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W.D. McCain .Jr., * SPE, Cawley, Gillespie & Assocs. Inc.

Summary. This paper presents correlations to determine reservoir-fluid properties from field data. The best available correlations

were selected by comparison with a data base of hundreds of reservoir-fluid s~dies of sampl~s representing ~ areas o~ the free world

involved in active petroleum exploitation from 1980 to 1986. Also, correlations of formation-water properties are given.

Introduction

Values of reservoir liquid and gas properties are often needed when solution GOR results in values that are low by 10% or more. The

laboratory PVT data are not available. This paper shows how to stock-tank GOR can be estimated with 3

use normally available field data to estimate fluid properties.

While at Texas A&M U., I had access to a data base of hundreds log RST=AI +A 2 log 'Yo+A3 log 'YgSp+A 4 log Psp

of reservoir-fluid studies provided by Core Laboratories Inc. The +As log Tsp , .................................... (1)

geographical and geological origins of the reservoir samples had

where Al =0.3818, A2 = -5.506, A3 =2.902, A4 = 1.327, and

been carefully removed from the data but the samples were known

As= -0.7355. Eq. 1 should not be used if the separator tempera-

to represent all areas of the free world in which petroleum exploi-

ture is > 140°F.

tation was active during the first 6 years of the 1980's.

Addition of the estimate of stock-tank GOR from Eq. 1 to the

All reservoir-fluid property correlations available in the petrole-

separator GOR results in an estimate of solution GOR accurate to

um engineering literature were compared with this data base. This

within 3%.

paper gives the best correlations.

Bubblepoint Pressure, Pb' The bubblepoint pressure of the oil at

IdentHlcatlon of Re.ervolr·Fluld Type reservoir conditions can be estimated with 4

Surprisingly accurate "rules of thumb" are available I to identify

Pb=18.2(Cpb -1.4), ............................... (2)

reservoir-fluid type from field data. When the initial producing GOR

is <3,300 scf/STB, the fluid is a liquid at reservoir conditions. where Cpb =(Rs/'Yg)O.83 x IO(O.00091T-O. 012S 'YAPI) •••••••••• (3)

Possible exceptions occur if the stock-tank liquid is colorless or

to an accuracy of 15 %. The specific gravity of the separator gas

has a gravity higher than about 50° API.

can be used for 'Yg; however, Rs should include stock-tank vent

Reservoir liquids are either black oils or volatile oils; the gener-

gas. The equations are valid to 325°F.

al material-balance equations 2 work only for black oils. The be-

A more accurate estimate ofbubblepoint pressure can be obtained

havior of volatile oils does not fit the assumptions inherent in the

if reservoir pressure is measured regularly. Plot reservoir pressure

derivation of the material-balance equations. Black oils are identi-

and producing GOR vs. cumulative production. For a volumetric

fied as having initial producing GOR's below 2,000 scf/STB and solution-gas-drive reservoir, pressure will decline rapidly initial-

deeply colored stock-tank oil with gravities below 45° API.

ly, then flatten when reservoir pressure drops below the oil bub-

Reservoir gases are classified as retrograde gases (often called blepoint pressure (the pressure at which the line changes slope).

condensate gases or gas condensate), wet gases, and dry gases.

The producing GOR will begin to increase shortly after bubblepoint

Retrograde gases have initial producing GOR's > 3,300 scf/STB. pressure is reached.

The few exceptions of oils that have ratios higher than this are iden-

tified as having deeply colored stock-tank liquids with gravities < Solution GOR, Rs. Eqs. 2 and 3 can be used to estimate solution

40° API. Retrograde behavior occurs for gases with initial produc- GOR for pressures below the bubblepoint. Enter any pressure be-

ing GOR's of 150,000 scf/STB or higher; however, as a practical low bubblepoint in place of Pb in Eq. 2 and calculate the corre-

matter, gases with initial producing GOR's ~50,000 scf/STB can sponding value of solution GOR with Eq. 3. The results should

be treated as wet gases. be within 15% of measured values.

The term wet gas is used for a gas that does not release conden- If a field-derived bubblepoint pressure has been obtained from

sate in the reservoir but does form hydrocarbon liquid at the sur- pressure measurements as described above, the accuracy of the es-

face. The term dry gas is used for a gas that does not form any timates of solution GOR can be improved. 5 Start by creating a ta-

hydrocarbon liquid at the surface. In this context, the terms "wet" ble of pressures and solution GOR's. Subtract the field-derived

and "dry" do not refer to water or water vapor, which is always bubblepoint pressure from the bubblepoint pressure calculated with

present to some extent. Eqs. 2 and 3 to obtain a "delta pressure." Subtract this "delta pres-

sure" from all pressures in the Rs vs. P table. This procedure

Propertle. of Re.ervolr Uquld. works very well for pressures near the bubblepoint. It is less ac-

The physical properties discussed next apply only to black oils. En- curate at low pressures.

gineering a volatile-oil reservoir requires a special laboratory study

not discussed here. Oil FVF, Bo. The oil FVF for use at pressures equal to or below

bubblepoint can be estimated with 4

Solution GOR at Bubblepoint, Rsb' The initial producing GOR Bob =0.9759+ 12(IO- S)CBob 1.2, .................... ; (4)

provides a good estimate of solution GOR for use at pressures equal

to and above bubblepoint pressure. This will not be true if free gas where CBob =Rs('Y g1'Yo)O's + 1.25T. .................... (5)

from a gas cap or another formation is produced with the oil. Field The equations can be used for any pressure equal to or below the

data often exhibit a great deal of scatter; however, a trend of con- bubblepoint by inserting the corresponding value of solution GOR

stant GOR usually can be discerned before reservoir pressure drops estimated as discussed above. The resulting FVF value will be within

below the bubblepoint. 5 % of laboratory-measured values if accurate values of solution

Often the reported values of producing GOR do not include stock- GOR are used. If solution GOR's are obtained with Eqs. 2 and 3,

tank vent gas. In this case, the use of initial producing GOR for the accuracy of the resulting FVF values will be some unknown

'Now with S.A. Holdltch & Assocs.

combination of the 15% accuracy ofEqs. 2 and 3 and the 5% ac-

Copyright 1991 Society 01 Petroleum Engineers curacy of Eqs. 4 and 5. Do not use at temperatures above 325°F.

