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[ Mechanics of the Quantum ]

Property 6 :
Relativistic mass increase follows
weakness curve of segmental arch

° Author Koenraad M.L.L.Van Spaendonck © 2018
° Publication date October 17, 2018
° ISBN 9789402182637
° Pages / Words / Graphs [excl. appendices] 7 / 1580 / 3
“ The problem seems to me how one can formulate statements
about a discontinuum without calling upon a continuum…
...but we still lack the mathematical structure unfortunately.
How much have I already plagued myself in this way ! “

Albert Einstein [1]

“ As hangs the flexible line, so but inverted will stand the rigid arch. ”
Robert Hooke [A]

‘ MQ [Mechanics of the quantum] - Property 6 – Relativistic mass increase follows weakness
curve of segmental arch ‘ is the intellectual property of Koenraad M.L.L.Van Spaendonck.

Publishing extracts of this work is authorized only when the reference is included :
Van Spaendonck, K.M.L.L. [2018], MQ [Mechanics of the quantum] – Property 6 - Relativistic
mass increase follows weakness curve of segmental arch, Mol: K.M.L.L. Van Spaendonck,
ISBN 9789402182637. [An additional reference to the scribd links is also possible.]

This work is published by Koenraad M.L.L. Van Spaendonck
website : email :
Table of contents

° ‘Mechanics of the quantum’ - [MQ]

° A transition from the Newtonian regime to relativistic effects, in the MQ-model

A - Generalizing the MQ-model to the relativistic regime [P.1-4]
° Extra effect : flattening of compressed circular quanta : From Newton to Einstein

° Weakness curve of segmental arches follows relativistic energy absorption

° Graphs 1, 2 and 3 on p. 2-4

B - Conclusions [P.5]
° Newtonian forces fuel the emergent relativistic energy absorption on a fundamental level

° Collapse of flattened quantum avoids a singularity and stops propagation of light

° A hybrid solution, which could resolve ‘ the problem of time ’

° Remarks

Appendices [P.8]

References [P.9]

‘Mechanics of the quantum’ [MQ theory] searches for the mechanical microprocesses of the individual
and collective behaviour of quanta (interpreted as building blocks of fields, mass, energy, light…) to
reveal strong causality behind the laws of physics, rather than interpreting things with probabilities.
We refer to the preface of our previous paper [7] for further elaboration and discussion on this.

My work is focused on linking such processes to the laws of physics, which was induced by exact
mathematical and geometrical findings. A summary can be found in Appendix 1. In the current paper,
we report the precise findings of yet another observation in strong support of ‘Mechanics of the
Quantum’. We stayed true to the original model and the original causal principle [2, 4], as we have
done for the discovery of the previous 5 properties, see Appendix . Without adding new features to
the model, or changing the initial setup in any way. There is also no curve fitting with an abundance of
parameters involved in this research.

However, a recent observation of a strong parallel between the weakness parameter for segmental
arches, and the relativistic regime of Gamma, forced us to include a natural flattening of the quanta,
to insure the transition from the Newtonian regime to relativistic effects, within the MQ-model. Thus
generalizing the MQ-model. We haven’t yet readjusted the geometry in the MQ-model, but this paper
provides the foundation for that, supported be precise measurements.

And as usual, I hope that complementary skilled people (theoretical physicists, experimental physicists,
engineers, philosophers,...) will look into this work, and extend and improve it with their particular set
of knowledge, skills and talents.

Remark :

Concerning the use of ‘relativistic mass increase’ in the title of the paper, we would also like to refer
to further elaboration and interpretation of E = γmc² here : ‘ The equivalence of mass and energy ’
A - Generalizing the MQ-model to the relativistic regime

° Extra effect : flattening of compressed circular quanta : from Newton to Einstein
The generalized MQ-model consists of an extra effect on the circular quanta being compressed. Not
only do they get smaller according to the available space on a holographic layer (MQ-model as it
stands), they also experience a flattening in the direction of motion (Generalized MQ-model, not
geometrically developed yet, but supported as follows). Thus more holographic layers (read more
quanta) fit in the same radial length. Resulting in an increasing energy density and mass density
(quanta as compressible units of energy density and also as units of pre-constituents of mass [2]). This
was derived from an exact parallel with the strength of segmental arches.

