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vital organs when their heart is not beating. After a person's heart stops beating, irreparable brain damage can occur within minutes, and death occurs within eight to ten minutes. Traditional CPR is comprised of both artificial breathing and chest compressions, but recent research by the American Heart Association suggests that hands-only CPR, meaning chest compressions without the artificial breathing, is also effective.http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=30337407 The three main parts of performing CPR can be remembered as the ABCs of CPR. The A stands for airway, B is for breathing, and C is for circulation.http://www.ulsterredcross.org/courses.asp. Benefits of CPR By maintaining a strict cycle of breathing and compression into an unobstructed mouth, CPR can save a person's life while she awaits an ambulance. Every minute after the heart stops is critical. According to the American Heart Association, 95 percent of sudden cardiac arrest victims die before getting hospital treatment. But a person's chance of survival after receiving CPR can triple. Even after CPR, a victim's heart must be assisted into getting back into a regular beating pattern because CPR accounts for only 30 percent of a heart's total working capacity. If defibrillation takes place within 10 minutes of a CPR-rescued heart, the survival rate is 43 percent. In other words, being surrounded by people who know CPR is truly a lifesaving situation. Read more: How Does CPR Help a Cardiac Arrest Victim? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4623029_cpr-help-cardiac-arrestvictim.html#ixzz11VKWvoTg Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies, including heart attack or near drowning, in which someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped. Ideally, CPR involves two elements: chest compressions combined with mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing. However, what you as a bystander should do in an emergency situation really depends on your knowledge and comfort level.
) The above advice applies only to adults needing CPR.The bottom line is that it's far better to do something than to do nothing at all if you're fearful that your knowledge or abilities aren't 100 percent complete. take an accredited first-aid training course. You don't need to try rescue breathing. CPR can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until more definitive medical treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm. If you've previously received CPR training. Alternate between 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths. but you're not confident in your abilities. and confident in your ability. the difference between your doing something and doing nothing could be someone's life. If you're well trained. If you're not trained in CPR. A person may die within eight to 10 minutes. Before you begin Before starting CPR. When the heart stops. To learn CPR properly. then just do chest compressions at a rate of about 100 a minute. Remember. check: Is the person conscious or unconscious? . then provide hands-only CPR. including CPR and how to use an automatic external defibrillator (AED). not to children. Just do chest compressions. 2. (Details described below. Here's advice from the American Heart Association: Untrained. Trained. and ready to go. the absence of oxygenated blood can cause irreparable brain damage in only a few minutes. then you can opt for one of two approaches: 1. That means uninterrupted chest compressions of about 100 a minute until paramedics arrive (described in more detail below). (Details described below.) Trained. but rusty.
Move quickly through airway and breathing to begin chest compressions. breathing and circulation — to remember the steps explained below. call 911 before beginning CPR — unless you think the person has become unresponsive because of suffocation (such as from drowning). If you are alone and have immediate access to a telephone.If the person appears unconscious. then begin CPR. chin-lift maneuver. In this special case. Then with the other hand. Check for normal breathing. Put the person on his or her back on a firm surface. begin mouth-to-mouth breathing. If an AED is immediately available. tap or shake his or her shoulder and ask loudly. Airway: Clear the airway 1. Open the person's airway using the head-tilt. Remember the ABCs Think ABC — airway. If you believe the person is unconscious from a heart attack and you haven't been trained in emergency procedures. begin CPR for one minute and then call 911. 2. 4. Kneel next to the person's neck and shoulders. taking no more than five or 10 seconds. . one should call 911 or the local emergency number and one should begin CPR. Breathing: Breathe for the person Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is seriously injured or can't be opened. deliver one shock if instructed by the device. Put your palm on the person's forehead and gently tilt the head back. and feel for the person's breath on your cheek and ear. gently lift the chin forward to open the airway. "Are you OK?" If the person doesn't respond and two people are available. If the person isn't breathing normally and you are trained in CPR. 3. listen for normal breath sounds. Gasping is not considered to be normal breathing. skip mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and proceed directly to chest compressions. Look for chest motion.
Pinch the nose shut and breathe into the mouth for one second. That's one cycle. 2. 3. Circulation: Restore blood circulation with chest compressions 1. skip rescue breathing and continue chest compressions at a rate of 100 compressions a minute until medical personnel arrive. chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath. between the nipples. pinch the nostrils shut for mouth-to-mouth breathing and cover the person's mouth with yours. With the airway open (using the head-tilt. repeat the head-tilt. If the person has not begun moving after five cycles (about two minutes) and an automatic external defibrillator (AED) is available. If you're not trained in CPR and feel comfortable performing only chest compressions. then resume CPR — starting with chest compressions — for two more minutes before administering a second shock. go to step 5 below.1. Place the heel of one hand over the center of the person's chest. If an AED isn't available. ask that person to give two breaths after you do 30 compressions. repeat the headtilt. chin-lift maneuver). chin-lift maneuver and then give the second rescue breath. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. If you're not trained to use an AED. If the chest rises. If someone else is available. 3. Do not use an AED for babies younger than age 1. 4. If the chest doesn't rise. making a seal. If the chest doesn't rise. tilt the head back and lift the chin up to open the airway. . Push hard at a rate of 100 compressions a minute. 2. apply it and follow the prompts. give the second breath. give a second rescue breath. a 911 operator may be able to guide you in its use. If it does rise. Administer one shock. Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands. Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you push straight down on (compress) the chest 2 inches (approximately 5 centimeters). Use pediatric pads. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. for children ages 1 to 8. if available. Place your other hand on top of the first hand. After 30 compressions. Give the first rescue breath — lasting one second — and watch to see if the chest rises. Begin chest compressions to restore circulation.
