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Linguistics

QUSTIONS & ANSWERS

2017-2018

“KEEP IT SECRET KEEP IT SAFE”
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QUSTIONS

Q. 1. Below are incorrect statements. Provide the correct ones as you have studied
in the course of linguistics.

1. A connector is word such as that introducing a complement phrase
2. The lexical relation in which two or more words have very closely related meanings is
hyponymy.
3. Public self-image that the speaker attains is called pragmatics.
4. Ties or connections that exist within texts represent coherence.
5. Ordinary nouns, adjectives and verbs that we think of as words carry the function that
we use them for.
6. A phrase such as with a dog, consisting of an adverb plus a noun phrase.
7. Words with opposite meanings along a scale (ie. big-small) are ungradable antonyms.
8. In comparative reconstruction, the choice of older versus newer forms on the basis of
commonly observed types of sound change is majority principle.
9. The form of English in use since 1700 is Old English.
10. Differences resulting from change over a period of time represent synchronic
variation.
11. A diagram with branches showing the hierarchical organization of structures is deep
structure.
12. The meaning conveyed by the literal use of words is described as associative
meaning.
13. What a speaker assumes to be true or known to the audience is negative face.
14. Be clear, brief, and orderly represent relevance maxim.
15. In comparative reconstruction, the choice of older versus newer forms on the basis of
commonly observed types of sound change is majority principle.
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Q.2. Write the most suitable answer to the following:
1. The structure of individual sentences after the application of movement rules to deep
structure.
a. surface structure
b. phrase structure rules
c. complement phrase
d. deep structure
2. Basic elements such as "human" included as plus (+ human) or minus (- human), used
in analysis of the components of word meaning.
a. referential meaning
b. lexical relations
c. semantic features
d. associative meaning
3. The study of language in use by analyzing the occurrence and frequency of forms in a
large collection of texts typically stored in a computer.
a. associative meaning
b. lexical relations
c. corpus linguistics
d. referential meaning
4. A conventional knowledge structure that exists in memory.
a. script
b. cohesion
c. schema
d. hedges
e. social gender
5. A set of sounds with phonetic features in common, such as /p/, /t/ and /k/ in
English, which are all voiceless stops.
a. majority principle
b. comparative reconstruction
c. sound loss
d. natural class
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6. Rules that are used to move constituents in structures derived from phrase structure
rules. They have a special rewrite arrow.
a. phrase structure rules
b. complement phrase
c. movement rules
d. lexical rules
7. Antonyms in which the meaning of one is the reverse action of the other (i.e. dress-
undress).
a. homophones
b. co-hyponyms
c. reversives
d. prototype
8. The semantic role of the noun phrase identifying where an entity moves from (i.e.
The boy ran from THE HOUSE).
a. goal
b. theme
c. agent
d. source
9. Where we physically find the text
a. physical context
b. spatial deixis
c. linguistic context
d. positive face
10. A set of rules which define the possible sentences in a language is:
a. deep structure
b. generative grammar
c. tree diagram
d. movement rules
11. The semantic role of the noun phrase identifying where an entity moves to (ie. The
boy walked to THE WINDOW).
a. goal
b. theme
c. agent
d. source
12. Showing consideration/awareness for someone else's face
a. negative face
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b. positive face
c. politeness
d. pragmatics.
13. Co-text surrounding words and phrases is called
a. physical context
b. positive face
c. negative context
d. linguistic context
14. The main reason why speakers use indirect speech acts is
a. to be polite
b. to be on record
c. to be clear
d. to be impolite
15. A sound change involving the addition of a sound to the beginning of a word
(e.g. spiritus --> espı´ritu).
a. metathesis
b. epenthesis
c. prosthesis
d. sound loss
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Q. 3. Answer either A or B.
A. What are the functional and lexical morphemes in the following sentence?
When he arrived in the morning, the old man had an umbrella and a large plastic bag
full of books.
B. In what ways are these expressions structurally ambiguous?
1. Small boys and girls are playing hide and seek .
2. The parents of the bride and groom were waiting outside.
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Q.4. Are these underlined words best described as examples of polysemy or
metonymy?
1. I had to park on the shoulder of the road.
2. Yes, I love those. I ate a whole box on Sunday!
3. The bookstore has some new titles in linguistics.
4. Computer chips created an important new technology.
5. I’m going to sue your ass!
Q.5. What is one obvious presupposition of a speaker who says:

