Gate Maths preparation

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Gate Maths preparation

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in the GATE mathematics (also suggest best

book for practicing prev. year’s questions)?

Sreenath Vemula, AIR 82 in GATE

Answered Sep 16, 2017

Mathematics is a very scoring subject. And it is very important for those who just

want to pass or to get below 2000 or top 100. Who want to miss easy 10+ marks???

Students have studied it in the ﬁrst year and have completely forgotten

Students think they can’t learn that subject since it is beyond them

So overcome your fears and see that it is very easy provided, you study well. Did I tell

you, my most favorite subject is mathematics. I learnt mathematics by practice only!

When I see a new topic, I too feel blank inside my head. Then I realize that all I need

to do is to understand the concepts by practicing then I feel comfortable in doing

those concepts.

I will try to explain important topics here and give some tips to prepare mathematics.

Finally I will give some timetable to study it so that you ﬁnish that subject. Before we

start, see the GATE syllabus here:

Instrumentation

All branches except CS have almost same syllabus. So I will focus on these common

topics. You can study from either ACE material or Made Easy material or B. S. Gravel

or any good textbook along with previous year papers.

Try to spend daily an hour on Mathematics till you become conﬁdent in it.

Linear Algebra: Generally the topics asked are related to ﬁnding rank,

determinant, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Solution of simultaneous

equations, Finding inverse and power of matrix.

matrix. To ﬁnd the rank. try to write the given equations in to matrix form

and reduce it into row echelon form . The number of non-zero rows left

in the matrix is the rank of the matrix. Ex: Rank of matrix

the determinant and straightforward. Refer here for complete

procedure: The Determinant of a Square Matrix

Next approach is very simple and easy. Try to convert the given matrix

into row echelon form. Then the determinant is just the product of

diagonal terms. Only point you need to keep in mind is, when you

interchange two adjacent rows, rank doesn’t change but determinant

changes to opposite sign. So if you interchange two rows say ith and jth

. Then, determinant changes the sign to (−1)j−i . Also another point to

remember is not to multiply any row by a constant. Rank doesn’t

change but determinant changes.

write the Augmented matrix [A|b] from Ax = b. Find the rank of [A|b]

and also for A.

If R(A) = R([A|b]) = n (no. of rows or columns in the given matrix),

then we have unique solution.

then we have multiple solutions.

solutions the equation Ax = λx, λ is the Eigenvalue and x is the

Eigenvector. To solve these types of problems, since we have one equation

and two unknowns (λ and x ) so there is no unique solution to given

equation. Refer here for a solved example: Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

example

determinant of (A − λI ). λ is Eigenvalues obtained.

corresponding to it. Since the equation becomes to some Bx = 0, we

don’t have a unique solution. Assume one of the values in vector as 1.

Find the rest of the terms.

solve these problems. Every matrix satisﬁes its own characteristic

equation |A − λI | = 0. From this ﬁnd the equation in terms of λ.

Replace λ with A and then we get characteristic equation. From this, we

can ﬁnd any power or inverse easily. Refer here for a solved problem:

Cayley Hamilton Theorem Examples

Calculus: Some topics to focus are ﬁnding maximum and minimum values,

Finding Limits, Continuity and Diﬀerentiability of functions, Taylor and

Maclaurin series, Vector calculus, Finding area and Volumes,

ﬁnd f ′ (x) = 0. Then, ﬁnd f " (x) at the same values obtained. Refer this

for further clariﬁcation: Minimum and Maximum Values

minimum in the given interval.

examples: Continuity and Diﬀerentiability

Hospital rule. 0/∞0 and ∞/0 → ±∞ and so limit does not exist, if

limit is checked from left and right of zero. For 0 × ∞ form, write it as

0/(1/∞) = 0/0 form and use L-Hospital rule. A simple approach to

solve majority of the trigonometric and logarithmic problems is by

expanding the terms in x. And then simplifying gives directly the limit.

3 5

sin x − x (x − x /6 + x /120−. . . ) − x

−1

limx→0 = limx→0 =

3 3 6

x x

the limx→0 and limx→0 and f (0) and see that all three values are

+ −

equal.

unique limit of diﬀerentiated value.

f (x + h) − f (x) f (x + h) − f (x)

′

f (x)| = limh→0 + = limh→0 −

x=0

h h

For two variable problems, limit has to be same in any order we apply

for continuity and diﬀerentaiability. Also if limit doesn’t exist, just

solve the problems with one the given order.

ﬁnd the function ﬁrst, second and third etc. derivatives at x=a (for Taylor)

and x=0 (for Maclaurin. Then get the expansion of the function.