The differences are as follows: If you're alone. use adult pads. such as from drowning or choking. but don't shake the baby. follow the ABC procedures below and time the call for help as follows: If you're the only rescuer and CPR is needed. do CPR for two minutes — about five cycles — before calling 911 or your local emergency number. Use only one hand to perform heart compressions. If you don't know why the baby isn't breathing.5. Stroke the baby and watch for a response. Use pediatric pads if available. examine the situation. immediately begin the next cycle of compressions and breaths. . such as movement. Breathe more gently. If you know the baby has an airway obstruction. Continue until the child moves or help arrives. After five cycles (about two minutes) of CPR. perform five cycles of compressions and breaths on the child — this should take about two minutes — before calling 911 or your local emergency number or using an AED. perform first aid for choking. To perform CPR on a child The procedure for giving CPR to a child age 1 through 8 is essentially the same as that for an adult. This is one cycle. To perform CPR on a baby Most cardiac arrests in babies occur from lack of oxygen. perform CPR. To begin. Continue CPR until there are signs of movement or until emergency medical personnel take over. Use the same compression-breath rate as is used for adults: 30 compressions followed by two breaths. if there is no response and an AED is available. If there's no response. Following the two breaths. apply it and follow the prompts. If pediatric pads aren't available.
taking one second for the breath. If the airway seems blocked. Circulation: Restore blood circulation 1. sweep it out with your finger. flat surface. examine the mouth to make sure no foreign material is inside. In no more than 10 seconds. Place the baby on his or her back on a firm. listen for breath sounds. begin mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing immediately. 4. perform first aid for a choking baby. repeat the head-tilt. Airway: Clear the airway 1. The floor or ground also will do. in the center of the chest. Gently compress the chest to about one-third to one-half the depth of the chest. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Place two fingers of one hand just below this line. put your ear near the baby's mouth and check for breathing: Look for chest motion. 3. and feel for breath on your cheek and ear. Use the strength of your cheeks to deliver gentle puffs of air (instead of deep breaths from your lungs) to slowly breathe into the baby's mouth one time. If it does. such as a table. If the infant isn't breathing. give a second rescue breath. Watch to see if the baby's chest rises. Gently tip the head back by lifting the chin with one hand and pushing down on the forehead with the other hand. . If the object is seen. 2. Compressions-only CPR doesn't work for infants. Cover the baby's mouth and nose with your mouth. If the chest does not rise.If another person is available. Begin chest compressions to restore blood circulation. 2. 3. If the baby's chest still doesn't rise. Breathing: Breathe for the infant 1. Imagine a horizontal line drawn between the baby's nipples. chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath. 2. have that person call for help immediately while you attend to the baby.
com/sp2. 4. call 911 or your local emergency number.0B978-0-323-05472-0. et al. In: Marx JA. 2009. 2010. 2009. Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if there's no respiration or heartbeat. Continue CPR until you see signs of life or until medical personnel arrive. 2005 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care: Part 3: Overview of CPR. Pa. . Philadelphia. et al. 7th ed. 8.117:2162.: Mosby Elsevier. 2008. American Heart Association.cgi?QS2=434.. Circulation. Ross C. It requires medical attention. Circulation.00008-6--s0090&uniq=174701688&isbn=978-0323-054720&sid=927018561#lpState=open&lpTab=contentsTab&content=4u1.mdconsult. If the broken bone is the result of major trauma or injury.00008-6%3Bfrom%3Dtoc%3Btype %3DbookPage%3Bisbn%3D978-0-323-05472-0..tx. et al. http://www. isn't breathing or isn't moving. 25. Accessed Nov. 6. Accessed Nov. Pediatric resuscitation. Harwood- Nuss' Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine.com/book/player/book. et al. In: Wolfson AB. 7. http://ovidsp. Pa. 3rd ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine.do? method=display&type=bookPage&decorator=header&eid=4-u1. 2005. 5.3/ovidweb. Also call for emergency help if: The person is unresponsive. Berg MD.):IV. Sayre MR. A fracture is a broken bone.3.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 9. Hands-only (compression-only) cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A call to action for bystander response to adults who experience out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. 2005:112(suppl.0-B978-0-323-05472-0. Count aloud as you pump in a fairly rapid rhythm.ovid. 10. et al. Philadelphia. Cardiopulmonary arrest. You should pump at a rate of 100 compressions a minute. 25. Give two breaths after every 30 chest compressions. Perform CPR for about two minutes before calling for help unless someone else can make the call while you attend to the baby.
apply a splint to the area above and below the fracture sites. Don't try to realign the bone or push a bone that's sticking out back in. the leg and foot turn outward abnormally). rapid breaths. You suspect a bone is broken in the hip. Padding the splints can help reduce discomfort. The extremity of the injured arm or leg. Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain until emergency personnel arrive. piece of cloth or some other material. Don't move the person except if necessary to avoid further injury. Don't apply ice directly to the skin — wrap the ice in a towel. a clean cloth or a clean piece of clothing. Treat for shock. . such as a toe or finger. lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and. if possible. There is heavy bleeding. The bone has pierced the skin. head or back. Immobilize the injured area. is numb or bluish at the tip. elevate the legs. The limb or joint appears deformed. If you've been trained in how to splint and professional help isn't readily available. Take these actions immediately while waiting for medical help: Stop any bleeding. If the person feels faint or is breathing in short. Even gentle pressure or movement causes pain. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage. pelvis or upper leg (for example. You suspect a bone is broken in the neck.