1. Your clock isn’t working.
2. Where did he find the money?
3. We regret buying that car.
4. The king of France is bald.
5. You brother is late.
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Q.6. Answer the following:
A. What are the anaphoric expressions in this sentence?
Dr. Foster gave Andy some medicine after he told her about his headaches and she
advised him to take the pills three times a day until the pain went away.
B. What are the allomorphs of the morpheme “plural” in this set of English
words, choose FIVE?
1. criteria
2. dogs
3. oxen
4. deer
5. judges
6. stimuli
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Q. 7. Using information from the phrase structure rules presented in the
textbook, write the phrase structure rules of the following sentence:
John believed that Mary knew that Cathy helped you.
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Q.8. Answer the following:

A. When interacting with a child, a type of simplified speech is adopted. This is
called caregiver speech. Write five characteristics to this type.

B. 1. What are the two types of language learning motivation?

2. What are the three types of communicative competence?

Q.9. Show the basic difference between five of the following:
1. Foreign language VS Second Language
2. Learning VS Acquisition
3. Positive transfer VS Negative transfer
4. Cohesion VS Coherence
5. Physical Context VS Linguistic Context
6. Free Morphemes VS Bound Morphemes
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Q.10. Young children acquire the language through several stages. Summarize all
these stages.

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Q. 11. You have studied semantics, pragmatics and discourse analysis as linguistic
subfields that deal with meaning. In a five-paragraph essay, explain in what way
each of these subfields studies meaning.
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Q. 12. Discourse Analysis is defined as the analysis of meaning beyond the level of
the sentence in the written and spoken language. In a five-paragraph essay, explain
in what way discourse analysis deals with written and spoken versions of language.

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Q.13. You have studied semantics as a linguistic subfield which deals with
meaning. In a five-paragraph essay, explain in what way semantics studies meaning.
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ANSWERS

Q. 1. Below are incorrect statements. Provide the correct ones as you have
studied in the course of linguistics:
1. Complementizer
2. Synonymy.
3. Face.
4. Cohesion
5. Content
6. A preposition plus a noun phrase.
7. Gradable antonyms.
8. Modern English
9. Natural development principle
10. Diachronic variation
11. A tree diagram
12. Conceptual meaning.
13. Positive face.
14. Manner maxim.
15. Natural principle.
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Q.2. Choose the most suitable answer to the following:
1. a. surface structure
2. c. semantic features
3. c. corpus linguistics
4. c. schema
5. d. natural class
6. c. movement rules
7. c. reversives
8. d. source
9. a. physical context
10. b. generative grammar
11. a. goal
12. c. politeness
13. d. linguistic context
14. a. to be polite
15. c. prosthesis
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Q. 3. Answer either A or B.
A.
When he arrived in the morning, the old man had an umbrella and a large plastic bag
full of books.
1. Functional morphemes: When, he, ed, in, the, the, an, and, a, of.
2. Lexical morphemes: arrive, morning, old, man, had, umbrella, large, plastic, bag,
full, books.

B.
1. Small boys and girls are playing hide and seek .
This sentence is structurally ambiguous because it can have two deep structures:
a. The small boy and small girls are playing hide and seek.
b. The small boys and all the girls are playing hide and seek.
2. The parents of the bride and groom were waiting outside.
This sentence is structurally ambiguous because it can have two deep structures:
a. The parents of the bride and the parents of the groom were waiting outside.
b. The parents of the bride and the groom (without his parents) were waiting
outside.
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Q.4.
1. Metonymy
2. Polysemy
3. Metonymy
4. Metonymy
5. Polysemy
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Q.5.
1. You have a clock.
2. You found the money?
3. We bought the car.
4. France has a king.
5. You have a brother.
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Q.6.
A
- he, her, his, she, him, the pills, the pain.
B.
• criteria:ia
• dogs: s
• oxen: en
• deer: zero
• judges: es
• stimuli: i
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Q. 7.

John believed that Mary knew that Cathy helped you.
S = NP+VP
NP=N
VP= V+CP
CP=C+S
S=NP+VP
NP=N
VP= V+CP
CP= C+S
S=NP+VP
VP= V+NP
NP=
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Q.8. A.

Caregiver speech is characterized by the following:
1- Frequent use of questions
2- Simplified lexicon
3- Phonological reduction
4- Higher pitch- extra loudness
5- Stressed intonation
6- Simple sentences
7- A lot of repetition
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Q.8. B. 1.

1. Instrumental Motivation is the way of learning a language in order
to achieve another goal, such as completing a school graduation
requirement or being able to read scientific publications, but not
really for social purposes.
2. Integrative Motivation is the technique of wanting to learn L2 for
social purposes, in order to take part in the social life of a
community using that language.

