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Lance Portman, BJ Services
Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Roundtable held in Houston, Texas, 25–26 May 1999. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.
tubing has increased over the years from yield strengths of 70,000psi to 110,000psi. The reliability of the materials has also improved greatly, as has the understanding of the low cycle fatigue properties of the constructed pipe. All of this has lead to the practical and reliable use of bigger and stronger coiled tubing strings.
Coil Maximum Diameter (in)
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Abstract Coiled tubing has made great advances in recent years, increasing in size, strength and reliability. This has lead to a great increase in services that can be run on coiled tubing and in turn has lead to bigger, more complex and more expensive coil equipment being built and offered to the market. With all this new equipment now on the market, it becomes more difficult to select the most appropriate equipment for a particular job, or indeed for a project of work that involves many different types of operations. There is a tendency to assume that "biggest is best". Both commercially and technically, the big coil unit may not always be the best choice. This paper gives examples of the current capabilities of coiled tubing units, dispelling some of the myths associated with the smaller units such as "You cannot drill with a small coil unit" or "You always need a big coil unit in order to get higher circulation rates". The paper also lists applications where big coil units absolutely should not be used. Finally, guidelines are set out based on general technical and economic performance comparisons between varying size coil units. Several techniques are listed which permit smaller coil sizes to be used in place of bigger units. The paper uses examples from actual field work and computer simulations. Introduction Figure 1 shows the historical growth in the maximum coiled tubing outside diameter available. It can be seen that since the beginning of this decade, the maximum available size has grown by a more than a factor of 3½. The strength of coiled
Figure 1 Historical growth of coiled tubing
With the availability of the larger coil sizes and their much publicized use for applications such as coiled tubing drilling, it is important to keep in perspective the benefit/cost ratios associated with larger pipe. The sometimes overlooked fact is that in most circumstances, for well workovers, small coiled tubing is actually a better choice than large coiled tubing. This reality is borne out by the size distribution seen by the two primary manufacturers of coiled tubing. Figure 2 shows the 1998 coiled tubing sales split by outside diameter for Precision Tube Technology. Figure 3 shows the same split for Quality Tubing Inc.. As a generalization, one third of pipe sold is 1¼”, one third is 1½”, and only about 5% is larger than 2”. The purpose of this paper is to examine when the large pipe sizes are appropriate, and to examine just how small, small pipe can be in certain applications, remembering that small pipe is cheaper to operate and is lighter, important in offshore environments.
Figure 4 shows the lift efficiency for various sizes of coiled tubing.8sg oil. composite. and to push itself harder to gain access into extended laterals. The rule is: “What goes down must come up” .375" thru 3.000ft. The need to save money Driving force 1. The reason for this is the annular choking effect in the completion.75" thru 1. The need for high flow rates 2. The savings are also more significant when there are no large coil units available in an operating area. The need to keep equipment light weight 3. titanium and amorphous bonded seamless pipe are not considered in this paper as they represent only a tiny fraction of the total coil market. Factors driving the choice of smaller pipe The driving forces behind the choice of smaller coiled tubing are: 1. via the coiled tubing. The reason being that the most important factor in most gas lifting operations is minimizing of the annular friction. weld and transport.50" Figure 2 Precision Tube Technology sales by size 3. The principle reason for using smaller pipe is reason 4. to a depth that sufficiently reduces the hydrostatic pressure in the well.. not only is small coil desirable.00" 0. In most coiled tubing workover applications. lasts longer typically and requires smaller. sales by size The more specialized coiled tubing materials such as plastic. but in many cases it is much more efficient or potentially the only size of coil that will work. Factors driving the choice of larger pipe The driving forces behind the choice of larger coiled tubing are: 1. Clearly. Plotted is the steady state lift rate that can be achieved with 0. reasons 2 and 3 are related and both refer to the increased stiffness and strength of bigger pipe. The process involves simply pumping nitrogen into the well. Making the down direction flow path bigger is at the expense of making the up flow path smaller. allowing it to push tools harder. For small completions. a job that requires circulating materials down a well and back up the annulus requires two flow paths. the smallest coiled tubing is best. Gas lifting Gas lifting or unloading wells is a very simple operation with coiled tubing. less expensive equipment to run it. Balancing the forces for large and for small pipe The simple driving forces have been identified that lead to large pipe and that lead to small pipe selection. To illustrate this point.75" & 2. The next step is to balance these drivers to come up with the optimum size of coil for any given application.75" & 2. consider the gas lifting of a depleted oil well with a 