Taylor series is the expansion of function along x=a (from: Taylor Series )

Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite integrals: Indeﬁnite integrals are very tricky. Try

to solve solutions and check if we get given question. Deﬁnite integrals are

− π/2 n π/2 n

the toughest. Learn formulas of ∫ √x , ∫

0

sin x, ∫

0

cos x,

Deﬁnite Integrals

2 − 2 2

like x = t for √x , x= a tan x for x + a in denominator,

−−− −−−

x = a sin x for √ a2 − x 2 and so on. Refer here for examples of all

models: Substitution Rule for Indeﬁnite Integrals , More Substitution

Rule

b

Area between two curves is ∫a f (x) − g(x)dx is the area between

f (x) and g(x) where a and b are the two intersection points of the

curve. To ﬁnd area of the curve and x axis, take g(x) as zero. Refer here

for some solved examples of Area Between Curves

area of the typical disc. Refer here for some solved example: Volume of

Revolution

Vector Calculus: The questions asked from this topic are very easy if we

know the formulas. Very important operator is Del:

∂ → ∂ → ∂ →

∇ = i + j + k

∂x ∂y ∂z

→ → →

Curl F is deﬁned as the cross product between ∇ and F =∇× F

→ →

Divergence or div F is deﬁned as ∇. F . Refer here to solve some

problems: Curl and Divergence

Divergence to a vector. Gradient is deﬁned as

→ → →

→ ∂F → ∂F → ∂F →

∇F = i + j + k

∂x ∂y ∂z . The rate of change of function

is deﬁned by gradient.

→

→ →

gradient and calculate ∇ f. u (where . is dot product and u is unit

vector in the direction of given vector. Refer here for some solved

problems: Directional Derivatives . To calculate the maximum rate of

→

→ ∇f

∇ f.

→

change given function f (x, y, z), simply compute | ∇ f|

Refer here for solved problems: Gradient Vector, Tangent Planes and

Normal Lines

nothing but the gradient of function.

For line integrals, just take the equation of the path given and integrate

along it. Refer here: Line, Surface and Volume Integrals

converts line integral to area integral. It is deﬁned only for 2D as

shown:

surface integral to volume integral. Refer here for example: Stokes'

Theorem . It is deﬁned as:

integral (or reverse of Stokes theorem). Refer here for example: Gauss

Divergence Theorem

given function specially half sine, cosine, unit step function, and Dirac Delta

function, and its inverse or convolution and its application to compute the

diﬀerential equations.

Fourier Series:

Laplace Transforms:

Step Functions

rest of the values. Applying Fourier and Laplace transforms to it very

important. Refer here for its applications

transforms, ﬁnding poles and zeros, and application to compute power

series.

location where the denominator is zero so function is inﬁnite there. For

z − 1

z + 1

. Zeros are z = 1 and poles are z = −1 .

Z-Transforms Complete

Z-Transforms

Z-Transforms Overview

Properties of Z-Transforms

diﬀerent ﬁrst order types, for second order with particular integral as

x n

sin x, cos x, e , x , combination of any of these, application of method of

variation of parameters to any general function like tan x, sec x, log x etc.

and application of Euler-Cauchy method for variable coeﬃcients. Solving

IVP, BVP.

highest order in given diﬀerential equation after diﬀerential equation is

radical free (meaning free from 1/3 power etc.)

Linear if y ′ is free linear. Some of the types of standard models available

are:

Linear

Homogeneous

Exact

Variable Separable

Bernoulli's equation

Above types can be found here: Recognizing types of ODE and First

Order DE's and Problems I

′ 2

ay " +by + cy = f (x) = (aD . Where,

+ bD + c)y = f (x)

D. Let D = a be a root,

ax

If roots are unique, solution is y = c1 e . By using superposition

combine all the roots. Real & Distinct Roots

ax

If two roots are equal say D = a, then solution is y = (C0 + xC1 )e

If roots are complex say D = a ± ib, then the solution is

ax

y = (c0 sin bx + c1 cos bx)e . Diﬀerential Equations - Complex

Roots

After ﬁnding the roots, we need to particular integral (PI). i,e, solution

which is just satisfying the given function. We have F (D)y = f (x)

1

ax

e

If PI is of form eax , then solution is F (a)

integrate.

If we have some combination of eax , sin bx, then ﬁrst write sin bx or

cos bx into exponential form using Euler identity

ibx

e = cos bx + i sin bx. Then combine both of the exponential terms

and solve.

solution is of form Aeax . If PI is of form sin ax, or cos ax the solution

is of form A cos ax + B sin ax. If PI is of form c0 x2 + c1 x + c2, then

solution is of form ax2 + bx + c. Once we assume the solution, then

substitute in the given diﬀerential equation and ﬁnd the coeﬃcients.