B. 2.
1- Grammatical Competence is the accurate use of words and structures.
2- Sociolinguistic Competence is the ability to use appropriate language.
3- Strategic Competence is the ability to organize a message effectively
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Q.9.
1. Foreign language VS Second Language

 Foreign language is a language that is not generally spoken in the
surrounding community.
 Second language is a language that is spoken in the surrounding
community.
2. Learning VS Acquisition
 Acquisition is defined as the gradual development of ability in a language
by using it naturally in communicative situations.
 Learning is a more conscious process of accumulating knowledge of the
features of a language in an institutional setting.
3. Positive transfer VS Negative transfer

• Positive transfer means benefitting from an L1 rule in L2 which has it.
• Negative transfer (interference) means using an L1 rule in L2 that
isn’t found in it.
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4. Cohesion VS Coherence
* Cohesion is the grammatical and/or lexical relationships between the different
elements of a text.
* Coherence is the relationships which link the meanings of utterances in a discourse or
of the sentences in a text.
5. Physical Context VS Linguistics context
* Physical Context is a set of elements though which meaning is clarified; it can
be manifested through the situation in which an utterance is said or written.
* Linguistics context or Co-text: it is a set of other words surrounding a
particular word in a given string of words.
6. Free morphemes VS bound morphemes
* Free morphemes are the morphemes that can stand alone with meaning.
* Bound morphemes are the morphemes that cannot stand alone unless attached to
another morpheme.
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Q.10.

There are five stages as follows:

1. Cooing
Children start in the first weeks cooing and gurgling, playing with sounds.
Their abilities are constrained by physiological limitations. They start
Producing sequences of vowel-like sounds- high vowels [i] and [u].
2. Babbling

This stages starts with acquiring different vowels and consonants ba-ba-ba and
ga-ga-ga, at the age 9-10 months- intonation patterns and combination of ba-ba-
ba-da-da, nasal sounds also appear ma-ma-ma and so on.

3. The one-word stage
It begins in the age of 12-18 months. Children acquire recognizable single-unit
utterances, single terms are uttered for everyday objects “milk”, “cookie”, “cat”,
“cup”, and “spoon” [pun], holophrastic (wasa = what's that)

4. The two-word stage
This stage starts at the age after two years in which vocabulary moves beyond
50 words. Children produce utterances ‘baby chair’, ‘mommy eat’,
interpretation depends on context. The child does not only produce speech, but
receives feedback confirming that the utterance worked as a contribution to the
interaction.

5. Telegraphic speech
This begins at two and a half years. The child produces „multiple-word‟ speech.
The child has already developed sentence-building capacity & can get the word
order correct („cat drink milk‟, „daddy go bye-bye’)A number of grammatical
inflections begin to appear. Simple prepositions (in, on) are also used ad
vocabulary is expanding rapidly.
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Q. 11. You have studied semantics, pragmatics and discourse analysis as
linguistic subfields that deal with meaning. In a five paragraph essay, explain in what
way each of these subfields studies meaning.
Semantics, pragmatics and discourse analysis all deal with the study of meaning
of language. These three subfields of linguistics investigate the meaning
differently. Semantics studies the conceptual meaning inside a given language.
Pragmatics, on the other hand, is concerned with meaning when a context is
involved. Discourse analysis analyzes meaning beyond the level of the sentence.
Semantics is the study of meaning represented by the conceptual meaning inside
the language. This meaning could be analyzed through literal meaning of concept,
through the semantic roles of words, through features that stipulate the use of a
given word or through the lexical relations among words such as synonymy,
metonymy and so on.
Unlike semantics, pragmatics investigates the meaning of language in context,
meaning that context of situation determines the precise meaning of the speaker’s
intended message through the pragmatic domains. These pragmatic domains are
diexes which mean referring to time, place and person through the use of
language; presupposition which means taking some meaning for granted in special
contexts; speech acts are defined as the action which is accomplished by the power
of words and face notion which is the public self-image of the speaker. All these
domains can affect the intention of the speaker.
As far as discourse analysis is concerned, it is usually defined as the analysis of
language beyond the sentence which is typically concerned with the study of
language in text and conversation. Basic ideas in the written language are
represented by text analysis, i.e., the structure of discourse which includes:
cohesion, coherence and speech events. As for conversation analysis, the aspects
are turn-taking, the cooperative principle, hedges, implicature, background
knowledge and schemas and scripts.
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Therefore, all of the three linguistic subfields are concerned with meaning of the
language. However, semantics studies the meaning of single words, phrase and
sentences inside the language and co-text. Pragmatics deals with meaning when
the speaker wants to convey some message through the context of situation at the
level of single utterances. Discourse analysis deals with both semantic and
pragmatic domains of meaning but beyond the level of single sentence or
utterances.

