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Concentratio Absorbance value (Av)

0 0
0.2 0.238
0.4 0.384
0.6 0.490
0.8 0.638
1.0 0.798

Graph of working standard


f(x) = - 0.01x^2 + 0.2x - 0.17

Absorbance value (Av)






0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

By graphing method, we able to deduce the concentration of carbohydrate in the sample solution.

Sample Absorbance Concentration

solution value
Banana+ bread 1.345 10.574
Rice+ peanut 0.546 3.063

For sample solution of banana and bread,

0.1 ml of the sample contains 10.574 mg of glucose

Therefore, in 100 ml of sample contains

10.574 mg
¿ ×100 ml
0.1 ml
¿ 10574 mg glucose∈1 gram sample
¿ 10.574 g glucose
1 gram of glucose=4 calories
Hence, 10.574 g ×4=42.296 calories

For sample solution of rice and peanut,

0.1 ml of the sample contains 3.063 mg of glucose

Therefore, in 100 ml of sample contains

3.063 mg
¿ × 100 ml
0.1 ml
¿ 3063 mg glucose∈1 gram sample
¿ 3.063 g glucose
1 gram of glucose=4 calories
Hence, 3.063 g × 4=12.252 calories
Discussion :

Before swimming : Banana + bread

After swiming : Rice + peanut

1 gram of glucose = 4 calories

Before swimming :

1 slice bread = 20 gram

4 slices of bread = 212 calories (53 calories x 4 )

2 banana = 210 calories(2 x 105 calories)

After swimming :

100 grams rice = 130 calories

100 grams peanut = 567 calories

300 gram rice and 50 gram peanuts = 637.5 calories

In swimming science, economy of movement is an interesting field of research. Several investigations

have been conducted to understand the role of bioenergetics and its repercussions in performance.
Most of those studies focused exclusively on the contribution of aerobic system to produce energy
for movement even though all competitive swimming events also require significant contribution
from anaerobic energetics system to cover total energy expenditure. Particularly in swimming,
environmental factors have hindered the measuremet of cardiorespiratory variables within the
actual field setting. Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of one’s arms and
legs to move the body through water. The sport takes place in pools or open water. Competitive
swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports with varied distance events in butterfly,
backstroke, breaststroke, freestyle and individual medley. There are also regulations on what types of
swimsuits, caps, jewellery and injury tape that are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for
competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport, such as tendinitis in the shoulders or
knees, there are also multiple health benefits associated with the sport.

The typical men eat between 2000caloriesand 2500 calories per day, with recommendation for
women at 1800 to 2300 calories. Since swimmer are so active and have a lot of muscle,they need a
lot of calories than other people. But, it depends on the person physical and their metabolisme. For
our experiment, we choosed a female around14 -18 years old swimmer that usually use 2400-2800
calories per day. The average person will burn between 400 and 600 calories per hour while
swimming, depending on the intensity of the workout.
Swimmers need to pay attention to what you eat and when you eat. Swimmers need to know about
the two types of carbohydrates so that they know which carbohydrates should be eating. They are
simple and complex carbohydrates. The complex carbs are made up of many sugar molecules. They
also known as dietary starch and usually contain good amounts of fiber. Complex carb are broken
down and absorbed by the body at slower rate than simple carbs, so they provide the body constant
source of energy for a long period of time. The simple carbs are sugar. They are made up of 1 or 2
sugar molecules and are broken down and absorbed really quickly by the body.

Before swimming :

For the pre-meal, we suggested that the swimmer need to consume 200 gram of bread and banana
which are 800 calories. Breads are high in starch and bananas are high in fiber. Bread give a constant
supply of energy and provide slow release carbohydrates to replenish energy stores because they are
complex carbohydrates. We suggested that swimmer need to leave plenty of time usually up to one
hour before enter the pool to avoid feeling bloated. Breads will keep swimmer energised and help
her swim for longer. A banana contains three natural sugars - sucrose, fructose and glucose which
combined with fiber gives an instant sustained. Swimmer can take banana as a snack before enter
the pool because banana has high glycemic index that can boost up energy.

After swimming :

For the post-meal, we choosed of rice and peanut. Peanut are high in fiber and rich in protein to
support muscle repair. Rice is a rich source of carbohydrates,acts as a source of a fuel to the body
.Rice is made up of a long chains of complex carbohydrates that take time to break down Thus,
carbohydrates present in rice and peanut provide constant supply of energy. Rice also helps in
restore glycogen.Both of this food are good to consume the energy back.
Relate the article with lab work

From the article, it says by increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports help delay
the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable speed-running. So, we decided to take
breads and bananas which will give us 422 calories for a swimmer. After the competition finish, the
swimmer must be feel tired and need to recover to liver glycogen, so we take a carbohydrate that is
high glycemic index which is rice and low glycemic index which is peanut that will give 637.5 calories.
This involve in glycogenesis and glycogenolisis.