An important observation is this :

The compression of a circular quantum shape previously lead to the exact Newtonian regime of
discrete energy levels [8, 7] although a relativistic effect of doubling of the Newtonian bending angle
was already included [3, 6] . So when we find a parallel mechanism now with arches, that shows a close
fit to the relativistic regime, due to a flattening of circles, then that is a strong indicator to take such a
parallel seriously and investigate further how exactly the flattening entails the cause of relativistic
effects such as relativistic mass increase, relativistic length contraction, relativistic time, relativistic
energy absorption. It also supports our initial – and unchanged – concept of quanta as orbiting pre-
constituents of mass with a circular orbit [2].

° Weakness curve of segmental arches follows relativistic energy absorption
We derived this from a parallel effect found in the weakness curve of segmental arches. That regime
of exponentially increasing weakness of arches which are increasingly more flat, follows practically
completely (shown with precise measurement in graphs 1,2,3) the regime of relativistic energy

The strength of the segmental arch under horizontal uniform load, is a function of the rise-to-span
ratio of the segment of a circle. That circle has a radius R, and 1/R is rate of curvature. As the radius
increases with constant span - flattening of the arch - , the arch will be weaker [A, B, C]. So if such an
arch were hypothetically to have an elastic, compressible and expandable) nature, like our quanta,
then it would experience exponentially increasing flatness with increments of load added. And thus
more quanta would fit in the same length, not just according to any exponential regime, but almost
exactly along the relativistic regime found in Gamma, the Lorentz factor, with increasing v/c, and its
equivalent gravitational counterpart (*). That is how we interpret the findings in graphs 1, 2 and 3.

° Graph 1 on p.2 - Load impact : Comparing Gamma to measured √𝑅 of segmental arch

° Graph 2 on p.2 - Close curves : Comparing Gamma to measured √𝑅 of segmental arch

° Graph 3 on p.3 - Measured values : Comparing Gamma to measured √𝑅 of segmental arch
(*) : The problem of gravitational energy has a.o. been adressed in 1973 in ‘Gravitation’ by Misner, Thorn & Wheeler on p.467.
Gravitational field energy is not part of the energy momentum tensor. And at the end of Chapter 20.4 we read : ‘At issue is not the
existence of gravitational energy, but the localizability of gravitational energy’.

Graph 1 - Load impact : Comparing Gamma to measured √𝑅 of segmental arch

Graph 2 - Close curves : Comparing Gamma to measured √𝑅 of segmental arch

Graph 3 - Measured values : Comparing Gamma to √𝑅 of segmental arch
V/C Speed 1/ γ γ Gamma √𝑹 R Radius γ²
1-f (f is arch height) 1 / [1 – v²/c²]^1/2 arch weakness R of segmental Arch

γ & √𝑹 values very close > graph 2
0.1 0.994987473 1.005037815 1.00277615 R1 = 1.0055600 1.0101010