266 SPE Reservoir Engineering, May 1991

At pressures above bubblepoint pressure, the oil FVF is calcu- Then, the effect Qf solution GOR corresponding to the pressure of

lated with interest is taken into account with II

Bo=Bob exp[co(Pb-P»), ........................... (6) 11-0 =AII-oD B , ..................................... (15)

where FVF at the bubblepoint is estimated as discussed above. Es- where A=1O.715(Rs +l00)-0.Sls ..................... (16)

timation of the coefficient of isothennal compressibility of oil, Co' and B=5.44(Rs +150)-0.33S . ........................ (17)

is discussed later.

Eqs. 15 through 17 were derived with data to 295°F and5,250psig.

Oil Density at Reservoir Conditions, PoR' Eq. 7 may be used to Oil viscosity at pressures above the bubblepoint is estimated by

calculates the density of the oil in the reservoir at bubblepoint pres- first calculating viscosity at the bubblepoint with Eqs. 14 through

sure (and below) from estimated values of Bo and Rs' 17 from the solution GOR at the bubblepoint and then adjusting

viscosity to higher pressures with 7

PoR =(PSTO +0.01357Rs'Y g)IBo, ...................... (7)

lI-o=lI-ob(plpb)B, ................................. (18)

where PoR is the density of the reservoir liquid at the pressure and

temperature at which Bo and Rs were estimated. A weighted aver- where B=C I p C2 exp(C3 + C4 P) , ..................... (19)

age of separator and stock-tank-gas specific gravities should be used

and C I =2.6, C2 = 1.187, C3 =-11.513, and C4 =-8.98xlO- S.

for 'Yg; however, the use of separator gas gravity gives adequate

Eqs. 18 and 19 were developed from a data base with pressures

results. The accuracy of this .calculation should be some unknown

to 9,500 psig; the applicable temperatures were not given. S

combination of the accuracy of the estimates of Bo and Rs; how-

It appears that the relationships of oil viscosity to other proper-

ever, in practice, the calculated density is within 5 % of laboratory-

ties of the oil are too complicated to be explained by the limited

measured values.

field data normally available. Thus, the values of oil viscosity cal-

Density of reservoir oil at pressures above the bubblepoint can

culated with Eqs. 14 through 19 should be considered to be "order-

be calculated with

of-magnitude" estimates only.

Po =Pob exp[co(P-Pb»)' ............................ (8)

Prop.rtl•• of R•••rvolr Ga•••

CoetJicient or Isothennal Compressibility or on, co' The coeffi- Properties of dry gases will be considered first. Then, the calcula-

cient of isothennal compressibility of oil, often called oil compress- tions necessary for estimating properties of reservoir wet gases will

ibility, is defmed for pressures above the bubblepoint as be discussed. Retrograde gases will not be considered because a

Co = -(II V)(oVlop) T, ............................. (9a) special laboratory report is required for these gases.

c o = -(IIBo)(oBo)lop)r, ........................... (9b) Compressibility Equation of State. The equation of state most

or Co = (IIP o)(oPolop)r . ............................. (9c) often used by petroleum engineers is

At pressures below the bubblepoint, oil compressibility is defined 6 pV=znRT. . ..................................... (20)

as The Standing-Katz 12 correlation of z factors has stood the test

g ( o;s (10)

of time. Their graphical correlation may be represented by 13.14

z= 1+(A I +A21Tpr +A31Tpr3 +A41Tpr 4 +AsITprS)Ppr

+(A 6 +A7 ITpr+ASITpr2)Ppr2 -A9(A7ITpr+ASITpr2)PprS

At pressures above the bubblepoint,7

+A lo (1 +A llPpr2)(Ppr2ITpr 3)exp( -A llPpr2) ......... (21)

co=(A l +A2Rs+A3T+A4'Yg+AS'YAPI)/A6P, .......... (11)

and Ppr=0.27[Ppr/(zTpr»)' ........................... (22)

where Al =-1,433.0, A2=5.0, A 3 =17.2, A4= -1,180.0, As=

12.61, and A6 = lOS. where A 1=0.3265, A2 = -1.0700, A3 = -0.5339, A4 =0.01569,

Values of oil compressibility calculated with Eq. 11 are general- As = -0.05165, A6 =0.5475, A7 = -0.7361, As =0.1844, A9 =

ly low, by as much as 50 % at high pressures. Accuracy is improved 0.1056, A IO =0.6134, and All =0.7210. Eq. 21 represents the

at pressures near the bubblepoint. The data set used to develop this Standing-Katz correlation to within 1 % for 0.2 <Ppr < 15 and

equation included pressures as high as 9,500 psig; however, the 0.7< Tpr<3.0 and to within 3% for 15<Ppr<30.

author did not give a temperature range. S The pseudoreduced properties are defined as

At pressures below the bubblepoint,9 Tpr=TITpc ..................................... (23a)

In(co)=-7.633-1.497 In(p) + 1.115 In(T)+0.533 In("(API) and Ppr=plppc' ................................... (23b)

+0.184 In(R sb )' .................................. (12) where the pseudocritical properties may be calculated with IS

The results are accurate to within 10% at pressures above 500 psia. Ppc =756.8 -131.0"{g - 3.6"1g 2 ...................... (24)

Below 500 psia, the accuracy is within 20%. If the bubblepoint pres-

sure is known, the accuracy of estimates of oil compressibility at and Tpc= 169.2+349.5"1g -74.0"{ g2 . .................. (25)

pressures below bubblepoint can be improved by using 9 Eqs. 21 through 25 produce z factors that are well within 2% of

In(C o) = -7.573-1.450 In(p)-0.383 In(Pb)+ 1.402 In(T) experimental for temperatures to 360°F, pressures to 12,500 psia,

and gas specific gravities to 1.6.

