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PATERNO MATERNO

Problema

Problemas

Asignado

Suppose that f (x) = 3(8x − x2 ) ⁄ 256 for 0 < x < 8.

Determine the following:

1

(a) P(X < 2) (b) P(X < 9) (c) P(2 < X < 4)

(d) P(X > 6) (e) x such that P(X < x) = 0.95

A test instrument needs to be calibrated periodically to prevent measurement

errors. After some time of use without calibration, it is known that the

probability density function of the measurement error is f (x) = 1− 0.5x for 0

< x < 2 millimeters.

(a) If the measurement error within 0.5 millimeters is acceptable, what is the

2

probability that the error is not acceptable before calibration?

(b) What is the value of measurement error exceeded with probability 0.2

before calibration?

(c) What is the probability that the measurement error is exactly 0.22

millimeters before calibration?

i. The probability density function of the net weight in pounds of a

packaged chemical herbicide is f (x) = 2.0 for 49.75 < x < 50.25 pounds.

(a) Determine the probability that a package weighs more than 50

pounds.

(b) How much chemical is contained in 90% of all packages? 3

ii. The life of a recirculating pump follows a Weibull distribution with

parameters = 2 and = 700 hours. Determine:

(a) Mean life of a pump (b) Variance of the life of a pump

(c) What is the probability that a pump will last longer than its mean?

Suppose that the cumulative distribution function of the random variable X

is

0 𝑥<0

𝐹(𝑋) = {0,25𝑥 0 ≤ 𝑥 < 5

4

1 5≤𝑥

Determine the following:

(a) P(X < 2.8) (b) P(X > 1.5)

(c) P(X < −2) (d) P(X > 6)

Determine the probability density function for each of the following

cumulative distribution functions.

F(x) = 1 − e− 2x x > 0

modeled as f (x) = 2x−3 for 1< x. Determine the mean of X. What can 6

you conclude about the variance of X?

ii. The net weight in pounds of a packaged chemical herbicide is uniform

for 49.75 < x < 50.25 pounds. Determine the following:

(a) Mean and variance of the weight of packages

(b) Cumulative distribution function of the weight of packages

(c) P(X < 50.1)

The thickness of a conductive coating in micrometers has a density function

of 600x−2 for 100 μm < x < 120 μm.

(a) Determine the mean and variance of the coating thickness. 7

(b) If the coating costs $0.50 per micrometer of thickness on each part, what

is the average cost of the coating per part?

The thickness of photoresist applied to wafers in semiconductor

manufacturing at a particular location on the wafer is uniformly distributed

between 0.2050 and 0.2150 micrometers. Determine the following:

(a) Cumulative distribution function of photoresist thickness

8

(b) Proportion of wafers that exceeds 0.2125 micrometers in photoresist

thickness

(c) Thickness exceeded by 10% of the wafers (d) Mean and variance of

photoresist thickness

The volume of a shampoo filled into a container is uniformly distributed

between 374 and 380 milliliters.

(a) What are the mean and standard deviation of the volume of shampoo?

(b) What is the probability that the container is filled with less than the

advertised target of 375 milliliters?

9

(c) What is the volume of shampoo that is exceeded by 95% of the

containers?

(d) Every milliliter of shampoo costs the producer $0.002. Any shampoo

more than 375 milliliters in the container is an extra cost to the producer.

What is the mean extra cost?

i. Assume that Z has a standard normal distribution.

Use Table to determine the value for z that solves each of the following:

(a) P(Z ,z) = 0.9 (b) P(Z ,z) = 0.5

(c) P(Z .z) = 0.1 (d) P(Z .z) = 0.9

(e) P(−1.24, Z , z) = 0.8

ii. Assume that X is normally distributed with a mean of5 and a standard 10

deviation of 4. Determine the value for x that solves each of the

following:

(a) P(X . x) = 0.5 (b) P(X . x) = 0.95

(c) P(x, X ,9) = 0.2 (d) P(3, X , x) = 0.95

(e) P(−x, X − 5, x) = 0.99

The compressive strength of samples of cement can be modeled by a normal

distribution with a mean of 6000 kilograms per square centimeter and a

standard deviation of 100 kilograms per square centimeter.

(a) What is the probability that a sample’s strength is less than 6250 11

Kg/cm2?

(b) What is the probability that a sample’s strength is between 5800 and

5900 Kg/cm2?

(c) What strength is exceeded by 95% of the samples?

Measurement error that is normally distributed with a mean of 0 and a

standard deviation of 0.5 gram is added to the true weight of a sample. Then

the measurement is rounded to the nearest gram. Suppose that the true

12

weight of a sample is 165.5 grams.

(a) What is the probability that the rounded result is 167 grams?

(b) What is the probability that the rounded result is 167 grams or more?

Phoenix water is provided to approximately 1.4 million people who are

served through more than 362,000 accounts

(http://phoenix.gov/WATER/wtrfacts.html). All accounts are metered and

billed monthly. The probability that an account has an error in a month is

0.001, and accounts can be assumed to be independent.

(a) What are the mean and standard deviation of the number of account

13

errors each month?

(b) Approximate the probability of fewer than 350 errors in a month.

(c) Approximate a value so that the probability that the number of errors

exceeds this value is 0.05.

(d) Approximate the probability of more than 400 errors per month in the

next two months. Assume that results between months are independent.

Suppose that the number of asbestos particles in a sample of 1 squared

centimeter of dust is a Poisson random variable with a mean of 1000. What

14

is the probability that 10 squared centimeters of dust contains more than

10,000 particles?

Suppose that X has an exponential distribution with = 2. Determine the

following:

(a) P(X ≤ 0) (b) P(X ≥ 2) 15

(c) P(X ≤ 1) (d) P(1< X <2)

(e) Find the value of x such that P(X < x) = 0.05.

The lifetime of a mechanical assembly in a vibration test is exponentially

distributed with a mean of 400 hours.

(a) What is the probability that an assembly on test fails in less than 100

hours?

(b) What is the probability that an assembly operates for more than 500

hours before failure?

16

(c) If an assembly has been on test for 400 hours without a failure, what is

the probability of a failure in the next 100 hours?

(d) If 10 assemblies are tested, what is the probability that at least one fails

in less than 100 hours? Assume that the assemblies fail independently.

(e) If 10 assemblies are tested, what is the probability that all have failed by

800 hours? Assume that the assemblies fail independently.

An article in Journal of Hydrology [“Use of a Lognormal Distribution

Model for Estimating Soil Water Retention Curves from Particle-Size

Distribution Data” (2006, Vol. 323(1), pp. 325–334)] considered a 17

lognormal distribution model to estimate water retention curves for a range

of soil textures. The particle-size distribution (in centimeters) was modeled

as a lognormal random variable X with θ = −3.8 and ω = 0.7. Determine the

following:

(a) P(X < 0.02) (b) Value for x such that P(X ≤ x) = 0.95

(c) Mean and variance of X

normally distributed with a length of 90.2 millimeters and a standard

deviation of 0.1 millimeter.

(a) What is the probability that a part is longer than 90.3 millimeters or

shorter than 89.7 millimeters?

(b) What should the process mean be set at to obtain the highest number of

parts between 89.7 and 90.3 millimeters?

18

(c) If parts that are not between 89.7 and 90.3 millimeters are scrapped, what

is the yield for the process mean that you selected in part (b)? Assume that

the process is centered so that the mean is 90 millimeters and the standard

deviation is 0.1 millimeter. Suppose that 10 cases are measured, and they are

assumed to be independent.

(d) What is the probability that all 10 cases are between 89.7 and 90.3

millimeters?

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