yorker in 1996: “It was either going to be him or it was going to be us. . . He stood up out of a hole, and none of us saw him until he was standing in front of us, aiming a rocket right at us, and, for whatever reason, he didn't pull the trigger—he turned and ran.” Kerry to Boston Globe in 1996: "I was never out of sight of Tom Bellodeau [Belodeau] or Mike Medeiros. . .I went straight out from the boat to the path so I had a line of fire. I never went behind the hootch. . ." Witness Tom Bellodeau to Boston Globe in 1996 prior to Kerry’s statement: "You know, I shot that guy. . .I expected the guy [on Kerry's boat] with the twin 50s to blast him but he couldn't depress the guns far enough. . .When I hit him he went down and got up again. When Kerry hit him, he stayed down."

Witness Mike Medeiros as reported by Alameda Times-Star in 2004: “Kerry's boat happened to hit the shore right in front of an enemy soldier holding a grenade launcher. The soldier started running, maybe to get enough distance to be able to fire his weapon at the boat, Medeiros said. Kerry's forward gunner managed to hit the guerrilla, who appeared to be a teenager, according to reports on the incident. Although he was hit in the leg, the guerrilla kept running with his weapon. . .Medeiros remembers Kerry jumping off the boat to give chase. ‘I saw him running down this trail after this guy, and I followed him," Medeiros said. ‘Just as I rounded a corner behind him, (Kerry) shot the guy.’” Accompanying Swift Boat officer William Rood: “Kerry, who had tactical command of that particular operation, had talked to Droz and me beforehand about not responding the way the boats usually did to an ambush. We agreed that if we were not crippled by the initial volley and had a clear fix on the location of the ambush, we would turn directly into it, focusing the boats' twin .50-caliber machine guns on the attackers and beaching the boats. We told our crews about the plan. . .As we headed for the riverbank, I remember seeing a loaded B-40 launcher pointed at the boats. It wasn't fired as two men jumped up from their spider holes. We called Droz's boat up to assist us, and Kerry, followed by one member of his crew, jumped ashore and chased a VC behind a hooch. . .Some who were there that day recall the man being wounded as he ran. Neither I nor Jerry Leeds, our boat's leading petty officer with whom I've checked my recollection of all these events, recalls that, which is no surprise. Recollections of those who go through experiences like that frequently differ.” A week later, on February 28, Kerry was involved in an incident where he violated standard operating procedure by leaving his boat to chase an enemy on the shore, for which he was awarded a Silver Star. According to the after-action report, this incident involved PCF-94 under Kerry’s command, PCF-23 under Lieutenant William Rood, and PCF-43 under Lieutenant Donald Droz.

Rood and Kerry’s crewman Michael Medeiros have stated that Kerry and the officers of the boats with him had agreed beforehand that if they were fired upon they would beach their boats. Another Swift Boat veteran, Larry Lee, reported the same and also recalled a prior discussion of probable medals for those participating. One of the gunners on Kerry’s boat, Tom Belodeau, mentioned in an interview in 1996 that he had already shot the man before the man fled and Kerry pursued him: “You know, I shot that guy. . .When I hit him he went down and got up again. When Kerry hit him, he stayed down.” Later while appearing at a press conference with Kerry, Belodeau said he had been misquoted in the interview in that he did not imply the man was lying on the ground (apparently this is how Belodeau interpreted the quote that “When I hit him he went down and got up again”), but while “retracting” this part of the article “Mr. Belodeau did concede that he may have wounded the Viet Cong soldier with a burst from his own gun”. Belodeau’s account was consistent with accounts Medeiros gave in 2004 in terms of the man being wounded and fleeing when Kerry shot him. According to Kerry’s account as reported by biographers Gerald Nicosia and Douglas Brinkley, paperwork was submitted requesting that Kerry be awarded a Navy Cross (a very rare award only given to 120 Naval personnel during the entire Vietnam War)20, but Admiral Zumwalt intercepted the paperwork and changed the request to a Silver Star in order that he could authorize the request himself and bypass the lengthy process of Congressional approval, for the sake of boosting the morale of Coastal Division 11, allegedly. But the paperwork for Kerry’s Silver Star contains puzzling discrepancies. According to the original Silver Star citation bearing Admiral Zumwalt’s signature, “Lieutenant (junior grade) KERRY leaped ashore, pursued the man behind a hootch and killed him”. The original citation was later revised twice, and the two revisions omit any mention of Kerry shooting the man behind the hootch. The third version of the citation bears the signature of Reagan administration Secretary of the Navy John Lehman, who states, “It is a total mystery to me. I never saw it. I never signed it. I never approved it. And the additional language it contains was not written by me.”21 Purple Heart #3 and Bronze Star: March 13, 1969 Documentary Record After-action report and casualty report: “TWO TONS GRAIN AND RICE DESTROYED”; “MINE DETONATED UNDER PCF-3 LIFTING BOAT ABOUT 2-3 FT OUT OF THE WATER. . .OBSERVED AT SAME TIME BOATS RCVD HEAVY A/W AND S/A FROM BOTH BANKS. FIRECONTINUED. . .ABOUT 5000 METERS. TWO OTHER MINE EXPLOSIONS OVC RVED. . .ATTEMPTED ASSIST PCF 3. PCF 94 PICKED UP MSF ADVISOR WHO WENT OVERBOARD. 94 TOWED PCF 3 AS BUCKET BRIGADE CONTROLLED FLOODING.”; “PCF-94 HULL REG NR 50NS6678 BATTLE DAMAGE. . .TWO Oral Record Kerry’s war journal: “I got a piece of small grenade in my ass from one of the rice bin explosions.” Rassman to Boston Globe August 6, 2004: “Rassmann. . .said there were two separate events: One was earlier in the day, when he and Kerry blew up a rice cache, and the explosion caused some of the rice to hit Kerry, and perhaps some weapon fragments as well. The second involved a mine explosion as Kerry and Rassmann were on patrol. The explosion, Rassmann said, knocked him overboard and threw Kerry

STBD AND ONE PORT MAIN CABIN WINDOWS BLOWN OUT. VRC-46 RADIO AND ALL REMOTE UNITS PILOT HOUSE INOP. AC WIRING SHORTED OUT. ONAN GENERATOR INOP. STEERAGE CONTROL AFTER HELM INOP. STBD BILGE PUMP BROKEN. SCREWS CURLED AND CHIPPED. RADAR GEAR BOX FROZEN. MAIN ENGINES EXPERIENCED DROP”; “LTJG. JOHN F. KERRY. . .SHRAPNEL WOUND LEFT BUTTOCK AND CONTUSION RT. FOREARM (MINOR)”; “KERRY SUFFERED SHRAPNEL WOUNDS IN HIS LEFT BUTTOCKS AND CONTUSIONS ON HIS RIGHT FOREARM WHEN A MINE DETONATED CLOSE ABOARD PCF-94”; Bronze Star citations substitute “bleeding” for “contusions”.

against the pilot house, injuring his arm. Rassmann said that he has always believed that Kerry got the third Purple Heart solely for the injury to his arm as a result of the explosion in the water. 'If he got fragments in the buttocks due to the mine, that is new information to me,' Rassmann said. 'I would say there is confusion. Maybe they did lump it together. It was my understanding he got it for the wound being thrown across the pilot house.'"” PCF-51 skipper Larry Thurlow to New York Post: "'We decided to clear the area, and that's when John decided to throw a grenade into a sampan,' Larry Thurlow, a Swift boat commander and member of the veterans group, told The Post. . .'He's not very careful, and he ends up getting some rice in his backside.' But Thurlow, who said he heard the explosion, conceded to The Post that he didn't see what happened—he was busy carrying the dead Nung's body—and was only told about it later. 'I was taking this guy's body to the boat. I asked somebody nearby and they said, 'John blew up a sampan with some rice.' " Kerry at 1997 eulogy for Tom Belodeau: “There was the time we were carrying Special Forces up a river and a mine exploded under our boat sending it 2 feet into the air. We were receiving incoming rocket and small arms fire and Tommy was returning fire with his M-60 machine gun when it literally broke apart in his hands. He was left holding the pieces unable to fire back while one of the Green Berets walked along the edge of the boat to get Tommy another M-60. As he was doing so, the boat made a high speed turn to starboard and the Green Beret kept going—straight into the river.” Kerry campaign press release, January 17,

2004: “On March 13, 1969, Rassmann, a Green Beret, was traveling down the Bay Hap river in a boat behind Kerry’s when both were ambushed by exploding land mines and enemy fire coming from the shore. Kerry was hit in the arm, while a mine blew Rassmann’s boat out of the water. With enemy fire coming from both sides of the river and swift boats evacuating from the area, Kerry’s crew chose to turn their boat toward the ambush to save Rassmann. ‘We were still under fire, and he was wounded at the time…,’ recalled Rassmann. And with his boat’s gunners providing suppressing fire, Kerry extended his wounded arm into the water and the two lieutenants locked arms.” Rassmann at July 2004 Democratic National Convention, as reported by The Oregonian: “Rassmann gave a detailed retelling to the Oregon delegates. The former Green Beret remembered sitting on the deck of the pilothouse of Kerry's boat, eating a chocolate chip cookie, when an explosion under a nearby boat blew him into the Bay Hap River and caused Kerry to smash his arm. Rassmann said he swam to the bottom of the river to avoid being run over by the escaping Swift boats. But every time he came up for air, the enemy shot at him.” Kerry’s PCF-94 crewmates David Alston, Eugene Thorson, and Michael Medeiros recall hostile fire, while their fellow crewmate Del Sandusky remembered hostile fire but expressed uncertainty to Newsweek about whether fire was still occurring when Rassmann was rescued: “Del Sandusky. . .says his boat was jarred by an explosion, probably from a rocket, knocking the soldier, Jim Rassmann, off the boat. Kerry was thrown against the bulkhead, injuring his arm. Sandusky says he could see muzzle

flashes from the jungle and bullets skimming across the water. Sandusky says he can't remember if anyone was still shooting when Kerry pulled Rassmann from the river. . .” PCF-43 gunner Wayne Langhofer recalls “There was a lot of firing going on, and it came from both sides of the river.” PCF-51 crewman Robert Lambert recalls a mine exploding under PCF-3 and gunfire afterwords: “When they blew the 3-boat, everyone opened up on the banks with everything they had. . .That was the normal procedure.” PCF-3 skipper Dick Pees, PCF-51 skipper Larry Thurlow, PCF-23 skipper Jack Chernoweth, PCF-23 gunner Van Odell: Recall only one mine going off under PCF3, recall no hostile fire. Van Odell, PCF-23 gunner: “As the 3 boat passed the weir on the narrowest part of the river it was hit by a mine, which lifted it completely out of the water. I immediately began firing my twin 50’s towards river left to suppress any fire. I fired a couple of hundred rounds and realized we were not receiving any return fire from either bank. The other boats quit firing and we commenced rescue operations for the PCF-3 crew and boat. WE DID NOT RECEIVE ANY FIRE FROM EITHER BANK. Our boat picked up members of the disabled PCF-3.” Odell and Chernoweth to New York Post: "Rice and shrapnel were taken out of Kerry's backside, and his right forearm arm was X-rayed, medical records say. The arm was bruised but not broken. A doctor wrapped it with an Ace bandage. Just how badly the arm was injured remains a point of contention. Kerry said the arm was bleeding at one point, but Odell said, 'There was

no blood on his uniform. He had something wrapped around his arm.' Chenoweth talked with Kerry about the injuries on the way back. 'He said he had a shrapnel wound to the hip and a possible broken arm—his arm was wrapped in a white cloth.'" Two weeks later, on March 13, 1969, Kerry received another pair of minor injuries during a set of incidents which resulted in him being awarded a third Purple Heart and a Bronze Star. According to the after-action report, five boats were involved in the events: PCF-94, under Kerry’s command; PCF-3, under Lieutenant Dick Pees; PCF-51; under Lieutenant Larry Thurlow; PCF-23, under Lieutenant Jack Chernoweth; and PCF43, under Lieutenant Donald Droz. The documentary record on these incidents is internally inconsistent. The after-action report mentions a mine going off “UNDER PCF-3” and “CLOSE ABOARD PCF-94”. However, the boat damage report lists no damage to PCF-3 but severe damage to PCF94, which is described as having its wiring, generator, steering, and bilge pump in inoperable condition. Yet despite describing PCF-94 as being in this condition, the report states that “94 TOWED PCF 3 AS BUCKET BRIGADE CONTROLLED FLOODING”. The after-action report describes mine explosion injuries to several crew members of PCF-3, but Kerry is the only one on PCF-94 listed with mine explosion injuries. There are no descriptions of bullet damage to any craft or crew. The after-action report and casualty report state that “KERRY SUFFERED SHRAPNEL WOUNDS IN HIS LEFT BUTTOCKS AND CONTUSIONS ON HIS RIGHT FOREARM WHEN A MINE DETONATED CLOSE ABOARD PCF-94”. The after-action report characterizes Kerry’s right forearm injury as “MINOR”. The recommendation for Kerry’s Bronze Star, submitted by Kerry’s commanding officer Lieutenant Commander George Elliott and citing as an eyewitness Kerry’s second-in-command Del Sandusky, elaborates that a mine “detonated close aboard PCF-94, knocking 1st LT RASSMAN [James Rassmann] into the water and wounding LTJG KERRY in the right arm. . .LTJG KERRY. . .managed to pull LT RASSMAN aboard despite the painful wound in his right arm.” Kerry’s Bronze Star citation, originally written by Admiral Zumwalt and later revised under Secretary Lehman’s signature, substitutes for the above-mentioned contusions the detail that Kerry’s arm was “bleeding”. These self-contradictory documentary accounts are in further conflict with eyewitness accounts. Where the reports state that Kerry’s buttocks injury occurred when the mine exploded, Brinkley’s biography records the account of Kerry’s war journal that the shrapnel in Kerry’s buttocks came from throwing a grenade into a rice cache—as Kerry wrote, “I got a piece of small grenade in my ass from one of the rice bin explosions.” Rassmann recalls the rice explosion incident occurring prior to the incident where Kerry pulled him out of the water. Kerry’s fellow officer Larry Thurlow reports that Kerry’s buttocks injury was a self-inflicted wound caused by Kerry setting off a grenade too close to a stock of rice he was trying to destroy. The after-action report mentions “TWO TONS GRAIN AND RICE DESTROYED”.

Eyewitnesses are also in conflict with the documentary record and with each other over Kerry’s account of Rassmann’s rescue. For instance, in a eulogy for Tom Belodeau in 1997, Kerry recalled that it was a mine exploding under his own boat which knocked a Green Beret overboard; but more recently Brinkley’s biography recorded Kerry’s recollection that when Rassmann fell overboard he was sitting on another boat across the river, PCF-3; while a Kerry campaign press release from January 17, 2004 introduced Rassmann as “traveling down the Bay Hap river in a boat behind Kerry’s when both were ambushed by exploding land mines and enemy fire coming from the shore.” However when Rassman spoke to the Democratic National Convention in July 2004 he described his memory of eating a cookie on Kerry’s boat when a mine knocked him in the water. Four witnesses from other boats, including the skipper of PCF-3, Lieutenant Dick Pees, only recall a mine going off under PCF-3, not under Kerry’s boat. The after-action report states, “MINE DETONATED UNDER PCF-3. . .TWO OTHER MINE EXPLOSIONS”. The same four witnesses who only recall a mine going off under PCF-3 also recall no hostile gunfire or rocket fire. In contrast, Kerry’s crewmates and two members of other boats recall what they interpreted as hostile fire. The after-action report says that hostile fire continued for “ABOUT 5000 METERS”, but describes no bullet damage to any boat or bullet wounds to any crew members. Finally, two witnesses to Kerry’s arm injury, Van Odell and Jack Chernoweth, contend that Kerry’s arm was not bleeding, contrary to what Kerry’s Bronze Star citation states. The after-action report concurs with this, describing Kerry’s injury as “CONTUSION RT. FOREARM (MINOR)”.22 In an attempt to explain the above discrepancies, some members of Kerry’s patrol have recalled that Kerry often volunteered to fill out the after-action reports. Larry Thurlow relates, “Back then, John would actually volunteer to write them up. . .Nobody wanted to write these things. . .You're already drained from hours out on whatever the situation was. You wanted to clean up, get something to eat and get some sleep. J ohn would say, 'I'll write this up.' [We'd say], 'Go for it, John.'” Kerry’s defenders have dismissed this as an unsubstantiated accusation, but in fact Kerry stands accused by his own words. During his 1971 Senate testimony when Kerry was asked the question, "do you think it is possible for the President or Congress to get accurate and undistorted information through official military channels?", he replied, "I had direct experience with that. . .I can recall often sending in the spot reports which we made after each mission, and including the GDA, gunfire damage assessments, in which we would say, maybe 15 sampans sunk or whatever it was. And I often read about my own missions in the Stars and Stripes and the very mission we had been on had been doubled in figures and tripled in figures."23 According to Swift Boat commander Thomas Wright, following the above incidents, several of Kerry’s Swift Boat comrades conferred about the fact that Kerry had been wounded three times and was now eligible to be transferred from combat duty. Wright then approached Kerry and suggested it would be in everyone’s best interests if he took the opportunity to leave. Kerry was subsequently transferred to duty at a desk assignment in New York. Wright later recalled, “When John Kerry got his Third Purple Heart, we told him to leave. We knew how the system worked and we didn’t want him

in CosDiv11. Kerry didn’t decide to manipulate the system to go home after four months; we asked him to go home.”24 Kerry’s Medals Come Home to Haunt Him Admiral Zumwalt had predicted that if Kerry ever became a national figure, his career in Vietnam would come home to haunt him. Zumwalt’s prediction would come to prove ironically accurate as the very medals Kerry had built his career upon became a source of scandal in his 2004 Presidential campaign. After Kerry left Vietnam and joined the antiwar movement, he participated in an antiwar rally where he threw what he then claimed were his medals away (he has since changed his story). During this rally he also accused Admiral Zumwalt and his fellow servicemen of war crimes. Subsequently Zumwalt and his sons developed a strong dislike for Kerry.25 Despite this, surprisingly, Zumwalt temporarily became one of Kerry’s political supporters. After Zumwalt’s son Elmo III developed cancer symptoms which Zumwalt believed had been caused by exposure to Agent Orange, Zumwalt began to support lobbying efforts to compensate alleged victims of Agent Orange, a cause Kerry also supported as Senator. Subsequently in 1996, Kerry asked Zumwalt to attend a press conference to defend him against a Boston Globe column by David Warsh suggesting that Kerry had committed a war crime during the incident leading to his Silver Star award, which Zumwalt had signed. Zumwalt agreed to bury the hatchet and, joined by others formerly under his command, spoke in support of Kerry’s award and Senatorial campaign. Those who defended Kerry at that time have stated that their motivation was to defend Kerry against what they perceived as unfair charges of him being a war criminal, which reminded them how they had felt when Kerry had levelled unfair charges against them in 1971. They have also stated that they were unaware of the discrepancies in Kerry’s account of how he got his awards, since Kerry’s military records had not been released at that time and his biography had not been published.26 But after Zumwalt had passed on in 2000, his surviving son James grew angry when Kerry’s old war crime accusations against the military were repeated in Brinkley’s biography during Kerry’s 2004 campaign. James joined Roy Hoffmann and many of Kerry’s other commanders and crew in supporting Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, which opposes Kerry’s Presidential candidacy on the grounds that he is unfit for command.27 Conclusion The contradictions in Kerry’s account of his decision to enlist, his recollections of how he got his medals, and his flip-flopping from war protestor to war hero and back again reveal a consistent pattern of self-promoting deception, calculated to hide his left-wing political views behind the mask of a paper hero. But Kerry’s paper mask falls apart when his military record is scrutinized, and when his patriotic words are contrasted with his actions after he came home from the war. Next: “Part 3: Hanoi John: Kerry and the Antiwar Movement’s Communist Connections”

Notes
1

On the Bundy family’s background and relationship to Frankfurter and Acheson, see Kai Bird, The Color of Truth: McGeorge Bundy and William Bundy: Brothers in Arms: A Biography, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998, 23-41, 65-66, 99-101, 106-107, 110116, 161-170, 185-375; Bruce Allen Murphy, The Brandeis/Frankfurter Connection: The Secret Political Activities of Two Supreme Court Justices, Oxford University Press, 1982; Garden City: Anchor Books, 1983, 201-202; H.R. McMaster, Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies That Led to Vietnam, New York: HarperCollins, 1997, 117-118, 140-142, 160, 167, 180-189; Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas, The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, 650-657, 698-699, 711-712; Douglas Brinkley, Dean Acheson: The Cold War Years, 1953-1971, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992, 241, 257.
2

Bird, 65-66, 396-397; Douglas Brinkley, Tour of Duty: John Kerry and the Vietnam War, New York: William Morrow, 2004, 40-46, 57-58; Jacob Leibenluft, “Kerry '66: 'He was going to be president': In JFK's shadow, a headstrong Kerry makes his run for the White House”, YaleDailyNews.com, http://www.yaledailynews.com/article.asp?AID=21803, February 14, 2003 (June 18, 2004); Finlay Lewis, “Kerry’s political ambitions date back to his youth”, SignOnSanDiego.com: The San Diego UnionTribunehttp://www.signonsandiego.com/news/politics/federal/20040719-99991n19youth.html, July 19, 2004 (August 5, 2004).
3

Charles Sennott, “The Making of the Candidates: John Forbes Kerry”, The Boston Globe, .October 6, 1996; “’Different Forever’: John Kerry Says Killing in War Permanently Changes Soldiers”, ABCNEWS.comhttp://abcnews.go.com/sections/Politics/Vote2004/kerry_vietnam_DNC_ 040729-1.html, July 29, 2004 (August 27, 2004).
4

Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 61-62; Leibenluft; Gerald Nicosia, Home to War: A History of the Vietnam Veterans’ Movement, New York: Crown Publishers, 2001, 70.
5

Samuel Z. Goldhaber, “John Kerry: A Navy Dove Runs for Congress”, The Harvard Crimson, February 18, 1970, reprinted at The Harvard Crimson Online, http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=352185 (June 18, 2004); Charles Laurence, “Revealed: how ‘war hero’ Kerry tried to put off Vietnam military duty”, telegraph.co.uk, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/03/07/wkerr07.xml&sSh eet=/news/2004/03/07/ixnewstop.html, June 18, 2004 (June 18, 2004).
6 7

Sennott.

Michael Kranish, “Heroism, and growing concern about war”, June 16, 2003, Part 2 of “John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making”, The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/061603.shtml, June 15-21, 2003 (August 5, 2004).

8

John Forbes Kerry, ”Contract for Officer Candidate”, February 18, 1966, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Officer_Candidate_Agreement.pdf (August 18, 2004); John E. O’Neill and Jerome R. Corsi, Unfit for Command: Swift Boat Veterans Speak Out Against John Kerry, Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2004, 23. Cf. Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 65.
9

John Forbes Kerry, ”Duty Recommendation Form”, December 16, 1966, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Duty_Recommendation.pdf (August 18, 2004).
10

See Edward J. Marolda, By Sea, Air, and Land: An Illustrated History of the U.S. Navy and the War in Southeast Asia, Washington, DC: Navy Historical Center,, Department of the Navy, 1994, Chapter 3, online at Department of the Navy: Naval Historical Center, http://www.history.navy.mil/seairland/index.html (August 15, 2004).
11

Kranish, “Heroism, and growing concern about war”, citing Stephen Weiss, Clark Dougan, David Fulghum, and Denis Kennedy, The Vietnam Experience: A War Remembered, Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1986. Cf. Nicosia, 70.
12

L.E. Pentz, ”Second Endorsement on BUPERS HSG 212217 Jun 68 (BUPERS Order Nr 1300398)”, November 17, 1968, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Change_of_Duty.pdf, 3, (August 28, 2004); Nicosia, 70; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 104-106, 109; Marolda, Chapter 4; Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr., On Watch: A Memoir, New York: Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co., 1976, 36-38; Elmo Zumwalt, Jr. and Elmo Zumwalt III, My Father, My Son, with John Pekkanen, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986, 45-47; “Roy ‘Latch’ Hoffmann”, Disinfopedia, (August 4, 2004).
13

Grant W. Hibbard, ”Report on the Fitness of Officers”, December 17, 1968, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Fitness_Reports.pdf, 18-19, (August 28, 2004); Donald A. Still, Commander U.S. Naval Support Activity, Saigon to LTJG John F. Kerry, USN, ”Purple Heart Award; presentation of”, February 28, 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Purple_Heart_1_Citation.pdf (August 28, 2004); Kranish, “Heroism, and growing concern about war”; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 147-148, 461; ”John Kerry’s Vietnam Service Timeline” John Kerry for President – Official Web Site, http://www.johnkerry.com/about/john_kerry/service_timeline.html (August 5, 2004); Andrea Stone, “Vietnam lessons shape Kerry as a leader”, USATODAY.com, http://www.usatoday.com/news/politicselections/nation/president/2004-04-12-kerryvietnam_x.htm, April 12, 2004 (August 29, 2004); Nedra Pickler, “Kerry has shrapnel in left thigh from Vietnam War injury”, SF Gate, http://www.sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?file=/news/archive/2004/04/23/politics1607EDT0681.DTL, April 23, 2004 (August 5, 2004); Byron York, “Kerry Purple Heart Doc Speaks Out: The medical description of his first wound.”, National Review Online, http://nationalreview.com/york/york200405041626.asp , May 4, 2004 (August 29, 2004); Michael Kranish, Brian C. Mooney, and Nina J. Easton, John F. Kerry: The Complete Biography by the Boston Globe Reporters Who Know Him Best, New York:

Public Affairs, 2004, 71; O’Neill and Corsi, 27, 31-41; Art Moore, “Kerry’s war journal contradicts medical claim? At least 9 days after Purple Heart, wrote he had not ‘been shot at yet’”, WorldNetDaily, http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=40006, August 17, 2004 (August 28, 2004); FOX News, August 23, 2004, recorded by FReeper kristinn, “Major Garrett Reports: Kerry Campaign Inches Away from First Purple Heart Wound”, FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1197801/posts, August 23, 2004 (August 27, 2004); Robert Novak, “Swift boat interview”, Townhall.com, http://www.townhall.com/columnists/robertnovak/rn20040827.shtml , August 27, 2004 (August 27, 2004). Cf. “AR 600-8-22 Governing Award of the Purple Heart Medal— Combat Wounded Veterans”, Military Order of the Purple Heart (MOPH), http://www.purpleheart.org/Awd_of_PH.htm (August 28, 2004).
14

George M. Elliott, ”Report on the Fitness of Officers”, December 16, 1968, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Fitness_Reports.pdf, 20-21, (August 28, 2004); Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 104, 152-153, 185, 461; ”John Kerry’s Vietnam Service Timeline”; O’Neill and Corsi, 26-27, 41-45.
15

George M. Elliott, ”Report on the Fitness of Officers”, December 16, 1968, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Fitness_Reports.pdf, 23-24, (August 28, 2004); O’Neill and Corsi, 53-63. Cf. Kranish, “Heroism, and growing concern about war”.
16

Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 254-261; ”John Kerry’s Vietnam Service Timeline”; O’Neill and Corsi, 63-64.
17

Thomas Lipscomb, “Setting Straight Kerry’s War Record”, The New York Sun, Section Editorial & Opinion, Page 8, February 27, 2004, reprinted online at New York Sun, http://daily.nysun.com/Repository/getFiles.asp?Style=OliveXLib:ArticleToMail&Type=tex t/html&Path=NYS/2004/02/27&ID=Ar00800 (August 16, 2004). Cf. O’Neill and Corsi, 204n10.
18 19

O’Neill and Corsi, 75.

”Spot Reports for February, 1969”, February, 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/SpotReports_February1969.pdf, 10-12, 2021 (August 28, 2004); ”Personnel Casualty Reports”, February 28, 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Personnel_Casualty_Report.pdf, 1-3 (August 28, 2004); Donald A. Still, Commander U.S. Naval Support Activity, Saigon to LTJG John F. Kerry, USN, ”Purple Heart Award; presentation of”, March 5, 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Purple_Heart_2_Citation.pdf (August 28, 2004); Kranish, “Heroism, and growing concern about war”; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 287, 461; ”John Kerry’s Vietnam Service Timeline”; Pickler; O’Neill and Corsi, 77-79.
20

”Navy Cross”, Department of the Navy: Naval Historical Center, http://www.history.navy.mil/medals/navcross.htm(August 5, 2004).

