You are on page 1of 5


DRAINAGE-is defined as the means of collecting, transporting and disposing of surface water
originating in or near the right of way, or flowing on stream crossings or bordering the right of

HYDROLOGY- is that branch of physical geography that deals with water of the earth.

Run-off is predicted based on the following methods:

1. By Rational Method
2. By Empirical Formula
3. By Unit Hydrograph
4. By Statistical Approach
5. By Simulation

CHANNEL - The purpose of the designing a channel is to determine the cross section of the
canal that will accommodate water flow smoothly and cheapest to construct and maintain.

Sub-critical flow – exists when the depth of water in the channel is greater than the critical
Super-critical flow – exists when the depth is less than the critical level.
the average depth or mean depth is the cross-sectional area of the flow divided by its width at
the liquid surface

Culvert includes all closed conduits with standard designs repeatedly used except the storm

Problems usually encountered in the design and constructions of roadway are:

1. Stability of fill sand slope
2. Drainage
3. Capillary and frost heave
4. Permafrost
5. Elasticity and rutting
Slide – refers to the occurrence where the moving mass is defined and separated from the
underlying and adjacent earth by plane, comprising a number of adjacent planes were seepage

Slide is classified into four:

1. Rotational slide
2. Translational slide
3. Block or wedge failure
4. Flows and spread.

Rotational Slide – associated with natural slopes and constructed embankment of homogenous
materials possessing cohesion.

Translational slide – associated with slope of layered materials where the mechanism of
slippage occurs along weak plane that possesses a downward dip and in cohesionless soil slopes
where seepage occurs.

Block or Wedge Failure – refers to the displacement of an intact mass of soil due to the action
of an adjacent zone of earth.
Flows and Spread – is the most complex type of soil mass movement. Involves lateral
movement of soil having a characteristic of viscous fluid, although the actual consistency of the
moving mass may vary from very wet to dry.

Spread – refers to the occurrence of multi-directional lateral movement by a fractured soil mass.


3 Major Structural Parts of Roadway

1. Sub-grade or sub-base - the earth beneath the road, properly arranged and graded,
compacted and stabilized; "Supporting structure on which the pavement surface and is special
under courses rest."

2. Base Course - materials laid on top of the subgrade consisting of crushed stone or gravel/
mixed with asphalt blinders.
3. Pavement-laid over the base course consisting of Asphalt Concrete or portland Cement

AREA BASIS – by hectare and fractions thereof acceptably cleared and grubbed.

LUMP SUM BASIS – no measurement of area will be made for this item.

INDIVIDUAL UNIT BASIS (Selective Clearing) – the diameter of trees will be measured at a
height of 1.4 meter above the ground. The trees less than 15 cm diameter will not be measured
for payment.

EXCAVATION is the process of loosening and removing earth or rock from its original position in
a cut and transporting it to a fill or to waste deposit.


1. UNCLASSIFIED EXCAVATION – is the excavation and disposal of all materials regardless

of its nature, or not classified and included in the Bill of Quantities under other pay

2. ROCK EXCAVATION – consists of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that

cannot be excavated without blasting or the use of rippers and all boulders or other
detached stones each having a volume of 1 m3.

3. COMMON EXCAVATION – are those that are not included in the Bill of quotations
under rock excavation or other pay items.

4. MUCK EXCAVATION – consists of the removal and disposal of deposits of saturated or

unsaturated mixtures of soils and organic matter not suitable for foundation materials
regardless of moisture contents.

5. BORROW EXCAVATION – is the excavation and utilization of approved materials for the
construction of embankment or for other portions of the work obtained from approved
sources in accordance with the following requirements:
a. BORROW CASE 1 – materials obtained from sources designated on the plans or
in the special provisions.
b. BORROW CASE 2 – materials obtained from sources provided by the

1. Tampering Roller varies from light unit test weight 6,000 to 10,000 lbs. for an 8 ft.
width. For giant fully loaded roller, 75,000 lbs. for a 10 ft. width.
2. Grid Rollers is effective in breaking down clods and soft rock.
3. Pneumatic Tire Roller with rubber tires, weighing 8 tons or more. 200 tons for airport.
4. Smooth Tired Roller of two or three – wheeled type used to compact bases and
bituminous surface.
5. Vibratory Compactor is effective in compacting stones of Macadam road.
6. Hauling and Spreading equipment.


Portland Cement - a combination of limestone, marl or other calcareous materials and clay,
shale, or like argillaceous substances.

DETERIORATION - Due to stress brought about by load, moisture and temperature.

1. Distortion – a vertical displacement of concrete slab at the joints or cracks

 Faulting – the result of pumping tremendous force or load that develop under

2. Cracking – result from applied load, temperature or moisture changes.

 Corner cracks – associated with excessive corner deflection
 Transverse cracks – associated with mixture or temperature stresses, or poor
construction methods.

3. Disintegration – appears in the form of durability cracking, scaling or spalling, as the

result of mix design or construction related problems
 Durability Cracking – results from freeze-thaw action
 Scaling – a network of shallow fine hairline cracks which extend through the
upper surface of the concrete.
 Spalling – breaking or chipping of the joint edges.


1. Contraction Joint
2. Expansion Joint
3. Longitudinal Joint
4. Construction Joint

ADMIXTURE - a substance added in mixing to change the characteristic of concrete mixture

AIR ENTRAINMENT - the entrapment of air in the concrete mixture in the form of evenly
distributed small bubbles


1. Longitudinal Joint
2. Transverse Joint
3. Transverse Construction Joint
4. Transverse Contraction Joint
5. Load Transfer Device