0.2 0.979795897 1.020620726 1.01242284 R2 = 1.0250000 1.0416666

Example: Red R in graph 1

0.3 0.953939201 1.048284837 1.03164432 R3 = 1.0642900 1.0989010

0.4 0.916515139 1.091089451 1.06457973 R4 = 1.1333300 1.1904761

0.5 0.866025404 1.154700538 1.11803399 R5 = 1.2500000 1.3333333

0.6 0.800000000 1.250000000 1.20415946 R6 = 1.4500000 1.5625000

0.7 0.714142843 1.400280084 1.34783901 R7 = 1.8166700 1.9607843

0.8 0.600000000 1.666666667 1.61245155 R8 = 2.6000000 2.7777777

0.9 0435889894 2.294157339 2.24722051 R9 = 5.0500000 5.2631578

0.91 0.414608249 2.411915354 2.36655023 5.6005600 5.8173356

0.92 0.391918359 2.551551815 2.50798724 6.2900000 6.5104166

0.93 0.367559519 2.720647809 2.67915285 7.1778600 7.4019245

0.94 0.341174442 2.931051909 2.89194225 8.3633300 8.5910652

0.95 0.312249900 3.202563076 3.16622804 10.025000 10.2564102

0.96 0.280000000 3.571428571 3.53836120 12.520000 12.7551020

0.97 0.243104916 4.113450349 4.08432002 16.681670 16.9204737

0.98 0.198997487 5.025189076 5.00099990 25.010000 25.2525252

0.99 0.141067360 7.088812050 7.07142136 50.005000 50.2512562

0.991 0.133861869 7.470387248 7.45386209 55.560060 55.8066856

0.992 0.126237871 7.921553132 7.90594713 62.504000 62.7510040

0.993 0.118114351 8.466371685 8.45174952 71.432070 71.6794495

0.994 0.109380071 9.142433242 9.12887342 83.336330 83.5840855

0.995 0.099874922 10.01252349 10.0001250 100.00250 100.2506248

0.996 0.089353232 11.19153703 11.1804293 125.00200 125.2505011

0.997 0.077401550 12.91963785 12.9100027 166.66817 166.9170422

0.998 0.063213923 15.81929993 15.8114199 250.00100 250.2502503

0.999 0.044710178 22.36627204 22.360691 500.00050 500.2501250

____________________________Copyright 2018 Koenraad Van Spaendonck________________________

B – Conclusions

We measured the weakness level of increasingly lower segmental arches, and compared that curve to
the curve of relativistic energy absorption, expressed by the Lorentz Factor or Gamma. We found a
very close match, without any adjustments of data, with exact measurements in CAD software
Rhinoceros 5.0 Commercial. (See graphs 1,2,3)

Ultimately this mounts up to measuring the length of the radius of a segmental arch, because a lower
rise f, with constant span L, results in higher segmental radius R, and consequently also √𝑅.

In our interpretation for the MQ-model [7, 4], a quantum represents equivalently 2 arches mirrored
into a compressing and flattening circle. The quanta in the generalized MQ-model will exponentially
flatten in the radial direction, thus more will fit into the radius. And our observations reported above,
lead to the following further interpretations for physics :

°Newtonian forces fuel the relativistic energy absorption mechanism on a very fundamental level :

With increasing speed v/c or increasing [ √(2GM/r) ] / c (°) the quanta of the fully generalized QM-
model will experience compression along the laws of Newtonian forces working on a more and more
elliptically shaped flattening quantum, resembling the more flat segmental arch. Thus with each equal
increment of added force (*), the compression effect (-) gets exponentially stronger in case of the
quanta, exactly according to the approximated Relativistic energy absorption regime (+).

Compression effect (-) : A quantum located more radially inward towards the center, is more
compressed (~arch) due to the extra radial force of more quanta on it, and thus it does not maintain
the shape of a perfect circle, in the MQ-model. Consequently more quanta are packed per original unit
of radial volume.

The reason is that with an increasingly more flat arch (a lower rise-to-span ratio, meaning a higher R
value), the horizontal outward force on the hinges [A, B, C] increases, upto a certain flatness, and does
so exponentially, representing weaker and weaker arches. Leading to a weakness regime of the more
and more flattened arch (directly linked to relativistic length contraction). More but shorter units per
unit of volume or length, make up more energy density.

(° ) non-rotating spherically symmetric case. (Also see remark p.1 on the problem of

(*) Equal increments of added force means: Atomic energy level n goes to n+1, or move m towards M
over one holographic layer, or increase mass M, or speed v/c goes up.

(+) Be it the energy density inside the atom, or that of the unified gravitational field.

°Collapse of flattened quantum avoids a singularity and stops propagation of light :

Because at some point the behaviour of the quantum changes from extreme flattening to collapse.
That is if we extrapolate the equivalent standard behaviour of segmental arches, they feature buckling
(instability leading to a failure mode, with deformations). Further, a flattening to ‘zero thickness’ is
avoided, in the case of our quanta. The reason is that we conjectured from the start that a quantum is
made up of orbiting pre-constituents of mass.