21

E.R. Zumwalt, Jr., “Citation”,JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/militaryrecords_1.pdf, 7-8 (August 28, 2004); John Hyland, “Citation”, undated and John Lehman, “Citation”, undated, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Silver_Star.pdf (August 28, 2004); Glen Johnson, “Kerry assails columnist who questioned war service”, New Standard, October 28, 1996, reprinted online at SouthCoastToday.com, http://www.st.com/daily/10-96/10-28-96/a03sr015.htm (August 5, 2004); James Carroll, "Annals of Vietnam: A Friendship that Ended the War", New Yorker, October 21, 1996, 130-156; David Warsh, “Behind the Hootch: Did Kerry Commit a War Crime?”, The Boston Globe, October 27, 1996; Nicosia, 70; Kranish, “Heroism, and growing concern about war”; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 293-294; ”John Kerry’s Vietnam Service Timeline”; O’Neill and Corsi, 80-86; Alex Katz, “Man refutes candidate’s critics”, Alameda Times-Star, August 12, 2004, posted at Naval Air Station Alameda, http://www.nasalameda.com/temp/article-mike-medeiros-john-kerry.html (August 29, 2004); Alex Katz, “Local vet recalls time on Kerry’s swiftboat”, Tri-Valley Herald, cached at http://64.233.179.104/search?q=cache:7mmMYic6fUJ:www.trivalleyherald.com/Stories/0,1413,86%25257E10671%25257E2334602,00.htm l+Local+Vet+Recalls+Time+on+Kerry%27s+Swiftboat+&hl=en, August 14, 2004 (August 29, 2004); William B. Rood, “Feb. 28, 1969: On the Dong Cung River: ’This is what I saw that day”, Chicago Tribune, August 22, 2004, reprinted at Shepherd Express, http://www.shepherdexpress.com/shepherd/25/35/news_and_views/news.html, August 26, 2004 (August 29, 2004); Thomas Lipscomb, “Kerry citation a ‘total mystery’ to ex-Navy chief”, Chicago Sun-Times, http://www.suntimes.com/output/elect/cst-nws-lips28.html, August 28, 2004.
22

”Spot Reports for March, 1969”, March, 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/SpotReports_March1969.pdf, 3, 8, 9 (August 28, 2004); ”Personnel Casualty Reports”, February 28, 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Personnel_Casualty_Report.pdf, 4-5 (August 28, 2004); G.M. Elliott, ”Award Recommendation”, March 23, 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/bronze_star_recommendation.pdf (August 28, 2004); E.R. Zumwalt, Jr. “Citation”, undated and John Lehman, “Citation”, undated, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Bronze_Star.pdf (August 28, 2004); Donald A. Still, Commander U.S. Naval Support Activity, Saigon to LTJG John F. Kerry, USN, ”Purple Heart Award; presentation of”, April 17, 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Purple_Heart_3_Citation.pdf (August 28, 2004); Senator Kerry, “Thomas M. Belodeau”, Congressional Record—Senate, 105th Congress—2nd Session (1998), S186-S187, January 28, 1998, located through http://thomas.loc.gov/ (August 29, 2004); Kranish, “Heroism, and growing concern about war”; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 313, 317, 461; “Kerry Reunites with Fellow Veteran in Iowa: Veteran says Kerry saved his life in combat; has not seen him since 1969”, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pressroom/releases/pr_2004_0117d.html, January 17, 2004 (August 29, 2004); ”John Kerry’s Vietnam Service Timeline”; Stone; Pickler; Kranish, Mooney, and Easton, 105; Jim Barnett: “Oregon veteran will introduce Kerry: Jim Rassmann, who lives”, The Oregonian, cached at http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:etjkL1z3AxEJ:www.oregonlive.com/news/orego nian/index.ssf%3F/base/news/1091102126180900.xml+rassmann+cookie&hl=en, July

29, 2004 (August 29, 2004); Michael Kranish, “Veteran retracts criticism of Kerry”, The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2004/08/06/veteran_retracts_criticism_of _kerry/, August 6, 2004 (August 29, 2004); O’Neill and Corsi, 86-95; Judson Cox, “An Interview with Van Odell, A Swift Boat Veteran for Truth”, MichNews.com, http://michnews.com/artman/publish/article_4730.shtml, August 16, 2004 (August 29, 2004); Joseph A. D'Agostino and David Freddoso, "Four Eyewitnesses Dispute Kerry's Account of Bronze Star Incident", Human Events Online, http://www.humaneventsonline.com/article.php?id=4834, August 20, 2004 (August 29, 2004); David Corn, “Evidence Undermines Attack”, The Nation, http://www.thenation.com/capitalgames/index.mhtml?bid=3&pid=1692 , August 20, 2004 (August 29, 2004); Gene Thorp, Lou Spirito, and Chris Kirkman, “The River, The Mission, The Ambush”, The Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/politics/graphics/swiftboat_082104.html, August 22, 2004 (August 29, 2004); Brad Hamilton, “Kerry’s Medal Muddle”, New York Post Online Edition, http://www.nypost.com/news/nationalnews/29232.htm, August 22, 2004 (August 29, 2004); Michael Dobbs, “Swift Boat Accounts Incomplete and Flawed, Clashes Roil Kerry Campaign”, The Washington Post, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ articles/A212392004Aug21.html, August 22, 2004 (August 29, 2004); Mary Dalrymple, “Kerry Urges Bush To Demand Attacks Stop”, The Washington Post, www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/ articles/A22860-2004Aug22.html, August 22, 2004 (August 29, 2004); “Swift Boat Crewman: Kerry Boat Took Fire”, FOXNews.com, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,130326,00.html, August 27, 2004 (August 29, 2004); Evan Thomas and T. Trent Gegax, "New Hostile Fire: Incoming: Their shots may not be lethal, but a crew of angry vets have hit Kerry's hull", with Tamara Lipper, Susannah Meadows And John Barry, Newsweek, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5783805/site/newsweek/, August 30, 2004 (August 29, 2004).
23

O’Neill and Corsi, 55, 57-58, 76, 80-81, 83, 89, 91; Robert B. Bluey, "Kerry's False Report Led to Media Assault, Swift Boat Vet Claims", CNSNews.com, http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewPolitics.asp?Page=%5CPolitics%5Carchive%5C200408% 5CPOL20040819d.html, August 19, 2004; John Kerry testimony in United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Legislative Proposals Relating to the War in Southeast Asia, Thursday, April 22, 1971: Hearings before the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session (April-May 1971), Washington: Government Printing Office, 1971, 179-210 online in html format at http://www.cspan.org/2004vote/jkerrytestimony.asp (August 29, 2004) and in pdf format at http://www.cwes01.com/13790/23910/ktpp179-210.pdf (August 29, 2004)..
24

“Thrice Wounded”, March 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Thrice_Wounded_Reassignment.pdf, 4 (August 28, 2004); Lt. J.C. Rodgers, Jr., untitled, April 30, 1971, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Change_of_Duty.pdf, 4 (August 28, 2004); O’Neill and Corsi, 72, 92-93.
25

Byron York, “Vietnam Veterans Against Kerry: A band of brothers, but not the kind the candidate likes”, National Review, http://www.ron-

siddell.com/VietVetsAgainstKerry.htm, May 31, 2004 (August 5, 2004); O’Neill and Corsi, 42, 52, 63-64, 99, 204n10.
26

Warsh; Nicosia, 445-446, 570, 575, 597-605, 608-609; Brinkley, 295-296, 440; Jamie Reno, Michael Isikoff, and Evan Thomas, “Kerry and Agent Orange”, with T. Trent Gegax, MSNBC News, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4410098/, March 8, 2004 (August 16, 2004); York, “Vietnam Veterans Against Kerry”; O’Neill and Corsi, 83; "Transcript: Debating Kerry's Vietnam Record", FOXNews.com, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,129590,00.html, August 23, 2004.
27

York, “Vietnam Veterans Against Kerry”; O’Neill and Corsi, 99, 195, 204n10.

John Kerry’s Fellow Travellers
A 5-part series exposing John Kerry’s Communist connections.

Part 3: Hanoi John: Kerry and the Antiwar Movement’s Communist Connections
By Fedora *NOTE: The term “fellow traveller” as used in this article series refers to someone who is not a member of the Communist Party (CP) but regularly engages in actions which advance the Party’s program. Some apparent fellow travellers may actually be “concealed party members”: members of the CP who conceal their membership. Which of these classifications is applicable to the Kerrys is a question this series leaves unresolved. This series does not argue for any direct evidence of Richard or John Kerry or other members of the Kerry family belonging to the CP. What this series does argue for is a consistent pattern of the Kerry family working with Communists and Communist fellow travellers in a way that advances the Communist program. Introduction Part 1 of this series, ”John Kerry’s Red Roots”, traced the roots of John Kerry’s foreign policy views to the influence of a faction of the State Department led by Dean Acheson, protégé of the Communist fellow traveller Felix Frankfurter. Part 2, "Forging a Paper Hero", exposed how Kerry managed to conceal his left-wing background by cloaking himself in the guise of a war hero. This article picks up the story with Kerry’s abuse of his stolen valor, when he came home from Vietnam and wore an American uniform while speaking on behalf of groups representing America’s Communist enemies.

John Kerry’s Antiwar Career Summarized Summary of John Kerry’s Antiwar Allies Individual/Group 1969- Vietnam Moratorium 1970+ Committee (VMC): Organized mass antiwar demonstrations Relation to Communist movement Formed by associates of Communist front group American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) and Communist-infiltrated group SANE; interlocked with the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam (New Mobe), an antiwar mobilization group formed following instructions from Hanoi by the Socialist Workers Party (SWP), a Trotskyite group infiltrated by the Soviets and friendly to Cuba Relation to Kerry Peggy Kerry worked for VMC in 1969 and recruited John to fly New York VMC leader Adam Walinsky to VMC demonstrations in October 1969, while John was still on active duty; John then asked VMC for support in his 1970 Congressional campaign and worked for them afterwords; subsequently was supported by VMC founder Jerome Grossman throughout political career into Senate terms 1970 Congressional campaign chaired by Kerry; as Congressman sought to pass “Kerry Amendment” lowering age requirements to allow Kerry to run for Senator in 1972; supported Vietnam Veterans Against the War while Kerry was a VVAW member; advised Kerry’s 2004 Presidential campaign 1970- Vietnam Veterans 1973+ Against the War (VVAW): antiwar Inspired by Veterans for Introduced to VVAW by Peace (VFP), offshoot of front sister Peggy; attracted group set up by the VVAW attention

1970+ Father Robert Drinan: Associate of antiwar activist Left-wing priest and Daniel Berrigan; officer in lawyer Communist front group National Lawyers Guild (NLG); travelled to Vietnam on behalf of Communist front group Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR); politically endorsed by Communist lawyer Ramsey Clark

veterans’ group

Communist Party (CP) to protest the Korean War;

initially run out of offices of Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade Committee (FAVPPC), served on VVAW which networked with National Executive numerous Communist front Committee 1970-1971; groups; afterwords remained formed alliances with New VVAW leader and Mobe and VMC; spokesman into at least 1973; leadership interlocked with Communist front group continued to associate People’s Coalition for Peace with former VVAW and Justice (PCPJ); members throughout career to present day politically allied with politicians tied to Communist lobbying groups such as George Ball, Allard Lowenstein, Eugene McCarthy, Robert and Ted Kennedy, Bella Abzug, George McGovern, Mark Hatfield, John Conyers, Ron Dellums, Charles Rangel, Michael Harrington, Paul McCloskey, etc. financed by left-wing sources such as Jane Fonda, United Auto Workers (UAW), Edgar Bronfman, Ted Kennedy, etc. legally represented by Communist lawyers such as Peter Weiss, Ramsey Clark, William Kunstler, Mark Lane, etc. jointly sponsored events with various Communist-linked individuals and groups including Black Panther Party (BPP), Citizens’ Commission of Inquiry into War Crimes in Indochina (CCI), Jane Fonda,

through work for VMC and Drinan and joined group around May 1970;

Yippies, National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC), Venceremos Brigade (VB), etc.; met domestically and abroad with representatives of North Vietnam, Soviet Union, Cuba, European Communist groups, and Arab terrorist group Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) Contrary to his current posture as someone who went to Vietnam out of “a sense of duty and responsibility” and “never considered not serving”,1 John Kerry was actually already opposed to the Vietnam War before going to Vietnam, and he tried to avoid the draft. At Yale in 1965 and 1966 he opposed the war in at least two speeches.2 He claimed in a 1970 interview that he tried unsuccessfully to persuade the draft board to let him study abroad in France before he decided to enlist in the US Naval Reserve.3 While undergoing his Naval Reserve training, Kerry wrote letters in 1968 to his friends Michael Dalby and David Thorne expressing his opposition to the war, and while he was in Vietnam, Kerry and his fellow skipper Donald Droz—whose wife Judy was already active in the antiwar movement in 1968—planned to protest the war upon their return, according to Judy’s account of Donald’s letters home.4 After being transferred out of combat duty, Kerry was restationed in New York in early 1969. By late 1969 his older sister Peggy was already involved in the antiwar movement, working for the Vietnam Moratorium Committee (VMC). That October, she recruited John as a pilot to fly Adam Walinsky, a key leader of the New York office of the VMC, to VMC-organized antiwar demonstrations.5 Kerry, who was still on active duty in the US Naval Reserve,6 later boasted that he had been “smart enough not to put down ‘Moratorium’ on the Navy signout sheet for that Tuesday and Wednesday”.7 On November 21, 1969, Kerry requested an early release from active duty so he could run for Congress on an antiwar platform. In January 1970 he was transferred to inactive duty, and his younger brother Cameron tried to recruit support for his campaign from VMC founder Jerome Grossman. Grossman, who had links to the Democratic National Committee, was a leader of a Massachusetts antiwar activist group called Massachusetts Political Action for Peace (Mass PAX, later renamed Citizens for Participation in Political Action, CPPAX), which had previously supported antiwar Presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy in 1968 and had created the VMC in 1969. Mass PAX’s coalition was now seeking an antiwar candidate to unseat prowar Congressman Philip Philbin. However by the time Cameron got in touch with Grossman, Grossman had already decided to support another, better-known antiwar candidate, Father Robert Drinan. In February 1970 Mass PAX’s caucus voted to support Drinan over Kerry, and at the urging of Grossman, who was Drinan’s campaign manager, Kerry quit his own campaign to become chairman of Drinan’s campaign.8 At the same time he was chairing Drinan’s campaign, Kerry also did work for the VMC. 9

While Grossman and Kerry were supporting the VMC and Drinan, they began supporting a veterans’ antiwar group, the Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW). Kerry’s speaking activity for Drinan and the VMC brought him to the attention of leaders of the VVAW’s New York headquarters, and he joined the VVAW shortly after his marriage on May 23, 1970. Grossman introduced him to veterans from an antiwar group called Legal In-Service Project (LISP) which was operating out of Mass PAX’s office, and these veterans helped Kerry set up a Massachusetts branch of VVAW based in Mass PAX’s office.10 Meanwhile for their honeymoon Kerry and his wife travelled to Paris, and during their stay there they met leaders of the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG), a delegation representing the North Vietnamese government’s proposed ruling body for South Vietnam.11 Kerry emerged as the VVAW’s star spokesman during a September 1970 speech at Valley Forge for the VVAW’s Operation RAW. After Operation RAW he was appointed to the VVAW National Executive Committee by VVAW leader Al Hubbard because of his speaking ability and his contacts with the Democratic National Committee and Ted Kennedy. His prominence in the organization grew through his participation in its Dewey Canyon III rally in Washington in April 1971. Kerry remained prominent in the VVAW until at least July 1971, after which there are conflicting accounts, largely perpetrated by Gerald Nicosia, a writer friendly to Kerry. Nicosia initially wrote in a 2001 book that Kerry developed differences with Hubbard which led him to resign from the VVAW National Executive Committee at a VVAW meeting in St. Louis in July 1971.12 However, Kerry’s biographer Douglas Brinkley reported in a 2004 book that Kerry resigned from the VVAW on November 10, 1971.13 After other researchers publicized evidence that Kerry had attended a VVAW meeting in Kansas City in November 1971 during which VVAW leaders proposed kidnapping and assassinating pro-war politicians,14, Nicosia provided the media with FBI documents confirming Kerry had attended this meeting.15 The actual FBI reports on the Kansas City meeting record that on November 13 “JOHN KERRY, a VVAW national leader from Massachusetts, arrived and spoke to the committee. He resigned from the National Executive Committee of VVAW for ‘personal reasons’ but added he would still be active in VVAW and available to speak for the organization” and would be holding his office “until new members are elected in January 1972”.16 Prior to Nicosia’s release of the FBI documents, the Kerry campaign had issued statements that “Kerry was not at the Kansas City meeting” and had resigned from the VVAW “sometime in the summer of 1971”.17 After Nicosia’s release of the documents, the Kerry campaign issued statements that “Senator Kerry does not remember attending the Kansas City meeting.” VVAW members who attended the meeting have issued conflicting statements about whether or not they remember seeing Kerry there.18 Subsequent research has uncovered articles reporting Kerry speaking at VVAW events and on behalf of the VVAW as late as at least April 1972 and representing himself as a VVAW member to the press as late as October 1972,19 and a newspaper photo dated January 24, 1973 is accompanied by a caption describing Kerry as “head of Vietnam Veterans Against the War”.20 Kerry would remain associated with former VVAW members such as Chris Gregory into his Senate career,21 and in 1979 he joined former VVAW associate Bobby Muller in cofounding the Vietnam Veterans of America (VVA), which lists him as a lifetime member.22

Kerry’s Introduction to the Antiwar Movement: The Vietnam Moratorium Committee (VMC) As the above summary indicates, Kerry’s introduction to the antiwar movement came through the Vietnam Moratorium Committee (VMC). In October 1969 Kerry’s sister Peggy recruited him as a pilot to fly Adam Walinsky, a key leader of the New York office of the VMC, to VMC-organized antiwar demonstrations.23 Peggy was at that time already working for the VMC.24 In January 1970 Cameron Kerry sought VMC support for John’s Congressional campaign,25 and after John joined Drinan’s campaign in February 1970 he did additional work for the VMC.26 The Vietnam Moratorium Committee was conceived by Jerome Grossman and grew out of Grossman’s work for Massachusetts Political Action for Peace (Mass PAX), which was in turn an outgrowth of the 1962 Massachusetts Senatorial campaign of antinuclear candidate H. Stuart Hughes. Hughes, then teaching history at Harvard, was a lifelong Communist sympathizer who had opposed the Cold War from the beginning and was described in FBI files as having “strong convictions towards communism”.27 In 1959 he had been recruited to the antinuclear group SANE (National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy) by his friend David Riesman.28 Riesman was a longtime fellow traveller who had begun his professional career under the tutelage of Felix Frankfurter and Louis Brandeis, two of the foremost front men for the US Communist movement.29 SANE likewise had numerous Communist associations, prompting investigations by the FBI and the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in the 1960s.30 SANE and allied antiwar groups supported Hughes when he decided to run for Senator on an antinuclear platform in 1962, and Hughes went on to become SANE’s cochairman in 1963 and its chairman in 1967. In those capacities he organized opposition to the Vietnam War, prompting the FBI to place him under surveillance when it received information that he was going to visit Moscow on a trip to Paris in 1966.31 Meanwhile Hughes’ SANE activity brought him into contact with Grossman. Grossman had been recruited to the antinuclear movement in the 1950s through the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC),32 an old Communist front group,33 and had subsequently become a SANE activist.34 Through SANE’s support of Hughes in 1962, Grossman became Hughes’ campaign manager.35 After the campaign, Hughes’ organizers transformed his campaign into an ongoing antiwar organization, Massachusetts Political Action for Peace.36 Grossman continued to work with Mass PAX as it opposed the Vietnam War after 1964 and as it supported Eugene McCarthy’s Presidential campaign in 1968.37 At an April 1969 Mass PAX meeting, Grossman proposed the idea of the Vietnam Moratorium Committee: a committee to coordinate a nation-wide, grassroots-generated series of antiwar demonstrations.38 To help him organize these demonstrations, Grossman recruited the help of 1968 antiwar Presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy and former McCarthy campaign organizers Sam Brown, David Hawk, David Mixner, and Marge Sklencar.39 Through Brown, the Moratorium’s national director and principal organizer,40 the VMC joined forces with the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, or “New Mobe”,41 a national coordinating group for antiwar protests. The New Mobe was so

called because it was an outgrowth of an earlier national coordinating group called the Student Mobilization Committee (SMC), or “Mobe”. The Mobe was in turn an outgrowth of the National Student Strike for Peace Conference. The National Student Strike for Peace Conference had originally been organized in 1966 by the Communist Party (CP) and the Socialist Workers Party (SWP).42 The SWP was a Trotskyite group which had been infiltrated by the Soviet Union since the 1930s and had more recently developed connections with Castro’s regime in Cuba through groups such as the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. It was accordingly designated as subversive by the Attorney General and became a high priority for FBI surveillance from 1961 on.43 The SWP element in the Mobe had become dominant by 1968, and the FBI regarded the Mobe as controlled by the SWP. A 1967 Congressional report found that “Communists are playing dominant roles in. . .the Student Mobilization Committee. . .”44 The Mobe lost momentum after the 1968 Presidential campaign and was revived by the SWP in July 1969 as the New Mobe. From its inception the New Mobe coordinated its actions with the Soviet Union and North Vietnam through the KGB-linked World Peace Council (WPC) in Stockholm. A 1970 Congressional report found that the New Mobe was under “communist domination”.45 From its beginning, the New Mobe worked in close coordination with the VMC. The VMC was represented on the New Mobe’s steering committee from the New Mobe’s first meeting; the New Mobe shared its headquarters with the VMC at 1029 Vermont Avenue NW in Washington, DC; and Sam Brown organized for the New Mobe while he directed the VMC.46 New York VMC activity was coordinated by the Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade Committee (FAVPPC, also known by various similar names). The FAVPPC had been organized by Norma Becker, a member of a Communist front group called the War Resisters League (WRL), and it operated out of the same 5 Beekman Street address as numerous inter-related Communist front groups and fellow-travelling groups, such as the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), the Committee for Nonviolent Action (CNVA), and the Catholic Peace Fellowship (CPF). It was described in a 1970 Congressional report as “dominated by communists”.47 The most prominent leader of the New York VMC was Adam Walinsky, former legal and speechwriting assistant to Robert Kennedy.48 John Kerry’s sister Peggy was also working for the New York VMC in 1969, and she recruited John to fly Walinsky around to VMC-organized demonstrations that October,49 while John was still on active duty.50 After John was transferred to inactive duty in January 1970 his brother Cameron contacted VMC founder Jerome Grossman to seek VMC support for John’s Congressional campaign. Failing to win VMC support in a February 1970 caucus, John accepted Grossman’s request to drop out of the campaign and chair the campaign of the VMC’s favored Congressional candidate, Father Robert Drinan. While chairing Drinan’s campaign, he also worked for the VMC and came to know Sam Brown, as he later recalled on the Senate floor in 1994 while defending Brown’s nomination as US ambassador to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Grossman in

return would continue to support Kerry throughout his political career, into his 2004 Presidential campaign.51 Transition from the VMC to the VVAW: Robert Drinan In February 1970 Kerry began chairing Drinan’s campaign, which culminated in Drinan being elected to Congress that November.52 Kerry’s relationship with Drinan continued after the campaign. Kerry spoke favorably of Drinan during his 1971 Senate testimony, saying “certain individuals are in Congress today, particularly in the House, who several years ago could never have been. I would cite Representative Dellums and the Congresswoman Abzug and Congressman Drinan and people like this. I think this is a terribly encouraging sign. . .”53 Drinan in return used his Congressional position to help Kerry and the VVAW. He tried to change the law in order to let the then-28-year-old Kerry run in the 1972 Senatorial election by co-proposing a Constitutional amendment to lower the minimum age for Senator from 30 to 27, a proposal which came to be referred to as the “Kerry Amendment”.54 Drinan also supported the VVAW by calling for a Congressional follow-up to the Winter Soldier Investigation’s allegations of war crimes by US troops, and by drafting a bill authorizing government mental health-care support for Vietnam veterans diagnosed with “Post-Vietnam Syndrome” (now known as PostTraumatic Stress Disorder), a diagnosis invented by VVAW ally Robert Jay Lifton.55 After Kerry called for Nixon’s impeachment in February 197256—six months prior to the Watergate break-ins—Drinan became the first member of Congress to introduce a resolution of impeachment against Nixon on July 31, 1973.57 In 2004 Drinan has been an advisor to Kerry’s Presidential campaign.58 Father Drinan’s background was a maze of Communist connections. While studying for the priesthood in the 1940s he had been a classmate of Daniel Berrigan,59 a left-wing priest who later became active in the antiwar movement.60 After earning degrees in law and becoming a lawyer, Drinan joined the faculty of Boston College Law School and eventually was promoted to Dean. As a lawyer he supported left-wing social causes and became in 1968 national vice-president of the National Lawyers Guild (NLG),61 identified in a 1950 Congressional investigation as the “legal bulwark of the Communist Party” and linked in the late 1960s and early 1970s to Communist-connected terrorist groups like the Weather Underground Organization (WUO, also known as the Weathermen).62 In 1969 Drinan travelled to Vietnam on behalf of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR),63 a Communist front group64 which his old classmate Daniel Berrigan vicechaired.65 Drinan spoke at a New Mobe event in March 1970,66 a few months before a Congressional report found that the New Mobe was under “communist domination”.67 Drinan’s Congressional campaign received an endorsement from former Attorney General Ramsey Clark,68 who during this period also defended Daniel Berrigan’s brother Philip against charges of conspiring to kidnap public officials, represented the VVAW and the Communist-infiltrated New Mobe offshoot National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC) in a legal dispute with the Supreme Court, assisted the Communist front group Committee for Public Justice (CPJ) in a campaign to discredit the FBI, led a Black Panther inquiry into the Chicago Police Department, and travelled to North Vietnam to denounce US bombing.69 Drinan was under FBI surveillance while Kerry was working for his campaign.70

Kerry in the Spotlight: The VVAW Kerry’s relationship with the VVAW emerged out of his relationship to Grossman, the Drinan campaign, and the VMC. Kerry’s speaking activity for Drinan and the VMC brought him to the attention of leaders of the VVAW’s New York headquarters. He subsequently joined the VVAW shortly after his marriage on May 23, 197071 and helped the group set up a Massachusetts branch.72 The VVAW remained relatively unknown and Kerry maintained a low profile in the organization until a Labor Day 1970 rally at Valley Forge called “Operation RAW” (Rapid American Withdrawal) showcased his public speaking skills.73 After this the VVAW tried to attract media attention by going to Detroit in January 1971 to stage a “Winter Soldier Investigation” (WSI) into alleged war crimes by US soldiers.74 When this failed to generate publicity, VVAW co-leader Al Hubbard appointed Kerry to the group’s National Executive Committee so that Kerry could use his contacts with the Democratic National Committee and Ted Kennedy to help organize a major rally in Washington, DC.75 During the rally, held in April 1971 and called “Dewey Canyon III” after the codename of a US military operation, Kerry testified to the Senate about alleged war crimes and attracted national media attention to the VVAW cause.76 Following this Kerry became the VVAW’s most prominent national spokesman. He resigned from the VVAW’s National Executive Committee citing “personal reasons” in November 1971,77 shortly before he began to campaign for the 1972 Congressional elections, but he continued to identify himself as the VVAW’s national leader and to speak on behalf of the organization throughout 1972 and into at least 1973.78 During this period the VVAW became increasingly militant and engaged in violent activity such as running guns to black militant groups in Cairo, Illinois starting in August 1971; plotting the assassination of pro-war politicians in November 1971; taking over the Lincoln Memorial and Statue of Liberty and other national symbols in December 1971; dumping blood on United States ambassador to the United Nations George H.W. Bush in May 1972; and physically attacking delegates and police at the Republican National Convention in Miami in August 1972.79 The VVAW before Kerry: From the FAVPPC to the Black Panthers The VVAW had been founded in New York in 1967 by Vietnam veteran Jan Barry Crumb, who called himself Jan Barry. Barry’s involvement in the antiwar movement began in April 1967 when he attended the April 7 Peace Parade. The parade had been organized by the Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade Committee (FAVPPC). The FAVPPC was led by Norma Becker, a member of a Communist front group called the War Resisters League (WRL), and it operated out of the same 5 Beekman Street address as numerous inter-related Communist front groups and fellow-travelling groups, such as the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), the Committee for Nonviolent Action (CNVA), and the Catholic Peace Fellowship (CPF). It was described in a 1970 Congressional report as “dominated by communists”.80 Participating in the FAVPPC’s rally were some members of Veterans for Peace (VFP), an outgrowth of American Veterans for Peace (AVP), an antiwar group which the Communist Party had originally formed in 1951 to protest the Korean War.81 Barry joined Vietnam veterans among the VFP marchers and inquired about a banner some of them were carrying which read “Vietnam Veterans Against the War”. When Barry learned the phrase was just a slogan and there was no formal group by that name, he decided to form one. After talking with the older VFP members and studying their tactics, he recruited five Vietnam veterans

from a Memorial Day VFP rally, and on June 1, 1967 the six of them held the first VVAW meeting in his apartment.82 On June 4, 1967, VVAW treasurer Francis Rocks opened up a PO Box for the VVAW, telling the post office the VVAW’s address was 5 Beekman Street, the same address as the FAVPPC. The New York VVAW maintained a close relationship with the FAVPPC, holding early meetings in another building used by the FAVPPC at 156 Fifth Avenue and later moving into the same building. On September 9, 1967, the Communist magazine The Worker covered the VVAW in an article giving the organization’s address as 17 East 17th Street and reporting that the organization now had about 20 members, including half a dozen graduates of Columbia University. As the VVAW grew it attracted members with links to other antiwar groups, notably Carl Rogers, a member of an antiwar group called Negotiation Now! which shared space with the FAVPPC at 156 Fifth Avenue. Leaving Negotiation Now! to help run the VVAW, Rogers helped the VVAW network with such contacts as the Mobe, Clergy and Laity Concerned About Vietnam (CALCAV, later shortened to CALC), antiwar diplomat George Ball, antiwar Congressman Allard Lowenstein, antiwar Senators Ernest Gruening and J. William Fulbright, and the 1968 Presidential campaign of antiwar candidate Eugene McCarthy. Over the course of the 1968 campaign the VVAW split into a faction supporting McCarthy and a faction supporting Robert Kennedy. Kennedy was assassinated in June, McCarthy dropped out of the campaign in August, and Richard Nixon won the election, leaving the VVAW disillusioned, without a sense of direction, and financially weak.83 During this period from 1967-1968, prompted by the mention of the VVAW in The Worker, the FBI opened a file on the VVAW and investigated whether it was a Communist front or infiltrated by Communists . At this time the Bureau found no evidence of direct Communist Party control of the VVAW, but noted indications of the VVAW fellow travelling with Communists, such as the VVAW’s common address with the FAVPCC and the participation of VVAW leaders in events linked to groups such as VFP, the SWP, and the Mobe. A May 16, 1968 document from the FBI’s VVAW file mentions TASS, the official Soviet news agency. The declassified version of the document is so heavily blacked out that the full meaning of the reference is unclear, but in context it appears to relate to an ad the VVAW ran in The New York Times on November 19, 1967. Later, after the FBI had opened an active investigation of the VVAW in 1971, a New York FBI office report would note that in September 1968 the VVAW had participated in a protest organized by the National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee (NECLC), a Communist front group linked to the National Lawyers Guild.84 Regrouping after the 1968 election, the VVAW leadership temporarily left management of the organization in the charge of Jim Boggio, leader of the VVAW’s Los Angeles chapter, from fall 1968 to fall 1969. During this period the FBI noted that Boggio attended meetings of the Socialist Workers Party and that his VVAW branch was successfully infiltrated by the SWP’s youth branch, the Young Socialist Alliance (YSA).85 Meanwhile VVAW leaders Barry and Rogers and their friend Steve Wilcox turned their attention towards forming a new organization called Serviceman’s Link to the Peace Movement, or LINK. LINK’s purpose was to connect the civilian antiwar movement with the antiwar movement among active-duty GI’s. It supported GI’s facing court-martial and participated in high-profile cases such as the trials of Susan Schnall, the Presidio