+0.256 In('YAPI)+0.449 In(R sb )' .................... (13) If the gas composition is known, gas specific gravity for use in

Eqs. 12 and 13 are valid to 330°F and 5,300 psia. Eqs. 24 and 25 should be calculated with

'Y g =MaIMair =MaI29, ............................. (26)

Oil Viscosity, "'0' Estimation of oil viscosity at pressures below

the bubblepoint is a two-step procedure. First, the viscosity of the where Ma= EYjMj . ................................ (27)

oil without dissolved gas (dead oil), "'oD, is estimated at reservoir j

temperature 10 : This will improve accuracy over direct calculation of the pseudocrit-

ical properties with composition. IS

log 10g(p.oD+ 1)= 1.8653-0.025086"( API-0.5644 log T.

When H 2S and CO 2 are present, the pseudocritical properties

................................... (14) are adjusted by 16

Eq. 14 is based on data with rangesof5 to 58° API and 60 to 175°F. T;c=Tpc-e ..................................... (28)

I PpcT;c Gas Viscosity. Gas viscosity may be estimated with 19

and Ppc = , ...................... (29)

Tpc +YH2s(1-YH2S)E p-g=A exp(Bpg C)(1O- 4), .......................... (38)

(9.379+0.01607Ma)TI.S

where l7 E=120(f~Jd+ f~~1d)+(f'~2s- f~2s) . ......... (30) where A = , .................. (39)

209.2+ 19.26Ma +T

Eqs. 28 through 30 result in z factors within 5 % of experimental 16

for CO 2 concentrations to 55 mol % and H 2S conditions to 74 B=3.448+(986.4IT)+0.01009Ma , .................. (40)

mol % at temperatures to 300°F and pressures to 7,000 psia.

z-factor values are not greatly affected by the presence of nitro- and C=2.447 -0.2224B . ............................ (41)

gen. z-factor increases by about 1 % over the values calculated with The results of Eqs. 38 through 41 agree with the limited pub-

Eqs. 21 and 22 for each 5 mol % of nitrogen in the gas. 5 lished data of gas viscosity to within 2 % at low pressure and to

The z-factor values calculated as described above are about as within 4 % at high pressure when the specific gravity of the gas

accurate as can be measured in the laboratory. This is true even is < 1.0. The equations are less accurate for gases of higher spe-

for wet gases and retrograde gases with specific gravities as high cific gravities, usually giving low estimates by up to 20% for retro-

as 1.6. grade gases with specific gravities over 1.5.

Dry Gases. Dry gases are easy to deal with because no liquid con- Wet Gases. The key to the estimation of the properties of a wet

denses from the gas as it moves from the reservoir to the surface. gas is that the composition of the reservoir gas is not the same as

Thus, the specific gravity of the surface gas can be used in correla- the composition of the surface gas. Hydrocarbon liquid condenses

tions to determine the properties of the gas in the reservoir. from the reservoir gas as it moves from reservoir conditions to sur-

When the gas is associated and produced with a black oil, it may face conditions. The surface gas and surface liquid must be recom-

be assumed to be a dry gas with specific gravity equal to the spe- bined by calculation to determine the specific gravity of the reservoir

cific gravity of the gas from the primary separator. gas. Correlations given above can be used once the specific gravi-

Gas FVF. The FVF of a dry gas is defined as ty .of the reservoir gas is known.

Bg=VR1Vsc . ..................................... (31) Specific Gravity of Wet Gas. Wet gases are processed through

two or more stages of separation at the surface. Unfortunately, the

If standard conditions are taken to be 14.65 psia and 60°F, quantity and specific gravity of the stock-tank gas are rarely known.

Bg =0.0282(zTlp)=0.OO502(zTlp) . ................... (32) The specific gravity of a reservoir wet gas can be estimated when

only the properties of the gas from the primary separator are

The equations are exact, and the calculated values of gas FVF are known. 20

directly related to the accuracy of the values of z factor used.

RSP)'YSPI +4,6O(}yo +Gpa

Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Gas. The coeffi- 'YgR= .................... (42)

cient of isothermal compressibility of gas is defined as R SPI +Veq

c g = -(lIV)(iWloph ..................... ~ ....... (33a) The equivalent volume, Veq , is the volume of stock-tank gas and

or cg =(lIBg )(oBgloph . ............................ (33b) second separator gas, if present, plus the volume in standard cubic

feet that would be occupied by a barrel of stock-tank liquid if it

Eqs. 33 and 20 can be combined and placed on a pseudoreduced were gas. The additional gas produced, Gpa' is related to the mass

basis 5 : of gas produced from the stock tank and the second separator, if

present.