27/8” completion. The well is vertical with a bottom hole pressure of 1. to save money. Small pipe is cheaper to support than large pipe. A balance must be struck to optimize the workover application. the reasons that big pipe is desirable are all related to the fact it can handle more flow. increasing as the completion size increases. In the case of gas lifting through small completions. allowing the well to produce on its own. if it is possible at all.50" & Larger 2. making it more suitable to high-pressure applications in general.25" 1. The need for greater push/pull down hole 3. is stronger and stiffer. with the coil run to bottom. Of course each application is different but the mechanics of the process of making this optimization will be demonstrated by using several examples.50" Figure 3 Quality Tubing Inc.375" thru 3. The need for entry into extended reach wells In actual fact.250" 1.000psi and a true vertical depth of 6. there is a simple rule that applies. the pressure drop up the annulus is far more critical than the pressure drop inside the coil. The rates of gas required are very low for small size completions. The need for high pressure snubbing 4. Small pipe is cheaper to buy. is often overlooked. It is easier to spool.00" 1" & 1. requiring expensive mobilization.250" 1. which is adapted from a common colloquial saying. The money saving is often amplified when offshore as there can be additional costs lifting heavy reels onto a platform. The need for higher annular flow rates 2. In essence. (Note that for larger sizes 1.2 LANCE PORTMAN SPE 54456 2.25" In other words. Reason 3 stems from the fact that small pipe has a higher burst pressure and a higher collapse pressure.
SPE 54456 THE SCIENCE AND ECONOMICS BEHIND COILED TUBING STRING DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION 3 of coil.4 4. as a source of gas. Examples of this would be fishing operations or perhaps the shifting of sliding side door mandrels.6 366. The following table shows the friction pressure losses seen when pumping through the reel for different sizes of coiled tubing. In a vertical well. this time in a 10.670psi.6 6.75 2 Pipe OD (in) Figure 4 Gas lift efficiency example There are many different factors effecting friction pressures when pumping compressible fluids.01bbl/min of water. In these operations it is the physical force that can be applied down hole that is important. Clearly. In effect.5 2.2 Figure 5 demonstrates some example overpulls available.2 0 1 1. with no differential pressure applied across the pipe. Table 1 Nitrogen friction pressures 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1" x 0. However. the available pull is strictly determined by the strength to weight ratio of the pipe and the depth of the pipe. the gas lift might be carried out at 2.000psi yield pipe. such as tubingless wells.095" 1.134" 2" x 0.5" x 0.000ft) Nitrogen with water Dry Nitrogen 17. there is also a method of achieving the same effect with small pipe. the nitrogen rates required can be much higher. small pipe is no longer essential as the annular path is so large. again demonstrating the importance of annular friction.000psi yield pipe. it is possible to use even 1” coiled tubing for a job that would appear to require quite large coil. Large pipe leads to a reduction in surface injection pressure. it is possible to add a friction-reducing chemical to the gas to greatly reduce the friction losses along the coiled tubing. Frictional drag is not an issue as there are no significant forces between the coil and the well to develop any drag forces.080" 1.095” 1½” x 0.7 1. but also increasing gas injection rate makes matters worse. High strength pipe increases the available overpull significantly.000ft vertical well. For reference. Consider a vertical water injector with 95/8” casing. by using innovative solutions. gaining buoyancy forces.7 112. The figures assume a maximum working pull of 80% of yield.8 38.25 1. not only is the achievable lift rate lower. in a well full of water. perhaps with nitrogen membrane units.000scf/min. Manipulation of down hole equipment Vertical Wells Another common application for coiled tubing is the manipulation of down hole equipment. The above table represents one specific scenario and the same dramatic reductions may not be seen in all cases.6 0.000ft 1” coil is 1.125” Friction Pressure (psi/1. it should be noted that the smaller pipe can be provided with much heavier wall and . in this case friction reducers for gas.4 0.156" Tubing gas filled Neutral bouyancy Figure 5 Coiled tubing overpulls Coil Size 1” x 0. The extensions to the bar charts demonstrate the additional pull that can be gained downhole by displacing the coiled tubing contents to nitrogen. with and without the addition of 0. normally considered to be a low pressure. However. However.125” 1¾” x 0.) Liquid Removal Rate (bbl/min) 1 0.8 0. Typically. The size of the coil is not significant with reference to annular friction in this case. The following example is given by way of illustration. as the annulus is so big. Here.25" x 0.080” 1¼” x 0. the light bars represent 70.125” 2” x 0. This then presents a very smooth surface against which the gas flows. the larger pipe has the advantage in maximum pull.75" x 0. the injection pressure that would be required with a 10. Maximum Overpull (000's lbf) 200scf/min 500scf/mim In very big completions. The dark bars represent 90. This chemical is water! Adding just the right amount of water has the effect of forming a thin film on the inside of the coil. resulting in a much-reduced friction pressure.5 1.109" 1.9 64.5 181. In some circumstances it may be desirable to use a large diameter pipe to reduce the injection pressure to permit the use of air compressors. the magnitude of these numbers shows that in some cases.