27, and Roger Priest.86. Schnall was a Navy nurse court-martialed for demonstrating against the war in uniform and using a plane to drop antiwar leaflets on military installations.87 The Presidio 27 was a group of 27 mutineers who were being defended by Terence Hallinan, son of the prominent Communist lawyer Vincent Hallinan.88. Priest was a Pentagon employee who had initially dodged the draft but then decided to join the Navy anyway to challenge the system. While on active duty he had published an antiwar newspaper which advocated desertion to Canada, insubordination, and the assassination of President Nixon. Priest’s paper was funded by the Stern Family Fund, a left-wing charity which was then also funding such groups as the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS), a KGB-connected think tank, and today helps fund Teresa Heinz-Kerry’s Tides Foundation. Priest designated the War Resisters League as the beneficiary of his GI life insurance policy, saying he hoped to start a trend so that every time a GI died, the WRL would become $10,000 richer. LINK joined in the defense of Priest, and after the Navy gave him an early release from his enlistment in mid-1969, Priest joined LINK’s staff as a counsel to other antiwar GI’s.89 While the VVAW leaders focused their energy on LINK from late 1968 to late 1969, the remnant of the VVAW worked towards the election of antiwar Congressmen like Allard Lowenstein and Paul O’Dwyer90 and participated in Mobe-organized rallies. The Mobe alliance served to rejuvenate the VVAW when the New Mobe was formed in July 1969.91 The meeting which created the New Mobe followed a May 1969 meeting in Stockholm between members of the original Mobe, the Soviet-linked World Peace Council, and a North Vietnamese delegation. Participants in the meeting discussed planning antiwar activities in Washington, DC that fall. Following this meeting the Socialist Workers Party called the July meeting which resulted in the formation of the New Mobe.92 Joining the steering committee of this meeting was Carl Rogers of the VVAW and LINK. Soon after the meeting LINK began sharing a headquarters with the New Mobe and VMC at 1029 Vermont Avenue NW in Washington, DC.93 Through its relationship with the New Mobe and VMC, the VVAW rapidly attracted hundreds of new members following major VMC demonstrations in fall 1969.94 One of the most important new members was Al Hubbard, a black veteran who claimed to have held the rank of captain and have been wounded in Vietnam, though it later turned out that he had only been a staff sergeant, he had never served in Vietnam, and his injuries were old sports injuries.95 Despite his fraudulence, Hubbard was a charismatic speaker and effective organizer. He was appointed as the VVAW’s executive secretary, and he developed a plan to expand the VVAW from a one-issue antiwar group into a veterans political organization. As part of this plan, he took the step of incorporating the VVAW as a 501(c)(3) corporation, giving the organization tax-exempt status and eligibility to receive public and private grants. He sent VVAW recruiters to veterans hospitals, college campuses, and high schools. He introduced programs for networking with veterans by providing social benefits and services like regular veterans organizations did. He got the VVAW involved in political lobbying and supporting antiwar politicians. He conceived publicity stunts to attract media attention to the VVAW. Finally, he helped the VVAW network with other antiwar groups, particularly among the militant faction of the civil rights movement led by the Black Panthers.96 The Black Panther Party (BPP), considered by the FBI to be “the greatest threat to the internal security of the country”, had been formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in

Oakland in 1966. The Panthers espoused a violence-oriented interpretation of Maoism which related the black civil rights cause to “capitalist oppression” of Third World countries like Vietnam, and on this basis they supported the North Vietnamese cause, volunteering to send fighters to Vietnam to aid the Viet Cong. The Panthers took their name from the logo for the Lowndes County Freedom Organization, an Alabama black political group which had been organized by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).97 SNCC was a civil rights group which had been infiltrated by the Communist Party and was allied with the Castro regime through the Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC) and later the Venceremos Brigade (VB). Leading SNCC organizer Stokely Carmichael had become a Marxist in high school after meeting the son of Eugene Dennis, a prominent Communist Party figure who led CP efforts to infiltrate the civil rights movement in the late 1950s. After joining SNCC in the early 1960s, Carmichael networked with members of the Alabama CP to form the Lowndes County Freedom Organization in 1965. The next year Carmichael was elected chairman of the SNCC and abandoned the group’s nonviolent policy. In 1967 he travelled to Cuba, China, North Vietnam, and finally Guinea, where he met with Guinea Communists representing an anti-colonial movement known as Pan-Africanism. From Guinea Carmichael returned to the United States with the intent of forming Black United Front groups throughout the country. In 1968 he left SNCC and became prime minister of the Black Panther Party, forming a temporary BPP/SNCC alliance. This alliance began to break up in summer 1969, fueled by Carmichael’s disagreement with the BPP’s policy of allying with white activists.98 In a parallel development, by 1969 the white student antiwar movement—centered around Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)—had divided into anti-Panther and pro-Panther factions. The pro-Panther faction was linked to the Weather Underground Organization (WUO, or Weathermen), a Cuban/North Vietnamese-trained terrorist group which sought to advance the antiwar and civil rights causes through violent tactics. Starting in 1969 the Weathermen branch of SDS, SNCC, and other groups began coordinating efforts with a pro-Castro group called the Venceremos Brigade to send groups of Americans to Cuba for intelligence training by Cuban and North Vietnamese agents.99 It was during this period, following the VMC demonstrations of late 1969, that Hubbard joined the VVAW and began building a VVAW-BPP alliance. Hubbard took VVAW members to BPP meetings with him and built a BPP chapter of the VVAW in Harlem. He coordinated a BPP convention with a VVAW demonstration at Valley Forge in fall 1970. Meanwhile Hubbard advocated turning the VVAW into a “weather vets” group, modeled on the Weathermen.100 Enter the Kerrys It was also following the VMC demonstrations of late 1969 that the VVAW came into contact with the Kerrys. VVAW member Sheldon Ramsdell, through working as a press aide for Eugene McCarthy’s campaign, had become involved with the New York Press Service and the Democratic Party in New York.101 The New York branch of the VVAW was at this time sharing office space with the New York branch of the VMC,102 and Ramsdell became acquainted with the leading figure of the New York VMC, Adam Walinsky.103 Peggy Kerry was then working for the New York VMC,104 and she was

introduced to Ramsdell by New York Congresswoman Bella Abzug,105 a cofounder of the Communist-infiltrated group Women Strike for Peace (WSP).106 Through Peggy’s work with the New York VMC, John met the New York VVAW,107 and the New York VVAW leaders took interest in John after he began speaking for Drinan and the VMC. John joined the VVAW shortly after his marriage on May 23, 1970. He was soon appointed to the VVAW’s National Executive Committee by Al Hubbard, and he began to help the VVAW set up a Massachusetts branch in the office of Mass PAX.108 Meanwhile for their honeymoon Kerry and his wife travelled to Paris, and during their stay there they met leaders of the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG), a delegation representing the North Vietnamese government’s proposed ruling body for South Vietnam.109 Operation RAW and The Winter Soldier Investigation Kerry emerged as the VVAW’s leading spokesman through his participation in Operation RAW (Rapid American Withdrawal), a rally held at Valley Forge over Labor Day weekend in September 1970. Operation RAW had been conceived by Al Hubbard to help the VVAW network with active-duty GIs and veterans, to forge links between the VVAW and the civil rights movement, and to promote an investigation into alleged war crimes by US troops in Vietnam—an investigation which came to be called the Winter Solder Investigation (WSI).110 What became WSI was originally the project of a group allied with the VVAW, the Citizens’ Commission of Inquiry into War Crimes in Indochina (CCI). The CCI in turn had initiated its inquiry in November 1969 in response to a call from the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation, founded in 1963 by British antiwar leader Bertrand Russell. Russell and his wife Dora had worked with various antiwar groups since World War I, many of which were linked to the Communist movement in Britain and America. During the Cold War Russell came to sympathize with the Soviet Union, Cuba, and North Vietnam. In 1963 he began opposing the US in the Vietnam War in direct alliance with the North Vietnamese, using his Foundation to attempt to obtain passports for North Vietnamese and broadcasting propaganda over North Vietnamese radio. In 1966 he called for an International War Crimes Tribunal which would apply the principles of the Nuremberg Trials to investigations of alleged war crimes by US troops in Vietnam. The International War Crimes Tribunal began meeting in Sweden and Denmark in 1967 and became independent of Russell’s Foundation.111 It was supported by leading Marxist intellectuals from Europe and America, notably Jean-Paul Sartre, a leading French philosopher who was a periodic member of the French Communist Party and had worked with the Soviet-linked World Peace Council;112 and Noam Chomsky, an American linguist who travelled in 1971 to North Vietnam, where among other things he “negotiated” POW releases as a propaganda ploy to show the “benefits” of cooperating with the North Vietnamese.113 Also participating in the Tribunal were Stokely Carmichael of SNCC and the Black Panthers;114; Carl Oglseby, president of Students for a Democratic Society;115 Peter Weiss, prominent member of the Communist front group the National Lawyers Guild, chairman of the board of the KGB-linked Institute for Policy Studies, and husband of Cora Rubin Weiss (daughter of Communist Party financier Samuel Rubin), who collaborated with the North Vietnamese to extort POW families through the group Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam (COLIFAM);116 and Wilfred Burchett, a KGB agent working for the pro-Vietnamese propaganda outlet Dispatch News Service.117 Dispatch News Service provided Seymour

Hersh’s story on American war crimes at My Lai to The New York Times in November 1969,118 which stimulated Russell’s War Crimes Tribunal to launch an American branch of its investigation.119 The same month Hersh’s story broke, Russell’s secretary Ralph Schoenman placed an ad to promote the American investigation. He received a response from Tod Ensign of the New Mobe and Black Panthers and his associate Jeremy Rifkin, who had been working with Larry Rottmann of VVAW. Ensign and Rifkin founded the CCI and began forming a coalition with other antiwar leaders and groups, including Chomsky, who had participated in the International War Crimes Tribunal; Richard Fernandez of the Communist-infiltrated group Clergy and Laity Concerned and the Vietnam Moratorium Committee, who travelled to North Vietnam with Chomsky in 1971; Phil Spiro of the Communist Party; participants in an unofficial Congressional war crimes panel which included testimony from psychiatrist Robert Jay Lifton, a coauthor of Richard Falk, cofounder of the Institute for Policy Studies, who had previously travelled to North Vietnam with Cora Weiss and was then assisting government whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg in preparing the Pentagon Papers for publication; and antiwar Senator Charles Goodell.120 Rifkin and Ensign had their office across the street from VVAW headquarters, and in January 1970 they invited the VVAW to join the CCI’s coalition. At first the VVAW could only afford to share their mailing list with the CCI, but in August 1970 the VVAW decided to launch its own supplementary investigation after picking up funding from Jane Fonda.121 Fonda had become opposed to the Vietnam War while living in France from 1965 to 1969. After returning to the United States in 1969, she called Sam Brown of the Vietnam Moratorium Committee and offered her help to the antiwar movement. She spent much of 1969-1970 touring the country promoting the antiwar movement and various associated left-wing causes, particularly American Indian militant groups and the Black Panthers. She arranged bail money for a Panther arrested with sawed-off shotguns and invited Panther leader Huey Newton to use her penthouse to hold a press conference, prompting the FBI to place her under surveillance. The House Internal Security Committee later reported that from January 8-10, 1971, Fonda participated in a National Coalition Conference which included representatives of the Communist Party and the Black Panthers.122 Fonda came into contact with the VVAW through Mark Lane, a left-wing attorney she met while she was involved with the Black Panthers. Lane had been a 1960 New York State Legislature candidate for the Democratic Reform Movement, a left-wing faction of the Democratic Party led by former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and former New York Governor Herbert Lehman. Through his work with the Democratic Reform Movement, Lane became a manager for the New York campaign of 1960 Presidential candidate John Kennedy. Following Kennedy’s assassination in 1963, Lane became a lawyer for Lee Harvey Oswald’s mother, formed a Citizens’ Committee of Inquiry to investigate the assassination, and wrote articles and books defending Oswald. Lane’s work was published with support from Bertrand Russell, and it attracted favorable attention from the KGB, which began covertly arranging funding for Lane’s investigation and placing agents in his orbit to encourage his research (whether Lane was aware of this is not confirmed in KGB files, though the KGB suspected he had guessed the source of the funding). KGB agent Genrikh Borovik began maintaining regular contact with Lane, and

the KGB arranged funding for Lane to visit a Communist front meeting in Budapest in 1964 to promote his views on the assassination. Lane would serve as a legal advisor to VVAW members.123 In early 1970 Lane met Fonda.124 Meanwhile, Lane was assisting Rifkin and Ensign’s CCI in finding war crimes witnesses.125 Lane convinced Fonda to raise funds for the VVAW to launch its own Winter Soldier Investigation to supplement CCI’s investigation, and Hubbard persuaded Ensign to join forces with Fonda. Fonda was appointed the VVAW’s Honorary National Coordinator.126 The VVAW planned to promote the WSI by announcing it at at the Operation RAW rally to be held in Valley Forge over Labor Day weekend in September 1970. The rally was scheduled to coincide with the nearby Revolutionary People’s Constitutional Convention (RPCC),127 which brought the Black Panthers together with a coalition of other ethnic militant groups, Students for a Democratic Society, the Youth International Party, feminist groups, and gay rights groups.128 Al Hubbard arranged for the VVAW’s rally to be joined by the Family of Man, a coalition of black civil rights groups marching from Washington to New York via Philadelphia, the site of the RPCC.129 Also attending the RPCC and originally scheduled to join the Operation RAW rally were members of the Youth International Party (YIP, or Yippies).130 The Yippies had been founded in 1967 by Abbie Hoffman, a former SNCC organizer; and Jerry Rubin, a cofounder of the Vietnam Day Committee (VDC), a Communist-allied group that had organized some of the earliest protests against the Vietnam War. The Yippies tried to generate publicity for the antiwar cause by staging flamboyant confrontations, which tended to provoke violence. Hoffman and Rubin were convicted in February 1970 of inciting a riot at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in 1968. After their conviction, Hoffman published a how-to book for anarchists which included directions for bombmaking.131 While Hoffman and Rubin were serving their sentence, the Yippies agreed to participate in Operation RAW by helping VVAW marchers stage mock skirmishes where the veterans would play US troops and the Yippies would play Viet Cong. However upon reconsideration the VVAW leaders became worried that this might lead to violent confrontations with observers and police, so they cancelled the skirmishes and instead asked the Yippies to play Viet Cong prisoners. The Yippies decided that this would be boring and declined to participate.132 But Yippie cofounder Dick Gregory, who was now associated with Jane Fonda’s antiwar “F.T.A.” troupe, still supported the Winter Soldier Investigation,133 and Yippie tactics inspired later VVAW publicity stunts like Dewey Canyon III.134 TheYippies would join the VVAW at Dewey Canyon III and in rioting at the 1972 Republican National Convention.135 The Operation RAW rally was sponsored by Fonda, Lane, their associate Donald Sutherland, and several antiwar politicians,136 notably Michigan Congressman John Conyers, Jr., a cofounder of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC), who became a key Congressional link to the Institute for Policy Studies and the World Peace Council;137 and antiwar Senator George McGovern, who was first elected with funding from the IPS-linked Council for a Livable World (CLW), would run as the Democratic Party’s Presidential candidate in 1972, and was described in an 18-page FBI memorandum as having pro-Communist sympathies and being involved in various subversive activities.138 Speakers included Hubbard, who expounded Marxist theories of “capitalist imperialism”;

Lane and Fonda, who advocated violently overthrowing the capitalist system; Sutherland, who read an antiwar drama written by Dalton Trumbo, a Communist screenwriter who had helped write the scripts for Fonda and Sutherland’s F.T.A. and Lane’s Executive Action;139 Congressman Allard Lowenstein, who criticized Nixon’s Vietnamization strategy;140 civil rights and Mobe leader James Bevel, who called for a march to the UN to deliver a petition charging the US with genocide in Vietnam;141 and Kerry, who defended the VVAW’s patriotism and attacked Nixon’s. The same month as Operation RAW, the CCI sent one of its coordinators, Mike Uhl, to Sweden to attend the Stockholm Peace Committee, a similar war crimes investigation staged by a Communist-influenced coalition. Mark Lane also attended, and during the proceedings he behaved like a prosecutor, scolding the veterans for the war crimes they confessed to, and also criticizing Uhl because his testimony was not sensational enough. Afterwards, Lane attacked Uhl at a joint CCI/VVAW meeting, and the CCI members in turn complained to Al Hubbard that they could not work with Lane any longer. Hubbard agreed that Lane was intolerable, but Jane Fonda would not allow Lane to be removed, and Hubbard, fearful of losing her financial support, consented to let Lane stay. Lane, meanwhile, was preparing to publish a book on war crimes that December. But even before publication, critics began complaining that Lane emphasized sensational allegations involving physical and sexual mutilation, used fictitious names for his interviewees, and did not cross-reference the allegations he recorded against military records. Lane’s reputation grew so bad even among his antiwar colleagues that Robert Jay Lifton called Tod Ensign to warn him that the CCI/WSI investigation’s credibility would be compromised if Lane was allowed to participate. Communist Party leaders who visited Moscow in 1971 would complain that Lane was motivated by his own self-aggrandizement. Because of the dispute over Lane, CCI and WSI split into two separate investigations, with the CCI investigation becoming known as the National Veterans’ Inquiry. Lane and Fonda remained with WSI.142 The CCI and WSI had originally planned to hold their joint investigation in Washington, DC, but because Fonda wanted to hold the investigation somewhere she deemed more representative of working-class America, the WSI investigation ended up being moved to Detroit. The hearings were held at Howard Johnson’s Motor Lodge from January 31 through February 2, 1971 and were followed up by a meeting between some of the WSI participants—including Fonda—and a group of North Vietnamese students at a United Auto Workers (UAW) union hall in nearby Windsor, Canada.143 Housing for organizers and witnesses was arranged by a group of antiwar clergy which included Daniel Berrigan.144 Funding came from Michigan political figures and organizations, including Emil Mazey of UAW145 and Michigan Secretary of State Richard Austin;146 from Business Executives Move for Vietnam Peace (BEM, later renamed Business Executives Move for New National Priorities), a group of antiwar businessmen founded by Henry Niles of Baltimore Life Insurance Company; 147 from benefit concerts by rock singers David Crosby, Graham Nash, 148 and Phil Ochs; 149 and from Fonda and Lane. Political support came from SDS cofounder and Mobe leader Tom Hayden, who had travelled abroad regularly to meet with North Vietnamese representatives and had been convicted of inciting a riot at the 1968 Demoratic National Convention;150 Ralph Abernathy of the Communist-infiltrated Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC);151 Yippie cofounder Dick Gregory;152 and over a dozen members of Congress, including Operation RAW sponsors Conyers and McGovern, as well as Congressional

Black Caucus cofounder Ronald Dellums, who endorsed the Black Panthers and shortly after his election had addressed a meeting of the Soviet front World Peace Council in November 1970.153 Dellums offered the VVAW office space in Washington so they could follow up the WSI with an official Congressional investigation. A number of other members of Congress joined in promoting this idea, including McGovern; Conyers; Congressional Black Caucus cofounder Charles Rangel;154 Students for a Democratic Society cofounder Michael Harrington, who would later found Democratic Socialists of America (DSA);155 Women Strike for Peace cofounder Bella Abzug;156 Robert Drinan;157 and Senator Mark Hatfield, who belonged to an IPS-linked antiwar lobby in Congress called Members of Congress for Peace Through Law (MCPL, later renamed the Arms Control and Foreign Policy Caucus, ACFPC).158 Hatfield read portions of the WSI testimony into the Congressional Record. Publicity for the hearings came from the Communist propaganda station Pacifica Radio;159 the underground press; a few major Midwestern papers; The New York Times, which had previously picked up Seymour Hersh’s My Lai story from the IPS-linked propaganda outlet Dispatch News and would soon help Daniel Ellsberg and IPS publicize The Pentagon Papers;160 CBS, then airing the antiwar broadcasts of Walter Cronkite;161 Beacon Press, who signed a contract to publish excerpts of the WSI testimony;162 Nash, who wrote a song called “Oh! Camil (the Winter Soldier)” inspired by the testimony of VVAW member Scott Camil; the Winterfilm Collective, a group of antiwar activists who shot a film of the WSI which was screened in the office of Francis Ford Coppola, an admirer of Fidel Castro;163 and Hugh Hefner—a funder of the Vietnam Moratorium Committee and a former employer of Dick Gregory—who donated an ad for the VVAW in the February issue of Playboy to coincide with the WSI hearings.164 During the hearings IPS associate Robert Jay Lifton spoke as the keynote speaker and served on one of the panels.165 Serving on other panels were Lifton’s coauthor Richard Falk of the Institute for Policy Studies, who had travelled to North Vietnam in 1969;166 Falk’s IPS associate Peter Weiss, a member of several Communist front groups who had participated in the Bertrand Russell Foundation’s International War Crimes Tribunal and had travelled to North Vietnam in November 1970, and whose wife Cora had collaborated with the North Vietnamese to exploit POW families through the group Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam (COLIFAM);167 Howard Zinn, a former SNCC organizer who had travelled to North Vietnam with Daniel Berrigan in 1968 to “negotiate” POW releases;168 and Sidney Peck, a Marxist sociologist who had travelled to North Vietnam and co-led a New Mobe spinoff called the National Coalition Against War, Racism and Repression (NCAWRR, soon to be renamed the People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice, PCPJ), a CP-linked coalition which had recently negotiated a “People’s Peace Treaty” with North Vietnamese students.169 One participant who came to the hearings with Camil and Kerry, Steve Pitkin, would later allege that his testimony had been coached and coerced by Kerry and others.170 During the hearings some of the veterans talked about shooting President Nixon, and had to be discouraged from engaging in this kind of talk by WSI attorney Ken Cloke.171 The testimony included allegations of a secret February 1969 US mission in Laos, reportedly code-named Dewey Canyon I. This revelation allegedly forced the Pentagon to change the code-name of an upcoming Laos operation which was to be called Dewey Canyon II. It also inspired the name of the VVAW’s next major operation, Dewey Canyon III.172

Dewey Canyon III Planning for Dewey Canyon III began during the WSI when the VVAW leaders met to address how to generate more publicity than the event seemed to be getting. Kerry claims that it was he who suggested the idea of a march on Washington. Jan Barry has a similar recollection, but other VVAW members contradict this, recalling that a spring demonstration in Washington was already being planned, it was only the details that had not been determined. In fact the April 18-23, 1971 date the VVAW selected for the event was chosen to coincide with major demonstrations the North Vietnamese government was coordinating with the two major factions of the antiwar movement that had emerged from the New Mobe.173 During 1970 the New Mobe had divided into factions over the issue of whether to emphasize massive civil disobedience or mass organized demonstrations. After a May 9, 1970 New Mobe demonstration in response to Nixon’s invasion of Cambodia and the Kent State shooting, the Socialist Workers Party decided to break away from New Mobe elements advocating civil disobedience and form its own organization oriented towards mass organized demonstrations. Following the SWP’s direction, in June 1970 the Detroit and Cleveland branches of the New Mobe split off to form a new national organization, the National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC), coordinated by Jerry Gordon, an Ohio union leader linked to the SWP, and James Lafferty, a Detroit lawyer prominent in the National Lawyers Guild.174 Meanwhile, in September 1970 the faction of the New Mobe advocating civil disobedience, led by Sidney Peck, formed the National Coalition Against War, Racism and Repression (NCAWRR).175 These two factions soon came together in a tenuous alliance negotiated by the North Vietnamese. After Nixon’s April 1970 invasion of Cambodia, NCAWRR’s Rennie Davis— who had previously been convicted of inciting a riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago176—began planning for massive civil disobedience to shut down Washington, DC in May 1971 if the war had not ended by then. Meanwhile the NPAC held a rally on October 31, 1970, but the turnout was so poor that afterwords NPAC leaders invited NCAWRR to participate in a December meeting for planning future events. At the meeting the NPAC insisted on holding its rally on April 24, 1971 despite NCAWRR’s request to delay settling on a date until after a NCAWRR meeting scheduled for early January. NCAWRR leaders felt that the NPAC was deliberately trying to control the antiwar movement by scheduling their event in April in order to reduce the number of participants who would be able to attend the May event Davis was planning. During NCAWRR’s January meeting there was heated debate over the issue, and the participants were only able to agree on a very general program to implement a symbolic “People’s Peace Treaty” which had previously been negotiated by Davis, Tom Hayden, and others with Vietnamese students; but the date conflict remained divisive. The next weekend NCAWRR and NPAC met and failed to reach an agreement on a date. Shortly afterwords NCAWRR dissolved and became the People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice (PCPJ),177 a coalition that included the Communist Party178 and various Communist front groups such as the Fellowship of Reconciliation,179 the War Resisters League,180 and the American Friends Service Committee.181 Meanwhile in February South Vietnam invaded Laos with US support, prompting North Vietnamese ambassador Xuan Thuy to plead for unity between the factions of the US antiwar movement in order to pressure the Nixon administration into a cease-fire agreement. Subsequently the

New Mobe’s Sidney Lens helped mediate an agreement that the PCPJ would support the NPAC’s April 24 event and not organize any civil disobedience or violence on the week of April 24, in exchange for the NPAC not interfering with any disobedience or violence during the PCPJ’s May event, which came to be called Mayday.182 While NCAWRR/PCPJ leader Sidney Peck had been involved in negotiating a date with the NPAC that January, he also participated in the VVAW’s Winter Soldier Investigation,183 which concluded with the aforementioned meeting to plan Dewey Canyon III.184 At this time the VVAW and PCPJ had offices across the street from each other in New York at 155 and 156 Fifth Avenue respectively.185 After the NPAC and PCPJ had settled on a date for their Washington demonstration, the PCPJ and VVAW both set up office space on the 9th floor of 1029 Vermont Avenue NW in Washington, DC, the same building the VVAW affiliate LINK had previously shared with the New Mobe and VMC in 1969. The 8th floor of the same building was rented by the NPAC. The 10th floor was rented by a violent faction of the PCPJ led by Rennie Davis, the May Day Collective (which came to be known as the May Day Tribe).186 Joining the activities would be other antiwar veterans groups, including a group of active-duty GIs supported by the CCI and Mark Lane, the Concerned Officers Movement (COM), who had been working out of the office of Congressman Ron Dellums and were scheduled to hold ad hoc war crimes hearings before members of Congress at the same time the VVAW would be demonstrating.187 Various other antiwar groups and leaders would also participate, notably Ruth Gage Colby of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), an old Communist front group; Ralph Abernathy of the Communist-infiltrated Southern Christian Leadership Conference; and Jerry Rubin of the Yippies, whose flamboyant theatrics had inspired those the VVAW would employ at Dewey Canyon III.188 Dewey Canyon III was scheduled to run from Sunday, April 18, 1971 through Friday, April 23. During this time the VVAW planned to join the PCPJ in forming a “People’s Lobby”, which would involve staging sit-in demonstrations outside major government buildings and lobbying Congress to convene a special joint session to hear war crimes testimony. If as expected Congress failed to grant a session by Friday, the VVAW planned to have sympathetic members of Congress hold a symbolic session, during which veterans would return their medals. This would be followed up on Saturday, April 24 by the NPAC’s “March Against War” down Pennsylvania Avenue, which would kick off a week of events culminating in the PCPJ’s Mayday civil disobedience on Monday, May 3. Hundreds of VVAW participants in Dewey Canyon III would end up remaining for the Mayday demonstrations, including Al Hubbard.189 To raise money for Dewey Canyon III, John Kerry began a speaking tour.190 A week before the event, Kerry was informed that 5,000 of the participants still needed money for bus tickets, so he had Adam Walinsky arrange for a fundraiser to be held by a group of antiwar New York businessmen hosted by Seagram’s chief executive Edgar Bronfman,191 who had organized crime connections.192 Bronfman’s associates raised about $50,000 in one hour, Walinsky later recalled.193 At the time an FBI informant reported that “the VVAW had received fifty thousand dollars from United States Senators McGovern and Hatfield, who. . .obtained the money from an unknown New