Cp,=Cgppc=_l__ ~( ~)..................... (34) For three stages of separation,

PP' z oPP' Tpr Veq=AO +A I (PSPI)A 2 hSPI)A3 ('Y API)A4(TsPI)As (TSP2 )A 6 ,

Eq. 34 can be combined ls with the definition of pseudoreduced ................................... (43)

gas density,

whereA o=535.916, AI =2.62310, A2 =0.793183, A3 =4.66120,

pp,=0.27[pp,/(ZTp,)] , ............................. (35) A4 = 1.20940, As = -0.849115, and A6 =0.269869, and

where the z factor of the gas at the critical point is assumed to be Gpa =A I (PSPI -14.65)..12 ('YSPI)A 3 ('Y API)A4(TsPI)As (TSP2 )A 6 ,

0.27, to arrive at

................................... (44)

1 0.27 [ (ozlopp,hpr ] where AI =2.99222, A2 =0.970497, A3 =6.80491, A4 = 1.07916,

cp,= PP' - z2T , l+(Pp,Iz)(ozlopp,)T •••••••••••• (36) A5 = -1.19605, and A6 =0.553669.

p pr For two stages of separation,

An expression for (ozlopp,) can be derived s from Eq. 21: Veq =Ao +A I (PSPI)A 2 hSp)A3 ('Y API)A4(Tsp )As , ........ (45)

(ozlopp,h =A I +A 2ITp,+A 3ITp,3 +A 41Tp, 4 whereA o=635.530, AI =0.361821, A2 = 1.05435, A 3 =5.08305,

pr

A4 = 1.58124, A s =-0.791301, and

+AsITp,S +2pp,(A 6 +A7ITp,+AsITp,2)

Gpa=AI (PSPI -14.65)..12 ('YSp)A 3h API)A4(Tsp )As , ..... (46)

-5pp,4A9(A7ITp,+AsITp,2)

where AI =1.45993, A2 = 1.33940, A 3 =7.09434, A 4 =1.14356,

and A5= -0.934460.

+ 2A tOPP' (1+A l1 Pp, 2 -A l1 2PP' 4 )exp( -A l1 Pp, 2) , .... (37)

Values of specific gravity of reservoir gas calculated with Eq.

Tp ,3

42 and the appropriate pair of Eqs. 43 and 44 or Eqs. 45 and 46

where the values of the constants are given with Eq. 21. will be within 2 % of laboratory-determined values. This accuracy

Isotherms of the z factor plotted vs. pseudoreduced pressure have degenerates to about 6% when the total nonhydrocarbon content

rather sharp minima at low temperatures. Eq. 21 follows the shape of the gas is between 5 and 25 mol %. The equations are not rec-

of these isotherms rather well. However, the slopes of the isotherms ommended when total nonhydrocarbon content of the gas exceeds

calculated with Eq. 37 are not particularly accurate near these mini- 25 mol %. The results are independent of reservoir temperature and

ma, where the slope changes sharply from negative to positive. pressure. Reservoir gases with specific gravities between 0.8 and

Thus, Eqs. 36 and 37 should not be used at Tp , < 1.4 for 1.55 were used in the development of the equation.

O.4<p ,<3.0. The accuracy of these equations is unKnown; how- FVF of Wet Gas. Eqs. 31 and 32 apply only to a dry gas. The

ever, the results should be suitable for engineering calculations. FVF of a wet gas is usually defined as the volume of reservoir gas

TABLE 1-SUMMARY OF NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS FOR

CONCENTRATION OF DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN FORMATION WATERS·

- -

molality Cm 9 mol solid

1,000 9 pure water

molarity CM 9 mol solid

1,000 mL brine

normality CN eq wt solid

1,000 mL brine

milliequivalents per liter Cmeq/L meq solid Cmeq/L = 1,000 X CN = CmglL/eq wt

1,000 mL brine

weight percent solids Cw 9 solid CW=Cppmx10-4

100 9 brine

parts per million C ppm 9 solid Cppm=Cwx104

10 6 9 brine

milligrams per liter C mgIL 9 solid C mglL =Pw X C ppm =Pw X C w X 10 4

10 6 mL brine

grains per gallon Cgr/gal grains solid Cgr/gal = 17.1 x C mglL = 17.1 xPw x C ppm '

gal brine where P w is in g/cm 3 at standard

conditions .

• Adapted from Jorden, J.R. and Campbell. F.L.: We/I Logging I-Rock PropertIes, Borehole Environment, Mud, and

Temperatura Logging, Monograph Series, SPE, Richardson, TX (1985) 9, 38.

required to produce 1 bbl of stock-tank liquid. The units are either Values from this correlation agree with the limited published ex-

standard cubic feet of reservoir gas per stock-tank barrel or bar- perimental data to within 2 %. The correlation is valid throughout

rels of reservoir gas at reservoir conditions per stock-tank barrel. the full range of solids contents, temperatures to 260°F, and pres-

The sum of the primary separator gas and Veq is the standard sures to 5,000 psia. An increase in solids content causes a slight

cubic feet of reservoir gas required to produce 1 bbl of stock-tank increase in ~ VwT and a slight decrease in ~ Vlip that are offsetting

liquid: to within 1 %.

Vwg=RSPI + Veq . ................................. (47)

Density of Fonnation Water, Pw' The density offormation water

This can be converted to reservoir conditions, S resulting in at standard conditions may be calculated with s

Bwg=0.00502(RsPI + Veq)T/p, ...................... (48) Pw =62.368 +0.438603S+ 1.60074 x 1O- 3 S 2 . . ........ (52)

where standard conditions of 14.65 psia and 60°F were used. The results are as accurate as laboratory measurement through-

Eq. 48 will give results within about 6% oflaboratory measure- out the full range of solids contents. Density at reservoir condi-

ment for gases with nonhydrocarbon content < 5 %. The accuracy tions is calculated by dividing density at standard conditions by FVF

degenerates badly for higher nonhydrocarbon content. for the pressure and temperature of interest.