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Q. 12. Discourse Analysis is defined as the analysis of meaning beyond the level
of the sentence in the written and spoken language. In a five paragraph essay, explain
in what way discourse analysis deals with written and spoken versions of language.

Discourse analysis is usually defined as the analysis of language beyond the
sentence which is typically concerned with the study of language in text and
conversation. Basic ideas in the written language are represented by text analysis,
i.e., the structure of discourse which includes: cohesion, coherence and speech events.
As for conversation analysis, the aspects are turn-taking, the cooperative principle,
hedges, implicature, background knowledge and schemas and scripts.
Cohesion is the grammatical and/or lexical relationships between the different
elements of a text. The text is to be connected by cohesive ties for example, referring
to the noun father as he whenever it comes after the first mention. The second
aspect is coherence; it is the relationships which link the meanings of utterances in a
discourse or of the sentences in a text. There are certainly no cohesive ties within
this fragment of discourse. Cohesion helps to create coherence but does not entail
coherence. Nevertheless, coherence can be made with/out cohesive ties/ devises.
Speech events include interactions such as a conversation at a party or ordering a
meal. Any speech event comprises several components: Speech genre, interlocutors,
the social distance, topic of a conversation and Setting.
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The basic structure of a conversation is composed of turns which mean that the
speaker and the hearer take TURNs when talking. One person speaks at one time,
and the other listens, and then they switch roles. Interlocutors take the turn through
the end of a phrase, clause, or sentence, a falling in intonation or a perceivable pause.
Interlocutors are cooperative in constructing a conversation. This is conveyed by
“Gricean Maxims”, which are: the Quantity maxim: Make your contribution as
informative as is required, but not more, or less, than is required, the Quality maxim:
do not say that which u believe to be false or for which u lack adequate evidence, the
relation maxim: Be relevant and the Manner maxim: Be clear, brief and orderly.

Hedges, implicature, background knowledge, schemas and scripts can affect the
discourse. Hedges be defined as words or phrases used to indicate that we are not
really sure that what we are saying is sufficiently correct or complete. Implicature is
an additional meaning conveyed by a speaker adhering to the cooperative principle.
Background knowledge is information that is not in a text, but is used from memory
by a reader to understand the text. Schema is a conventional knowledge which exists
in memory. Script is essentially a dynamic schema in which conventional actions take
place.
All in all, discourse can analyze written texts with special devices that are
related to written text and can analyze conversational with special conversational
devices. These two types of texts sometimes overlap to the extent that devices from
both types can be used to analyze the overlapping discourse.
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Q.13. You have studied semantics as a linguistic subfield which deals with
meaning. In a five-paragraph essay, explain in what way semantics studies
meaning.

Semantics is the study of meaning represented by the conceptual meaning inside
the language. This meaning could be analyzed through literal meaning of concept,
through the semantic roles of words, through features that stipulate the use of a
given word or through the lexical relations among words such as synonymy,
metonymy and so on.
Conceptual meaning covers those basic, essential components of meaning that
are conveyed by the literal use of words. It is used by dictionaries and indicates the
oddity of words, phrases and sentences. Semantic Roles can be defined as another
way to analyze meaning: words can be thought of in terms of the ‘roles’ they fulfill in
the situation described in a sentence instead of containers. Semantic roles are: agent,
theme, instrument, experiencer, location, source and goal.
Meaning can be dealt with form point of view of Semantic Features are
procedures for analyzing conceptual meaning of a word into its crucial elements or
features. The features are like animate, human, female, and adult and so many others
which take plus when the features exists and minus when the feature does not exist.
According to these features, the oddity of word meaning is tackled.
Not only can words be treated as “containers” of meaning, or as fulfilling “roles”
in events, they can also have “relationships” with each other. Characterizing the
meaning of each word, not in terms of its component features, but in terms of its
relationship to other words is called Lexical Relations. Such relations as synonymy:
two or more words with very closely related meanings are called synonyms or
antonyms which mean when two forms have opposite meaning.
All in all, meaning of language is analyzed differently through the use of
different theories and models. It can be analyzed through the components features of
the meaning, the role that the words play in given sentences or the lexical relation
among words inside the language.