York source” to be ascertained. Later FBI documents identified Bronfman as a source of VVAW funding.194 Senators McGovern and Hatfield belonged to an IPS-linked lobby called Members of Congress for Peace Through Law (MCPL) which supported the antiwar protestors during Dewey Canyon III and the subsequent NPAC and PCPJ demonstrations. During the April 24 March Against the War, the VVAW was addressed by MCPL Senators McGovern, Ted Kennedy, Walter Mondale, and Philip Hart, along with two MCPL Congressmen. Meanwhile eight MCPL Congressmen addressed a PCPJ group.195 Political support also came from other antiwar Congressmen and Senators.196 Most notably, Senator Hart and Senator Claiborne Pell, a critic of US policy towards Cuba as well as Vietnam,197 hosted a VVAW fundraiser which was attended by Senator J. William Fulbright. Fulbright, who sat with Pell on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and shared Pell’s views on Cuba and Vietnam, had led Senate opposition to the Vietnam War since 1966,198 and during the fundraiser he invited Kerry to speak to his committee about war crimes. Other members of Fulbright’s committee who listened to Kerry sympathetically during his testimony were Stuart Symington, who had been Dean Acheson’s favored choice for Democratic Presidential candidate in 1960,199 and Frank Church, who would soon lead a Congressional attack on the US intelligence community which was supported by the VVAW, the National Lawyers Guild, the Institute for Policy Studies, and Cuban and Soviet agents.200 Dewey Canyon III would receive considerably more national publicity than the Winter Soldier Investigation. VVAW publicists were able to convince Time and Newsweek to run stories on the VVAW to make up for the lack of coverage of the WSI. In March Congressman Michael Harrington, who had supported the WSI, lent the VVAW his office for a press conference, resulting in coverage from national papers including The Washington Post and The New York Times, as well as TV coverage from CBS’ 60 Minutes. On the Sunday which started Dewey Canyon III, NBC’s Meet the Press hosted Kerry and Hubbard. During the week of the event, CBS’ antiwar reporter Walter Cronkite ran two sympathetic pieces on the VVAW. Afterwords, Life ran a story quoting extensively from VVAW war crimes testimony, and the Macmillian Publishing division Collier Books published John Kerry’s book memorializing the event, The New Soldier.201 Kerry’s book recorded that the protestors were addressed by I.F. Stone,202 a pro-Soviet journalist who a Soviet defector recently alleged had worked for the KGB periodically from 1944 to 1968.203 The Communist newspaper Daily World covered Dewey Canyon III closely.204 Dewey Canyon III was coordinated with the Communist movement and the North Vietnamese government from beginning to end. Prior to the conception of Dewey Canyon III, Rennie Davis and others in Sidney Peck’s NCAWRR/PCPJ coalition had negotiated a “People’s Peace Treaty” with North Vietnamese students, which was to be ratified the week of April 24, 1971.205 Peck participated in the Winter Soldier Investigation,206 which included planning for Dewey Canyon III207 and was followed up by a meeting between WSI participants—including Jane Fonda—and North Vietnamese students in Canada.208 The VVAW held its event on a date which had been chosen by the NPAC and agreed to by the PCPJ at the request of the North Vietnamese ambassador.209 During the preparations for the event, the VVAW sent representative Mike Hunter to join Jane Fonda and Mark Lane on a trip to meet North Vietnamese

representatives in Paris in March.210 Funding for the event was transmitted to the VVAW through Senators McGovern and Hatfield of the IPS-linked MCPL lobby, and political support for the event was provided by MCPL Congressmen and Senators.211 Legal support for the protestors was provided by Ramsey Clark212, who had previously assisted the protestors who disrupted the 1968 Democratic National Convention213 and was now representing several other Communist front groups.214 (Clark and another VVAW lawyer, Peter Weiss,215 would soon join the National Lawyers Guild, the legal bulwark of the Communist Party,216 in defending the Communist terrorist group the Baader-Meinhof Gang.217) The Mayday demonstrations which followed Dewey Canyon III culminated in an attempt to shut down the traffic in Washington, DC and bring the federal government to a halt in order to pressure the Nixon administration into accepting a cease-fire based on the terms of the People’s Peace Treaty. The attempt failed due to poor logistical planning on the protestors’ part, but in order to control the demonstrators and preserve the government’s functioning law enforcement agencies were forced to resort to imposing what was called a state of “qualified marital law”, in which 14,000 police and National Guardsmen arrested 13,500 of the demonstrators.218 During the demonstrations, North Vietnamese foreign minister Nguyen Thi Binh issued a statement from Paris praising the demonstrators,219 and some of the demonstrators displayed the North Vietnamese flag.220 A Congressional investigation of the demonstrations found that they were “under substantial Communist influence”.221 Meanwhile, FBI reports on Dewey Canyon III noted that, “During VVAW activities, Al Hubbard. . .and others were overshadowed by a more popular and eloquent figure, John Kerry.”222 From Dewey Canyon III to the Kansas City meeting During Dewey Canyon III, a few days after Kerry and Hubbard had appeared together on Meet the Press, the show’s host Lawrence Spivak called Kerry to complain that he had learned Hubbard was lying about his rank and possibly about having served in Vietnam, which called into question Kerry’s own credibility. After this Kerry’s relationship with Hubbard grew strained, leading to a confrontation at a VVAW meeting in November 1971 in Kansas City.223 The deterioration of Kerry’s relationship with Hubbard paralleled broader tensions between growing factions within the VVAW. By June 1971 VVAW founder Jan Barry was no longer associated with the VVAW (though he would later return in 1972), and the VVAW was no longer run by its national office in New York but by a six-member National Executive Committee which included Kerry; Hubbard; Hubbard’s supporters Mike Oliver and Craig Scott Moore (aka Scott Moore), of the VVAW’s New York chapter; Larry Rottmann, of New Mexico; and George “Skip” Roberts, of Connecticut.224 Among the committee’s members and between the committee and the VVAW’s regional coordinators there were several different political viewpoints in varying degrees of conflict. Kerry felt the VVAW could be most politically effective by initially focusing on the single issue of ending the war and waiting until the war was over to work towards a broader social agenda. He also advocated working within the system rather than engaging in what he called “confrontational poltics”. In speeches at 1971 VVAW events he stressed

that the VVAW was against violence, and he encouraged listeners to work to end the war by voting for antiwar politicians. This led many VVAW members to regard him as an opportunist seeking to use the VVAW to advance his own career as an antiwar politician. Roberts held a position similar to Kerry’s, wanting to use the VVAW as a vehicle for recruiting campus veterans to organize mass demonstrations to end the war. Hubbard in contrast sought to use the VVAW to advance a broad Marxist social agenda encompassing issues such as civil rights and anti-imperialism as well as ending the war. Kerry was not opposed to Hubbard’s goals on these issues, but he did not see the VVAW as a means towards achieving these goals in the immediate present, preferring instead to wait until the war was over to work towards these goals through the political system. Hubbard also differed from Kerry on tactics, tending to use more confrontational, Yippie-style tactics than Kerry preferred, and envisioning the transformation of the VVAW’s hardcore membership into a vanguard of “weather vets” modelled on the Weathermen. Aligned with Hubbard but taking his position one step further were a group of VVAW regional coordinators calling themselves the “Anti-Imperialists’ Coalition”, led by Barry Romo and Sam Schorr of California, who were linked to Communist groups and the Weathermen faction of Students for a Democratic Society. Romo and Schorr’s coalition also included Gary Steiger of the Ohio VVAW, Scott Camil of the Florida and Southeastern VVAW, and the Idaho VVAW. The Anti-Imperialists’ Coalition advocated using the VVAW to advance a multi-issue social agenda, and was willing to employ extreme confrontational tactics, including assassination and violent demonstrations.225 The internal tensions in the VVAW mirrored external tensions between antiwar groups in contact with the VVAW, particularly between the neo-Trotskyite National Peace Action Coalition and the neo-Stalinist People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice. During Dewey Canyon III the tenuous alliance between the NPAC and the PCPJ began to break down into renewed rivalry, which intensified over the course of 1971. The rivalry revolved around the same issues that divided Kerry and Hubbard, with the NPAC like Kerry insisting on a political agenda limited to ending the war and tactics limited to nonviolent mass demonstrations, while the PCPJ like Hubbard advocated a broad social agenda and used civil disobedience tactics.226 Kerry, networking through Adam Walinsky and Jerome Grossman’s political contacts in Massachusetts and Washington DC, focused on building his VVAW faction’s relationship with the antiwar wings of the Democratic and Republican parties. Democratic Massachusetts Congressman Robert Drinan, whose campaigns were managed by Grossman, spoke at a May 1971 Massachusetts VVAW event Kerry co-organized, Operation POW, and worked to get Congress to pass an amendment that would lower age requirements enough to allow Kerry to run for Senator in 1972.227 Democratic Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy donated to the VVAW and spoke at Massachusetts VVAW events.228 1968 Democratic Presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy, for whom Grossman had organized, spoke at VVAW events.229 1972 Democratic Presidential candidate George McGovern was also linked to the VVAW. McGovern had supported the VVAW since 1970, endorsing Operation RAW and the Winter Soldier Investigation and

speaking to the VVAW during Dewey Canyon III. Grossman organized for McGovern, and Grossman’s associate Emily Frankovich, who was McGovern’s key Massachusetts contact in 1971, demonstrated with the VVAW during Operation POW in May 1971. In June 1971 the VVAW organized a hunger strike to lobby in support of the McGovernHatfield Amendment, an amendment consponsored by McGovern which aimed to cut off Congressional funding for the Vietnam War. McGovern joined Kerry in speaking to a Colorado student union meeting in August 1971.230 Also joining Kerry and McGovern at the August 1971 meeting was Senator Paul McCloskey, a liberal Republican who had proposed the idea of Richard Nixon’s impeachment after the South Vietnamese invasion of Laos that February. McCloskey had previously spoken to the VVAW at Dewey Canyon III, and in January 1972 Kerry delivered a speech favoring him as the best Republican to challenge Nixon in the New Hampshire primaries.231 Meanwhile, Skip Roberts spent the summer after Dewey Canyon III touring with the F.T.A. troupe of Jane Fonda.232 At the same time, Al Hubbard maintained contact with the PCPJ and other groups. After Dewey Canyon III the Washington DC branch of the VVAW and the PCPJ continued to share office space, and the PCPJ and VVAW continued to co-organize demonstrations into at least 1972.233 PCPJ literature from this period listed Hubbard on the PCPJ Coordinating Committee, where he sat alongside Jarvis Tyner, the Communist Party’s 1972 Vice-Presidential candidate, and Gil Green, a high-ranking member of the New York CP.234 The PCPJ and War Resisters League cosponsored an August 1971 trip to Hanoi by Joe Urgo, whom Hubbard was training to assist his leadership of the VVAW.235 Hubbard and Urgo joined the Anti-Imperialists’ Coalition in pushing for the VVAW to become an armed revolutionary organization.236 As part of this trend towards militancy, Hubbard, Urgo, New York VVAW coordinator Ed Damato, members of the Anti-Imperialists’ Coalition, and certain VVAW regional chapters networked with various Communist and militant groups, some of which were trying to infiltrate the VVAW. In “Operation Heart of America”, a joint operation with the Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade Committee, the War Resisters League, and other Communist front groups in New York, Damato used the pretext of donating clothes and medical supplies to smuggle guns collected from VVAW regional chapters to the United Front,237 a black militant group in Cairo, Illinois linked to a St. Louis gang called the Black Liberators.238 Damato, Urgo, Scott Camil of the Southeastern VVAW, Brian Adams of the Colorado VVAW, and members of other VVAW regional chapters joined forces with the Revolutionary Union (RU), a Maoist offshoot of Students for a Democratic Society which sought a united front with other left-wing groups and had been infiltrating VVAW chapters around the country.239 Regional VVAW chapters also networked with or were infiltrated by the Communist Party;240 the Socialist Workers Party and its National Peace Action Coalition front;241 and the New Party led by Bob Kunst, a civil rights and gay rights activist (currently president of Hillarynow.com);242 among others. The VVAW’s interaction with external groups extended abroad to foreign Communist groups and state sponsors. From late June through early July 1971, VVAW members joined members of the Citizens’ Commission of Inquiry into War Crimes in Indochina, Women Strike for Peace, and other antiwar groups as part of a US delegation to a

conference of the International War Crimes Tribunal in Oslo, Norway. During the trip the delegation visited among other places Moscow, where they met with representatives of the Soviet Peace Committee and the North Vietnamese embassy; Helsinki, headquarters of the Soviet front group the World Peace Council; and Paris, where they met with a North Vietnamese delegation. Upon returning to the US, the delegation was met by William Kunstler, a lawyer who specialized in defending Communist and terrorist clients (including Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman, convicted of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing).243 A little over a month later, in late August 1971, Kerry told VVAW members at a Colorado meeting that he had just returned from a trip to Paris to visit with the North Vietamese delegation.244 In November Al Hubbard also visited the North Vietnamese delegation in Paris, and at some point during this period Hubbard travelled to Moscow to receive an award, which was covered in the Communist newspaper Daily World, prompting Kerry to rebuke him for indiscretion.245 Meanwhile Hubbard’s protégé Joe Urgo travelled to Hanoi in August 1971.246 Several VVAW chapters also supported the Venceremos Brigade, a group which sent members to Cuba for intelligence training by Cuban and North Vietnamese advisors.247 As VVAW factions grew closer to Communist and militant groups after Dewey Canyon III, VVAW chapters became increasingly involved in subversive and criminal activity, and the FBI began to investigate the VVAW more actively.248 The VVAW’s Philadelphia chapter, co-coordinated by Kerry’s associate Joe Bangert, came under FBI suspicion in June 1971 when a group it shared its office with, the Philadelphia Resistance (PR), distributed classified documents stolen from the FBI’s Media, Pennsylvania office that February.249 Later that year Daniel Ellsberg, who had recently leaked classified military documents with the help of VVAW associate Richard Falk, began speaking at VVAW events.250 The VVAW’s New York headquarters and Southeastern region raised money through drug-dealing,251 and the New York VVAW coordinated regional chapters’ smuggling of guns to a black militant group in Cairo, Illinois.252 VVAW chapters in Los Angeles and Cincinnati were investigated in connection with bomb threats reported at the time of the Dewey Canyon III and Mayday demonstrations.253 In September 1971 a Harrisburg, Pennsylvania VVAW rally was addressed by Neil McLaughlin, who was then out on bail and being defended by VVAW attorney Ramsey Clark in relation to charges of conspiring with Daniel and Philip Berrigan and others to kidnap Henry Kissinger and blow up heating systems in federal buildings in Washington.254 Two months later at the VVAW’s November Kansas City meeting, VVAW leaders discussed plans to kidnap or assassinate pro-war politicians, along with plans to disrupt next year’s Democratic and Republican National Conventions. One of the proposed assassination targets, Senator John Stennis, was in fact shot during an apparent robbery approximately a year later.255 During the Kansas City meeting, Kerry and Hubbard’s conflicts over personal issues and tactical differences came to a head. Roberts had devised a plan to remove Hubbard from the National Executive Committee by calling for all committee members to resign and be replaced by new members. Kerry joined Roberts in trying to get Hubbard removed from the committee. Their plan failed, but they ended up resigning anyway. According to the FBI documents, Kerry “resigned from the National Executive Committee of VVAW for ‘personal reasons’ but added he would still be active in VVAW and available to speak for the organization” and would be holding his office “until new members are elected in January 1972”.256

On the second day of the meeting Hubbard left, but Kerry remained, and was present during subsequent sessions where Scott Camil tried to persuade VVAW leadership to support a plan to assassinate pro-war politicians. Confusion over whether or not Kerry was present during these discussions has been perpetuated by Kerry’s campaign and writers friendly to Kerry, particularly Gerald Nicosia and Douglas Brinkley, but declassified FBI documents have established that, as Nicosia was eventually forced to admit, “A full review of the FBI files shows that Kerry not only was in Kansas City, but he also attended the most controversial and explosive session the group ever held. . . At the time of the Washington march, Camil proposed ‘taking out’ the prominent senators and congressmen who consistently voted in favor of the war. His assassination plan had little support, and he had put it aside as impractical. But now in Kansas City, in an effort to ‘push people's buttons’. . .Camil says he again brought up his assassination plan. . . The meeting descended into chaos, according to several people who were there. . .Someone found bugs planted by the FBI. The group decided to move to a more secure location. . .The meeting reconvened at St. Augustine's Catholic Church, 7801 Paseo Blvd., in Kansas City, and it was again closed--meaning only national officers and regional and state coordinators. Several things about it are still unclear, especially the chronology, but there is no doubt. . .if the files and witnesses are to believed, that Kerry was present for all of it.”257 This has raised the question, did Kerry support or oppose Camil’s assassination proposal? The answer is, we don’t know for sure. The declassified FBI files on the Kansas City meeting are heavily censored and do not include complete information which would enable a definitive answer. However based on the information available, the best guess is that it’s most likely Kerry did not support the proposal. VVAW members are consistent in recalling that Kerry typically opposed Hubbard and the AntiImperialists’ Coalition’s confrontational tactics, and the FBI files are consistent with this, recording for instance that just prior to arriving in Kansas City Kerry had given a speech in Oklahoma emphasizing that the VVAW did not condone violence.258 However this is not the whole story. Even if Kerry did not support Camil’s assassination proposal, there is no evidence that he reported it to law enforcement authorities. Furthermore, in addition to his prior support of the VMC and VVAW while he was still in the Naval Reserve, there is evidence that he continued to associate with the VVAW after the Kansas City meeting, when it moved into an overtly violent phase. After Kansas City After the Kansas City meeting, Kerry turned his focus towards the 1972 elections. Congressman Drinan had failed to pass the “Kerry Amendment” that would have lowered age requirements enough to allow the 28-year-old Kerry to run for Senator in 1972, so instead Kerry ran for Congress again, moving to another Congressional district in order to avoid having to compete with Drinan this time.259 Kerry also supported other antiwar Presidential candidates. During a January 1972 speech at Dartmouth College he expressed favor for antiwar Democrat Ed Muskie and antiwar Republican Paul McCloskey in the New Hampshire primaries, and added that if George McGovern won the Democratic nomination he would support McGovern over McCloskey.260

During his 1972 campaign Kerry continued to associate with the VVAW. A Portsmouth paper covering Kerry’s January 1972 Dartmouth speech described him as “head of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, while a New York Times article on the event described him as “spokesman for Vietnam Veterans Against the War. The FBI files on the VVAW include a clipping of an April 4, 1972 Boston Globe article announcing Kerry’s Congressional run which states, “Kerry has led the Vietnam Veterans Against the War since returning from Vietnam two years ago.” Kerry was again described as “a leader of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War” in an Illinois newspaper article covering a New York demonstration he spoke at on April 22, 1972 which was organized by the NPAC and PCPJ and coordinated with the VVAW. Papers continued to describe Kerry as a VVAW representative throughout his Congressional campaign, and even afterwords into 1973.261 VVAW financial statements from early 1972 list a significant percentage of income and expenditures related to Kerry’s November 1971 book The New Soldier and the book’s editors George Butler and David Thorne.262 Thorne, who was Kerry’s best friend and the brother of his first wife, served as Kerry’s campaign manager in 1972.263 Chris Gregory, who became one of Kerry’s most active campaign staffers in subsequent years, remained associated with the New England VVAW in 1972.264 Kerry’s sister Peggy joined leading New York VVAW member Sheldon Ramsdell at a hotel where the VVAW protested the August 1972 Republican National Convention.265 During this period internal tensions in the VVAW continued to divide the organization, as conflict increased between the National Executive Committee and regional VVAW representatives who wanted more voice in the organization. During the November 1971 Kansas City meeting where Kerry and others had resigned from the National Executive Committee, a proposal to move the VVAW National Office from New York to another location had been debated, and a motion had been passed to have the committee members elected by regional coordinators for limited 1-year terms However despite this, Al Hubbard and his allies from the New York area remained on the committee and in effective control of its decisions, provoking dissatisfaction from regional coordinators who had personal and political differences with Hubbard.266 Resentment at Hubbard grew so intense that some VVAW members began plotting to kill Hubbard and his fellow National Executive Committee member Jon Birch, the FBI learned through surveillance of a Harisburg, Pennsylvania VVAW meeting in January 1972.267 The next month at a Denver, Colorado VVAW National Steering Committee meeting regional VVAW coordinators made proposals for for a decentralized structure which would shift power from the National Executive Committee to regional representatives and in the process move VVAW headquarters out of New York. Some proposed changes were accepted, while discussion of others was deferred to the next National Steering Committee meeting, to be held in Houston in April 1972.268 As the April meeting approached, the FBI was informed by an Oklahoma VVAW member that regional VVAW chapters were planning to oust Hubbard and Kerry during the meeting.269 However when the meeting arrived, Hubbard was able to reassert his control and maintain power, at least for the time being.270 Over the next few years the VVAW would splinter into several factions as it was infiltrated and taken over by other groups.271 The struggle between the VVAW’s internal factions reflected the influence of external groups struggling for control of the VVAW. Hubbard continued to affiliate with the Communist Party-linked People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice, opposing VVAW members who wanted to exclude the PCPJ from the VVAW.272 At the same time,

Hubbard opposed infiltration attempts by the Socialist Worker Party-linked National Peace Action Coalition, singling out the NPAC and a related French group as the only antiwar groups not welcome in the VVAW coalition.273 Meanwhile the Revolutionary Union continued its infiltration of regional chapters of the VVAW, increasingly taking over the organization’s national structure after 1973. Some RU-linked VVAW chapters would eventually join forces with overtly terrorist groups like the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), whose members kidnapped Patty Hearst and attempted to assassinate President Gerald Ford.274 While maintaining affiliation with the PCPJ, the VVAW national leadership also maintained contact with foreign Communist groups. The VVAW continued to participate in demonstrations at Hanoi’s request and to send delegations to North Vietnamese representatives in Paris and Hanoi.275 Some VVAW delegations joined Cora Weiss’ Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam (COLIFAM) in helping the North Vietnamese extort POW families,276 and one VVAW delegation to Paris to arrange a POW-related trip to Hanoi was sent two weeks before the infamous July 7, 1972 Hanoi trip of Jane Fonda, who was in close contact with the VVAW during this period.277 The VVAW also sent delegations to Moscow and the Sovietlinked World Peace Council;278 continued to support the Venceremos Brigade in sending delegations to Cuba;279 and met with representatives of the Palestine Liberation Front (PLF), a terrorist group linked to Achille Lauro hijacker Abu Abbas (captured by US troops in Iraq in 2003).280 While in contact with these foreign groups, the VVAW helped antiwar groups gather intelligence on US military installations, operations, and troop movements.281 Meanwhile to pressure the Nixon administration to halt US bombing against North Vietnam, the VVAW engaged in a series of increasingly militant actions beginning in late 1971. Over the 1971 Christmas holiday, VVAW members—among them Kerry’s associate Joe Bangert—protested US bombing by taking over several national monuments around the country, including the Lincoln Memorial and Statue of Liberty, and defacing them with antiwar messages.282 In April 1972, at Hanoi’s direction, the VVAW sent members to Washington to participate in “Dewey Canyon IV” and related demonstrations organized by the NPAC and PCPJ. In coordination with these demonstrations the NPAC staged a simultaneous demonstration in New York, at which Kerry spoke.283 In May 1972, to protest US bombing and mining operations, VVAW members cornered George H.W. Bush, then United States ambassador to the United Nations, and dumped blood on him.284 In August 1972, the VVAW helped a PCPJ-linked coalition of antiwar groups disrupt the Republican National Convention in Miami by physically attacking delegates and police.285 While this was going on outside the convention, Nixon’s Republican rival Senator Paul McCloskey—a VVAW ally whom Kerry had expressed support for in his January Dartmouth College speech286—gave three wheelchaired VVAW members passes so they could try to sneak in and make a scene by pretending to offer to shake President Nixon’s hand and then physically grabbing and detaining him until he agreed to listen to VVAW demands.287 Staying with VVAW member Sheldon Ramsdell in the hotel where the convention was held was John Kerry’s sister Peggy.288 The FBI’s surveillance of the VVAW had alerted the White House to the VVAW’s plans for the Republican National Convention, and the White House assigned the FBI and CIA to take pre-emptive action. In May 1972, the FBI had learned that the McGovern

campaign had lent the VVAW a station wagon to do a barnstorming tour of college campuses.289 In June, as part of what would become known as the Watergate breakins, members of Nixon’s re-election committee with links to the CIA were arrested after they broke into Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters seeking, among other things, evidence of links between the DNC—headed by Ted Kennedy’s associate Larry O’Brien—and the VVAW.290 Then early in July on the eve of the Democratic National Convention, where the VVAW was planning to lobby and speak with Democratic politicians, the FBI served subpoenas on Scott Camil and 22 other VVAW members involved in planning the convention activities. 8 of these would ultimately be indicted for conspiring to incite a riot and become known as “the Gainesville Eight”.291 Their defense would be provided by the Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR), a legal center linked to Communist lawyers William Kunstler and Peter Weiss.292 Jane Fonda helped raise money for the defense fund.293 In September 1972, while the trial of the Gainesville Eight was progressing, John Kerry’s younger brother Cameron was arrested for breaking into the building which served as the headquarters of the Kerry campaign and one of Kerry’s rivals in the Democratic primary election. Police arrested Cameron near the trunk line for all the building’s phones. Kerry would later claim his campaign had been set up in what he termed “a Watergate in reverse”, wherein Cameron had allegedly been lured to the scene by an anonymous phone call threatening to cut their campaign’s phone lines on the eve of their get-out-the-vote effort. A more likely explanation seems to be that the Kerry campaign was concerned about their phone lines being bugged. In any case, Kerry lost the campaign, temporarily ending his political career.294 Kerry did not, however, end his association with the VVAW. A newspaper photo dated January 24, 1973 is accompanied by a caption describing Kerry as “head of Vietnam Veterans Against the War”.295 Kerry would remain associated with former VVAW members such as Chris Gregory into his Senate career,294 and in 1979 he joined former VVAW associate Bobby Muller in cofounding the Vietnam Veterans of America (VVA), which lists him as a lifetime member.296 Conclusion The record shows that Kerry began fellow traveling with the Vietnam Moratorium Committee even while he was still on active duty, and he remained a spokesman for the Vietnam Veterans Against the War even after the VVAW had begun plotting and executing violence against the United States government. In the face of these facts, the controversy over whether or not Kerry specifically approved of Camil’s assassination plot is ultimately beside the point. The greater point is that in order to advance his career as a politician running on an antiwar platform, Kerry was willing to promote Communist and even revolutionary groups at the expense of national security. And this is not merely a “historical footnote”, as one Kerry spokesman tried to dismiss the evidence of Kerry’s participation in the Kansas City meeting; for Kerry’s association with America’s enemies did not end with his unsuccessful 1972 Congressional campaign, but has continued into his Senate career. Next: “Part 4: Subversion in the Senate: Kerry’s Communist Constituency”

The footnotes seem to be too long to fit in the preview window, so I will add them in follow-up posts below. Also, in the first two articles there was a problem with the hyperlinks not working, which seems to be due to quotation marks in MS Word not importing correctly into html format. If the hyperlinks don't work, the links given should be accessible through cutting and pasting the URLs. 1 posted on Monday, October 11, 2004 12:27:07 PM by Fedora To: Fedora
1

Notes

“’Different Forever’: John Kerry Says Killing in War Permanently Changes Soldiers”, ABCNEWS.comhttp://abcnews.go.com/sections/Politics/Vote2004/kerry_vietnam_DNC_ 040729-1.html, July 29, 2004 (August 27, 2004).
2

Douglas Brinkley, Tour of Duty: John Kerry and the Vietnam War, New York: William Morrow, 2004, 61-62; Jacob Leibenluft, “Kerry ’66: ‘He was going to be president’: In JFK’s shadow, a headstrong Kerry makes his run for the White House”, YaleDailyNews.com, http://www.yaledailynews.com/article.asp?AID=21803, February 14, 2003 (June 18, 2004); Gerald Nicosia, Home to War: A History of the Vietnam Veterans’ Movement, New York: Crown Publishers, 2001, 70.
3

Samuel Z. Goldhaber, “John Kerry: A Navy Dove Runs for Congress”, The Harvard Crimson, February 18, 1970, reprinted at The Harvard Crimson Online, http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=352185 (June 18, 2004); Brinkley, Tour of Duty,370-373; Charles Laurence, “Revealed: how ‘war hero Kerry tried to put off Vietnam military duty”, telegraph.co.uk, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/03/07/wkerr07.xml&sSh eet=/news/2004/03/07/ixnewstop.html, June 18, 2004 (June 18, 2004).
4

Michael Kranish with Alex Beam, “Kerry War Letters Show His Conflicts”, The Boston Globe, July 25, 2004, A1, online at http://www.boston.com/news/politics/president/kerry/articles/2004/07/25/kerry_war_le tters_show_his_conflicts/ (September 21, 2004); ”Bay Area Widow Takes Up the Kerry Cause”, abc7news.com, http://www.abclocal.go.com/kgo/news/politics/072804_politics_kerry_vet.html, July 28, 2004 (August 16, 2004).
5

Jeremy Brecher, “The Vietnam Moratorium”, Liberation Magazine, December 1969, reprinted online at , http://www.hippy.com/php/article-118.html (September 15, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 49; Brinkley, Tour of Duty,337; Ed Gold, ”Kerry’s big sister lending a hand in her own way”, The Villager, http://www.thevillager.com/villager_42/kerrysbigsister.html, Volume 73, Number 42, February 18-24, 2004 (June 18, 2004);Lucy Komisar, “Kerry Family Values: Peggy Kerry, John Kerry's sister, talks about her experience as a social activist and her deep shared value system with her family.”, AlterNet, September 13, 2004 (September 15, 2004).

6

Cf. “Thrice Wounded”, March 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Thrice_Wounded_Reassignment.pdf, (September 4, 2004); “Temporary Orders and Ranks”, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Temporary_Orders_and_Ranks.pdf, (September 4, 2004); Commander E.M. Salisbury to Lietutenant (junior grade) John Forbes Kerry, ”Release from Active Duty”, January 2, 1970, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Release_From_Active_Duty.pdf (September 4, 2004).
7 8

Goldhaber.

Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 339-342; James Burnett, “The Silent Partner”, www.bostonmagazine.com, http://www.bostonmagazine.com/ArticleDisplay.php?id=353, April 2004 (July 17, 2004); “Board of Directors: Jerome Grossman”, Center for Arms Control and NonProliferation, http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/about/board.html (September 24, 2004); Jerome Grossman, interview, conducted by Nancy Earsy, Lexington Oral History Projects, Inc., http://www.lexingtonbattlegreen1971.com/files/Grossman,%20Jerome.pdf, December 3, 1996, (July 17, 2004); Gerald M. Pomper and Miles A. Pomper, “Jewish Party Politicians”, Gerry Pomper’s Website, http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~gpomper/JewishPartyPoliticians.htm(July 17, 2004); Seth Gitell, “Is Grossman Our Next Governor?”, The Boston Phoenix, http://www.bostonphoenix.com/archive/features/00/03/16/TALKING_POLITICS.html, March 16-23, 2000 (July 17, 2004);“Drinan, Robert”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1995; Jack Thomas, “Rome Tells Drinan Not To Run Again”, The Boston Globe, May 5, 1980, 1.
9

Nicosia, Home to War, 72.

10

Grossman, interview; Arthur Johnson, interview, conducted by Norma McGavernNorland, Lexington Oral History Projects, Inc., http://www.lexingtonbattlegreen1971.com/files/Johnson,%20Arthur.pdf, March 20, 1995, (July 17, 2004); Christopher Gregory, interview, conducted by Lenore Fenn, Lexington Oral History Projects, Inc., http://www.lexingtonbattlegreen1971.com/files/Gregory,%20Chris.pdf, March 14, 1995, (July 17, 2004); Bestor Cram, interview, conducted by Norma McGavern-Norland, Lexington Oral History Projects, Inc., http://www.lexingtonbattlegreen1971.com/files/Cram,%20Bestor.pdf, June 19, 1992, (July 17, 2004); Memo, Boston, Massachusetts FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Inc.”, March 31, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 02, 152-158 (September 15, 2004); Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 340-343; Nicosia, Home to War, 72.
11

Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 340-341; Michael Kranish and Patricia Healy, “Kerry spoke of meeting negotiators on Vietnam”, The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2004/03/25/kerry_spoke_of_meeting_neg otiators_on_vietnam/, March 25, 2004 (September 4, 2004); Marc Morano, ”FBI Files

Show Kerry Met With Communists More Than Once”, CNSNews.com, http://www.cnsnews.com//ViewSpecialReports.asp?Page=\SpecialReports\archive\2004 06\SPE20040604a.html, June 4, 2004 (June 18, 2004); John E. O’Neill and Jerome R. Corsi, Unfit for Command: Swift Boat Veterans Speak Out Against John Kerry, Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2004, 127-129.
12 13 14

Nicosia, Home to War, 211-212. Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 406, 462.

See “Kansas City Kerry—The Phoenix Project”, FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1104239/posts, March 24, 2004 (June 18, 2004); Thomas H. Lipscomb, “How Kerry Quit Veterans Group Amid Dark Plot: When Talk Turned To Assassination He Exited, Vet Says”, The New York Sun, Front page, March 12, 2004, online at http://daily.nysun.com/Repository/getFiles.asp?Style=OliveXLib:ArticleToMail&Type=tex t/html&Path=NYS/2004/03/12&ID=Ar00100 (June 18, 2004).
15

Marc Morano, ”Kerry Lying About Anti-War Past, Supporter Alleges”, CNSNews.com, http://www.cnsnews.com//ViewPolitics.asp?Page=\Politics\archive\200403\POL2004031 8a.html, March 18, 2004 (June 18, 2004); Gerald Nicosia, “Veteran in Conflict: Sen. John Kerry's Struggle for Leadership of a Vietnam Veterans Antiwar Group in 1971 Ended With His Resignation at a Stormy Meeting in Kansas City, Where Militants Advocated Violence Against the U.S. Government”, Los Angeles Times, http://www.latimes.com/features/printedition/magazine/?track=mainnav-magazine, May 23, 2004, Section Los Angeles Times Magazine, LAT Magazine Desk, Part I, Page 10, archived at BeldarBlog, http://beldar.blogs.com/beldarblog/2004/09/Nicosia_article_LAT_5-24-04.pdf (October 1, 2004).
16

Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Steering Committee Meeting: Kansas City, Missouri: November 12, 13, 14, 1971”, November 18, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 11, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 11, 190-197 (September 4, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, author deleted, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War Regional Coordinators and National Steering Committee Meeting, Weekend November 12-15, 1971, Kansas City, Missouri”, November 24, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 9, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 9, 148-157 (September 4, 2004). Cf. Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director and New York FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War Regional Coordinators and National Steering Committee Meeting Weekend November Fourteen, Nineteen Seventyone, Kansas City, Missouri”, November 16, 1971 and Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, November 18, 1971 and Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, November 19, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 9, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 9, 199-204, 208-210, 229-232 (September 4, 2004);

Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War Paren VVAW Paren”, November 19, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 10, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 10, 2-14 (September 4, 2004).
17 18

Morano, ”Kerry Lying About Anti-War Past, Supporter Alleges”.

Michael Kranish, ”Kerry can’t recall being at ’71 parley”, Boston.com, http://www.boston.com/news/politics/president/articles/2004/04/01/kerry_cant_recall_ being_at_71_parley/, April 1, 2004 (June 18, 2004)
19

See archive at “Documents, Film Clips, Audio and Cartoons: So when did John Kerry leave the VVAW, anyway?”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Documents, (June 18, 2004); “Kerry, Watergate: DNC Links Caused Break-In? 'Republican Paranoia Started Early,' Says '72 Democratic Youth Director Bob Weiner”, U.S. Newswire, http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=26038, February 9, 2004 (September 5, 2004); “War opponent Kerry seeks Congress seat”, The Boston Globe, April 4, 1972, Page 21, attached to FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 21, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 21, 19 (September 4, 2004); B.J. Widdick, “Woodcock: A Voice, Not an Echo”, The Nation, Volume 214, Issue 20, May 15, 1972, online at The Nation Digital Archive, http://www.nationarchive.com/Summaries/v214i0020_05.htm (September 20, 2004); O’Neill and Corsi, 130-135, 140-143, 158-161.
20

”John Kerry Watching Nixon on Television”, Corbis, http://pro.corbis.com/popup/Enlargement.aspx?mediauids={3c773ac0-b0fd-4be4-9175ff228fd5544c}|{ffffffff-ffff-ffff-ffffffffffffffff}&qsPageNo=1&fdid=&Area=Search&TotalCount=60&CurrentPos=13&WinID= {3c773ac0-b0fd-4be4-9175-ff228fd5544c} (June 18, 2004); “Photo Gallery: John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making: Part 3: John Kerry watches President Richard Nixon announce the cease-fire in Vietnam on January 24, 1973.”, Boston.com, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/images/day3/05.htm (June 18, 2004).
21

Gregory; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 438-440, 444; Michael Crowley, “The Kerry Tribes: The seven factions fighting for control of his campaign and his presidency.”, MSN.com, http://slate.msn.com/id/2098894/, April 15, 2004 (September 4, 2004); Jennifer Peter, “Loyal and angry, Mass. veterans group continue fight against Kerry’s foes”, The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/news/politics/primaries/massachusetts/articles/2004/08/27/loy al_and_angry_mass_veterans_group_continue_fight_against_kerrys_foes/, August 27, 2004 (September 4, 2004).
22

Nicosia, Home to War, 144-147, 411-412; “What’s New: VVA Restricted Political Activities”, Vietnam Veterans of America, http://www.vva.org/whatsnew/restricted.htm (September 4, 2004).
23

Brecher; Goldhaber; Nicosia, Home to War, 49; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 337; Komisar.

24 25 26 27

Gold; Komisar. Burnett;Grossman, interview. Nicosia, Home to War, 72.

See H. Stuart Hughes, Gentleman Rebel: The Memoirs of H. Stuart Hughes, New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1990, 85-86, 138-139, 186, 195-204, 264, 282; Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope: Days of Rage, New York: Bantam Books, 1987, 87-104, 182. Note esp. the Hughes family’s relationship to Felix Frankfurter and Benjamin Cardozo, whose clerks Frankfurter supplied (cf. Bruce Allen Murphy, The Brandeis/Frankfurter Connection: The Secret Political Activities of Two Supreme Court Justices, Oxford University Press, 1982; Garden City: Anchor Books, 1983, 186).
28 29

Hughes, 250.

”Riesman, David”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1955; Paul Buhle, ”David Riesman”, EducationGuardian.co.uk, http://education.guardian.co.uk/obituary/story/0,12212,750236,00.html, May 13, 2002 (August 15, 2004);Murphy, 21-22, 45, 122. Cf. Gitlin 88, 95. On Brandeis and Frankfurter’s Communist activity, see Part 1 of this series, “John Kerry’s Red Roots: Richard Kerry’s Curious Career”.
30

”Communist Infiltration in the Nuclear Test Ban Movement”, May 13, 1960, Box 244:6548 and “Testimony of Dr. Linus Pauling”, June and October 1960, Box 244:6549, in Series IV: Investigative Files, Subseries C: Senate Internal Security Subcommittee Reports, 1956-1970, Thomas J. Dodd Papers, Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries; US Senate, Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Final Report, Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports of Intelligence Agencies and the Rights of Americans, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976, Book III, 17; Athan Theoharis and John Stuart Cox, The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition, Temple University, 1988; New York: Bantam Books, 1990, 447.
31 32 33

Hughes, 250-260, 279-287; Gitlin, 97. Grossman, interview.

”AFSC History”, American Friends Service Committee, http://www.afsc.org/about/history.htm (September 7, 2004); “American Friends Service Committee: Records, 1940-1947”, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG001-025/dg002.AFSC/afsc.htm (September 6, 2004); FBI files, “American Friends Service Committee”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/committe.htm (September 5, 2004); Entry for “American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)” in ”Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive, Foreword by Congressman John Ashbrook, Afterword by Helmut Sauer, member of the West Germany Bundestag, Alexandria, Virginia: Western Goals, 1982, http://charlestonvoice.netfirms.com/PeaceGrpGloss.htm (August 16, 2004);

“American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/afsc.htm (September 5, 2004); Gordon Lamb, “American Friends? Hardly”, FrontPageMagazine.com, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=8215, June 5, 2003 (August 16, 2004).
34 35 36

Grossman, interview.

Hughes, 254-255, 260; Grossman, interview.

”Citizens for Participation in Political Action: records, 1962-1992”, Healey Library at UMass Boston, http://www.lib.umb.edu/archives/cppa.html (August 16, 2004); Michael Kenney, “CPPAX Keeps Liberal Flames Burning: Glory Days May Be Behind Them, But There Are 5,000 Members To Celebrate 25th Anniversary”, The Boston Globe, April 26, 1987, 94.
37 38 39

Grossman, interview. Grossman, interview.

Untitled article, The Tech, Volume 89, Number 29, July 23, 1969, reprinted online at http://kurzweil.mit.edu/archives/VOL_089/TECH_V089_S0287_P001.txt (June 18, 2004); Hunter Barns, “October 15, 1969: Moratorium”, from ”Objective Journalism? A Brief Look at The New York Times and the Vietnam Antiwar Movement”, Vietnam Antiwar Movement Page, http://home.sandiego.edu/~hbarns/Moratorium.html (September 4, 2004); Brecher; Michalina, “Student assesses effect of war moratorium”, Southwords, October 1970, reprinted online at Maine South High School, http://www.maine207south.k12.il.us/departments/235/70moratorium.htm (September 4, 2004); Jerome Grossman, “The Call for ‘Peace Now’”, The Boston Globe, October 15, 1989, A-31; Tom Wells, The War Within: America’s Battle Over Vietnam, with foreword by Todd Gitlin, Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1994, 399; Nicosia, Home to War, 49; Laura Richards, “Vietnam Moratorium March”, National Coalition to Save Our Mall, http://www.savethemall.org/moments/richards.html , (September 4, 2004). For a summary of Brown’s background see ”Nomination of Sam W. Brown, Jr.”, Congressional Record—Senate, 103rd Congress—2nd Session (1994), S-6319, May 25, 1994, located online through Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet, http://thomas.loc.gov (September 4, 2004); ”Brown Nomination/CSCE Ambassador, Cloture (1st attempt)”, Congressional Record—Senate, 103rd Congress—2nd Session (1994), S-6251 Temp. Record, Vote No. 131, May 24, 1994, 4:43 pm, located online through “Senate Record Vote Analysis”, U.S. Senate Republican Policy Committee, http://web.archive.org/web/19970816005931/http://www.senate.gov/~rpc/rva/1032/1 032131.htm (September 4, 2004); William T. Poole, The New Left in Government: From Protest to Policy-Making, Washington, DC: The Heritage Foundation, November 1978, executive summary cached online at http://groups.google.com/groups?q=William+Poole+new+left+government&hl=en&lr= &ie=UTF-8&selm=7ivnu6%24rpr%241%40bgtnsc01.worldnet.att.net&rnum=4 (September 4, 2004). On Hawk, see “Fellows: David Hawk”, The Petra Foundation, http://www.petrafoundation.org/fellows/ff_davidhawk.html (September 4, 2004). On Mixner, see Daniel Golden, “Mixner’s Moment”, The Boston Globe, June 6, 1993,

Magazine section,14. On Sklencar, see “Student Mobe Plans Action”, The Tech, Volume 89, Number 53, September 26, 1969, 3, reprinted online at kurzweil.mit.edu/archives/ VOL_089/TECH_V089_S0311_P003.txt (June 18, 2004).
40 41 42

Grossman, “The Call for ‘Peace Now’”; Brecher; Michalina; Richards. Poole; Richards.

"National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam Records, 1966-1969", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG051-099/dg075nmc.htm (September 5, 2004); Gus Horowitz, “Movement history: Socialists and the anti-war movement”, The Militant, October 10, 1969, reprinted online at Links 24, http://www.dsp.org.au/links/back/issue24/Horowitz.htm, September-December 2003 (September 5, 2004); Appendix, “Student Mobilization Committee, also known as Student Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam; National Student Mobilization Committee”, attached to Letterhead Memorandum, Washington, DC FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, April 5, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 2, 172-181 (September 4, 2004); House Committee on Internal Security, Subversive Involvement in the Origin, Leadership, and Activities of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, and its Predecessor Organizations, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970; Poole.
43

”Socialist Workers Party (USA)”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialist_Workers_Party_(USA) (September 5, 2004); “History of the Fourth International—The Heritage of Marxism”, translation of introduction to Leon Trotsky, In Defense of Marxism, 1994, reprinted online at Iskra Research Publishing House, http://www.mit.edu/people/fjk/essays/heritage.html (September 5, 2004); Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Fririkh Igorevich Firsov, The Secret World of American Communism, Russian documents translated by Timothy D. Sergay, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995, 142-143; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999; New Haven: Yale Nota Bene, 2000, 250-286; Department of Defense, “Certificate of Nonaffiliation with Certain Organizations”, DD Form 48-1, June 1959, reprinted online at http://charlestonvoice.netfirms.com/attygenlA.JPG and http://charlestonvoice.netfirms.com/attygenlB.JPG (September 5, 2004); Paul Wolf, “COINTELPRO—Socialist Workers Party (1961-1970), www.cointel.org, http://www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/cointelpro/swp.htm (September 5, 2004); Athan Theoharis and John Stuart Cox, The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition, Temple University, 1988; New York: Bantam Books, 1990, 346-347, 361.
44 45

Appendix, “Student Mobilization Committee”.

House Committee on Internal Security, Subversive Involvement in the Origin, Leadership, and Activities of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, and its Predecessor Organizations; Poole; S. Steven Powell, Covert Cadre: Inside the Institute for Policy Studies, introduction by David Horowitz, Ottawa, Illinois:

Green Hill Publishers, Inc., 1987, 36-37, 39-40. On the World Peace Council, see “WPC Brief History”, World Peace Council, http://www.wpcin.org/website.htm#_Toc511224159 (September 16, 2004); “The New Nuke Hysteria”, AIM Report, May A 1982, online at Accuracy In Media, http://www.aim.org/publications/aim_report/1982/05a.html (September 16, 2004); Entry for “World Peace Council (WPC)” in ”Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; “FAS Intelligence Resource Program: Active Measures”, American Federation of Scientists, http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/kgb/su0523.htm (September 16, 2004); “Ronald Dellums: Congressman: 9th California District”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/dellums.htm (September 5, 2004); Rob Prince, “The Ghost Ship of Lonnrotinkatu: The Catabolism of the World Peace Council—Part 1”, Peace Magazine, May-June 1992, 16, online at http://www.peacemagazine.org/archive/v08n3p16.htm (September 16, 2004); Rob Prince, “Following the Money Trail at the World Peace Council: Part II of Rob Prince's behind-the-scenes look at the World Peace Council's dealings in the aftermath of the Soviet Union's dissolution”, Peace Magazine, November-December 1992, 20, online at http://www.peacemagazine.org/archive/v08n6p20.htm (September 16, 2004); “Looking to the Future”, in United States Information Agency, Soviet Active Measures in the “Post-Cold War" Era, 1988-1991: A Report Prepared at the Request of the United States House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations, June 1992, online at The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials, with Essays, Reviews, and Comments, http://intellit.muskingum.edu/russia_folder/pcw_era/sect_13d.htm (September 16, 2004).
46

Appendix, “Student Mobilization Committee”; Poole; Nicosia, Home to War, 48-49; Richards.
47

Judith Mahoney Paternak, “Women Against War: It Started with ‘Lysistrata’”, The Nonviolent Activist: The Magazine of the War Resisters League, http://www.warresisters.org/nva0703-4.htm, July-August 2003 (September 5, 2004); Wells, The War Within: America’s Battle Over Vietnam, photo between 286 and 287; Roy Lisker, “The Antiwar Movement in New York City 1965-67”, Ferment Magazine, http://www.fermentmagazine.org/Bio/newleft1.html, (September 6, 2004), update of article originally published in Les Tempes Modernes, September 1968; House Committee on Internal Security, Subversive Involvement in the Origin, Leadership, and Activities of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, and its Predecessor Organizations; Poole. On the War Resisters League, see “War Resisters’ International”, War Resisters International, < a href=”http://www.wriirg.org/wrihist.htm”>http://www.wri-irg.org/wrihist.htm (September 7, 2004); “About WRL: History”, War Resisters League, http://www.warresisters.org/about_wrl.htm#hist (September 7, 2004); "War Resisters League: Records, 1923-date", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG026050/DG040WRL.html (September 5, 2004); Sanderson Beck, “Women for Peace”, Literary Works of Sanderson Beck, http://www.san.beck.org/GPJ28WomenforPeace.html (September 5, 2004); "Jessie Wallace Hugham", Woman a Week Archives, http://www.awomanaweek.com/hughan.html (September 5, 2004); "Tracy D. Mygatt & Frances Witherspoon Papers, 1835, 1850, 1909-1973", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG051-

099/DG089MygWith.html (September 5, 2004); "A.J. Muste: Papers,1920-1967", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG026-050/dg050muste.htm (September 7, 2004); “Protests of A.J. Muste”, Literary Works of Sanderson Beck, http://www.san.beck.org/WP25-Muste.html (September 7, 2004); FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) Records: War Resisters League, 1939-1962, online guide at Marquette University, http://www.marquette.edu/library/collections/archives/Mss/FBI/mss-fbi-s9.html; Entry for “War Resisters League (WRL)” in ”Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; “Abraham Johannes Muste”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/muste.htm (September 5, 2004). On the Fellowship of Reconciliation, see “History and Supporters”, Fellowship of Reconciliation, http://www.forusa.org/about/history.html (September 4, 2004); "Fellowship of Reconciliation [Great Britain]: Records, 1915-current", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/CDGB/forgreatbritain.htm (September 5, 2004); "Fellowship of Reconciliation: Records, 1915-date", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG001025/DG013/dg13fortablofcont.htm (September 5, 2004); "A.J. Muste: Papers,19201967"; “A.J. Muste: Biographical Background”, A.J. Muste Memorial Institute, http://www.ajmuste.org/ajmbio.htm (September 7, 2004); Steve Lieberman “FOR Obtains Its FBI Files”,The Journal News, http://www.thejournalnews.com/newsroom/083004/b01p30forfbi.html, August 30, 2004, cached at http://64.233.179.104/search?q=cache:ZScN0Y0tED4J:www.thejournalnews.com/newsr oom/083004/b01p30forfbi.html+FOR+obtains+its+FBI+files&hl=en (September 18, 2004); “Fellowship of Reconciliation”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/for.htm (September 5, 2004); “Abraham Johannes Muste”; Entry for “Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive. On the Committee for Nonviolent Action, see "Committee for Nonviolent Action Records, 1957-, (Bulk 19571968)", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG001-025/DG017CNVA.html (September 7, 2004); Allen Smith, “The Renewal Movement: The Peace Testimony and Modern Quakerism”, Quaker History Volume 85, Number 2, Fall 1996, online at The Religious Society of Friends, http://www.quaker.org/renewal.html (September 7, 2004); "A.J. Muste: Papers,1920-1967"; A.J. Muste: Biographical Background”; “Protests of A.J. Muste”. On the Catholic Peace Fellowship, see “Introduction: History”, Catholic Peace Fellowship, http://www.catholicpeacefellowship.org/ (September 7, 2004).
48 49 50

Brecher. Goldhaber; Nicosia, Home to War, 49; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 337; Gold; Komisar.

Cf. “Thrice Wounded”, March 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Thrice_Wounded_Reassignment.pdf, (September 4, 2004); “Temporary Orders and Ranks”, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Temporary_Orders_and_Ranks.pdf, (September 4, 2004); Commander E.M. Salisbury to Lietutenant (junior grade) John Forbes Kerry, ”Release from Active Duty”, January 2, 1970, JohnKerry.com,

http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Release_From_Active_Duty.pdf (September 4, 2004); Goldhaber.
51

Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 339-342; Burnett; Grossman, interview; Pomper and Pomper; Gitell;“Drinan, Robert”, Current Biography; Nicosia, Home to War, 72; ”Nomination of Sam W. Brown, Jr.”, Congressional Record—Senate, 103rd Congress—2nd Session (1994), S-6313-S-6321, May 25, 1994, located online through Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet, http://thomas.loc.gov (September 4, 2004). On Grossman’s ongoing relationship with Kerry, see “Campaign ‘82”, The Boston Globe, July 27, 1982, 1; Michael Kranish with Alex Beam, “Kerry War Letters Show His Conflicts”, The Boston Globe, July 25, 2004, A1, online at http://www.boston.com/news/politics/president/kerry/articles/2004/07/25/kerry_war_le tters_show_his_conflicts/ (September 21, 2004).
52

For general biographical details on Drinan, see “Drinan, Robert”, Current Biography; “Drinan, Robert Frederick, 1920-“, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000499 (September 15, 2004); “Board of Directors: Robert F. Drinan”, Center for Arms Control and NonProliferation, http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/about/board.html (September 24, 2004).
53

John Kerry testimony in United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Legislative Proposals Relating to the War in Southeast Asia, Thursday, April 22, 1971: Hearings before the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, NinetySecond Congress, First Session (April-May 1971), Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971, 179-210 online in html format at http://www.cspan.org/2004vote/jkerrytestimony.asp (August 29, 2004) and in pdf format at http://www.cwes01.com/13790/23910/ktpp179-210.pdf (August 29, 2004).
54

“Kerry, John Forbes”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1988.
55

Nicosia, Home to War, 95, 175, 198. On Lifton and Post-Vietnam Syndrome, cf. Robert Jay Lifton, Home from the War: Learning from Vietnam Veterans: With a new Preface and Epilogue on the Gulf War, Boston: Beacon Press, 1992 (1973, 1985); Nicosia, Home to War, 158-209.
56

“Kerry, Watergate: DNC Links Caused Break-In? 'Republican Paranoia Started Early,' Says '72 Democratic Youth Director Bob Weiner”.
57

Stephanie Hauser, “Remembering Watergate: BC alumnus and former law school dean started Nixon accusations in Senate 30 years ago“, The Heights, http://www.bcheights.com/news/2003/04/29/Features/Remembering.Watergate427779.shtml, April 29, 2003 (September 5, 2004); Jerome Zeifman, “Impeachment and ‘Father Bob’”, Insight on the News, http://www.insightmag.com/news/1999/01/11/Commentary/Impeachment.And.father.B ob-211463.shtml, January 11, 1999 (September 5, 2004); Todd Kosmerick, “The Impeachment of Richard Nixon from the Eyes of Speaker Carl Albert”, The Carl Albert Congressional Research & Studies Center,

http://www.ou.edu/special/albertctr/extensions/fall98/archives.html (September 4, 2004).
58

Julia Duin, “Kerry advisors tell hopeful to ‘keep cool’ on religion”, The Washington Times, http://www.washingtontimes.com/national/20040618-121914-6103r.htm, June 18, 2004 (June 18, 2004).
59 60

“Drinan, Robert”, Current Biography.

On Berrigan see “Berrigan, Daniel”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1970; Murray Polner and Jim O'Grady, Disarmed and Dangerous: The Radical Lives and Times of Daniel and Philip Berrigan, New York: Basic Books, 1997; “Introduction: History”, Catholic Peace Fellowship; FBI files, “Clergy and Laity Concerned About Vietnam”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/clviet.htm (September 5, 2004).
61

Entry for ”Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy (LCNP)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive.
62

Report on the National Lawyers Guild: Legal Bulwark of the Communist Party, United States Congress House Report 3123, Washington: Committee on Un-American Activities, 1950; Entry for ”Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy (LCNP)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; “National Lawyers Guild [NLG]: ‘Legal Bulwark of the Communist Party’”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/nlg.htm (September 5, 2004); “National Lawyers Guild & its Terrorist Network”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/nlgterr.htm (September 5, 2004); Jesse Rigsby, “NLG: The Legal Fifth Column”, FrontPageMagazine.com, April 25, 2003, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=7494, (June 18, 2004).
63

Robert F. Drinan, “When Will the American Conscience Demand Justice for Vietnam?”, modelminority, http://modelminority.com/article703.html, March 17, 2000 (June 18, 2004).
64 65

On the Fellowship of Reconciliation, see Note 47.

Entry for “Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive.
66

Sandy Cohen, untitled article, The Tech, Volume 90, Number 14, March 27, 1970, reprinted online at http://kurzweil.mit.edu/archives/VOL_090/TECH_V090_S0120_P001.txt (June 18, 2004).
67

House Committee on Internal Security, Subversive Involvement in the Origin, Leadership, and Activities of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, and its Predecessor Organizations.
68

“Drinan, Robert”, Current Biography.

69

“Ramsey Clark: Biodata”, International Progress Organization, http://i-po.org/Clark.htm (October 3, 2004); Josh Saunders, ”Ramsey Clark’s Prosecution Complex”, Legal Affairs, http://www.legalaffairs.org/issues/November-December2003/feature_saunders_novdec03.html, November-December 2003 (September 16, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 106; Theoharis and Cox, 480-483; Search and Destroy: A Report by the Commission of Inquiry into the Black Panthers and the Police, edited by Roy Wilkins and Ramsey Clark, Chairmen, New York: Metropolitan Applied Research Centre, Inc., 1973; “Fred Hampton”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAhamptonF.htm (September 16, 2004); Cliff Kincaid, “Ramsey Clark Endorses John Kerry”, Accuracy In Media, http://www.aim.org/publications/weekly_column/2004/03/01.html, March 1, 2004 (September 16, 2004). On the National Peace Action Coalition, see “National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam”, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG051-099/dg075nmc.htm (September 16, 2004); House Committee on Internal Security, Subversive Involvement in the Origin, Leadership, and Activities of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, and its Predecessor Organizations; “Appendix: Student Mobilization Committee”. On the Committee for Public Justice, see “Harrisburg [PA] Defense Committee: Records, 1970-1973”, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/CDGA.A-L/harrisburgdefensecomm.htm (September 16, 2004); Roger W. Wilkins, “Committee for Public Justice”, The New York Review of Books, Volume 16, Number 1, January 28, 1971, reprinted online at http://www.nybooks.com/articles/10692 (September 16, 2004); FBI files, “Committee for Public Justice”, finding aid at Marquette University Libraries: Department of Special Collections and University Archives: FBI Investigation and Surveillance Records: Scope and Content Note: Series 19: Committee for Public Justice, 1971-1972, 1977, http://www.marquette.edu/library/collections/archives/Mss/FBI/mss-FBI-sc.html (September 16, 2004); W. Raymond Wannall, “Undermining Counterintelligence Capability”, CI Centre, http://www.cicentre.com/Documents/DOC_Wannall_Undermining_Intel.htm (September 16, 2004).
70 71

Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 339.

Grossman, interview; Johnson, interview; Gregory, interview; Cram, interview; Nicosia, Home to War, 72; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 340-343.
72

Grossman, interview; Johnson, interview; Gregory, interview; Cram, interview; Nicosia, Home to War, 72.
73

Nicosia, Home to War, 72-73. For more on Operation RAW, see FBI files, FBI HQ 100448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 65-172 (September 4, 2004); “Documents, Film Clips, Audio and Cartoons”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Documents, (June 18, 2004); Richard Stacewicz, Winter Soldiers: An Oral History of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War, New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997, 229-231; Nicosia, Home to War, 56-73; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 343-345.

74

On the Winter Soldier Investigation, see Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The Winter Soldier Investigation: An Inquiry into American War Crimes, Boston: Beacon Press, 1972; “Winter Soldier Investigation”, The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winter_Soldier/WS _entry.html (September 6, 2004); William F. Crandell, “What Did American Learn from the Winter Soldier Investigation?”, Viet Nam Generation 5:1-4, March 1994, reprinted online at The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Texts/Narrative/Crandell_Winter.html (September 6, 2004); FBI files, FBI HQ 100-448092, Sections 1 and 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 173-176, 196-198, 224 and Section 2, 2-69 (September 4, 2004); Stacewicz, 233-241; Nicosia, Home to War, 73-97; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 346-357.
75 76

Nicosia, Home to War, 98-99.

For details on Dewey Canyon III and Kerry’s Senate testimony see John Kerry testimony in United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Legislative Proposals Relating to the War in Southeast Asia, Thursday, April 22, 1971: Hearings before the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session (April-May 1971) (audio and video clips online at www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Documents (September 6, 2004)); John Kerry and Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The New Soldier, edited by David Thorne and George Butler, New York: Macmillan, 1971 (text online at Gorio’s World, http://fp3.antelecom.net/gorio/ns/New%20Soldier%20Compleat.pdf (pdf file) (September 6, 2004); partial text with pictures at “The New Soldier: John Kerry and the VVAW”, wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=NewSoldier (September 6, 2004)); FBI files, FBI HQ 100-448092, Sections 2, and 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf files HQ 100-448092 Sections 2 and 4 (September 4, 2004); Stacewicz, 241-251; Nicosia, Home to War, 98157; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 357-377.
77

Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Steering Committee Meeting: Kansas City, Missouri: November 12, 13, 14, 1971”.
78

See archive at “Documents, Film Clips, Audio and Cartoons: So when did John Kerry leave the VVAW, anyway?”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Documents, (June 18, 2004); “Kerry, Watergate: DNC Links Caused Break-In? 'Republican Paranoia Started Early,' Says '72 Democratic Youth Director Bob Weiner”; O’Neill and Corsi, 130-135, 140-143, 158-161; ”John Kerry Watching Nixon on Television”, Corbis, http://pro.corbis.com/popup/Enlargement.aspx?mediauids={3c773ac0-b0fd-4be4-9175ff228fd5544c}|{ffffffff-ffff-ffff-ffffffffffffffff}&qsPageNo=1&fdid=&Area=Search&TotalCount=60&CurrentPos=13&WinID= {3c773ac0-b0fd-4be4-9175-ff228fd5544c} (June 18, 2004); “Photo Gallery: John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making: Part 3: John Kerry watches President Richard Nixon

announce the cease-fire in Vietnam on January 24, 1973.”, Boston.com, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/images/day3/05.htm (June 18, 2004).
79

FBI files, FBI HQ 100-448092, Sections 11-31, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Sections 10-31 (September 4, 2004); Stacewicz, 252-387; Nicosia, Home to War, 210282.
80 81

See Note 47.

"Guide to the American Veterans for Peace Records, 1945-1957 (Bulk 1951-1955)", The Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, http://dlib.nyu.edu:8083/tamwagead/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=avp.xml&style=saxo n01t2002.xsl (September 6, 2004); "Vet's Voice for Peace" collection in "UAW Veterans’ Department Collection", Walter P. Reuther Library of Labor and Urban Affairs, http://www.reuther.wayne.edu/collections/hefa_293-uaw.htm (September 6, 2004); "Paul Green: Dramatist, Teacher, Humanist, 1894-1981", ibiblio, http://www.ibiblio.org/paulgreen/index.html (September 6, 2004); "Paul Green Papers Inventory (#3693)", Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, http://www.lib.unc.edu/mss/inv/htm/03693.html (September 6, 2004); Paul P. Reuben, "Chapter 8: American Drama—Paul Eliot Green (1894-1981)", PAL: Perspectives in American Literature A Research and Reference Guide--An Ongoing Project , http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:bQ_44_YtJS8J:www.csustan.edu/english/reube n/pal/chap8/green.html+paul+green&hl=en (September 6, 2004).
82 83

Stacewicz, 192-197; Nicosia, Home to War, 15-18.

Stacewicz, 197-204, 233; Nicosia, Home to War, 18-36, 37-38; FBI files, FBI HQ 100448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 1-60 (September 4, 2004). On Negotiation Now! see Wells, The War Within: America’s Battle Over Vietnam, 135-137; “Vietnam War”, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project: Encyclopedia, http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/about_king/encyclopedia/vietnam.htm (September 9, 2004). On CALCAV/CALC, see FBI files, “Clergy and Laity Concerned About Vietnam”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/clviet.htm (September 9, 2004); entry for “Clergy and Laity Concerned (CALC)”, in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive. On Ball, see George W. Ball, The Past Has Another Pattern: Memoirs, New York: Norton, 1982; David L. DiLeo, George Ball, Vietnam, and the Rethinking of Containment, foreword by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1991; James A. Bill, George Ball: Behind the Scenes in U.S. Foreign Policy, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1997; H.R. McMaster, Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies That Led to Vietnam, New York: HarperCollins, 1997, 122, 166-167, 171, 206, 239-240, 280, 300-303; Isaacson and Thomas, 637-639, 647-649, 680, 700, 711. On Lowenstein, see “Lowenstein, Allard Kenneth, 1929-1980”, Biographical

Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000477 (September 9, 2004);“Lowenstein, Allard K.”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1971. On Gruening, see “Gruening, Ernest, 1887-1974”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=G000508 (September 9, 2004). On Fulbright, see “Fulbright, J. William”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1955; “Fulbright, James William, 1905-1955”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=F000401 (September 9, 2004); J. William Fulbright, The Arrogance of Power, New York: Random House, 1966; Randall Bennett Woods, Fulbright: A Biography, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995; Theoharis and Cox, 447-448; Powell, 13; Stacewicz, 204, 233. On McCarthy, see “McCarthy, Eugene Joseph, 1916-”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000311 (September 9, 2004); Dominic Sandbrook, Eugene McCarthy: The Rise and Fall of Postwar American Liberalism, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004, 117-224. On Kennedy, see “Kennedy, Robert Francis, 1925-1968”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=K000114 (September 9, 2004).
84

FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, 1-60; Report, FBI, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated”, October 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 82-117 (esp. 96-97) (September 4, 2004). On the National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, see Corliss Lamont, Yes to Life: Memoirs of Corliss Lamont, New York: Horizon Press, 1981; Corliss Lamont Website, http://www.corliss-lamont.org/The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive.
85

Stacewicz, 205; Nicosia, Home to War, 36, 41, 45, 49-50; Letterhead Memorandum, FBI, “GIs and Vietnam Veterans Against the War: Information Concerning”, November 11, 1968, FBI HQ 100-451697, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-451697 Section 01, 3-8 (September 15, 2004); Report, Los Angeles FBI, “COMINFIL, GIs and Vietnam Veterans Against the War, formerly known as Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, February 18, 1969, FBI HQ 100-451697, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-451697 Section 01, 38-39 (September 15, 2004).
86 87

Nicosia, Home to War, 41-49.