Refer here how to solve: Variation of Parameters I , Solving tan (x)

n n n−1 n−1 r

c0 x D + c1 x D +. . . +cn )y = f (x), we need to assume y = x

Refer here for solved examples: Diﬀerential Equations - Euler Equations

these problems. Some key points are:

∂z ∂z

a + b = c

If First order PDE is of form, ∂x ∂y , The solution is solved by

dx dy dz

= =

using a b c

. Refer this to solve some problems Linear PDE

Refer this to solve non linear ﬁrst order PDE: Problems I and Problems II

.

au xx + buxy + cu yy + du x + eu y + f u = g(x, y)

2

If b − 4ac = 0, PDE is parabolic. Ex: Heat equation

2

∂u ∂ u K0

= κ κ =

One-Dimensional diﬀusion equation: ∂t 2

∂ x

. Where cρ is

called thermal diﬀusion. Refer here for solved example: 1D Diﬀusion

equation

y = X(x)T (t).

′

′

X " (x) T (t)

⇒ = = C

X(x)

2

α T (t) (Constant. Since LHS is a function of x

and RHS is a function of t).

Solve the two equations and substitute boundary conditions.

separable method. Refer here for solved example: Wave Equation

by Newton’s method, single step numerical diﬀerentiation and Simpson and

Trapezoidal methods.

b

h

∫ f (x)dx = [y0 + yn + 4 (∑ yi ) + 2 (∑ yi )]

i=odd i=even

Given by: a 3

b−a ¯

¯¯¯

¯¯¯¯

¯ ¯

¯¯¯

¯¯¯¯

¯

Error E = −

180

Δ y,

4

where Δ4 y is fourth forward diﬀerence.

Trapezoidal rule:

b

y0 +yn n−1

∫ f (x)dx = h [ + ∑ yi ]

i=1

Given by a 2

b−a ¯

¯¯¯

¯¯¯¯

¯

Error E = −

12

2

Δ y

Given by:

b

3h

∫ f (x)dx = [y0 + yn + 3 (∑ yi ) + 2 (∑ yi )]

8 i=1,2,4,5,⋯ i=3,6,⋯

a

3(b−a) ¯

¯¯¯

¯¯¯¯

¯

4

Error E = −

80

h Δ y

4

2

h

Given by: yi+1 = yi + hf (x i , yi ) +

2!

f (x i , yi ) + ⋯

For Euler’s backward method, use yi−1 instead of yi+1 and h with −h

h

yk+1 = yk + (f (x k , yk ) + f (x k + h, yk + hf (x k )))

2

k1 +2k2 +2k3 +k4

Given by yk+1 = yk +

6

, where,

k1 = hf (x k , yk )

h k1

k2 = hf (x k + , yk + )

2 2

h k2

k3 = hf (x k + , yk + )

2 2

k4 = hf (x k + h, yk + k3 )

Interpolating Polynomial

f (x i )

f (x i ) . Refer here for

solved examples

Method - 1.618 and Newton’s Raphsons Method - 2

Probability and Statistics: Key topics to focus are Bayes Theorem,

Conditional and Joint probability, Binomial, Poisson, normal and

exponential distribution — there mean, variance and standard deviation,

Correlation and regression.

Properties of Probability :

0 ≤ P (A) ≤ 1

′

P (A) = 1 − P (A )

P (∅) = 0

P (∪) = 1

P (A ∩ B) = P (A|B) × P (B)

P (A ∩ B) = P (B|A) × P (A)

P (E i )P (E i |A)

P (Ei |A) = n

∑ P (E k )P (A|E k )

Bayes Theorem: k=0

, where

P (E i ∩A)

P (Ei |A) =

P (A) . Refer here for solved examples

Discrete Distribution :

n x n−x

Binomial Distribution : f (x) = ( )p (1 − p)

x

, denoted by

2

X ∼ b(n, p). Mean μ = np, Variance σ = np(1 − p)

x−1

Geometric Distribution : f (x) = P (X = x) = (1 − p) p.

x 1

F (x) = P (X ≤ x) = 1 − (1 − p) . Mean μ = E(X) =

p

, Variance

2 1−p

σ = V ar(X) = 2

p

x−1 x−r r r

f (x) = P (X = x) = (

r−1

)(1 − p) p , Mean μ = E(X) =

p

and

r(1−p)

2

Variance σ = 2

p

−λ x

e λ

Poisson Distribution : f (x) =

x!

, Mean μ = λ, Variance σ 2 = λ

Continuous Distribution :

1 −x/θ

Exponential Distribution : f (x) =

θ

e , Mean μ = θ, Variance

2 2

σ = θ

−1 x−μ 2

1 ( )

Normal Distribution : f (x) = − e σ

σ√2π

2

, Mean μ and the

variance of X is σ 2

X − μ

Substituting Z =

σ

converts normal distribution into standard

normal distribution. Solve example problems here

Regression from here

It would be grateful if someone could assist me in creating the PDF (with proper links

and formulas)of this ﬁle and add a link here so that it would be very helpful to all.

26.7k Views · View Upvoters · View Sharers · Not for Reproduction · Answer requested by Praveen

Kumar Yadav, Sourodeep Bhattacharya (सौरदीप भ ाचाय), and 14 more

Abhishek Roy

Feb 4

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