Propertl•• of R•••rvolr Wat.r Solution Gas/Water Ratio of Fonnation Water, Rsw' The solu-

Most of the water correlations presented here require a knowledge tion gas/water ratio of pure water may be calculated with S

of the solids content of the brine of interest. Solids content can be R sw =A+Bp +Cp 2, ............................... (53)

easily measured in the laboratory, or it can be determined 21 from

measurement of the resistivity of the brine. where A=8.15839-6.12265(1O- 2 )T+ 1.91663(10-4)T2

-2.1654(1O- 1 )T3, ............................... (54)

Solids Content. All formation waters contain dissolved solids,

primarily NaCI. The quantity and distribution of the ions are differ- B= 1.01021(10 -2) -7.44241(10 -S)T+ 3.05553(10 -1)T2

ent in every formation water. Solids contents have been reported -2.94883(10-10)T3, ............................. (55)

from as little as 200 ppm to saturation, which just exceeds 300,000

ppm. and C= -(10- 1 )[9.02505 -0. 130237T+8.53425(1O- 4)T2

Solids contents are reported in various sets of units. Table 1 gives -2.34122(10 -6)T3 +2.37049(10 -9)T4]. . ............. (56)

the relationships between these units.

These equations fit the original graphical correlation 22 to within

Bubblepoint Pressure of Formation Water, Pb' The bubblepoint 5% at pressures from 1,000 to 10,000 psia and temperatures from

pressure of formation water is the same as the bubblepoint pres- 100 to 340°F. Do not use at pressures below 1,000 psia.

sure of the coexisting oil. If the water is in contact with gas, its Eq. 57 gives a salinity adjustment factorS that is multiplied by

bubblepoint pressure is equal to initial reservoir pressure. Both of the result of Eq. 53 to give the solution gas/water ratio of forma-

the above are the result of thermodynamic equilibrium in the reser- tion water.

voir at discovery.

10g[ (Rsw)brine ] = -0.0840655ST-o.28S8S4. . ...... (57)

FVF of Formation Water, Bw' The FVF of brine may be calcu- (Rsw)pure water

lated with s

Eq. 57 fits the existing graphical correlation 23 to within 3% for

Bw=(1+~VlIp)(1+~VwT)' ......................... (49) salinities up to 30% and temperature from 70 to 250°F.

where ~VwT= -1.0001(10- 2 )+ 1.33391(10-4)T+

Coefficient oflsothennal Compressibility of Formation Water,

5.50654(1O- 1)T2 ................................ (50) CWo At pressures above the bubblepoint, water compressibility is

and ~VlIp= -1.95301(10-9)pT-1.72834(10- 13 )p2T defmed as

-3.58922(10 -1)p-2.25341(1O -IO)p2. . ............. (51) c w= -(lIVw)(iWw/iJph, .......................... (58a)

Cw= -(lIBw)(oBw/oP)r, .......................... (58b) where S=salinity, wt%. Eq. 69 agrees with the existing graphical

correiation 30 to within 1 %.

or cw=(lIPw)(oPw/oph . ........................... (58c) The above correlations were developed for dry-gas systems con-

Eq. 59 may be used to estimate values of water compressi- taining no nonhydrocarbon components. The presence of heavier

bility.24 hydrocarbons in wet gases or retrograde gases will increase the water

content by as much as 10% at 1,000 psia and 20% at 10,000 psia.

c w=1I(7.033p+0.5415S-537.0T+403,300), ......... (59) Natural gas that contains substantial amounts of CO 2 and/or H 2S

where S=salinity in mg/L. will contain more water vapor. 30 Although no data are available,

Eq. 59 is valid only for temperatures between 200 and 270°F, the increase is probably on the order of 5 %. Substantial amounts

pressures of 1,000 to 20,000 psia, and salinities up to 200,000 mg/L. of nitrogen or helium will lower the moisture content. 31 Limited

Osif24 gave no estimate of accuracy. A graphic correlation 25 is data are available; the decrease is probably 5 to 10%.

available for use at lower temperatures and pressures.

At pressures below the bubblepoint, water compressibility is Hydrate Formation. Hydrocarbon gas and liquid water will com-

calculated 26 as bine to form solids called gas hydrates at temperatures above the

temperature at which water freezes. Eq. 70 can be used to estimate

the temperature at which hydrates will form 32 :

Th = 11[2.77077(10 -3) -2.78224(10 -3)(1n 'Y g) -5.64929(10- 4)

The first term on the right side of Eq. @ is related to water com- (In p)-1.29859(1O- 3)(1n 'Y g)2 + 1.40712(1O- 3)(ln 'Y g)(ln p)

pressibility at pressures above the bubblepoint and can be estimat-

ed with Eq. 59. The derivative in the second term on the right side + 1.78574(10 -4)(1n p)2 + 1.13028(10 -3)(1n 'Y g)3

of Eq. @ can be estimated with 5 +5.97282(10-4)(1n 'Yg)2(1n p)-2.32792(1O- 4)(1n 'Yg)(1n p)2

(oR sw /oph=B+2Cp, ............................. (61) -2.68408(10-5)(ln p)3 +4.66106(10-3)(ln 'Y g)4

whereB and Care from Eqs. 55 and 56. The result ofEq. 61 should +5.55424(1O- 4)(ln 'Yg)3(1n p)-1.47278(1O -5)(ln 'Yg)2(1n p)2

be multiplied by the salinity adjustment factor of Eq. 57. Values

of FVF of formation water for use in the second term are estimat- + 1.39381(1O- 5)(ln 'Y g)(ln p)3 + 1.48850(10-6)(1n p)4].

ed as described above, and FVF of gas is estimated with a gas spe- ................................... (70)

cific gravity of 0.63.

The estimate of hydrate-forming temperature could be in error by

The resulting estimate of water compressibility is of unknown

5°F or more. Do not use Eq. 70 at temperatures above 62°F, pres-

accuracy. It should be considered to be •'order of magnitude" only.

sures above 1,500 psia, or gas specific gravities above 0.9.