On Schnall, see excerpt from Howard Zinn, “The Impossible Victory: Vietnam”, A People’s History of the United States, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1980, reprinted online at Third World Traveler, http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Zinn/Vietnam_PeoplesHx.html (September 9, 2004).
88

On the Presidio 27 Mutiny, see Randy Rowland, “The Presidio Mutiny”, Vietnam Veterans Against the War Anti-Imperialist, from StormWarning! 31, Spring 1995, online at http://www.oz.net/~vvawai/sw/sw31/pgs_35-44/presidio_mutiny.html (September 9,

2004); Brandt Zembsch, “Hallinan Has Made a Career of Law and Disorder”, ChronWatch, March 4, 2003 (September 9, 2004). On Terence Hallinan and the Hallinan family, cf. “Terence Hallinan”, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, May 2000, online at Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, http://www.ncjrs.org/html/ojjdp/2000_5_1/pag5.html (September 9, 2004); California Legislature, Thirteenth Report of the Senate Fact-Finding Subcommittee on UnAmerican Activities, 1965, online at Online Archive of California, http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt4w1003q8/ (September 9, 2004)/
89

On Priest, see letter from Cora Weiss, David Dellinger, Douglas Dowd, Sidney Lens, Sidney Peck, and Stewart Meacham to the editors, “New Mobilization”, The New York Review of Books, Volume 13, Number 8, November 6, 1969 (September 9, 2004); Malcolm Kovacs, “Seaman Roger Priest vs. the Navy”, Progressive Review, April 1970, 8; Col Robert D. Heinl, Jr., “The Collapse of the Armed Forces”, Armed Forces Journal, June 7, 1971, updated version online at Grover Furr’s Vietnam War Page, http://www.chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/Vietnam/heinl.html (September 9, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 42-43, 48. On the Stern Family Fund, see “Stern Family Fund”, ActivistCash.com, http://www.activistcash.com/foundation.cfm/did/486 (September 9, 2004); Vincent Stehle, “Considering the Question of Perpetuity”, excerpt from Investment Issues for Family Funds: Managing and Maximizing Your Philanthropic Dollars, Chapter 1, reprinted online at National Center for Family Philanthropy, http://www.ncfp.org/publications-excerpt-investments.html (September 9, 2004); Don Hazen, “David Hunter, Philanthropic Pioneer, Dies at 84”, AlterNet, http://www.alternet.org/story/10142/, November 28, 2000; Powell, 15-17, 29, 152, 230, 231, 236, 237, 241-242, 368. On the Institute for Policy Studies, see The Institute for Policy Studies, http://www.ips-dc.org/overview.htm (September 9, 2004); Powell; Entry for ”Institute for Policy Studies (IPS)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; Entries for “Institute for Policy Studies: Marxist Think Tank” and “The IPS Fellows” at Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/bioleft.htm (September 9, 2004).
90

On O’Dwyer, see ”In Honor of Paul O’Dwyer”, Congressional Record—Senate, 105th Congress—2nd Session (1998), S-7608, July 7, 1998, located online through Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet, http://thomas.loc.gov (September 9, 2004); Letter from Cora Weiss, David Dellinger, Donald Kalish, Douglas Dowd, Sidney Lens, Sidney Peck, Stewart Meacham, and Terry Hallinan to the editors, “November Mobilization”, The New York Review of Books, Volume 13, Number 9, November 20, 1969, reprinted online at http://www.nybooks.com/articles/11139 (September 9, 2004); John Herbers, “250,000 War Protestors Stage Peaceful Rally in Washington; Militants Stir Clashes Later”, The New York Times, November 25, 1969, reprinted online at CINEMOD: Experimental Films of Dominic Angerame, http://www.cinemod.net/docs/60sarticle.html (September 9, 2004).
91 92 93

Stacewicz, 205-211; Nicosia, Home to War, 43-49. See Note 45. Nicosia, Home to War, 49.

94 95

Stacewicz, 205-212; Nicosia, Home to War, 49-55.

Nicosia, Home to War, 51, 128; Marc Morano, “Kerry-linked Anti-War Group Can’t Bury Deceit”, CNSNews.com, http://www.cnsnews.com/Politics/Archive/200403/POL20040303a.html, March 3, 2004 (September 9, 2004).
96 97

Nicosia, Home to War, 50-55, 59-60.

”Black Panther Party”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Panther_Party (September 15, 2004); ”Black Panthers”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USApantherB.htm (September 15, 2004); Huey P. Newton, The Huey P. Newton Reader, with foreword by Fredrika Newton and introduction by David Hilliard, edited by David Hilliard and Donald Weise, New York: Seven Stories Press, 2002; Bobby Seale, A Lonely Rage: The Autobiography of Bobby Seale, New York: Times Books, 1978; Eldridge Cleaver, Soul on Ice, with introduction by Maxwell Geismar, New York: Dell, 1968; Philip S. Foner, The Black Panthers Speak, with new foreword by Clayborne Carson, New York: Da Capo Press, 1995 (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1970); Huey P. Newton, et al, The Black Panther Leaders Speak: Huey P. Newton, Bobby Seale, Eldridge Cleaver and Company Speak Out through the Black Panther Party’s Official Newspaper, Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1976; ”Black Panther Newspaper Collection: Maoist International Movement”, Maoist International Movement (MIM), http://www.etext.org/Politics/MIM/bpp/index.html (September 9, 2004); “Interview with Huey P. Newton (1968)”, The Movement, August 1968, reprinted online at Hippyland, http://www.hippy.com/php/article.php?sid=76 (September 14, 2004); “History of the Black Panther Party”, The Black Panther Party Research Project, http://www.stanford.edu/group/blackpanthers/history.shtml (September 17, 2004); FBI files, “Black Panther Party”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/bpanther.htm (September 9, 2004); Powell, 29-30; John Elvin, “Hillary Hides Her Panther Fling”, Insight on the News, http://www.insightmag.com/news/2000/07/31/InvestigativeReport/Hillary.Hides.Her.Pa nther.Fling-210660.shtml (September 18, 2004).
98

”Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student_Nonviolent_Coordinating_Committee (September 15, 2004); ”Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAsncc.htm (September 15, 2004); Jonathan I.Z. Agronsky, Marion Barry: The Politics of Race, Latham, New York: British American Publishing, 1991; Julian Bond, “SNCC: What We Did—Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee”, Monthly Review, October 2000, online at LookSmart, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_5_52/ai_66937932 (September 15, 2004); John Lewis with Michael D’Orso, Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998; Howard Zinn, SNCC: The New Abolitionists, Boston: Beacon Press, 1965; John Lewis, “My Biography”, Congressman John Lewis: Georgia’s 5th Congressional District, http://www.house.gov/johnlewis/bio.html (September 15, 2004); SNCC 1960-1966: Six years of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, http://www.ibiblio.org/sncc/ (September 15, 2004); Stokely Carmichael, Ready for Revolution: The Life and

Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture), with Ekwueme Michael Thelwell, New York: Scribner, 2003; “Kwame Ture: His Last Words! Organize! Organize!”, Kwame Ture (formerly known as Stokely Carmichael, http://www.kwameture.com/ (September 15, 2004); Elizabeth Martinez, “The Venceremos Brigade Still Means, ‘We Shall Overcome’: After 30 years of constant activism, the Venceremos Brigade continues to be a unique pillar of the U.S. left”, Z Magazine, http://www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/Martinez2.htm (September 15, 2004); “Sixties Project: Primary Document Archive: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)”, The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary.html (September 15, 2004); Robin D.G. Kelley, Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists during the Great Depression, Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1990, 229-230; FBI files, “Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/sncc.htm (September 9, 2004); Powell, 29-30.
99

Gitlin, 280-281, 348-352, 377-408; “Sixties Project: Primary Document Archive: Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)”, The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary.html (September 15, 2004); ”SDS”, Maoist International Movement (MIM), http://www.etext.org/Politics/MIM/sds/index.html (September 9, 2004); Alan Adelson, SDS, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972; “Who we are and what we do”, Venceremos Brigade, http://www.venceremosbrigade.org/aboutVB.htm (September 15, 2004); Martinez; FBI files, “Weather Underground Organization (WUO)”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/weather.htm (September 9, 2004); “National Lawyers Guild & its Terrorist Network”; Juan F. Benemelis, Las guerras secretas de Fidel Castro, Grupo de Apoyo a la Democracia, Capitulo 12, “Los Macheteros de Puerto Rico”, online at Grupo de Apoyo a la Democracia, http://www.gadcuba.org/Guerras%20Secretas/Index.htm, translation at http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.gadcuba.org/Guerra s%2520Secretas/Los%2520Macheteros%2520de%2520Puero%2520Rico.htm&prev=/s earch%3Fq%3Djulie%2Bnichamin%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8 (September 15, 2004).
100

Stacewicz, 265-266; Nicosia, Home to War, 53-54; 67; 150-152; Memo from New York SAC to FBI Director, “Proposed Peace March from Morristown, New Jersey to Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, September 4-7, 1970, Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, August 20, 1970, 3, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 92 (September 4, 2004).

John Kerry's Fellow Travellers
A 5-part series exposing John Kerry's Communist connections.

Part 4: Subversion in the Senate: Kerry's Communist Constituency
By Fedora *NOTE: The term "fellow traveller" as used in this article series refers to someone who is not a member of the Communist Party (CP) but regularly engages in actions which advance the Party's program. Some apparent fellow travellers may actually be "concealed party members": members of the CP who conceal their membership. Which of these classifications is applicable to the Kerrys is a question this series leaves unresolved. This series does not argue for any direct evidence of Richard or John Kerry or other members of the Kerry family belonging to the CP. What this series does argue for is a consistent pattern of the Kerry family working with Communists and Communist fellow travellers in a way that advances the Communist program. Introduction Part 4 of this series, "Hanoi John", described John Kerry's collaboration with Communist-associated antiwar groups during the period between his early Congressional runs in 1970 and 1972. After Kerry's 1972 loss, he took a hiatus from politics to earn his law degree and serve as an Assistant DA, paving the way for him to re-enter politics as Lieutenant Governor to Michael Dukakis in 1982 and as US Senator in 1984. As Senator, Kerry resumed his collaboration with America's enemies, undermining the military and the intelligence community, betraying Vietnam POWs and MIAs, and receiving financial rewards from Communist and terrorist benefactors. Kerry Joins the Antiwar Lobby Kerry's 1984 campaign platform was characterized by radical opposition to the Reagan administration's defense policies. Kerry proposed slashing $52 billion from the defense budget, freezing nuclear weapons development, and eliminating such weapons programs as the Apache helicopter, cruise missiles, the Stealth bomber, the MX missile, and the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), among others.1 Kerry specifically crafted his platform on these issues to win the approval of Paul Walker, a representative of the influential political action committee Freeze Voter '84, whose support in the 1984 campaign was crucial for Massachusetts Democrats.2 Freeze Voter '84 was an arm of the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign (NWFC) or "Freeze". The Freeze had been founded in 1980 by Randall Forsberg, founder of the Institute for Defense & Disarmament Studies (IDDS).3 Forsberg was associated with the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS),4 a left-wing think tank linked to the KGB and Cuban intelligence,5 and linked to the Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) when John Kerry belonged to that organization.6 In 1982 Forsberg had travelled with an IPS delegation on a KGB-

arranged trip to Moscow to discuss arms control and disarmament with Soviet representatives.7 Under Forsberg's leadership, Freeze drew together a coalition of Communist front groups and fellow travellers, including the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), Clergy and Laity Concerned (CALC), the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE), the War Resisters League (WRL), and the Women's International Leagure for Peace and Freedom (WILPF).8 Paul Walker, who then sat on the Freeze Voter '84 executive committee, later became an informal advisor to Kerry.9 He currently sits on the board of Global Green USA, an affiliate of Green Cross International (GCI), an international environmentalist group led by former Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev.10 Kerry had first joined forces with the Freeze while running for Lieutenant Governor in 1982. At that time he spoke at a June 12 New York Freeze rally which had been organized by Leslie Cagan of Mobilization for Survival (MFS), an IPS-organized group led by a coalition of Vietnam-era antiwar leaders which included former VVAW ally Sidney Peck, founder of the Communist front group the People's Coalition for Peace and Justice (PCPJ).11 Kerry again ran on a Freeze platform during his 1984 Senate campaign,12 and ever since becoming a Senator, he has been a consistent ally of the antiwar lobby in Congress.13 Protesting Another War in Nicaragua One of Kerry's first antiwar acts as Senator came just weeks after he took office, when in April 1985 he joined Senator Tom Harkin, another former Vietnam War protestor,14 in travelling to Nicaragua on a self-appointed "fact-finding" mission to find evidence that the Reagan administration had exaggerated the Communist threat posed by the Sandinista regime. Later in 1985, Kerry's staff received a tip alleging illegal CIA support to the Sandinistas' enemies, the Contras. Follow-up investigation of the tip Kerry's staff received, in conjunction with a leak to the Lebanese paper Ash-Shiraa, led to what became the Iran-Contra scandal.15 A few days after Kerry's visit to Nicaragua, Sandinista leaders flew to Moscow to talk to Soviet leaders about strengthening Soviet-Nicaraguan ties.16 The Soviets had been active in Latin America since the 1920s, and had been increasing their activity significantly since Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba in 1959. Cuba had initially taken the initiative in supporting the Nicaraguan Communists in 1978, and with Cuban support the Sandinistas had succeeded in overthrowing the government in 1979. Impressed with Cuba's success, the Soviets began helping Cuba consolidate support of the new Sandinista regime from 1979 on.17 In this they were aided by the pro-Cuban lobby in the United States, which had allied with the antiwar movement in the 1960s and had grown stronger in the 1970s with the support of the Carter administration's new Latin American policy. Carter's policy, which had been influenced by an Institute for Policy Studies report called The Southern Connection, shifted the emphasis of US foreign policy from containing Communism to spreading "human rights", which became a pretext for spreading socialism. Carter's policy was supported by a pro-Castro network which came to be centered around the IPS and a number of associated groups. When Reagan came to power and began opposing the Sandinistas and aiding the Contras, the US pro-Castro network responded by forming a new IPS spinoff to support the Sandinistas, the Policy Alternatives for the Caribbean and Central America (PACCA). IPS

and PACCA circulated a report praising the Sandinistas and attacking the Contras in order to discourage Congress from passing an aid package to the Contras that was due to be voted on in spring 1985.18 Kerry and Harkin's trip to Nicaragua was made on the eve of the Contra aid vote in an attempt to influence it. The trip was arranged by Peter Kornbluh, an IPS scholar. During this period Kerry's legislative aide was an IPS member named Gary Porter, who had previously worked for a KGB-linked pro-Vietcong news outlet called Dispatch News Service. Kerry praised an IPS report attacking Reagan's Latin American policy.19 The tip which alerted Kerry's staff to the CIA Contra operation came through the International Center for Development Policy (ICDP), an IPS-associated think tank. The ICDP had been founded by Lindsay Mattison, who was linked to Cuban intelligence agent Orlando Letelier, and the FBI investigated several of its members for contact with the Soviet Union, Cuba, and Nicaragua.20 Kerry's investigation was also assisted by the Christic Institute, a spinoff of the Quixote Center, a group that funneled money to the Sandinistas.21 Kerry's colleague Harkin helped raise money for front groups supporting the Sandinistas and other Communist groups in Latin America.22 Kerry's contact with this network of associates prompted the FBI to probe whether his investigation of the Contras was being assisted by Nicaraguan intelligence.23 Subverting the CIA Kerry used the exposure of the Contra operation to undermine the CIA by reviving a line of propaganda the VVAW and antiwar movement had previously used during the Vietnam War, which alleged official US complicity in drug dealing by CIA assets. In addition to informing Kerry about the Contra operation itself, the ICDP and Christic Institute provided witnesses who alleged to Kerry's staff that some of the CIA's Contra assets were dealing drugs. Kerry's investigation of these allegations led to his chairing of a Senate subcommittee investigation of terrorism, narcotics, and intelligence operations, which in turn led to Kerry's participation in a related investigation of a bank with intelligence community connections that was being used to launder narcoterrorism money, the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI).24 Kerry's staff and its allies at the ICDP and Christic Institute assisted antiwar authors who spun the results of Kerry's investigation so as to imply that the Reagan-Bush CIA as an institution was complicit in narcotics trafficking and that conversely allegations of Communist complicity in narotrafficking were a red-baiting smear.25 In fact, historically drug dealers have worked with Communists as well as nonCommunists. In the 1950s Cuba emerged as a key center for distributing heroin to the Mafia in Miami, New Orleans, and Dallas, and after Castro took over in 1959 Cuba remained a key distribution point. In the late 1970s and 1980s as the Medellin Cartel was gaining control of the growing cocaine traffic, Castro allowed cartel cofounders Robert Vesco and Carlos Lehder-Rivas to use Cuban waters and airspace for drug smuggling. Meanwhile in the late 1970s smugglers in Central America who would later work for the Medellin Cartel smuggled weapons to the Cuban-backed Sandinistas, and used the opportunity to set up drug-smuggling channels in Nicaragua and the surrounding region.26 Similarly, on the BCCI end of Kerry's investigation, one of the BCCI-linked drug dealers Kerry investigated, Monzer Al-Kassar, had links to Soviet intelligence and Middle Eastern terrorist groups.27

Kerry's investigations perfunctorily noted some of this in passing but reserved their focus for allegations that some of the smugglers who had previously worked with the Sandinistas were now using the CIA's Contra operation to smuggle drugs for the Medellin Cartel. Meanwhile, a Christic Institute lawsuit assisted by Kerry's staff similarly attempted to link the CIA's Contra asset John Hull and other members of the CIA's Contra operation to Medellin Cartel leaders Pablo Escobar and Jorge Ochoa. The allegations which triggered the Kerry investigation and Christic lawsuit had initially been collected by the ICDP and Christic from several key witnesses. The first was Jack Terrell, a mercenary who had volunteered to aid the Contras in 1984 and was suspected by US intelligence of being a Nicaraguan agent.28 Terrell directed Kerry's staff to another key witness, Steven Carr, an imprisoned mercenary who had been discharged from the Navy for dealing drugs before briefly joining the Contras, and had initially reported his allegations of Contra drug dealing to California State Assemblyman Tom Hayden, husband of Jane Fonda, then a supporter of pro-Sandinista groups.29 Carr helped elicit the cooperation of another key witness, his former associate Jesus Garcia, then imprisoned for illegal firearm trafficking.30 Terrell, Carr, and Kerry's staff also assisted a lawsuit filed by the Christic Institute against allegedly CIA-linked individuals on behalf of Tony Avirgan, an ABC cameraman, and his wife Martha Honey, a Canadian Broadcast Corporation/London Sunday Times journalist.31 Avirgan had been injured in a bomb blast while on assignment from ABC in Costa Rica to cover a May 1984 press conference where Contra faction leader Edén Pastora was planning to denounce other factions of the Contras and announce the formation of his own Contra faction. Pastora a former Sandinista, had refused to work under the Contra groups backed by the CIA and as a result had been cut off by the CIA earlier in 1984. Subsequently for funding he had turned to George Morales32, a drug dealer linked to the Medellin Cartel and to Cuba.33 Pastora's main rival within the Contras was CIA asset John Hull, a prime target of Kerry's investigation and of the Christic lawsuit, which attempted to link him to the Medellin Cartel's Pablo Escobar and Jorge Ochoa. Kerry built his case against Hull on the testimony of Terrell, Carr, Garcia, and five other key witnesses with criminal backgrounds and clear conflicts of interest: Pastora's cocaine supplier Morales; Morales' pilot Gary Betzer; Floyd Carlton, a pilot who smuggled drugs for Manuel Noriega, who had recently fallen out with the Medellin Cartel and been targeted for assassination by Escobar; Jose Blandon, who was also linked to Noriega as well as to the Medellin Cartel's main rival in the cocaine trade, the Cali Cartel, which was then waging a vendetta against Escobar; and Werner Lotz, a convicted drug dealer who had been the personal pilot of Medellin Cartel cofounder Robert Vesco.34 Relying on these questionable witnesses, Kerry was unable to gather enough evidence against Hull or anyone else connected with the CIA to warrant any US law-enforcement action. As CIA Central American Task Force head Alan Fiers summarized the results of the investigation of Hull: "It is possible that John Hull's ranch was used as a transshipment point for drugs. We never had any hard proof of that other than the claims made by various convicted narcotics traffickers. It is possible it could have been used without Hull's knowledge. It is also possible he could have been a willing accomplice in using it. We just don't have any significant information about that."35 The Costa Rican government dropped a narcotics case against Hull it had initiated, the Christic Institute's lawsuit was summarily dismissed, and a later critical review failed to find any substantiation of Kerry's allegations of CIA complicity in Contra drug trafficking.36

Meanwhile, the Justice Department complained that Kerry's investigation was compromising open investigations of drug traffickers.37 In order to build its case against the CIA, Kerry's subcommittee arranged immunity for a major drug trafficker, Michael Palmer--a drug-dealing partner of Manuel Noriega's associate Steven Kalish--in exchange for Palmer's testimony.38 And when Kerry's investigation of BCCI began to point towards Clark Clifford, a major Democratic Party figure who had once been an attorney for the Kennedy family, Kerry--prodded by Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and senior Democrats Pamela Harriman and Claiborne Pell--declined to press the investigation, on the grounds that "I'm not going to humiliate an old man," recalled Kerry's cousin and staff member David McKean, who later wrote a book on Clifford.39 It seems curious that Kerry expressed such qualms about humiliating the 84-year-old Clifford as meanwhile he was doing his best to humiliate 77-year-old Ronald Reagan with his investigation of the Contras. Betraying the US in Vietnam Again After undermining the CIA's war against the Sandinistas, Kerry returned to his old role of betraying US troops in Vietnam. The United States had long sought to pressure Vietnam to provide complete information on POWs and MIAs as a condition for normalizing diplomatic relations. In 1991, Kerry became chairman of a Senate committee that was assigned to gather information on POWs and MIAs, provoking conservative objections that were surprisingly deflected by Kerry's previous longtime enemy, Vietnam veteran John McCain. In 1993 Kerry's committee concluded that there was no evidence of remaining POWs in Vietnam. Then in 1995 Kerry joined McCain in a campaign to help the Clinton administration to accelerate normalization. Following a proposed resolution by Kerry and McCain, Clinton announced normalization of US relations with Vietnam on July 11, 1995.40 Kerry's report on POWs and MIAs noted that POW negotiations between the US and Vietnam had been initiated in the 1960s and 1970s by antiwar groups, notably the Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam (COLIFAM), cochaired by David Dellinger and Cora Weiss. What Kerry's report failed to mention was that Weiss and COLIFAM had collaborated with the North Vietnamese and Kerry's own antiwar group, Vietnam Veterans Against the War, in using POWs as hostages to extort POW families into pressuring the Nixon administration to end the war in return for promised POW releases. VVAW leader Barry Romo joined a COLIFAM delegation to Hanoi, and Weiss and other COLIFAM officers sat alongside VVAW leader Al Hubbard on the Coordinating Committee of the People's Coalition for Peace and Justice, a Communist front group directed by North Vietnam.41 As it had during the Vietnam War era, Vietnam continued to make promises about POWs during normalization negotiations, and Kerry promised that normalizing efforts with Vietnam would make information about POWs more accessible. To hasten normalization, Kerry's committee conspired with debunkers of POW reports by coaching witnesses, failing to subpoena files, and shredding documents. Early into Kerry's investigation, the head of the Pentagon's POW/MIA office, Colonel Millard Peck, resigned in disgust, complaining, "The mind-set to 'debunk' is alive and well. It is held at all levels. . .Practically all analysis is directed to finding fault with the source. Rarely has there been any effective, active follow-through on any of the sightings. . .The sad fact is that. . .a cover-up may be in progress. The entire charade does not appear to be an honest effort and may

never have been." In the aftermath of Kerry's report, relations with Vietnam were normalized, but none of the promised information on POWs or MIAs was ever delivered.42 Meanwhile as Kerry's committee was finalizing its report in late 1992, in anticipation of normalization of US-Vietnamese relations, a $905 million port development deal was signed between Vietnam and a Boston-based company which had been awarded a contract to be the exclusive real estate agent representing Vietnam, Colliers International. Colliers International was headed by former Boston Redevelopment Authority executive C. Stewart Forbes, cousin of John Forbes Kerry. A Colliers partner, Spauding and Slye Colliers, donated $100,000 to pay for holding the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Kerry's hometown of Boston.43 Payoffs from China, Kosovo, and Iran After selling out American POWs to Vietnam, Kerry continued to profit financially from Communist nations and terrorist groups. In 1996, during the midst of a massive Chinese bribery campaign of US politicians, Kerry received illegal campaign contributions from Johnny Chung, a Chinese agent seeking to raise funds for the Chinese army. In return Kerry arranged for Chung and a Chinese military representative to meet with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.44 In July 2004, Kerry received a donation from Florin Krasniqi of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), an Albanian militant group linked to Al Qaeda and Iranian terrorists. KLA leader Hashim Thaci was invited to attend the Democratic National Convention later that same month.45 Finally, Kerry's 2004 campaign has received over $500,000 raised by Iranian-American businessman Hassan Nemazee, who leads efforts to normalize US relations with Iran and has been a major contributor to Kerry since the 1990s. In October 2004 during the Presidential debates, Kerry proposed that the US should provide Iran with nuclear fuel in exchange for promises that Iran will only use nuclear power for peaceful purposes.46 Conclusion From betraying American troops in 1971 to undermining the War on Terror in 2004, Kerry's political career has been a consistent record of siding with America's enemies. And now today this career traitor has the brazen audacity to portray himself as a patriot as he campaigns in pursuit of the ultimate irony: he wants to be Commander-in-Chief. Next: "Part 5: John Kerry vs. the War on Terror: Candidate Kerry's Subversive Campaign" Notes
1

Brian C. Mooney, "Taking one prize, then a bigger one", June 19, 2003, Part 5 of "John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making", The Boston Globe,

http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/061903.shtml, June 15-21, 2003; John Risvold, A Stronger America? The Case Against John Kerry, Conrad Publishing Company, 2004, 31-46, 91-94.
2

Mooney; Duncan Currie, "Another War He Didn't Like: John Kerry's anti-Cold War ‘84 Campaign", The Weekly Standard, Volume 10, Issue 3, September 27, 2004, online at http://www.weeklystandard.com/Utilities/printer_preview.asp?idArticle=4651&R=A02E8 A8.
3

On the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign, see "IDDS Staff Biographies", Institute for Defense & Disarmament Studies, http://www.idds.org/staffbios.html; Randall Forsberg, "Randall Forsberg discusses her work and the current international situation", Peace Magazine, August/September 1989, 10, online at http://www.peacemagazine.org/archive/v05n4p10.htm ; David Adams, The American Peace Movements, New Haven, Connecticut: Advocate Press, 2002 (1985), Chapter 6, 15-18, online at Global Movement for a Culture of Peace, http://www.culture-ofpeace.info/apm/chapter6-15.html; "Nuclear Freeze Movement", Questia, http://www.questia.com/popularSearches/nuclear_freeze_movement.jsp; Entry for "National Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign Clearinghouse (NNWFCC)" in "Glossary", The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive, Foreword by Congressman John Ashbrook, Afterword by Helmut Sauer, member of the West Germany Bundestag, Alexandria, Virginia: Western Goals, 1982, http://charlestonvoice.netfirms.com/PeaceGrpGloss.htm; S. Steven Powell, Covert Cadre: Inside the Institute for Policy Studies, introduction by David Horowitz, Ottawa, Illinois: Green Hill Publishers, Inc., 1987, 20, 295, 314, 336-340.
4 5

Powell, 20, 295, 314, 336-340.

On the Institute for Policy Studies, see The Institute for Policy Studies, http://www.ipsdc.org/overview.htm; Powell; Entry for "Institute for Policy Studies (IPS)" in "Glossary", The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; Entries for "Institute for Policy Studies: Marxist Think Tank" and "The IPS Fellows" at Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/bioleft.htm.
6

See Part 3 in this series, "Hanoi John: Kerry and the Antiwar Movement's Communist Connections", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1241847/posts.
7 8

Powell, 336-340.

On the American Friends Service Committee, see "AFSC History", American Friends Service Committee, http://www.afsc.org/about/history.htm (September 7, 2004); "American Friends Service Committee: Records, 1940-1947", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG001025/dg002.AFSC/afsc.htm; FBI files, "American Friends Service Committee", online at Federal Bureau of Investigation-Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/committe.htm; Entry for "American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)" in "Glossary", The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; "American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)", Biographical Sketches of the Left,

http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/afsc.htm; Gordon Lamb, "American Friends? Hardly", FrontPageMagazine.com, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=8215, June 5, 2003. On Clergy and Laity Concerned, see see FBI files, "Clergy and Laity Concerned About Vietnam", online at Federal Bureau of Investigation-Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/clviet.htm; entry for "Clergy and Laity Concerned (CALC)", in "Glossary", The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive. On SANE, see "Communist Infiltration in the Nuclear Test Ban Movement", May 13, 1960, Box 244:6548 and "Testimony of Dr. Linus Pauling", June and October 1960, Box 244:6549, in Series IV: Investigative Files, Subseries C: Senate Internal Security Subcommittee Reports, 1956-1970, Thomas J. Dodd Papers, Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries; US Senate, Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Final Report, Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports of Intelligence Agencies and the Rights of Americans, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976, Book III, 17; Athan Theoharis and John Stuart Cox, The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition, Temple University, 1988; New York: Bantam Books, 1990, 447. On the War Resisters League, see "War Resisters' International", War Resisters International, < a href="http://www.wri-irg.org/wrihist.htm">http://www.wriirg.org/wrihist.htm; "About WRL: History", War Resisters League, http://www.warresisters.org/about_wrl.htm#hist; "War Resisters League: Records, 1923-date", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG026-050/DG040WRL.html; Sanderson Beck, "Women for Peace", Literary Works of Sanderson Beck, http://www.san.beck.org/GPJ28-WomenforPeace.html; "Jessie Wallace Hugham", Woman a Week Archives, http://www.awomanaweek.com/hughan.html; "Tracy D. Mygatt & Frances Witherspoon Papers, 1835, 1850, 1909-1973", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG051099/DG089MygWith.html; "A.J. Muste: Papers,1920-1967", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG026-050/dg050muste.htm; "Protests of A.J. Muste", Literary Works of Sanderson Beck, http://www.san.beck.org/WP25-Muste.html; FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) Records: War Resisters League, 1939-1962, online guide at Marquette University, http://www.marquette.edu/library/collections/archives/Mss/FBI/mss-fbi-s-9.html; Entry for "War Resisters League (WRL)" in "Glossary", The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; "Abraham Johannes Muste", Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/muste.htm. On the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, see see "Women's International League for Peace and Freedom", Women In American History by Encylopaedia Britannica, http://search.eb.com/women/articles/Women's_International_League_for_Peace_and_F reedom.html; "History", Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, http://www.wilpf.org/section/us%20wilpf.htm ; "Women's International League for Peace and Freedom Collection (DG043)", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG026-050/dg043wilpf/; FBI files, "Jane Addams", online at Federal Bureau of Investigation-Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/addams.htm; J. Edgar Hoover, Masters of Deceit: The Story of Communism in American and How to Fight It, New York: Pocket Books, Inc., 1961 (New York: Henry Holt, 1958), 220-221; Michael Tremoglie, "Not In Our Name and the World Wide Terrorism Web", FrontPageMagazine.com,

http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=6722, March 19, 2003.
9

Mooney.