So the size of those pre-constituents is also the maximum flatness of the quantum. In [2], we already
hinted at a mechanism which thus destroys the elastic characteristics of the quantum at the BH
horizon, braking the capability of the quanta to transfer momentum (Newton’s cradle, propagation of
light conjectured [6 – p.18, 19 therein]). Which means as much as no more propagation of light at the
black hole horizon, neither in nor out.

°A hybrid solution which could resolve ‘the problem of time’ :

With the generalized MQ-model we arrive thus, at a unified field of circular quanta which compress
into discrete energy densities, but continously deform into ellipse-like shapes, upto a certain limit. This
is a typical hybrid result. Hybrids tend to leave less favourable characteristics behind, and take more
favourable characteristic with them to the next generation (theory), while adding an extra element, to
adjust to the new environment. ‘The continuum generalizes to a finite continuous discontinuum‘ :-)

In GR, time is relative, in QM, time is absolute (in an nutshell). But the interpretations of the properties
of the MQ-model reveal that ‘the problem of time’ could be a non-problem. First we interpreted time
in GR as local energy densities (densities of compressed quanta in the discrete MQ-model of gravity –
Properties 1-4).

Then we found (Property 5) that the discreteness, and the energy level gaps, holds on the atomic level
of scale. And now we found a strong clue for the relativistic extension for the inertial, gravitational,
and the atomic realm of energy levels (Property 6). Also see ‘Properties’ on page 7, appendix 1.

So both for GR and QM, according to our MQ-model, ‘time’ emerges from energy densities, relative
from one location to another. And both for GR and QM, independently of any physics model, one can
install ‘time’ as a tool of the mind, where our mind does nothing more than structure the follow-up of
event, and give us a notion of past, present and future, which has nothing to do with the energy
densities as such.

Thus we should fully realize objectively, that ‘time’ in GR is not about the latter ‘time’, it is about the
frequency of a shift between 2 energy densities. And our work shows that the MQ-model of these
energy densities is identically applicable to the atomic realm as it was to the gravitational realm, hence
‘the problem of time’ might be a non-problem.

°Remarks :

We did not use any curve-fitting techniques, or adaptations in the setup. And the arch model used, is
independent of any type of material or thickness used for the arch. The curve in graph 2 on page 3
follows directly from the CAD measurements (In Rhino 5.0 Commercial) of the consecutive lengths of
R, of which we took the square root values, in a barebone setup of a segmental arch.

We did not speculate on the potential causes of the obtained deviation between the 2 curves in graphs
2 and 3, that is the relativistic Gamma curve (black), and the curve of the measured sq. root of
segmental arch radius (blue). Nor did we compare the compliance to experimental evidence. We are
not directly claiming here that the √𝑹 function is closer to experimental evidence, and we don’t
automatically expect that. The deviation can have many causes.

Appendix 1 [ Relating to the Preface ]
In retrospect, I concluded that the work done in previous papers and in the current paper, as well as the upcoming related papers, have one
thing in common : Mechanics of the quantum as the causal feature of the emerging properties of our MQ-model and our generalized MQ-
model under construction [a discrete model of energy densities with unifying characteristics] and the interpretations for physics. Therefore
we have allocated the derived emergent properties to the finished papers.

Derived MQ-model properties & associated papers

° MQ [Mechanics of the Quantum] - Property 1 -

Newton’s third law ànd a dark energy alternative at the heart of the MQ-model.