The presence of H 2S and/or CO 2 in the gas will cause an in-

Viscosity of Fonnation Water, #J.w' The viscosity of formation

crease in hydrate-forming temperatures, but data are too limited

water at reservoir temperature and atmospheric pressure can be es-

to quantify this.

timated with 5

The presence of dissolved solids in the water will decrease the

/Lwl =AT-B, .................................... (62) temperature at which hydrates form. The decrease can be calculat-

ed with 5

where A=I09.574-8.40564S+0.313314S2 +8.72213(1O- 3)S3

fl.Th =AS+BS2+CS3, ............................. (71)

................................... (63)

and B= 1.12166-2.63951(1O- 2)S+6. 79461(10-4)S2 where A=2.20919-1O.5746-yg+12.1@1'Y/, ........... (72)

B= -0.10@56+0.722692'Yg-0.85093'Yg2, ........... (73)

+5.47119(10 -5)S3 -1.55586(1O- 6)S4 ............... (64)

and C=0.00347221-0.0165564'Y g +0.019764'Y g2 . ....... (74)

Eq. 62 fits the existing graphical correlation 27 to within 5% at tem-

peratures between 100 and 400°F and salinities to 26%. Eq. 71 agrees with the existing data 30 exactly when the results are

Water viscosity at 1 atm can be adjusted to reservoir pressure rounded to the nearest whole degree Fahrenheit. Eqs. 71 through

with 5 74 are based on gas specific gravities < 0.68 and salinities < 20% .

/Lw//Lwi =0.9994+4.0295 X 1O- 5p+3.1062X 1O- 9p2 . ... (65) Inhibitor is often added to the water in contact with gas to reduce

the hydrate-forming temperature. The temperature reduction can

Eq. 65 fits data 28 at 86 to 167°F and pressures below 10,000 psia be calculated with 33 •34

to within 4%. At pressures between 10,000 and 15,000 psia, the

fit is to within 7 % . fl.Th =2,335w/l00M - Mw. .. ....................... (75)

The results ofEq. 75 are well within the scatter of the experimen-

Moisture Content of Natural Gas. The dewpoint water-vapor con- tal data.

tent of natural gas in equilibrium with liquid water may be calcu- The presence of liquid hydrocarbons with the gas and liquid water

lated with 29 will decrease hydrate-forming temperature. 34 Data are limited, and

W=A/p+B, ..................................... (66) the temperature decrease has not been quantified.

18(106)psc Nomenclature

where A =Pv H 0 ................ (67)

• 2 10.73(459.6+ Tsc)zsc A,B,C = coefficients

Bg = FVF of dry gas, res ft3/scf or RB/scf

and log B=-3083.87(lIT)+6.69449 . ................. (68) Bo = oil FVF, RB/STB

Eqs. 66 through 68 give results that are as accurate as moisture Bw = water FVF, RB/STB

content can be measured (about 5%) at pressures to 10,000 psia Bwg = FVF of wet gas, RB/STB

and temperatures to 4@°F. cg = coefficient of isothermal compressibility of gas,

Dissolved solids in the water reduce the partial pressure of the psi -I

water, thereby reducing the water content of the gas. Moisture con- CO = coefficient of isothermal compressibility of oil,

tent from Eq. 66 should be multiplied by the salinity-adjustment psi -I

factor 5 given in Eq. 69: cpr = pseudoreduced coefficient of isothermal

Wbrine compressibility

---=1-4.920(10-3)S-1.7672(1O- 4)S2, ..... (69) C w = coefficient of isothermal compressibility of

Wpure water water, psi-I

270 SPE Reservoir Engineering, May 1991

facid = sum of mole fraction of CO 2 and H 2 S in Eq. PSTO = stock-tank oil density at standard conditions,

30 Ibm/ft3

iH 2 s = mole fraction of H 2S in Eq. 30 Pw = water density, Ibm/ft3

Gpo = additional gas produced, Eqs. 42 through 44,

scf/STB times specific gravity Subscripts

m = mass, Ibm mol acid = CO2 +H 2 S

M = molecular weight of solute in Eq. 75, Ibm/Ibm air = air

mol b = at bUbblepoint pressure at reservoir temperature

Ma = apparent molecular weight, Ibm/Ibm mol H 2 S = hydrogen sulfide

M air = apparent molecular weight of air, Ibm/Ibm mol j = component j

P = pressure, psia R = reservoir conditions

Ph = bubblepoint pressure, psia sc = standard conditions

Ppc = pseudocritical pressure, psia SP = separator

P~c = pseudocritical pressure adjusted for acid-gas SPI = primary separator

content, psia SP2 = second-stage separator

Ppr = pseudoreduced pressure ST = stock tank

P v, H20 = vapor pressure of pure water at temperature of STO = stock-tank oil

• •

Interest, pSla

Acknowledgment.

R = universal gas constant, 10.732 (psia-ft 3)/(lbm

mol- OR), or producing GOR I am grateful to Core Laboratories Inc. and, in particular, to Phil

Rs = solution GOR, scf/STB Moses for providing the data used to evaluate these correlations.

RSP1 = producing GOR from primary separator, Also, I thank Cawley, Gillespie & Assocs. Inc. for permission to

publish this paper.

scf/STB

RST = producing GOR from stock tank, scf/STB

Reference.

Rsw = solubility of gas in water, scf/STB

S = salinity, wt % solids or mg/L in Eq. 59 1. Moses, P.L.: "Engineering Applications of Phase Behavior of Crude

Oil and Condensate Systems," JPT (July 1986) 715-23.

T = temperature, of or oR in Eqs. 12, 13, 20, 23, 2. Schilthuis, R.J.: "Active Oil and Reservoir Energy," Trans., AIME

32, 39, 40, 48, and 68 (1936) 118, 33-52.

Th = hydrate-formation temperature, of 3. Rollins, J.B., McCain, W.D. Jr., and Creeger, J.T.: "Estimation of

llTh = decrease in hydrate-formation temperature, of Solution GOR of Black Oils," JPT (Jan. 1990) 92-94; Trans., AIME,

Tpc = pseudocritical temperature, oR 289.

T;c = pseudocritical temperature adjusted for acid-gas 4. Standing, M.B.: Volumetric and Phose Behavior of Oil Field Hydrocar-

bon Systems, SPE, Richardson, TX (1977) 124.

content, oR

5. McCain, W.D. Jr.: The Properties of Petroleum Fluids, second edi-

Tpr = pseudoreduced temperature tion, PennWell Books, Tulsa (1989) 120, 175, 214, 318, 322, 513,

V = volume, ft3 525-28.

Veq = equivalent volume, scf/STB 6. Martin, J.C.: "Simplified Equations of Flow in Gas Drive Reservoirs

Vw = volume of water, ft3 and the Theoretical Foundation of Multiphase Pressure Buildup Anal-

Vwg = volume of reservoir wet gas, ft3 yses," Trans., AIME (1959) 216,309-11.

7. Vazquez, M. and Beggs, H.D.: "Correlations for Fluid Physical Prop-

II Vlip = change in liquid volume during pressure erty Prediction," JPT(June 1980) 968-70.

reduction in Bw correlation 8. Vazquez, A.M.E.: "Correlation for Fluid Physical Prediction," MS

II VwT = change in liquid volume during temperature thesis, U. of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK (1976).

reduction in Bw correlation 9. McCain, W.D. Jr., Rollins, J.n:, and Villena, A.J.: "The Coefficient

w = weight percent solute in Eq. 75 of Isothermal Compressibility of Black Oils at Pressures Below the Bub-

W = moisture content of gas, Ibm/MMscf blepoint," SPEFE (Sept. 1988) 659-62; Trans., AIME, 285.

10. Ng, J.T.H.1Ind Egbogah, E.O.: "On Improved Temperature-Viscosity

Wbrine = moisture content of gas in contact with brine, Correlation for Crude Oil Systems," paper CIM 83-34-32 presented

Ibm/MMscf at the 1983 Petroleum Soc. of CIM Annual Technical Meeting, Banff,

Wpure water = moisture content of gas in contact with pure May 10-13.

water, Ibm/MMscf 11. Beggs, H.D. and Robinson, J.R.: "Estimating the Viscosity of Crude

y = composition of gas, mole fraction Oil Systems," JPT (Sept. 1975) 1140-41.

z = gas compressibility factor, pVlmRT 12. Standing, M.B. and Katz, D.L.: "Density of Natural Gases," Trans.,

AIME (1942) 146, 140-49.

'Y API = stock-tank oil gravity, °API

13. Takas, G.: "Comparisons Made for Computer z-Factor Calculations, "

'Yg = gas specific gravity Oil & Gas J. (Dec. 20, 1976) 64-66.

'Yo = stock-tank oil specific gravity 14. Dranchuk, P.M. and Abou-Kassem, J.H.: "Calculations of z-Factors

'YSPI = specific gravity of gas from primary separator for Natural Gases Using Equations of State," J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. (July-

E = pseudocritical adjustment factor for acid-gas Sept. 1975) 34-36.

content, oR 15. Sutton, R.P.: "Compressibility Factors for High-Molecular-Weight

Reservoir Gases," paper SPE 14265 presented at the 1985 SPE Annu-

/Lg = gas viscosity, cp

al Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Sept. 22-25.

/Lo = oil viscosity, cp 16. Wichert, E. and Aziz, K.: "Calculate z's for Sour Gases," Hydrocar-

/LoD = oil viscosity at l-atm pressure and reservoir bon Processing (May 1972) 119-22.

temperature, cp 17. Wichert, E. and Aziz, K.: "Compressibility Factor of Sour Natural

/Lw = water viscosity, cp Gases," Cdn. J. Chern. Eng. (Apri11971) 267-73.

/Lwl = water viscosity at l-atm pressure and reservoir 18. Mattar, L., Brar, G.S., and Aziz, K.: "Compressibility of Natural

Gases," J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. (Oct.-Dec. 1975) 14, 77-80.

temperature, cp

19. Lee, A.L., Gonzales, M.H., and Eakin, B.E.: "The Viscosity of Natural

P = density, g/cm 3 in Eq. 38 or Ibm/ft 3 Gases," JPT (Aug. 1966) 997-1000; Trans., AIME (1966) 234.

Po = oil density, Ibm/ft3 20. Gold, D.K., McCain, W.D.-Jr., and Jennings, J.W.: "An Improved

PoR = reservoir oil density at reservoir conditions, Method for the Determination of the' Reservoir-Gas Specific Gravity

Ibm/ft3 for Retrograde Gases," JPT(July 1989) 747-52; Trans., AIME, 287.

Ppr = pseudoreduced density 21. Log Interpretation Charts, Scblumberger Well Services, Houston (1986)

5.

22. Culberson, O.L. and McKetta, J.J. Jr.: "Phase Equilibria in

Author Hydrocarbon-Water Systems m-Solubility of Methane in Water at Pres-

sures to 10,000 psia," Trans., AIME (1951) 192, 223-26.

William D. McCain dr. Is an executive 23. McKetta, J.J. and Wehe, A.H.: "Hydrocarbon-Water and Formation

consultant with S.A. Holdltch & Assocs. Water Correlations," Petroleum Production Handbook, T.C. Frick and,

In College Station, TX. He previously wss R.W. Taylor (eds.), SPE, Richardson, TX (1962) n, 22-1-22-26.

a petroleum engineer with Cawley, 24. Osif, T.L.: "The Effects of Salt, Gas, Temperature, and Pressure on

Gillespie & Assocs. Inc. In Fort Worth the Compressibility of Water," SPERE (Feb. 1988) 175-81.

and taught petroleum engineering at 25. Dodson, C.R. and Standing, M.B.: "Pressure, Volume, Temperature

Texas A&M U. and Mississippi State U. and Solubility Relations for Natural Gas-Water Mixtures," Drill. &

He holds a as degree from Mississippi Prod. Prac., API, Dallas (1944) 173-79.