10

"About Global Green: Staff and Board", Global Green USA, http://www.globalgreen.org/about/staff_board.html.
11

Currie. On Mobilization for Surival, see Powell, 307-310. On Peck and the People's Coalition for Peace and Justice, see "Hanoi John: Kerry and the Antiwar Movement's Communist Connections", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1241847/posts; Jerome R. Corsi and Scott Swett, "John Kerry and the VVAW: Hanoi's American Puppets? Newly discovered documents link Vietnam Veterans Against the War to Vietnamese communists", www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/staticpages/index.php?page=puppets, October 26, 2004.
12 13 14

Mooney; Currie. Risvold, 31-46, 91-94.

On Harkin, see "Harkin, Tom", Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1992.
15

John Aloysius Farrell, "With probes, making his mark", June 20, 2003, Part 6 of "John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making", The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/062003.shtml, June 15-21, 2003. On Iran-Contra, see "Iran-Contra Affair", Wikipeda, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IranContra_Affair; Lawrence E. Walsh, Independent Counsel for United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993, Volume I online at FAS: Federation of American Scientists, http://fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/.
16 17

Farrell, "With probes, making his mark".

Central Intelligence Agency, Soviet Policies and Activities in Latin America and the Caribbean: Special National Intelligence Estimate (SNIE 11/80/90-82), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 25, 1982, 11-13, online at Central Intelligence Agency Director of Central Intelligence Electronic Reading Room: Special Collections: Declassified National Intelligence Estimates on the Soviet Union and International Communism, http://www.foia.cia.gov, NARA # NN3-263-094-007; 02/04/1994.
18 19 20

Powell, 223-245. Powell, 22, 35, 226-227, 243, 262.

Farrell, "With probes, making his mark"; Ross Gelbspan, Break-Ins, Death Threats and the FBI: The Covert War Against the Central America Movement, Boston: South End

Press, 1991, 191-193; Peter Dale Scott and Jonathan Marshall, Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991, 125-164. On the International Center for Development Policy, Letelier, and foreign intelligence agencies, see Powell, 211-222, 236-238; Scott and Marshall, 149, 246n8.
21

Scott and Marshall, 118-119, 125-164. On the Christic Institute and Quixote Center, see Quixote Center, http://www.quixote.org/; "The Quixote Complex", Catholic Culture, http://www.catholicculture.org/docs/doc_view.cfm?recnum=2903; Daniel Sheehan, "Ollie North and the Operation", 1986, online at totse.com, http://www.totse.com/en/conspiracy/institutional_analysis/oln123ha.html; "Media Choke on Not-Guilty Finding", AIM Report, September-B 1987, online at Accuracy In Media, http://www.aim.org/publications/aim_report/1987/09b.html; "AIM Report: Kerry Subverted Reagan's Pro-Freedom Policies-July A", AIM Report, July 12, 2004, online at Accuracy In Media, http://www.aim.org/aim_report_print/1786_0_4_0/; "Churches & Organizations Promoting Liberation Theology", Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/churclib.htm; FBI files, "Christic Institute", online at Federal Bureau of Investigation-Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/christic_institute.htm; Gelbspan, 190; Scott and Marshall, 138, 142-145; cf. Central Intelligence Agency Inspector General, Report of Investigation: Allegation of Connections Between CIA and the Contras in Cocaine Trafficking to the United States (96-0143-IG): Volume II: The Contra Story, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 8, 1998, Appendix D: "Potential Disinformation and CIA-Contra Drug Allegations", online at Central Intelligence Agency: Director of Central Intelligence, http://www.cia.gov/cia/reports/cocaine/index.html.
22 23

"AIM Report: Kerry Subverted Reagan's Pro-Freedom Policies-July A".

The Boston Globe, March 24, 1988, cited in Gelbspan, 193, 247n27. Cf. Scott and Marshall, 148-152.
24

On Kerry's narcoterrorism investigation, see Farrell, "With probes, making his mark"; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations, Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989, body online at The National Security Archive, http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB113/north06.pdf, selections online at Pink Noise Studios, http://www.webcom.com/pinknoiz/covert/contracoke.html. On the Bank of Credit and Commerce International see "Bank of Credit and Commerce International", Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_Credit_and_Commerce_International; Senator John Kerry and Senator Hank Brown to United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, The BCCI Affair, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992, online at FAS: Federation of American Scientists, http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/1992_rpt/bcci/.
25

Alfred W. McCoy, The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, Brooklyn, New York: Lawrence Hill Books, 1991 (New York: Harper and Row, 1972), xi, xvii, xx; 478-484; Gelbspan, viii-ix, 191; Scott and Marshall, ix, xv.

26

Mike Sylvester, "Mob Connections: Jack Ruby, Smuggling With and Spying on Communists, 1938-1958", JFK Lancer: John F. Kennedy Assassination Information, http://www.jfklancer.com/mobconnections.html; McCoy, 40-41, 74-75, 481; James Mills, The Underground Empire: Where Crime and Governments Embrace, New York: Dell Publishing Co., Inc., 1986, 74, 549-551, 554-557, 840-844, 874, 1127-1128, 11321133, 1143, 1146-1148; Stephanie Tepper and William Cran, "Cuba and Cocaine", Frontline Episode 910, February 5, 1991, transcript online at PBS: Frontline, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/archive/cubaandcocaine.html; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations, Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, 14-34, 62-69 (pdf pages 13-23, 37-40); Thomas A. Constantine to House International Relations Committee Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere, "Drug Control in the Western Hemisphere", DEA Congressional Testimony, June 6, 1996, online at DEA: U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/cngrtest/ct960606.htm.
27

On Monzer Al-Kassar, see Lawrence E. Walsh, Independent Counsel for United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters: Volume I: Investigations and Prosecutions, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993, Part V, Chapter 8, online at FAS: Federation of American Scientists, http://fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/; Senator John Kerry and Senator Hank Brown to United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, The BCCI Affair, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992, Appendix, online at FAS: Federation of American Scientists, http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/1992_rpt/bcci/; John Loftus and Mark Aarons, The Secret War Against the Jews: How Western Espionage Betrayed the Jewish People, New York: St. Martin's Griffin,1997 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994), 328, 381-488; Matthew Brunwasser, "Sierra Leone-Gunrunners, May 2002: Gallery of International Arms Dealers: Monzer Al Kassar: The Prince of Marbella: Arms To All Sides", PBS: Frontline/World, http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/sierraleone/alkassar.html.
28

On the intelligence community's suspicions of Terrell, see Scott and Marshall, 125128, 131-132, 140-147.
29

On Carr, see Mark Henry, "Mercenary Wrote to Hayden About Contra Aid", Los Angeles Times, December 19, 1986; Michael Fessier, Jr., "An American Contra: The Confused Life and Mysterious Death of Steven Carr", Los Angeles Times, May 31, 1987; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations, Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, 54n98 (pdf page 33); Scott and Marshall, 126, 132, 135, 154-156. On Fonda, see Scott and Marshall, 160.
30

On Garcia, see Fessier; Vince Bielski and Dennis Bernstein, "The dirty dealing in the underground contra aid network", In These Times, December 10-16, 1986, online at Flashpoints!, http://www.flashpoints.net/UndergroundContraAN.html; Scott and Marshall, 132-134, 150.
31

On Avirgan and Honey, see Sheehan; FBI files, "Christic Institute".

32

On Pastora, see Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations, Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, 41 (pdf file 26); Sheehan; McCoy, 479-482; Scott and Marshall, 8-9, 12-13, 67-68, 105, 109-114.
33

On Morales, see Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations, Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, 4953 (pdf file 30-32); McCoy, 481-482; Scott and Marshall, 111-117.
34

On Hull, see Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations, Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, 5359 (pdf file 32-35); FBI files, "Christic Institute", online at Federal Bureau of Investigation-Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/christic_institute.htm (see Page 2); "Other Individuals Named in the Contra Program: John Floyd Hull", Central Intelligence Agency Inspector General, Report of Investigation: Allegation of Connections Between CIA and the Contras in Cocaine Trafficking to the United States (96-0143-IG): Volume II: The Contra Story, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 8, 1998, online at Central Intelligence Agency: Director of Central Intelligence, http://www.cia.gov/cia/reports/cocaine/index.html. On the Medellin Cartel and Noriega, see Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations, Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, 85-87 (pdf file 48-49); "Interview: Fernando Arenas", PBS: Frontline: Drug Wars, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/interviews/arenas.html. On the Medellin and Cali cartels, see "Inside the $400 Billion Global Business: The Columbian Cartels", PBS: Frontline: Drug Wars, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/business/inside/colombian.html ; Scott and Marshall, 79-103.
35

"Other Individuals Named in the Contra Program: John Floyd Hull", Central Intelligence Agency Inspector General, Report of Investigation: Allegation of Connections Between CIA and the Contras in Cocaine Trafficking to the United States (96-0143-IG): Volume II: The Contra Story.
36

Central Intelligence Agency Inspector General, Report of Investigation: Allegation of Connections Between CIA and the Contras in Cocaine Trafficking to the United States (96-0143-IG): Volume II: The Contra Story; "Christic Institute v. Hull", online at Scarabbean Senior Secret Society, http://www.geocities.com/knoxvillegreenparty/iran_contra_christic_institute/christictlpj. html; Bill Davis, "Christic Died For Our Sins", Portland Free Press, November/December 1996, online at The Lighthouse Report, http://www.redshift.com/~damason/lhreport/articles/cristic.html; Scott and Marshall, 157-159; "Soundbytes: Don't Confuse Me With the Facts", MediaWatch, July 1988, online at Media Research Center, http://secure.mediaresearch.org/news/mediawatch/1988/mw19880701nbites.html. Cf. "Special Reports: Interview: Oliver North", PBS: Frontline: Drug Wars, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/special/north.html

37

Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations, Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, 39 (pdf page 25).
38

Cf. Paul Houston, "Pilot, Heavily Guarded, Testifies at Hearing: Undercover Drug Agent Tells of Helping Contras ", Los Angeles Times, April 7, 1988; Scott and Marshall, 165-166. On Palmer and Kalish, see Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations, Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, 48-49, 126-128, 168 (pdf pages 30, 69-70, 90); Scott and Marshall, .11, 17, 68-69, 165-166, 200n42, 219n30.
39

Farrell, "With probes, making his mark". On Clifford, see Clark Clifford, Counsel to the President: A Memoir, with Richard Holbrooke, New York: Random House, 1991; Douglas Frantz and David McKean, Friends in High Places: The Rise and Fall of Clark Clifford, Boston: Little, Brown, 1995; Senator John Kerry and Senator Hank Brown to United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, The BCCI Affair, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992, Chapter 13, online at FAS: Federation of American Scientists, http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/1992_rpt/bcci/.
40

"Timeline: Chronology of U.S-Vietnam Relations", Vietnam: Yesterday and Today, http://servercc.oakton.edu/~wittman/chronol.htm; John Aloysius Farrell, "Heroism, and growing concern about war", June 16, 2003, Part 7 of "At the center of power, seeking the summit", The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/062103.shtml, June 15-21, 2003; United States Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs, Report of the Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993, online at http://www.aiipowmia.com/ssc/. >41On the VVAW, Cora Weiss, and the Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam, see FBI files, "American POWs/MIAs in Southeast Asia", online at Federal Bureau of Investigation-Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/powsmias.htm , esp. Report, "Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam", February 6, 1973, FBI HQ 100-457899, Section 26, pdf file 26, 40-65 (esp. 55, 58-63, 65); United States Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs, Report of the Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993, SSC Report Section XXII: Accounting for Missing Servicemen, online at http://www.aiipowmia.com/ssc/; Powell, 38-39, 42; "Hanoi John: Kerry and the Antiwar Movement's Communist Connections", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1241847/posts. On the People's Coalition for Peace and Justice, see Note 11.
42

Sydney H. Schanberg, "When John Kerry's Courage Went M.I.A.: Senator Covered Up Evidence of P.O.W.'s Left Behind", The Village Voice, February 24, 2004, online at http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0408/schanberg.php.
43

Matt Carroll, "People: Forbes Heads Colliers", in "GTECH Target of Management LBO", Boston Globe, Aug 10, 1989, Page 56; Steve Brown, "Independent Firms Gain Global Ability", National Real Estate Investor, Volume 35, Issue 4, April 1993, 98-101; Lowell Ponte, "Cash-and-Kerry, Part Two", FrontPageMagazine.com,

http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=11940, January 28, 2004; "Page 2", Vietnam Veterans Against John Kerry, http://www.vietnamveteransagainstjohnkerry.com/page2.html.
44

Robert Suro, "Chung Makes Deal With Prosecutors", The Washington Post, March 6, 1998, Page A01, online at washingtonpost.com, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/politics/special/campfin/stories/cf030698.htm; Marvin Lee, "Sen. John Kerry Helped Chinese Penetrate U.S. Stock Market", The Washington Weekly, November 2, 1998, online at http://users.aol.com/patriot888/yearrat.txt; Ricki Magnussen and Marvin Lee, "Author: President Knew of Chinese Penetration", The Washington Weekly, May 3, 1999, online at http://www.mega.nu:8080/ampp/china/j82.html; Ponte, "Cash-andKerry, Part Two".
45

Srdja Trifkovic, "Kerry's Balkan Policy May Defeat Him", www.ChroniclesMagazine.org, http://www.chroniclesmagazine.org/News/Trifkovic04/NewsST101404.html, October 14, 2004; Andy Wilcoxson, "Kerry Campaign Financed By Terrorists", http://www.slobodanmilosevic.org, http://www.slobodan-milosevic.org/news/kerry101804.htm, October 18, 2004; Joseph Farah, "Suspected terror fund-raiser attended event for Kerry: KLA militant bonded with advisers, reportedly boasted of special favors", WorldNetDaily, http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=41072, October 25, 2004; FReeper StopDemocratsDotCom, "Investigation: Terrorist Organization linked to AlQaeda funded Kerry Campaign", Post 30 at "Al-Qaida ally attended fund-raiser for Kerry", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1255893/posts, October 25, 2004; Fr. Michael Reilly, "Kerry Campaign Linked to Fund-raiser for Terror Group", NewsMax.com, http://www.newsmax.com/archives/ic/2004/10/25/85141.shtml, October 25, 2004.
46

Lowell Ponte, "Cash-and-Kerry", FrontPageMagazine.com, http://frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=11939, January 27, 2004; Kenneth R. Timmerman, "John Kerry's Iranian-American Fundraisers", Insight on the News, http://www.insightmag.com/main.cfm?include=detail&storyid=622667, March 1, 2004; "Who Is Hassan Nemazee? And why does he want John Kerry in the White House?", CrushKerry.com, http://www.crushkerry.com/article-113--0-0.html, April 23, 2004; Marc Morano, "Top Kerry Donor Faces Iranian Propaganda Allegations", CNSNews.com, http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewPolitics.asp?Page=%5CPolitics%5Carchive%5C200410% 5CPOL20041012c.html, October 12, 2004; Jerome Corsi, "John Kerry's Irangate?", WorldNetDaily, http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=41044, October 22, 2004.

John Kerry's Fellow Travellers
A 5--part series exposing John Kerry's Communist connections.

Part 5: John Kerry vs. the War on Terror: Candidate Kerry's Subversive Campaign
By Fedora *NOTE: The term “fellow traveller" as used in this article series refers to someone who is not a member of the Communist Party (CP) but regularly engages in actions which advance the Party's program. Some apparent fellow travellers may actually be “concealed party members": members of the CP who conceal their membership. Which of these classifications is applicable to the Kerrys is a question this series leaves unresolved. This series does not argue for any direct evidence of Richard or John Kerry or other members of the Kerry family belonging to the CP. What this series does argue for is a consistent pattern of the Kerry family working with Communists and Communist fellow travellers in a way that advances the Communist program. Introduction Part 4 of this series, “Subversion in the Senate", continued the story of Kerry's collaboration with Communists beyond his VVAW days into his Senate career. This final article concludes with an examination of how even today Communists collaborate with Kerry's Presidential campaign. Kerry's Attack Dogs At the forefront of Kerry's campaigns since 1984 have been a group of veteran supporters Kerry currently calls his “Band of Brothers", centered around a group known as “The Doghunters" who heckle Kerry's opponents. The Doghunters got their name after James Shannon, a politician running against Kerry, used the phrase, “That dog won't hunt" in the process of accusing Kerry of flip--flopping on Vietnam, after which Kerry's supporters publicly harassed Shannon at every opportunity.1 Kerry's Dog Hunters have been led by Kerry's old Vietnam Veterans Against the War ally Chris Gregory, who helped Kerry start the Massachusetts branch of the VVAW.2 Another old VVAW member who has regularly aided Kerry's campaigns is Joe Bangert, who frequently travels to Vietnam.3 VVAW member Scott Camil, who proposed assassinating pro--war politicians in 1971, has also lent his support to Kerry's 2004 campaign, most recently expressing “outrage" at an anti--Kerry movie.4 Kerry's campaign is supported by numerous other old VVAW allies.5 The Brains Behind the Plan If the VVAW's Doghunters provide the “muscle" for Kerry's campaign, the campaign's “brain" is provided by a group of advisors with a left--wing foreign policy orientation.

In May 2003 Kerry's foreign policy team was joined by Rand Beers, a career diplomat who had been appointed to senior positions in the National Security Council and State Department by Clinton and had stayed on into the Bush administration before suddenly resigning on the eve of the war in Iraq.6 Beers helped Kerry pull together the nucleus of his foreign policy team.7 A key member of Kerry's team in its early stages was Gary Hart, Kerry's longtime liberal Senate ally. Like Kerry's VVAW, Hart had supported George McGovern's 1972 Presidential campaign and was linked to the Institute for Policy Studies and the IPS-associated Arms Control and Foreign Policy Caucus (ACFPC). More recently he had cochaired the Hart--Rudman Commission, a Clinton administration review of national security and counterterrorism which echoed Clinton's policies.8 Another early member of Kerry's foreign policy team was former Clinton Secretary of Defense William Perry, who had stirred controversy by negotiating the transfer of US military technology to China.9 A third early member of Kerry's foreign policy team was Richard Morningstar, a diplomat from the Clinton State Department. From 1995 to 1998 Morningstar had coordinated aid to the former Soviet Union, and in this capacity he had suppressed reports of US aid being diverted to fund the Russian military. Later Morningstar--a former Senior Vice President of the Overseas Private Investment Corporations (OPIC)---had advised Clinton on Caspian energy policy, a subject related to OPIC development of a major oil pipeline then being built from Turkey through Georgia to Azerbaijan, the Baku--Tbilisi--Ceyhan (BTC) Pipeline.10 As Kerry emerged from the primaries as the leading Democratic candidate, his team attracted other prominent liberal foreign policy leaders. One was former New York Times correspondent Leslie Gelb, a longtime ally of the KGB--linked Institute for Policy Studies, who is suspected of helping leak the Pentagon Papers, and is currently President Emeritus of the influential left--wing think tank the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR).11 Also advising Kerry's team was Zbigniew Brzezinski, cofounder of the socialistic foreign policy think tank the Trilateral Commission (TLC). As National Security Advisor to the Carter administration, Brzezinski had promoted a shift in foreign policy emphasis from containing Communism to promoting “human rights", which became a pretext for promoting socialism abroad. More recently Brzezinski has served as Clinton's emissary to Azerbaijan to promote the BTC Pipeline project.12 Also prominent on Kerry's team were top Clinton administration foreign policy figures, notably former UN ambassador and Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, a student of Brzezinski's, who implemented Clinton's disastrous policies towards the former Soviet bloc, China, and the Axis of Evil during the years leading up to 9/11;13 former UN ambassador Richard Holbrooke, who handled Clinton's Kosovo policy and has met on the Kerry campaign's behalf with representatives of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), an Albanian militant group linked to Al Qaeda and Iranian terrorists;14 and former National Security Advisor Sandy Berger, who had been intimately involved in Clinton's counterterrorist policies in the years leading up to 9/11, and who withdrew from the Kerry campaign after he came under investigation for stealing classified documents about Clinton's counterterrorist policies prior to testifying before the 9/11 Commission.15 As Kerry's campaign progressed, his foreign policy team gravitated increasingly towards the Alliance for American Leadership, an antiwar--oriented foreign policy center headed by former Clinton ambassador to Morocco Marc Ginsberg. While serving as ambassador,

Ginsberg had coordinated new US trade and investment initiatives in the Middle East, including the OPIC Investment Fund. Now as a private citizen Ginsberg consulted for companies doing business in the Middle East.16 In spring 2003 Kerry's foreign policy team was joined by an associate of Ginsberg's who shared his interests in Middle Eastern business, former ambassador Joseph Wilson. After his diplomatic career Wilson had begun consulting for companies doing business in Africa and the Middle East, especially Turkey. His wife, who worked for the CIA, had recruited him to investigate a report of Iraq seeking uranium from Niger. After investigating this report on behalf of the CIA, Wilson joined Kerry's campaign and accused the Bush administration of misleading the public about Iraq seeking uranium in Africa. Wilson publicized his charges and antiwar views with the aid of Communist-friendly publications such as The Nation and Communist--linked groups such as the Education for Peace in Iraq Center, the MoveOn.org affiliate Win Without War, and Secure America. After a Senate investigation exposed Wilson's charges as untruthful, Kerry's website removed hyperlink references to Wilson, though Wilson claimed he remained an advisor to the campaign.17 Follow the Money If Kerry's foreign policy team is part of the brains of his campaign, the heart of his campaign is the flow of money that sustains it. Kerry's funding flows from two main sources, overt and covert.18 On the overt side of the equation, Kerry's top career patron is Harvard University, which is joined among Kerry's top 10 patrons by the University of California. Part 1 of this series, “John Kerry's Red Roots", traced the roots of the Kerry family's left--wing foreign policy views to a network of Communist fellow travellers centered around liberal lawyers at Harvard Law School.19 The University of California, birthplace of the Free Speech Movement, has a similar network.20 Kerry's second leading career patron is telecommunications giant Time--Warner. Time-Warner is the parent company of CNN, founded by Ted Turner, who shares the left-wing political orientation of his ex--wife Jane Fonda. Turner imparted CNN a liberal spin which eventually became so blatant that it provoked the emergence of a rival network oriented at conservative viewers, FOX.21 Alongside Time--Warner among Kerry's top 10 career patrons are several law firms representing major clients in the telecommunications industry, in which Kerry and his wife hold an estimated $17.6 million to $47.1 million in combined assets, representing approximately 7% to 11% of their total assets. Chief among the telecommunications-linked firms supporting Kerry is his third leading career patron, Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, which Kerry's brother Cameron has belonged to since 1983 and which has financed Kerry's career since then. Kerry sits on the Senate's Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee, which oversees the Federal Communications Commission, and he has lobbied the FCC frequently on behalf of the telecommunications industry.22

Kerry's top 10 career patrons also include three leading financial firms, Citigroup, FleetBoston Financial Corporation, and Goldman Sachs Group. All three were implicated in the Enron scandal.23 On the covert side, Kerry's campaign has evaded the soft--money restrictions of the McCain--Feingold Act through the indirect support of billionaire George Soros, who has funneled attacks on the Bush campaign and especially Bush's Iraq policy through a “shadow party" consisting of a series of political action committees led by MoveOn.org.24 It is striking that like so many of Kerry's advisors, Soros' business and political interests encompass, among other things, OPIC, the BTC Pipeline, and the oil-rich countries in the Caucasus area of the former Soviet Union.25 MoveOn.org also receives money funneled from the Tides Foundation, a charity linked to Kerry's wife Teresa Heinz Kerry. Tides finances numerous left--wing groups, and in turn receives funding from two key financiers of the Institute for Policy Studies, the Stern Family Fund and the Samuel Rubin Foundation. The latter is linked to old VVAW allies Peter Weiss and Cora Rubin Weiss, and is named after Cora's father, Fabergé, Inc. millionaire Samuel Rubin. Rubin was a friend and business associate of Armand Hammer, who was a key financial conduit for Soviet funding of the US Communist Party from the 1920s on.26 Hammer's former company Occidental Petroleum has been one of the leading US companies to venture into the Caucasus oil market George Soros now seeks to penetrate.27 Occidental recently acquired Enron's former shares in a joint oil venture with TotalFinaElf,28 a major French recipient of Saddam Hussein's Oil--for--Food voucher bribes.29 Kerry's Plan If Kerry's silent partners succeed in getting him elected, what is Kerry's plan for foreign policy? Kerry has told us repeatedly that “I have a plan", but the details of what his plan are remain elusive because his public statements on foreign policy are a series of flip--flops. Still, behind Kerry's evasive rhetoric, his intentions are clear enough.30 Part 1 of this series examined the relationship between Kerry's foreign policy orientation and his father Richard's. Richard Kerry favored a foreign policy centered around the UN rather than US national interests, and----following US diplomat Dean Acheson and French politician Jean Monnet----he viewed US relations with NATO and the EU as crucial to achieving a UN--centered world order. In this context, he saw the Soviet threat as primarily a political threat to Europe rather than a military or ideological threat to global capitalism and democracy. Accordingly, he advocated that NATO and European unification should be higher priorities for US foreign policy than containing or rolling back Communism. He characterized anti--Communists' ideological opposition to the Soviet Union as an oversimplified “either/or" dualism, and advocated instead what in his eyes was a more sophisticated relativism. As he put it, “Casting issues in the form of polar choices (for example: isolationism vs. interventionism) readily leads to the conclusion that if one is wrong, the other must be right. In a more relative view of the issue, both are likely to be wrong." Arguing on similar grounds, he opposed US anti-Communist intervention in Vietnam and Nicaragua.31

John Kerry echoed his father's opposition to US intervention in Vietnam and Nicaragua, and today he applies his father's line of argument to the War on Terror. Throughout his campaign, Kerry has opposed President Bush for allegedly “going it alone" in Iraq, which translates into criticizing Bush for not subordinating US sovereignty to UN Security Council members France, Russia, and China. Kerry's solution to the problems of postwar Iraq would be to turn Iraq reconstruction over to the UN. Kerry alluded to his plan on this issue during his first debate with President Bush, “The United Nations, Kofi Annan offered help after Baghdad fell. And we never picked him up on that and did what was necessary to transfer authority and to transfer reconstruction. It was always American--run."32 Left unaddressed by Kerry is the fact that any UN--sanctioned government in Iraq would be attacked as illegitimate by Iranian--backed Iraqi Shiite opposition groups, which in turn relates to the unresolved issue of the growing nuclear crisis in Iran.33 Kerry's proposal for resolving the Iran crisis is similar to his proposal for Iraq. Kerry has criticized the Bush administration for unilaterally imposing sanctions on Iran and has argued that the US should follow Europe's lead by providing Iran with nuclear fuel in exchange for a promise that Iran will only use its nuclear program for peaceful purposes: “I first want to say something about those sanctions on Iran. Only the United States put the sanctions on alone, and that's exactly what I'm talking about. In order for the sanctions to be effective, we should have been working with the British, French and Germans and other countries. And that's the difference between the president and me. . .With respect to Iran, the British, French, and Germans were the ones who initiated an effort without the United States, regrettably, to begin to try to move to curb the nuclear possibilities in Iran. I believe we could have done better. I think the United States should have offered the opportunity to provide the nuclear fuel, test them, see whether or not they were actually looking for it for peaceful purposes."34 In proposing this Kerry echoes the goals of the Iranian government as represented by one of his campaign's major financial contributors, Iranian--American businessman Hassan Nemazee, who has lobbied for normalization of US relations with Iran and has raised over half a million dollars for Kerry's campaign.35 Iran's strategic plan----shared with Al Qaeda----is to use nuclear and terrorist threats to drive US influence from the Middle East and Muslim--populated areas of the former Soviet Union, particularly from the oil-rich, strategically--vital regions of the Persian Gulf and the Caucasus.36 Extending his appeasement plan to another front of the War on Terror, Kerry has criticized President Bush for bringing North Korea's neighbors into disarmament negotiations, and has advocated a return to the Clinton administration's policy of bilateral talks between the US and North Korea: “I want bilateral talks which put all of the issues, from the armistice of 1952, the economic issues, the human rights issues, the artillery disposal issues, the DMZ issues and the nuclear issues on the table." To this President Bush responded, “The minute we have bilateral talks, the six--party talks will unwind. That's exactly what Kim Jong Il wants."37 President Bush may have added that this was also exactly what China wanted until the US----backed by an impressive show of force in Iraq and by the prospect of a rearmed Japan----convinced China that supporting multilateral talks with North Korea was in its best interests.38 Kerry's plan would be to retreat from this position of strength into the Clintonian appeasement policy that enabled the growth of North Korean belligerence in the first place. Kerry's position on this issue also retreats from his self--professed opposition to the US “going

it alone", raising the question of whether his public rhetoric about his plan conceals a more covert plan with a hidden agenda----or perhaps a not--so--hidden agenda, since in every case Kerry's policies seem to align with the policies of America's enemies. Brownshirt Tactics To make his plan a reality, Kerry and his supporters have demonstrated a willingness to use any means necessary, including the totalitarian tactics associated with the Soviet Bolsheviks and the Nazi Brownshirts. As early as January 6, 2003, the Democratic National Committee was circulating a memo planning a media attack strategy which would include “[c]laiming the Bush administration has ‘manufactured' evidence against Saddam Hussein and used that evidence to encourage Britain and other allies to join the American fight against Iraq."39 Taking the lead in implementing this strategy was Kerry campaign foreign policy advisor Joseph Wilson, who charged that when Bush's 2003 State of the Union address buttressed the administration's case for war by mentioning Iraq seeking uranium from Africa, the President was knowingly relying on forged documents about Iraq seeking uranium from Niger. Wilson's charges were later discredited by an official investigation,40 but despite this, Kerry continued to echo them for the duration of his campaign. Kerry alluded to Wilson's discredited charges during his first debate with President Bush when he accused the President of “not telling the truth about Iraq" by charging, “First of all, we all know that in his state of the union message, he told Congress about nuclear materials that didn't exist."41 In this case and numerous other instances, Kerry's campaign has been aided by media complicity in allowing his lies to go unchallenged. In one notorious example, Kerry supporters and CBS coordinated the use of forged documents to attack President Bush's military service.42 Meanwhile, the major media collectively suppressed criticisms of Kerry's military service and antiwar activity backed up by official military records posted on Kerry's own website and by 20,000 pages of FBI files.43 Beyond disseminating propaganda through the media, the Kerry campaign has actively censored anti--Kerry publicity. For instance, Kerry supporters, led by VVAW veterans, used threats of lawsuits and violence to try to coerce theaters and television stations into cancelling scheduled showings of an anti--Kerry film, Stolen Honor. A witness at one theater reported that “One 'vet for Kerry' was getting in the faces of many of the Bush supporters, and had to be separated by the police more than once."44 The Kerry campaign's undemocratic tactics also include vote fraud. In the 2000 election battleground state of Florida, thousands of out--of--state voters have registered illegally, and on their heels the Democratic Party has pre--emptively sent 10,000 lawyers to frivolously challenge election results.45 In another key swing state, Wisconsin, Democrat--dominated local officials have allowed voters to register from addresses which are known to have no occupants.46 If the Kerry campaign cannot steal the election by vote fraud, it has demonstrated a willingness to appeal to force, the ultimate tactic of Marxist strategy. Already from around the country there have been reports of Bush signs being stolen from owners'

lawns, break--ins and even shootings at Bush campaign headquarters, and harassment and violence directed at early voters leaving polls.47 We can only expect such incidents to increase as Election Day approaches. Conclusion Kerry's undemocratic campaign and career record of supporting America's enemies demonstrates that he is not only unfit for command: he is one of the worst traitors in US history, and one of the greatest threats this country has ever faced. He must not be allowed to become Commander--in--Chief of the US military. He must not be elected-and only you can stop him. Get out the vote on November 2. Notes
1

Douglas Brinkley, Tour of Duty: John Kerry and the Vietnam War, New York: William Morrow, 2004, 438--440, 444; Brian C. Mooney, “Taking one prize, then a bigger one", June 19, 2003, Part 5 of “John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making", The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/061903.shtml, June 15--21, 2003; Dale Russakoff with Lucy Shackelford and Madonna Lebling, “Discipline and Ambition Overcame First Defeat", part of “John Kerry: A Political Life", The Washington Post, July 25, 2004, Page A01, online at washingtonpost.com, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp--dyn/articles/A10637--2004Jul24.html (see http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp--dyn/articles/A10637--2004Jul24_5.html); Michael Crowley, “The Kerry Tribes: The seven factions fighting for control of his campaign and his presidency.", MSN.com, http://slate.msn.com/id/2098894/, April 15, 2004.
2

Christopher Gregory, interview, conducted by Lenore Fenn, Lexington Oral History Projects, Inc., http://www.lexingtonbattlegreen1971.com/files/Gregory,%20Chris.pdf, March 14, 1995; Bestor Cram, interview, conducted by Norma McGavern--Norland, Lexington Oral History Projects, Inc., http://www.lexingtonbattlegreen1971.com/files/Cram,%20Bestor.pdf, June 19, 1992; Memo and attachments, Boston FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, subject deleted, February 28, 1972, FBI HQ 100--448092, Section 14, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100--448092 Section 14, 103--108 (esp. 80--84); Gerald Nicosia, Home to War: A History of the Vietnam Veterans' Movement, New York: Crown Publishers, 2001, 72; Brinkley, 382, 438--440, 444, 463; Crowley.
3

See Bangert's testimony in “1st Marine Division", Winter Soldier Investigation: Testimony given in Detroit, Michigan on January 31, 1971, February 1 and 2, 1971, online at The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winter_Soldier/WS _03_1Marine.html; Joe Bangert, "'Hanoi Jane' and 'Thanh Phong Bob'", The Veteran, Volume 31, Number 1, 2001, online at VVAW: Vietnam Veterans Against the War, http://www.vvaw.org/veteran/article/?id=84&hilite=Joe+Bangert; Caption to photo by Joe Runci from Part 5 of “John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making", The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/images/day5/04.htm, June 15-21, 2003; Valerie Schumacher, "Valerie Schumacher's Trip to Vietnam: February, 1994", Vietnam Veterans Home Page, http://grunt.space.swri.edu/valstrip.htm; "Ewan MacColl:

Comments, Cheers & Critiques", Peggy Seeger, http://www.pegseeger.com/html/ewancheers.html; "The Sound of the City: The Show at Joe's Pub: Reviews", Village Voice , March 5 -- 11, 2003, online at Vietnam Songbook, http://www.vietnamsongbook.org/show_press.htm; Debi Boucher Stetson, "Brewster vet helps drive Kerry political engine", TownOnline.com----The Cape Codder, http://www.townonline.com/brewster/news/local_regional/cc_newcabangert01302004. htm, January 30, 2004; Steve Gilbert, "One Of Kerry's Band Of Brothers -- Joe Bangert", The American Thinker, http://www.americanthinker.com/articles.php?article_id=3782, August 25th, 2004; Joseph Farah, "Kerry vet aide's extremist history: Joe Bangert lived in Hanoi, revered Ho Chi Minh", WorldNetDaily, http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=40304, September 7, 2004; "Joe Bangert", Combat Vets Against Kerry, http://www.combatvetsagainstkerry.com/bangert.htm; Doug Fraser, “Brewster man cries foul over anti--Kerry movie", Cape Cod Times, http://www.capecodonline.com/cctimes/brewsterman21.htm, October 21, 2004.
4 5

Fraser.

"Kerry Camp 2004: Know the Players", Swift Vets and POWs for Truth, http://www2.swiftvets.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=12535, October 11, 2004.
6

On Beers, see Cullen F. Thomas, “Beers, Rand", Current Biography, Volume 65, Issue 10, October 2004, 6; “Rand Beers: Assistant Secretary for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs", U.S. Department of State, http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/biography/beers.html.
7

"John Kerry's Campaign Staff and Advisers", The Progresssive Government, http://www.progressivegovernment.org/PresidentialCampaign/kerrystaff.cfm, archived at FReeper mtrott, “Drudge: Mystery Woman Dated Campaign Finance Chief", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f--news/1079203/posts, February 16, 2004, Post 40; Laura Flanders, "Not Quite a Dream Team", TomPaine.com, http://www.tompaine.com/feature2.cfm/ID/9966, February 17, 2004; Crowley; Laura Blumenfeld, “Former Aide Takes Aim at War on Terror", The Washington Post, June 16, 2003, Page A01, online at washingtonpost.com, http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp--dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A62941-2003Jun15&notFound=true; Bernard Gwertzman, “Beers: Kerry Would Restore Alliance, Stress Diplomacy if Elected President", Council on Foreign Relations, http://www.cfr.org/pub7237/bernard_gwertzman_rand_beers/beers_kerry_would_resto re_alliances_stress_diplomacy_if_elected_president.php, August 5, 2004; Ronald Brownstein, “Kerry is shaping his foreign policy: His network of experts spans a range of opinions", deseretnews.com, http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,595055360,00.html, April 11, 2004.
8

On Hart, see “Hart, Gary", Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1976; “Hart, Gary Warren (1936--)", Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000287; Gary Hart, The Good Fight: The Education of an American Reformer, New York: Random House, 1993; Gary Hart, The Fourth Power: A Grand Strategy for the United States in the Twenty--First Century, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004; "U.S.

Commission on National Security/21st Century / Hart--Rudman Commission", Disinfopedia, http://www.disinfopedia.org/wiki.phtml?title=U.S._Commission_on_National_Security/2 1st_Century_/_Hart--Rudman_Commission; Andrew F. Krepinevich, Michael G. Vickers, and Steven M. Kosiak, "Hart--Rudman Commission Report----A Critique", April 19, 2000, online at CSBA Online: Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, http://www.csbaonline.org/4Publications/Archive/B.20000419.Hart-Rudman_Commis/B.20000419.Hart--Rudman_Commis.htm; Powell, 249--250, 258, 269, 389.
9

On Perry, see “Perry, William J.", Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1995; “William J. Perry", United States Department of Defense, http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/secdef_histories/bios/perry.htm; FReeper Alamo-Girl, “Behind the Treason Allegations: William Perry", Downside Legacy at Two Degrees of Bill Clinton, http://www.alamo--girl.com/0231.htm, September 17, 2000.
10

On Morningstar, see “Kennedy School of Government Faculty: Profile: Richard L. Morningstar", Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government, http://ksgfaculty.harvard.edu/richard_morningstar. On Morningstar and Russia, see J. Michael Waller, “U.S. Aid Is Funding Russian Weapons", Insight on the News, http://www.insightmag.com/news/2001/01/29/InvestigativeReport/U.Aid.Is.Funding.Ru ssian.Weapons--210848.shtml, January 29, 2001. On OPIC and the BTC Pipeline, see “Baku--Tbilisi--Ceyhan Pipeline", Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baku--Tbilisi-Ceyhan_Pipeline; Pepe Escobar, “Silk Road Roving Part 12b: Pipelinestan Revisited", Asia Times Online, http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Central_Asia/EL25Ag02.html, December 25, 2003; Seymour Khalilov and Michael Lally, "Azerbaijani Oil and Gas sector prospects grow", BISNIS Bulletin, August/September 2001, online at BISNIS: Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States, http://www.bisnis.doc.gov/BISNIS/BULLETIN/8--9--01bull4.htm; "OPIC Provides $100 Million in Insurance for Loans to Caspian Pipeline Project", The Embassy of the United States of America, Ankara----Turkey, http://ankara.usembassy.gov/opic.htm, February 4, 2004.
11

On Gelb, see “Leslie H. Gelb: President Emeritus, Council on Foreign Relations", Council on Foreign Relations, http://www.cfr.org/bio.php?id=3325; S. Steven Powell, Covert Cadre: Inside the Institute for Policy Studies, introduction by David Horowitz, Ottawa, Illinois: Green Hill Publishers, Inc., 1987, 24, 47--48, 53, 90, 98, 103; Tom Wells, Wild Man: The Life and Times of Daniel Ellsberg, New York: Palgrave, 2001, 461-462.
12

On Brzezinski, see “Zbigniew Brzezinski", Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zbigniew_Brzezinski; Zbigniew Brzezinski, Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Advisor, 1977--1981, New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983; Powell, 223--224.
13

On Albright, see “Albright, Madeleine Korbel", Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 2000; Madeleine Albright with Bill Woodward, Madam Secretary, New York: Miramax Books, 2003; Rich Lowry, Legacy: Paying the Price for the Clinton Years, Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2003, 215--334.

14

On Holbrooke, see “Holbrooke, Richard", Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1998; “Online Backgrounders: Richard C. Holbrooke: Former Assistant Secretary of State for European and Canadian Affairs", Online NewsHour, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/bio/holbrooke_bio.html; Sunil Sharma, “200,000 Skeletons in Richard Holbrooke's Closet", Z Communications, http://www.zmag.org/CrisesCurEvts/sunil.htm, March 22, 1999; “Richard Holbrooke: The Balkans' Bulldozer", BBC, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/kosovo/190803.stm, March 24, 1999; Gary Dempsey, “An Accomplice to War in Kosovo?", Cato Institute, http://www.cato.org/dailys/8--05--98.html, August 5, 1998; “Secret diner in Washington: Holbrooke and Thaqui planned terror", BLIC Online in English, http://www.blic.co.yu/arhiva/2004--03--25/E--Index.htm, March 25, 2004. On Kerry's campaign and the KLA, cf. Srdja Trifkovic, “Kerry's Balkan Policy May Defeat Him", www.ChroniclesMagazine.org, http://www.chroniclesmagazine.org/News/Trifkovic04/NewsST101404.html, October 14, 2004; Andy Wilcoxson, “Kerry Campaign Financed By Terrorists", http://www.slobodan-milosevic.org, http://www.slobodan--milosevic.org/news/kerry101804.htm, October 18, 2004; Joseph Farah, “Suspected terror fund--raiser attended event for Kerry: KLA militant bonded with advisers, reportedly boasted of special favors", WorldNetDaily, http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=41072, October 25, 2004; FReeper StopDemocratsDotCom, “Investigation: Terrorist Organization linked to Al-Qaeda funded Kerry Campaign", Post 30 at “Al--Qaida ally attended fund--raiser for Kerry", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f--news/1255893/posts, October 25, 2004; Fr. Michael Reilly, “Kerry Campaign Linked to Fund--raiser for Terror Group", NewsMax.com, http://www.newsmax.com/archives/ic/2004/10/25/85141.shtml, October 25, 2004.
15

On Berger, see “Sandy Berger", Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandy_Berger; “Biography of Samuel R. Berger", National Security Council, http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/EOP/NSC/html/bergerbio.html; Susan Schmidt, “Berger Quits as an Adviser to Kerry: Ex--Clinton Aide Facing Inquiry Over Papers",The Washington Post, July 21, 2004, Page A01, online at washingtonpost.com, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp--dyn/articles/A64379--2004Jul20.html.
16

Brownstein. On Ginsberg, see “Marc Ginsberg: Former U.S. Ambassador to Morocco", GTN: Greater Talent Network, Inc., http://www.greatertalent.com/bios/ginsberg.shtml; “Marc Ginsberg", APCO Worldwide, http://www.apcoworldwide.com/content/bios/ginsberg.cfm.
17

On Wilson and the Kerry campaign, see "Diplomat's ‘outrage' finds political outlet", The Boston Herald, October 25, 2003, archived at FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f--news/1007776/posts; Joseph Curl, “Spouse of outed CIA officer signs on with Kerry", The Washington Times, http://www.washtimes.com/national/20040214--120835--4661r.htm, February 14, 2004; Ambassador Joseph Wilson, The Politics of Truth: Inside the Lies that Led to War and Betrayed My Wife's CIA Identity: A Diplomat's Memoir, New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2004, 410--411, 442; Jeff Gannon, “Kerry Dumps Joe Wilson From Campaign Team", Talon News, http://www.talonnews.com/news/2004/july/0727_kerry_dumps_wilson.shtml, July 27,

2004; Robert B. Bluey, “Joe Wilson Says Kerry Hasn't Asked Him to Resign", CNSNews.com, http://www.cnsnews.com//ViewPolitics.asp?Page=\Politics\archive\200407\POL2004072 9a.html, July 29, 2004; John Armor, “Joseph Wilson Disappears Down the Memory Hole", ChronWatch, http://www.chronwatch.com/content/contentDisplay.asp?aid=8793, August 1, 2004. On Wilson's left--wing connections, see Joseph Wilson, “Republic or Empire?", The Nation, March 3, 2003, online at http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=20030303&s=wilson; Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, IV, "The Iraq Forum: Informing Iraq Advocates Since 1998: The 2003 Iraq Forum: June 14, 2003, Washington, DC: Evening Public Lecture: A State of the Movement Address: Evening Keynote Lecture", audio online at EPIC: Education for Peace in Iraq Center, http://www.epic--usa.org/Default.aspx?tabid=68&showlogin=1; “Avoiding Joseph Wilson's Liberal Bent", Times Watch, http://www.timeswatch.org/articles/2003/1006.asp, October 6, 2003; Vincent Fiore, “The ‘Confusion' of Joseph Wilson: Wilson outed by Senate investigation", CommonConservative.com, http://commonconservative.com/fiore/fiore012.html, August 1, 2004; “About Secure America's Advisers", Secure America, http://www.secureamerica.us/html/about_advisers.html. On Wilson's charges against the Bush administration see RNC Research Briefings, “The Facts Keep ‘Dribbling' on Wilson's Parade", GOP.com, http://www.rnc.org/RNCResearch/Read.aspx?ID=4497, August 2, 2004; FReeper Fedora, “What Wilson Didn't Say About Africa: Joseph Wilson's Silent Partners", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1256475/posts, October 25, 2004.
18

“The Buying of the President 2004: Senator John F. Kerry: Career Patrons", The Center for Public Integrity, http://www.publicintegrity.org/bop2004/candidate.aspx?cid=4&act=cp; Alex Knott, “Who Gives the Most Money: Financial corporations and law firms dominate Career Patrons list", The Center for Public Integrity, http://www.publicintegrity.org/bop2004/report.aspx?aid=168, February 13, 2004.
19

FReeper Fedora, “John Kerry's Fellow Travellers: Part 1: John Kerry's Red Roots: Richard Kerry's Left--Wing Legacy", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f--news/1198744/posts. Cf. James G. Hershberg, James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993; Eleanor Kerlow, Poisoned Ivy: How Egos, Ideology, and Power Politics Almost Ruined Harvard Law School, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
20

See California Legislature, Eleventh Report of the Senate Fact--Finding Subcommittee on Un--American Activities, 1961, online at Online Archive of California, http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt396n99b3/; Jerome C. Byrne, Report on the University of California and Recommendations to the Special Committee of the Regents of the University of California, Berkeley: University of California, 1965; FBI files, “Edmund Gerald ‘Pat' Brown", online at Federal Bureau of Investigation--Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/patbrown.htm.
21

"Time Warner", Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_Warner; "Cable News Network", Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNN; "Ted Turner", Wikipedia,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ted_Turner; Jim Burns, “'Commie Dictator' Castro Inspired CNN, Ted Turner Admits", NewsMax.com, http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/11/29/161828.shtml, November 30, 2001; Reed Irvine and Cliff Kincaid, “Ted Turner's Private Foreign Policy", Accuracy In Media , http://www.aim.org/media_monitor/A1053_0_2_0_C/, March 7, 2001; “Campaign 2000 Media Reality Check: CNN News Labeling and Questions At Republican and Democratic National Conventions, 1988--1996", Media Research Center, http://www.mrc.org/campaign/00/cnn.asp; Marc Morano, “Whistleblower Denounces ABC's Marxist Bias, CNN's Propaganda for Saddam", NewsMax.com, http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2003/5/1/160050.shtml, May 1, 2003; Bernard Goldberg, Bias: A CBS Insider Exposes How the Media Distort the News, Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001.
22

"Biography: Cameron F. Kerry", Mintz Levin: Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky and Popeo, http://www.mintz.com/about/directory/biography/262/Cameron_F_Kerry/; M. Asif Ismail, “Kerry Carries Water for Top Donor", The Center for Public Integrity, http://www.bop2004.org/bop2004/report.aspx?aid=4, May 7, 2003; “Bush and Kerry fundraisers: What have they gotten, and what do they want? The John Kerry Telecom Fundraisers", Common Cause, http://www.commoncause.org/site/pp.asp?c=dkLNK1MQIwG&b=196565; Jonathan Groner, “The Lawyers in John Kerry's Corner: Clinton--era DOJ, NSC veterans among those offering advice to the would--be president", Legal Times, February 12, 2004, Law.com, http://www.law.com/jsp/article.jsp?id=1076428305204; Robert Cohen, “Kerry and Monsanto: Sleeps With Wolves", NOTmilk, February 2, 2004, online at mindfully.org, http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2004/Kerry--Monsanto-Notmilk2feb04.htm.
23

"Enron Corporation", Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enron; “Q&A: Banks in trouble over Enron", BBC, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/2148534.stmThe Wall Street Journal, July 22, 2002, archived online at Enron Stuff, http://bodurtha.georgetown.edu/enron/Citigroup%20Deals%20Helped%20Enron%20T o%20Disguise%20Its%20Debts%20as%20Trades.htm; Citigroup, Inc., “Enron and Structured Finance: Citigroup Statement on Enron Settlements with the SEC, Federal Reserve, OCC, and Manhattan DA", Citigroup, http://www.citigroup.com/citigroup/citizen/structuredfinance/030728a.htm, July 28, 2003; “How Did Goldman Sachs Defraud Investors?", SecuritiesFraudFYI.com, http://www.securitiesfraudfyi.com/goldman_sachs.html; Josh Friedman, “US: FleetBoston, BofA To Pay $675 Million", CorpWatch, http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=10389, March 16, 2004; Democrats Hush Up Rubin's Enron Scandal", NewsMax.com, http://www.newsmax.com/scripts/showinside.pl?a=2002/7/25/165627, July 25, 2002; John Berlau, “Double Standard?", Insight on the News, http://www.insightmag.com/news/2002/08/26/Politics/Double.Standard--260115.shtml, August 5, 2002.
24

David Horowitz and Richard Poe, “The Shadow Party: Part I", FrontPageMagazine.com, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=15392, October 6, 2004;

David Horowitz and Richard Poe, “The Shadow Party: Part II", FrontPageMagazine.com, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=15408, October 7, 2004.
25

On Soros, OPIC, and the BTC Pipeline, see “OPIC Board Resolutions: BDR(02)10", , http://www.opic.gov/FOIA/BoardResolutions/2002BDR/BDR--02--10.htm, July 23, 2002; Alfred Mendes, “The Crux of the Matter", Spectrezine, http://www.spectrezine.org/war/Mendes5.htm; Svetlana Taslik, Caspian Investment Windfalls: Who Will Benefit? Overview and Recommendations, foreword by Joseph E. Stiglitz, Open Society Institute, 2003, online at Open Society Institute & Soros Foundations Network, http://www.soros.org/initiatives/cep/articles_publications/publications/caspianoilwindfall s_20030514/a_caspianoverview.pdf; Ernst & Young, “An EYe on Azerbaijan", Ernst & Young, http://www.ey.com/global/download.nsf/Azerbaijan/eye_on_azerbaijan_jan03/$file/eye _azerbaijan_jan03.pdf, January 2003; Mark MacKinnon, “Georgia revolt carried mark of Soros", The Globe and Mail, November 26, 2003, archived at FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f--news/1029727/posts.
26

Ben Johnson, “Teresa Heinz Kerry: Bag Lady for the Radical Left", FrontPageMagazine.com, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=12187, February 13, 2004. On the Stern Family Fund, Samuel Rubin Foundation, and Armand Hammer, see “Stern Family Fund", ActivistCash.com, http://www.activistcash.com/foundation.cfm/did/486; “Samuel Rubin Foundation", ActivistCash.com, http://www.activistcash.com/foundation.cfm/did/469; Vincent Stehle, “Considering the Question of Perpetuity", excerpt from Investment Issues for Family Funds: Managing and Maximizing Your Philanthropic Dollars, Chapter 1, reprinted online at National Center for Family Philanthropy, http://www.ncfp.org/publications--excerpt-investments.html (September 9, 2004); Don Hazen, “David Hunter, Philanthropic Pioneer, Dies at 84", AlterNet, http://www.alternet.org/story/10142/, November 28, 2000; Powell, 15--17, 29, 152, 230, 231, 236, 237, 241--242, 368; Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Fririkh Igorevich Firsov, The Secret World of American Communism, Russian documents translated by Timothy D. Sergay, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995, 26--30; FBI files, “Armand Hammer/Occidental Petroleum", online at Federal Bureau of Investigation--Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/hammerop.htm; Edward Jay Epstein, Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer, New York: Random House, 1996.
27

"History----Russia", Occidental Petroleum Corporation, http://www.oogc.com/world_oper/other_oper/hist_russia.htm.
28

“Enron Pulls Out of the Dolphin Project", The U.S. Qatar Journal Online Edition, http://www.qatarbusinesscouncil.org/journal/archives/issue14.htm#book2, Issue XIV, June 20, 2001; "Occidental Petroleum Acquires Enron Stake", The Enquirer, http://www.enquirer.com/editions/2002/06/03/fin_occidental_petroleum.html, June 3, 2002.
29

"Encyclopedia: Oil for Food", NationMaster.com, http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Oil--for--Food; "The Beneficiaries of

Saddam's Oil Vouchers: The List of 270", MEMRI: The Middle East Media Research Institute: Inquiry and Analysis Series, http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=ia&ID=IA16004, Number 160, January 29, 2004; Nimrod Raphaeli, “The Saddam Oil Vouchers Affair", MEMRI: The Middle East Media Research Institute: Inquiry and Analysis Series, http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Area=ia&ID=IA16404, Number 164, February 20, 2004; Robert Winnett and Mark Hollingsworth, "MI6 probes French links to Iraq scam", Times Online, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/newspaper/0,,1--1197984,00.html, August 1, 2004; Central Intelligence Agency, Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the DCI on Iraq's WMD, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004, online at http://www.cia.gov/cia/reports/iraq_wmd_2004/; William Safire, “Duelfer report catches France red--handed", International Herald Tribune, http://www.iht.com/articles/2004/10/13/opinion/edsaffire.html, October 14, 2004.
30

For the Kerry campaign's major foreign policy statements, see "Candidate Biography: John Kerry (Democrat): Major Foreign Policy Statements", Council on Foreign Relations, http://www.cfr.org/campaign2004/bio.php?can=Kerry; John Kerry, “If I Were President----Addressing the Democratic Deficit", Foreign Policy, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/files/story2164.php?PHPSESSID=8266fe6879960f8 8ee756067a3e309f1, March/April 2003; “2004 Debate Transcript: September 30, 2004: The First Bush--Kerry Presidential Debate", Commission on Presidential Debates, http://www.debates.org/pages/trans2004a.html; “2004 Debate Transcript: October 8, 2004: The Second Bush--Kerry Presidential Debate", Commission on Presidential Debates, http://www.debates.org/pages/trans2004c.html.
31

FReeper Fedora, “John Kerry's Fellow Travellers: Part 1: John Kerry's Red Roots: Richard Kerry's Left--Wing Legacy", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f--news/1198744/posts. Cf. Richard J. Kerry, Star-Spangled Mirror: A Father's Legacy Shapes John Kerry's Worldview, with foreword by Franklin Foer, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2004 (1990); Franklin Foer, “Kerry's World: Father Knows Best", CBS News, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/03/02/opinion/main603542.shtml, March 2, 2004.
32

“2004 Debate Transcript: September 30, 2004: The First Bush--Kerry Presidential Debate", Commission on Presidential Debates, http://www.debates.org/pages/trans2004a.html. Cf. John Kerry to Council on Foreign Relations, "Making America Secure Again: Setting the Right Course for Foreign Policy", December 3, 2003, transcript online at Council on Foreign Relations, < a href="http://www.cfr.org/campaign2004/pub6576/john_kerry/making_america_secure_ again_setting_the_right_course_for_foreign_policy.php">http://www.cfr.org/campaign2 004/pub6576/john_kerry/making_america_secure_again_setting_the_right_course_for_ foreign_policy.php.
33

“Iraq: Iran's Involvement" , Council on Foreign Relations, http://www.cfr.org/background/background_iraq_iran.php, May 15, 2003; “Iraq: Muqtada al--Sadr" , Council on Foreign Relations, http://www.cfr.org/background/background_iraq_alsadr.php, September 1, 2004; “Muqtada al--Sadr", Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muqtada_al--Sadr;

Constantine C. Menges, "Iran's covert actions in Iraq", The Washington Times, http://www.washtimes.com/commentary/20040424--101403--3604r.htm, April 24, 2004; “Iraq Shiites Split Over U.N. Role", Muslim American Society, http://www.masnet.org/aroundworld.asp?id=861, January 23, 2004.
34

“2004 Debate Transcript: September 30, 2004: The First Bush--Kerry Presidential Debate", Commission on Presidential Debates, http://www.debates.org/pages/trans2004a.html.
35

Lowell Ponte, "Cash--and--Kerry", FrontPageMagazine.com, http://frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=11939, January 27, 2004; Kenneth R. Timmerman, “John Kerry's Iranian--American Fundraisers", Insight on the News, http://www.insightmag.com/main.cfm?include=detail&storyid=622667, March 1, 2004; “Who Is Hassan Nemazee? And why does he want John Kerry in the White House?", CrushKerry.com, http://www.crushkerry.com/article--113----0--0.html, April 23, 2004; Marc Morano, “Top Kerry Donor Faces Iranian Propaganda Allegations", CNSNews.com, http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewPolitics.asp?Page=%5CPolitics%5Carchive%5C200410% 5CPOL20041012c.html, October 12, 2004; Jerome Corsi, “John Kerry's Irangate?", WorldNetDaily, http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=41044, October 22, 2004.
36

Yossef Bodansky, Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War on America, New York: Forum, 2001 (1999). 35--40, 102--110, 151--184, 235--242, 274--279, 385.
37

“2004 Debate Transcript: September 30, 2004: The First Bush--Kerry Presidential Debate", Commission on Presidential Debates, http://www.debates.org/pages/trans2004a.html.
38

"Russia, China Block Informal UN Talks on N. Korea", ABC News, February 26, 2003, archived at FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/852671/posts; "China blocking major--power UN meeting on N. Korea", Reuters Foundation AlertNet, March 13, 2003, archived at FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/864015/posts; "China gets tougher with North Korea", Asia Times, April 8, 2003, archived at FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f--news/888221/posts; John J. Tkacik, Jr., "Getting China to Support a Denuclearized North Korea", The Heritage Foundation, http://www.heritage.org/Research/AsiaandthePacific/bg1678.cfm, August 25, 2003.
39

Doug Thompson, “Dems plan to undermine America to beat Bush", CapitolHillBlue, January 6, 2003, archived at FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/830866/posts.
40

On Wilson's charges against the Bush administration see RNC Research Briefings, “The Facts Keep ‘Dribbling' on Wilson's Parade", GOP.com, http://www.rnc.org/RNCResearch/Read.aspx?ID=4497, August 2, 2004; FReeper Fedora, “What Wilson Didn't Say About Africa: Joseph Wilson's Silent Partners", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1256475/posts, October 25, 2004.

41

“2004 Debate Transcript: September 30, 2004: The First Bush--Kerry Presidential Debate", Commission on Presidential Debates, http://www.debates.org/pages/trans2004a.html.
42

See “CBS Names Memo Probe Panel", CBS News, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/09/06/politics/main641481.shtml, September 22, 2004; Jeff Gannon, “RNC Demands Answers From CBS, Democrats About Forged Documents", GOPUSA, http://www.gopusa.com/news/2004/september/0922_rnc_demands_answers.shtml, September 22, 2004.
43

Rich Noyes, “TV Gives No Respect to Swift Boat Vets for Truth: ABC, CBS & NBC Gave 75 Stories to Bush 'AWOL' Charge, 9 to Claims Kerry Embellished War Record", Media Research Center: Media Reality Check, http://www.mrc.org/realitycheck/2004/fax20040818.asp, August 18, 2004; Brent Baker, “CBS: Jane Fonda/John Kerry Photo the GOP's 'New Willie Horton'", Media Research Center: Cyberalert, http://www.mrc.org/cyberalerts/2004/cyb20040212.asp, Volume 9, Number 25, February 12, 2004.
44

David B. Caruso, “Veteran Files Suit in Anti--Kerry Film", Yahoo! News, http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&u=/ap/20041018/ap_en_mo/kerry_film_1, October 18, 2004; FReeper Fatalis, “Professor suing 'Stolen Valor' producer was a Winter Soldier Witness (admitted to atrocities)", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f--news/1249364/posts, October 18, 2004; FReeper Scarpetta, “'Stolen Honor' Showing Canceled Due to Threats to Theatre", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f--news/1250393/posts, October 19, 2004; Doug Fraser, “Brewster man cries foul over anti--Kerry movie", Cape Cod Times, http://www.capecodonline.com/cctimes/brewsterman21.htm, October 21, 2004.
45

"Report: Thousands in Florida may be registered to vote elsewhere", ABC Action News, http://www.abcactionnews.com/stories/2004/10/041022voting.shtml, October 22, 2004, archived at FReeper beyond the sea, “Thousands in Florida may be Registered to Vote Elsewhere (Massive Voter Fraud)", FreeRepublic.com, http://209.157.64.200/focus/f--news/1254542/posts, October 23, 2004; FReeper Liz, “DNC HAS TEN THOUSAND LAWYERS POSITIONED TO STEAL FLORIDA FROM GWB (here's what you can do)", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1254593/posts, October 23, 2004.
46

FReeper ADSUM, “VOTER FRAUD CITY OF MILWAUKEE Elections Board Hearing", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f--news/1260138/posts, October 28, 2004.
47

FReeper Doctor Raoul, “RESEARCH THREAD: Compiling List of Left Wing Violence Against GOP", FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1254566/posts, October 23, 2004.

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