With ‘redshift’ proportional to distance, due to quantum ize proportional to distance.
[General Quantum Gravity – version 1.1] & [It from compressed Bit]

° MQ [Mechanics of the Quantum] - Property 2 -

Avoiding renormalizations and infinities through counting quanta in a finite, discrete field

Connecting to the concept of Quantum Information
[Emergent Gravity from Discrete Geometry – EG from DG] & [It from compressed Bit]

° MQ [Mechanics of the Quantum] - Property 3 -

Radius/circumference is constant in MQ-model, solving Ehrenfest Paradox differently

GR’s doubling of the Newtonian light bending angle straight from the MQ-model
[A new breeding ground to uncover the discontinuum]

° MQ [Mechanics of the Quantum] - Property 4 -

Avoiding a non-Euclidean geometry, models ‘time’ in GR as local energy densities

Thus also finding the key for a transition from an Ads-like space (slice) to dS
[General Quantum Gravity – version 1.1] & [A new breeding ground to uncover the discontinuum]

° MQ [Mechanics of the Quantum] - Property 5 -

Hydrogen energy level ratios from counting compressed quanta
(Supports suspected unification of gravity with QM aspects, EMR-aspects, photon emission, cosmology)

° MQ [Mechanics of the Quantum] - Property 6 -

Relativistic mass increase follows weakness curve of segmental arch
(Supports contention that the mechanics of compressed quanta are at the heart of unification)

(Supports contention that quanta as flattened circles entail the relativistic generalization of the MQ-model)

Upcoming papers: Property 7 QM-model eliminates DM … & Property 8 Electron orbitals …


° Einstein, A. (1916), Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie, Annalen der Physik, 354 (7): 769–822

° Einstein, A. (1905), Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper, Annalen der Physik 17, 322 (10): 891–921.

[A] Rigidity of arches
Link for this work :

[B] Theory of arched structures
Link for this work : [1]

[C] Types of arches : segmental arch
Link for this work :

[1] Excerpt from Einstein’s 1916 letter to H.W. Dällenbach :

“But you have correctly grasped the drawback that the continuum brings. If the molecular view of matter is the
correct (appropriate) one, i.e., if a part of the universe is to be represented by a finite number of moving points,
then the continuum of the present theory contains too great a manifold of possibilities. I also believe that this too
great is responsible for the fact that our present means of description miscarry with the quantum theory. The
problem seems to me how one can formulate statements about a discontinuum without calling upon a continuum
(space-time) as an aid; the latter should be banned from the theory as a supplementary construction not justified
by the essence of the problem, which corresponds to nothing “real”. But we still lack the mathematical structure
unfortunately. How much have I already plagued myself in this way!” [Ref. by Physicist Sabine Hossenfelder
on Backreaction, under “ Einstein on the discreteness of space-time ”]

[2] Van Spaendonck, K.M.L.L. (June 2016), General Quantum Gravity - Version 1.1, Mol: K.M.L.L. Van
Spaendonck, ISBN 9789402149999, 50 p. [Amazon]

Link for this work :

[3] Van Spaendonck, K.M.L.L. (June 2016), Geometry of General Quantum Gravity features static universe with
accumulative expansion of spacial units and double deflection of light, Mol: K.M.L.L. Van Spaendonck [Amazon]

Link for this work :

[4] Van Spaendonck, K.M.L.L. (January 2017), Emergent Gravity from Discrete Geometry [ EG from DG ], Mol:
K.M.L.L. Van Spaendonck, ISBN 9789402158601

Link for this work :

[5] Van Spaendonck, K.M.L.L. (31/03/2017), It from compressed Bit – essay for the Gravity Foundation
competition, Mol: K.M.L.L. Van Spaendonck

Link for this work :

[6] Van Spaendonck, K.M.L.L. (14/09/2017), A new breeding ground to uncover the discontinuum – essay for
competition ‘Space and Time after Quantum Gravity’, Mol: K.M.L.L. Van Spaendonck

Link for this work :

[7] Van Spaendonck, K.M.L.L. [2018], MQ [Mechanics of the quantum] – Property 5 - Hydrogen energy level
ratios from counting compressed quanta, Mol: K.M.L.L. Van Spaendonck, ISBN 9789402158601.

Link for this work :

[8] Discrete atomic energy levels – hydrogen excited states

° Balmer, J.J. (1885), Annalen der Physik und Chemie, N.F. 25

° Rydberg, J.R. (1889), Den Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 23 (11)

° Bohr, N. (1913), On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules, Part II Systems Containing Only a Single Nucleus,
Philosophical Magazine 26 (153) – p.476-502