1. What is Rabies? Rabies is a viral infection of animals that can be transmitted to humans.

It is caused by a virus of the Rhabdoviridae family, which attacks the central nervous system. The virus is usually excreted in the saliva of an infected animal. Rabies is almost fatal once symptoms or signs appear. 2. How is Rabies Transmitted? Rabies can affect in any warm blooded animal (domestic and wild). In the Philippines, rabies has been transmitted to humans from the bites of dogs (98%) and cats (2%). The virus is usually transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, most often by a bite or scratch or licks on broken skin or mucous membrane, such as the eyes, nose or mouth. In very rare cases, person to person transmission has occured when saliva droplets were dispersed in the air. 3. What are the Signs and Symptoms of Canine Rabies? 1. Unusual restlessness 2. Fever 3. Dilatation of pupils 4. Watchful apprehensive look 5. Biting at inanimate objects 6. Aimless running and unprovoked agressiveness 7. Dificulty of swallowing followed by a change in the bark or howling sounds of animals 4. What are the Signs and Symptoms of Human Rabies? 1. Fever 2. Anorexia 3. Nausea & vomiting 4. Headache 5. Pain or paresthesia at site bite 6. Signs of nervous system dysfunction as hyperactivity, disorientation, hallucination, seizures & paralysis 5. What To Do To Prevent Rabies? 1. When exposed or bitten by an animal (rabid or not), wash & flush the wound thoroughly with soap and water then seek medical attention for possible post esposure vaccination and wound care immediately. 2. Then consult a veterinarian or trained personnel to observe your pet for 14 days for signs of rabies. 3. Be a Responsible Pet Owner by having your dog vaccinated for anti-rabies. Dog Control (leashing or confinement in the house).

local government units and partner agencies will advocate for the full implementation of the law nationwide. and the Philippines ranked No. 6. Networking with all possible members within the community who can have an active involvement in the Rabies prevention and control program in the area. It remains a serious public health problem in the country which causes the death of between 200 . 6 among the countries with the highest incidence of rabies in the world. Department of Agriculture Bureau of Animal Industry.500 Filipinos annually. Prescribing Penalties for Violation Thereof and Appropriating Funds Therefore) on May 27. the Department of Health. 5. 2007. responsible pet ownership and dog-bite victim immunization ± is still recommended for all government units to control rabies in their areas of responsibility. 9482 (An Act Providing for the Control and Elimination of Human and Animal Rabies. The rabies prevention and control program received its needed boost when President Gloria MacapagalArroyo signed into law the Republic Act No. The battlecry is SUMUNOD SA BATAS RABIES . A threepronged approach ± dog immunization.4. Mobilize for Community Participation. . These include: * government institutions * non-government institutions * civic and religious organizations * schools (private and public) * local government officials * media * others (volunteers) Rabies Control Program March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! Rabies is 100% fatal viral disease affecting the nervous system of humans and animals. Consult for Rabies Diagnosis & Surveilance of the area. This next three years. How To Organize The Community Against Rabies? * Who Can Help Us? Everybody in the community.

Meanwhile. Between 30% to 60% of the victims of dog bites are children under the age of 15. Responsible Pet Ownership for Rabis Free Philippines Rabies Key facts y y Rabies is widely distributed across the globe. Philippines. . animal control and other public health measures are undertaken because of the high case fatality rate for rabies. Rabies Although rabies is not among the leading causes of disease and death in the country it has become a public health problem of significance for two reasons: it is one of the most acutely fatal infections which causes the death of between 200-500 Filipinos annually. all efforts should be made to contain rabies at its source. the said agencies are also gearing up their efforts towards the goal of declaring the Philippines as Rabies-Free by the 2020. More than 55 000 people die of rabies each year. Responsible Pet Ownership for Rabis Free Philippines Community Oragninzing Against Rabies. Thus. It is hard to make a definite early diagnosis of rabies. and the disease almost always leads to death even when vaccination and medical management are given as soon as the symptoms have set in. Further. Most human deaths follow a bite from an infected dog. and the Philippines ranked number six among the countries with the highest reported incidence of rabies in the world. About 95% of human deaths occur in Asia and Africa. There is yet no way of immediately segregating those who had acquired rabies infection from those who had been bitten by nonrabid sources. Source: National Objectives for Health. Philippines. Dogs remain the principal animal source of rabies. Although a great majority of animal bites are non-infected with the rabies virus. with universal immunization of dogs and responsible pet ownership as major preventive measures. the cost of postexposure vaccination against rabies can be prohibitive. Manila. Department of Health. 2005-2001.