000 25. but also the operating window between normal run in weight and minimum weight has increased.000 15. big completions are best suited to large coil.000 10. the operating window between the normal and minimum weights becomes smaller and smaller.000 15.000psi to 90.080" 1. and the RIH weight at the point of failure of the pipe.000 25.25" x 0. There is another advantage to running the large pipe in big completions.156" 30. Changing grade of steel pipe has no significant impact on the maximum push figures. This is practically always true. it can also get out. the operating margin is now 4. Relative to jointed pipe. Deviated and horizontal wells Deviated wells represent the added challenge to coiled tubing of being able to access the well to the desired depth. the difference between normal and minimum surface weight is only 2.000 10.000 5. in case of difficulty.000lbf.000 1.000 3. if buoyancy forces can be used by displacing the coil over to nitrogen.000lbf.095" 1.000 4.000 0 RIH weight at failure Set down weight Normal RIH weight Figure 7 Set down weight in 4½" tubing Not only have the maximum set down weights improved. in the event of unexpected hold ups.000 4. First. However. even moderately large conventional completions do not warrant the same degree of concern.109" 1. Further compressive loadings can cause the coil to lock up in a tight spiral and finally break. Large coiled tubing is advantageous on two fronts.156" 30.500lbf. very large completions are a good application for large coiled tubing. however. Maximum set down Weight (lbf) Surface Weight Readings (lbf) 6.000 20. It should be noted that the buckling mechanism that dictates maximum set down is dependent on the modulus or stiffness of the metal. in figure 7.600lbf. coil is less stiff and cannot be rotated making access along long laterals more difficult. this is a very difficult operating range for the coiled tubing operator to manage. 2” coil can apply a downward force of some 21.000psi provides more additional overpull than moving up a coil size. The maximum set down weight that can be applied with coiled tubing is much more dependent on the well geometry.000 0 1" x 0. there is a significant increase in the size of the operating window when 1¾” pipe is used (16. that because coil is stronger in tension than in compression. using the same tubingless water injector example well used earlier.000 5. the set down graph would be as shown in figure 7. completed with 95/8” casing.000 2.134" 2" x 0.5" x 0. Notably. whereas 1¼” can only apply a downward force of 5.000 1. The shaded areas of the above . although one case where it may not be true is in the case of an extremely corkscrewed completion. not the yield strength.5" x 0. Maximum set down Weight (lbf) Surface Weight Readings (lbf) 6. if the water injector well listed above had a 4½” completion.100lbf). This is demonstrated in figure 6.000 3.109" 1. The operator has very little margin to play with when running in.000 5. RIH weight at failure Set down weight Normal RIH weight Figure 6 Set down weights in 95/8" tubing Clearly. enabling more weight on bit when drilling and higher latching forces when fishing. In summary. then an additional 15% in overpull may be recognized. Also.000 20. if coil can get into the well.4 LANCE PORTMAN SPE 54456 would then have the same pulling characteristics as a bigger pipe with an equal metal cross sectional area.080" 1. more push can be transmitted to the bottom. figure 6 shows the maximum set down weight that can be applied down hole. To illustrate this point. Two other points to be made are that generally speaking.000 0 chart represent the theoretical run in hole (RIH) weight. In the case of 1¼” pipe. This is another example of how the optimum coil size follows the size of the completion and will be discussed further. it is safer.000 5.75" x 0. As the pipe size becomes smaller. Coiled tubing readily goes into a spiral when weight is applied. That is.000 2. Practically speaking. increasing the strength of pipe from 70.25" x 0. For example with 1¼” pipe.095" 1.000 0 1" x 0. The coil is especially susceptible to breaking in very large completions and in completions with sudden changes in diameter. For example.134" 2" x 0.75" x 0. It is fair to say.
However. 2.SPE 54456 THE SCIENCE AND ECONOMICS BEHIND COILED TUBING STRING DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION 5 Given that the difficult operation is running into the well. consider a vertical well with a 5½” liner and a 27/8” completion.000 4.375" 3. that 1½” pipe has the advantage that a jetting tool could be added to the bottom to help break up the fill. the two most viable coil sizes are 1¼” and 1½”. 1½” pipe is annular friction limited. 1¼” pipe is limited by injection pressure. 80ft/min is probably close to the maximum achievable. It should be noted.000ft deep and has a bottom hole pressure of 1. 1” 1¼” 1½” 1¾” Flow Rate Liquid Gas (bbl/min) (scf/min) 0.500psi. it is this operation that will be discussed here.000 300 100 30 10 0 2" Seawater Drag Reducer Coil size 4. .900 2. The most important aspect in increasing the reach capability of coiled tubing in a given well is to increase its diameter.46 700 0.53 230 0. However. the annular friction is very important. then again there are techniques that can be used to increase the reach capability of smaller coil. (Note that there are many variables here and the numbers are intended only as a guide).65 750 0. to reduce the friction between the coil and the completion. This may be a sand cleanout following on from a frac job. Doglegs impede access and the importance of friction between the coil and the well bore cannot be overlooked. without creating so much backpressure to over pressure the well. To that aim. again there are techniques to permit the use of smaller pipe if necessary. permitting the use of 2” coil. The size and weight of the coil The size of the completion The size of the liner The well geometry. 4.400m with seawater in the completion.000 2. 5. it was also discovered that adding a drag reducer to the seawater. Initial analysis showed that 23/8” coil could reach the target of 5. or using friction reducers would improve the lift velocity achievable.000 3. In fact in this case. and has more ability to push.000 720 The above example shows that in this case. 3.28 290 Velocity (ft/min) 30 90 80 20 Coil Injection Pressure (psi) 5. the velocity required is of the order of 40”/sec for non-viscous fluids. Either coil size could be made to work. the relationship between the completion size and the optimum coil size can be investigated. Again many factors are at play but these are some rules of thumb. however. However. Most cleanouts are also required to be conducted with the well at balance or underbalanced to avoid pushing fluid and fill into the formation. the further coil can access. Long reach horizontal and deviated wells are another natural application for large coiled tubing. Not shown in figure 8 is the effect of displacing the well to nitrogen. If that is not possible due to logistical reasons. assuming reasonable injection pressures on the coil. or maybe a drilling operation where the cuttings need to be circulated to surface.000 1. In a horizontal well.000 1. The ability to use smaller coil in an offshore environment can often mean make or break for a project. could make the well accessible to 2” coil. 2. Like with gas lifting. particularly doglegs The contents of the well The condition of the tubing and liner wall Cleanouts Still one of the most common uses of coiled tubing is cleaning some kind of fill from a well. This then leads to the need to achieve enough velocity in the annulus. The following table shows the maximum liquid velocities that can be achieved in the 7” liner. There are many factors that influence how far coil can be pushed along a highly deviated well. 6.000 MD (m) Figure 8 Horizontal reach example Figure 8 shows part of a study conducted for a client with a long reach horizontal section. the smaller and more uniform the well internal diameter is. but in its simplest form. Designing a coiled tubing cleanout can be quite complex. Moving to a high strength pipe and increasing the injection pressure. In a vertical well. the velocity required is of the order of twice the fall rate of the particles. requires the generation of enough velocity in the annulus to drive the solids to surface. The well is 8. The range of variables is too large to conduct an exact analysis. as compared to the 1¼” pipe. These factors are: 1. displacing to nitrogen had a similar effect to adding the drag reducer.000 5. Friction reducers may help to a lesser extent but really. Table 2 Cleanout comparisons Generally speaking. It is necessary to clean the fill from the 7” liner.
000 4. Typically.000 8.224” Torque to 80% yield (ft. It may be of some surprise to some to see that in figure 9. One such example is given in figure 10. This limit is designed to provide for “foolproof” operations. Practically all of the workstring pipe above 2” is used for drilling. The first limit is simply the static minimum burst figure. The solid lines represent the number of cycles deemed safe for different gooseneck pressures for the three coil sizes.095" 1.25" x 0.6 LANCE PORTMAN SPE 54456 Pressure to 80% of first yield (psi) 1” pipe in the above example severely limits the flow. coiled tubing can be used at pressures far higher than typically realized. Much testing has been done on how many times pipe can be bent over different diameters with different internal pressures. who has small completions and very limited deck and crane capacity. 1¾” pipe is simply too large for the completion and results in too much annular choking.000psi. as many operations require the simultaneous pumping and movement of the coil. still gaining the cost savings of cheaper. and very uniform. 14. for several different pipe sizes.000psi Figure 9 Pressure ratings The reason that the burst ratings are fairly uniform with size is that the example coil sizes deliberately keep the thickness to diameter ratio fairly constant. The behavior is well understood and the number of cycles to failure can be predicted. This is particularly true if PDC or natural diamond drill bits are used that require low weight on bit and low torque. although again high strength pipe and friction reducers would help.75" x 0. In some cases. or to handle the reactive torque from the motor.100 3. Drilling Drilling warrants special mention.000 10. The large pipe is not generally required to achieve weight on bit. The reason for this is that the typical maximum pump pressures quoted by service companies are designed to keep the pressure minimized at the gooseneck when moving the pipe. Figure 9 lists the pressures at which 80% of first yield is reached. The example is based on some studies done for an offshore operator.224" 1.lbf) 266 499 833 1.000psi material.095” 1½” x 0. Plastically bending the coil by moving it across the gooseneck. the pump pressure on coiled tubing can be taken much higher.000 6. or is of sufficiently small bore that achieving clean out velocity is not difficult.lbf) 70 220 330 580 840 1. The dotted line on the graph shows the injection pressure required to pump through the three different coil sizes listed.000 1.5" x 0.085 3. Particularly the 90. quoting the most powerful models in each size range. the static pressure ratings are very high. Tubing Size 1” x 0.134" 23/8" x 0.134” 2” x 0. the higher gooseneck pressure resulting from the use of smaller coil will be offset by the longer fatigue life exhibited by smaller coil. The table also lists the torque to 80% of yield for 70. It is worthwhile to note why the larger pipe is used. if the proper engineering is done.190” 27/8” x 0. Table 3 Torque comparisons fatigue. The table demonstrates that the torque ratings of even small sizes of coiled tubing are perfectly adequate for typical drilling applications. if the well is not significantly deviated. and 70.000 12. Fatigue cannot be ignored.156” 23/8” x 0.187 Motor size 111/16” 21/8” 23/8” 27/8” 33/8” 3¾” 4¾” Stall Torque (ft.377 2.000 psi grades have limits far above pressures normally considered “safe”. In actual fact. lighter equipment. Table 8 lists representative maximum stall torques for different sizes of motors.109" 1" x 0. small pipe can be used. Generally speaking.341 6. the bigger the diameter of the coil. the less cycles it will take before the risk of failure becomes too great.156" 90. Fatigue life also depends on the thickness to diameter ratio. but it also depends on the diameter of the coil. It is the thickness to diameter ratio that determines the burst rating of pipe. if the pipe is kept stationary. the pump pressure is arbitrarily limited to say 4. Given this.190" 27/8" x 0.109” 1¾” x 0.500 or 5.000psi coiled tubing. In general.080" 2" x 0. The study was to evaluate if 1” coil could be used instead of 1¼”. and on and off the reel.000 2. as this leads to rapid .080” 1¼” x 0.200 Maximum pressure ratings and fatigue lives There are two limits to the maximum pressure that can be applied to coiled tubing. damages the pipe. Using smaller coil at higher pressures may sometimes give the same fatigue life.000 and 90.000psi 70. the large pipe is used to achieve the high annular velocities required in highly deviated holes. In fact.
which gives a life of some 130 cycles. from the point of view of fatigue. Comparative costs The two major manufacturers sell coiled tubing by the foot. or displace the coil to nitrogen. has additional freight and handling costs and generally does not last as long in terms of fatigue. are given in figure 11.224" 1. use high strength pipe and tapered string designs. Normalized Cost per foot High strength Standard 23/8" x 0. There is a premium for high strength pipe (in this example 90. freight. use low drag bits that require less weight on bit such as PDC.000psi.000psi.125 x 0. or to gain additional reach. Conclusion By far the most predominant factor in sizing coiled tubing is the size of the completion. The normalized costs for different sizes of coil. The 1¼” pipe will last longer. there is a size of coiled tubing between 1” and 1¼” that provides the same fatigue life as the 1¼” string. 5. to illustrate the likely optimum coil size for a given completion and given operation.). Wall thickness Little mention has been made of wall thickness as a variable to optimize string design. but if weight limitations dictate the use of 1” pipe. or use drag reducing chemicals. 27/8" x 0. doubles the maximum pressure and adds 0-50% to the fatigue life. not including freight. the cost per pound remains relatively constant for a given grade of material. To achieve more push downhole.134" 1. much smaller coil sizes can be utilized if one or more of several engineering approaches are taken. To achieve high nitrogen injection rates. The optimum coil size in this case.156" .25 x 0. which would lead to a life of about 90 cycles. and should be considered for large programs of similar work. operation expenses. the job can be done at only minimal additional expense. Displaying the weights of different strings can therefore show the relative costs of different strings. 2. To achieve higher flow rates. as a method of comparing prices of different coil sizes. Interestingly. 3. the methods available to reduce the coil size required are: 1. doubling the wall thickness of coiled tubing doubles the maximum pull.000 failure odds 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 1 x 0. chemicals etc. pump friction reducer or use high strength pipe. To achieve high overpull To run into very deep wells To permit high pressure pumping To permit access into high well head pressures The difference in cost per foot is quite significant. In essence. handling.087 wall 1. or for very difficult applications. To achieve greater overpull downhole. To drill with smaller coil.5" x 0.000psi versus 70. but still offers size and weight savings. However. 3. especially when taken in context of the entire cost of coiled tubing work (materials. The incremental cost of high strength pipe is very small. 2.75" x 0.000psi) and this premium is 4.25" x 0. using 1” coil would require a gooseneck pressure of 7. add a small amount of water.SPE 54456 THE SCIENCE AND ECONOMICS BEHIND COILED TUBING STRING DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION 7 Cycles to 1 in 1.095 wall Pump Pressure approximated to 10%. pump drag-reducing chemicals or displace the wellbore to nitrogen.080" 2" x 0.190" 1. it should be borne in mind that building custom string diameters is not prohibitively expensive. Whereas it will not generally make sense to custom build coiled tubing strings for single applications.095" Gooseneck Pressure (psi) Figure 10 Fatigue life comparisons Figure 11 Tubing cost comparison In this case. To summarize.080 wall 1. 2” pipe is nearly three times the cost of 1¼”. Figure 12 shows the likely optimum coil sizes as dark boxes. However. There are many factors effecting optimum coil size and the minimum coil size for any application. the coil sizes that can likely be made to work are shown as lightly shaded boxes.109" 1" x 0. 4. Using 1¼” pipe requires a gooseneck pressure of 4. The use of tapered strings can be very important in several instances: 1. natural diamond or impregnated diamond bits. Rule of thumb tables are constructed and shown in figure 12. is actually 11/8”.
. for assistance in preparing this paper.8 LANCE PORTMAN SPE 54456 1” 2 /8” 27/8” 3½” 4½” 5” 5½” 3 1¼” Gas lifting 1½” 1¾” 2” 23/8” 27/8” 1” 2 /8” 27/8” 3½” 4½” 5” 5½” 3 1¼” Cleanouts 1½” 1¾” 2” 23/8” 27/8” Heavy duty manipulation or extended reach 1” 1¼” 1½” 1¾” 2” 23/8” 3 2 /8” 27/8” 3½” 4½” 5” 5½” Figure 12 General size recommendations 27/8” Acknowledgements The author would like to thank the management of BJ Services for permission to publish this paper. Additional thanks go to Precision Tube Technology and Quality Tubing Inc.
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