State U. and MS and PhD degrees from 26. Ramey, H.J. Jr.: "Rapid Methods for Estimating Reservoir Compres-

Georgia lnat. of Technology. McCain was sibilities," JPT (April 1964) 447-54; Trans., AIME, 231.

a member of the 1986-89 Career 27. Matthews, C.S. and Russell, D.G.: Pressure Buildup and Flow Tests

Guidance Committee and the 1972-75 in Wells, Monograph Series, SPE, Richardson, TX (1967) 1.

Textbook Committee. He was 1972 Mississippi Section chair· 28. Collins, A.G.: "Properties of Produced Waters," Petroleum Engineer-

man and a member of the Education and Accreditation Com· ing Handbook, H.B. Bradley (ed.), SPE, Richardson, TX (1987) 24-17.

mlttee from 1967 to 1971, chairing It In 1970. 29. Bukacek, R.F.: "Equilibrium Moisture Contact of Natural Gases," re-

search bull. IGT, Chicago (1955) 8, 2,11.

SI Metric Conversion Factors 30. Katz, D.L. et al.: Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering, McGraw-

Hill Book Co. Inc., New York City (1959) 198-200.

°API 141.5/(131.5+ o API) g/cm 3 31. Deaton, W.M. and Frost, E.M. Jr.: Gas Hydrates and Their Relation

atm x 1.013 250* E+05 Pa to the Operation ofNatural Gas Pipelines, Monograph Series, USBM,

bbl x 1.589 873 E-Ol m3 Washington, DC (1946) 8.

OF (OF-32)/1.8 °C 32. Kobayashi, R., Kyoo, Y.S., and Sloan, E.D.: "Phase Behavior of

psi x 6.894757 E+OO kPa WaterlHydrocarbon Systems," Petroleum Engineering Handbook, H.B.

scf/bbl x 1.801 175 E-Ol std m 3 /m 3 Bradley (ed.), SPE, Richardson, TX (1987) 25-1-25-28.

33. Hammerschmidt, E.G.: "Formation of Gas Hydrates in Natural Gas

• Conversion factor is exact. SPERE Transmission Lines," Ind. & Eng. Chern. (1934) 26, 851-55 .

Original SPE manuscript received for review June 15. 1988. Paper (SPE 18571) accepted 34. Scauzillo, F.R.: "Inhibiting Hydrate Formations in Hydrocarbon

for publication Feb. 22, 1989. Revised manuscript received March 17, 1989. Gases," Chern. Eng. Prog. (Aug. 1956) 52, 324-28.

Discussion of Reservoir-Fluid Property

Correlations-State of the Art

W.R. Hayworth, SPE, Diversified Operating Corp.

In "Reservoir-Fluid Property Correlations-State of the Art" (May McCain's definition of a black oil does not consider reservoir

1991 SPERE, Pages 266-72), McCain states that "Black oils are temperature or composition. For the example cited, reservoir tem-

identified as having initial producing GOR's below 2,000 scf/STB perature and a high concentration of intermediate components have

and deeply colored stock-tank oil with gravities below 45° API." undoubtedly had a significant impact on reservoir-fluid behavior.

Unfortunately, defining reservoir fluid type by these parameters Earlier authors 1,2 considered reservoir temperature and compo-

alone can result in misinterpretation of the reservoir-fluid behavior. sitions as important parameters in classifying reservoir fluid types.

For example, Field X, a Cretaceous "0" sand reservoir in the

Denver basin, has an initial stock-tank gravity of 40° API, an ini- Reference.

tial producing GOR of 600 scf/STB, and a reservoir temperature 1. Craft, B.C. and Hawkins, M.P.: Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineer-

of 230°F. According to the author's classification of black oils, ing, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1959) 186.

this field would fall well within the black-oil designation. Reser- 2. Moses, P.L.: "Engineering Applications of Phase Behavior of Crude

Oil and Condensate Systems," JPT (July 1986) 715-23.

voir performance, however, has shown that the fluid does not be-

have as a black oil. 51 Metric Conver.lon Factor.

During primary depletion, the producing GOR increased to more

than 13,000 scf/STB. Stock-tank oil gravity coincidentally increased °API 141.5/(131.5+ o API) g/ cm 3

of (OF-32)/1.8 °C

from 40 to 60° API.

Evidently, this reservoir does not fit black-oil assumptions. Black- scf/bbl x 1.801 175 E-Ol std m 3 /m 3

oil material-balance calculations have proved unrealistic. (SPE 23583) SPE~

Property Correlations-State of the Art

William D. McCain Jr., SPE, S.A. Holditch & Assocs. Inc.

Hayworth may have found an example reservoir fluid that does not Reference.

fit the "rules of thumb" for determining reservoir fluid type. 1,2 1. Moses, P.L.: "Engineering Applications of Phase Behavior of Crude

However, he does not give the color of the stock-tank liquid. Stock- Oil and Condensate Systems," JPT (July 1986) 715-23.

tank oil color is the third rule of thumb and is useful in confirming 2. McCain, W.D. Jr.: "Reservoir-Fluid Property Correlations-State of

fluid type. the Art," SPERE (May 1991) 266-72.

3. McCain, W.D. Jr.: The Properties ofPetroleum Fluids, second edition,

Composition was not considered because the paper2 was written PennWell Books, Tulsa (1989) 149-53.

to show how to use field data to estimate reservoir-fluid properties

(see the first sentence of the Summary or the second sentence of (SPE 23594) SPERE

the Introduction). Extensive information in the use of field and

laboratory data to distinguish between black and volatile oils is

available elsewhere. 3

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