particularly bats. Without intensive care. signs of hyperactivity (furious rabies) or paralysis [pdf 514kb] (dumb rabies) dominate. usually due to breathing failure. . can prevent the onset of rabies in virtually 100% of exposures. done as soon as possible after suspect contact with an animal and following WHO recommendations. The disease is transmitted to domestic animals and humans through exposure to infected saliva. Once symptoms of the disease develop. Transmission Dogs continue to be the main carrier of rabies in Africa and Asia and are responsible for most of the human rabies deaths worldwide. Once the signs and symptoms of rabies start to appear. The disease is present on nearly every continent of the world but most human deaths occur in Asia and Africa (more than 95%). followed by coma and death in all cases. Rabies is a zoonotic disease (a disease that is transmitted to humans from animals) that is caused by a virus. headache and fatigue. Livestock. and then progress to involve the :: WHO Expert Consultation respiratory. For the first time in 2003. than from dogs. there is no treatment and the disease is almost always fatal. death occurs during the first seven days of illness. gastrointestinal and/or central nervous systems. Rabies infects domestic and wild animals. In developed countries rabies continues mainly in wild animals. In the on Rabies: first report. bat rabies has emerged as a public health problem in the Americas and Europe. raccoons. horses and deer can become infected with rabies. jackals and wolves are very rare. 2005 critical stage.y y y Wound cleansing and immunizations. this rarely occurs. Symptoms Related links :: More on rabies The first symptoms of rabies are flu-like. In both furious and dumb rabies. Human rabies deaths following exposure to wild foxes. Humans most often become infected with rabies through the bite or scratch of an infected dog or cat. the most cost-effective strategy for preventing rabies in people is by eliminating rabies in dogs through animal vaccinations. more people in South America died from rabies following exposure to wildlife. Globally. some paralysis eventually progresses to complete paralysis. but although they could transmit the virus to other animals or people. skunks. rabies is fatal. and is spread to people through close contact with infected saliva (via bites or scratches). including fever. In the past few years.

When humans are exposed to suspect animals. and US$ 49 in Asia. Dog rabies is responsible for more than 14 million courses of post-exposure treatment to prevent the onset of disease. or licks on broken skin Category III: one or more bites. should be given for Category III contact. or to people with weaker immune systems. capture or humanely sacrifice the animal involved should be undertaken immediately. wildlife specialists or researchers). Poor people. Anti-rabies immunoglobin. Children often play with animals and are less likely to report bites or scratches. and then administering anti-rabies immunizations as soon as possible. are at highest risk of dog rabies. Animals that are sacrificed or have died should be tested for the virus. The average cost of rabies immunizations after a suspicious animal bite is US$ 40 in Africa. An estimated 31 000 people die from dog rabies in Asia each year. Post-exposure treatment should start right away and only be stopped if the animal is a dog or cat and remains healthy after 10 days. or who spend a lot of time outdoors (e. Anti-rabies vaccine is given for Category II and III exposures.g. but skin is intact Category II: minor scratches without bleeding from contact. About 30% to 60% of the victims of dog bites (the primary mode of virus transmission) are children less than 15 years of age. attempts to identify. More about immunizations The WHO guide on preventive immunizations against rabies is aimed to ensure that effective and potent treatment is provided. with results sent to responsible veterinary services and public health officials so that the situation in the area is well documented. or antibody.g. or point of contact. Treatment after exposure Wound cleansing and immunizations. where the average wage is about US$ 1 to US$ 2 per day. or other contact that breaks the skin. even where vaccines are in very short supply . Recommended treatment to prevent rabies depends on the category of the contact: y y y Category I: touching or feeding suspect animals.as is the case in . or exposure to bats Post-exposure care to prevent rabies includes cleaning and disinfecting a wound. In Africa the annual death toll is 24 000. The economic burden of rabies in the developing world also takes a large toll. particularly in rural areas. In areas known for rabies. should be vaccinated preventively. per person. especially children. scratches. professionals with frequent exposure to animals (e. can prevent the onset of rabies in virtually 100% of exposures. This also applies to travelers and hikers who visit areas where bats are commonly found. This post-exposure treatment is a major financial burden for most households in these countries. veterinarians). done as soon as possible after suspect contact with an animal and following WHO recommendations. licks on broken skin.Who is most at risk? People most at risk of rabies live in rural areas of Africa and Asia.

many developing countries. recent increases in human rabies deaths in South America and parts of Africa and Asia evidence that rabies is re-emerging as a serious public health issue. Rabies immunoglobulin (antibody) vaccines . Purified equine (horse) rabies immunoglobulin provide at least a partial solution to current problems of insufficient quantities and the high cost of human immunoglobulin in developing countries. However. A lack of awareness of the effectiveness and feasibility of this prevention approach hinders elimination of human cases. Rabies elimination efforts that focus on mass vaccinations of dogs are financially justified by the future savings of discontinuing post-exposure preventive treatment for people. and in humans before and after suspected exposures. Vaccination of domestic animals (mostly dogs) and wildlife (such as foxes and raccoons) has led to reduced disease in several developed and developing countries. As shown in several countries . Health staff must be well trained in techniques and vaccines must be stored appropriately for effectiveness.which are recommended for use in Category III cases and for exposures in immunosuppressed people . . The most cost-effective strategy for preventing rabies in people is by eliminating rabies in dogs through animal vaccinations. Prevention Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent rabies in animals.are expensive and can be in short supply or non-existent in most developing countries. Alternative.elimination of rabies in dogs can result in elimination of transmissions to people and other animals. Preventing human rabies through control of domestic dog rabies is a realistic goal for large parts of Africa and Asia. more economical vaccination approaches have been successful in developing countries where funding for vaccines and vaccine supplies are limited. Prevention of human rabies must be a community effort involving both veterinary and public health services.such as Japan and Malaysia .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful