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Materi Inisiasi 3

Topik: Understanding Unity and Paragraph Outline

Modul: -


Inisiasi 3 ini membahas Modul 3. Modul 3 membahas Unity and Paragraph Outline. Setelah
mempelajari Pokok Bahasan ini mahasiswa diharapkan mampu mengidentifikasi komponen-
komponen unity dan dapat membuat outline sederhana untuk sebuah paragraf.

Pelajari materi tentang Unity and Paraggraph Outline ini pada Modul 3 dan sumber lainnya yang
bisa Anda akses di internet.

Kemampuan yang diharapkan dari Anda tambah lama tambah kompleks, namun demikian
dengan mempelajari secara bertahap materi pada Modul 3 dan 4 serta materi pada Inisiasi 3 ini
maka Anda akan mampu membuat sebuah essay yang baik.

Selamat Belajar.

Materi Pengayaan/Tambahan:

Paragraph Structure and Unity

(, 1 Agustus

Structure and unity are important elements in an essay. Each paragraph should reinforce the
thesis statement and match the order of the main points from the thesis statement. Similar to the
essay as a whole, the sentences within a paragraph will have an introduction (topic sentence),
discussion (body sentences), and conclusion (conclusion/transition sentence).

Basic Paragraph Outline:

1. Topic Sentence/Transition Sentence: This sentence should introduce the paragraph by

identifying a main point from the thesis statement. The sentence may also transition from
the previous paragraph, but only one transition sentence is necessary in each paragraph.
2. Body Sentences: The goal of the body sentences is to explore the topic sentence. These
sentences can vary in number depending on what the paragraph is about. Body sentences
can provide ideas about the main point, give evidence to support the ideas, and reference
the thesis statement’s connection to the ideas and evidence offered.
3. Conclusion/Transition Sentence: This sentence summarizes the ideas discussed in the
paragraph by referring to the topic sentence and the thesis statement and might include a
transition to the main point of the following paragraph.

Suggestions for Improving Paragraph Structure:

 Develop strong main points that support your thesis statement.

 Brainstorm ideas and evidence to support the main point of the paragraph(s).
 Identify the main point of each paragraph within the topic sentence.
 Check the topic, body, and conclusion sentence(s) to ensure they match the main point.
 Relocate body sentences that belong to a different main point. You can use The Writing
Center to help you look for sentences that do not fit or aren’t quite clear.
 Use proper in-text citations and discuss information from sources.

Example Thesis Statement: The recommended format for forming a well-organized essay
includes a thesis statement, proper paragraph structure, and a well-formed conclusion.
Paragraph Unity, Coherence, and Development
and-development/, 2 Agustus 2018)

In each paragraph of an essay, one particular idea or topic is developed and explained. In order to
successfully do so, however, it is essential that the paragraph be written in a unified and
coherent manner.

A unified paragraph must follow the idea mentioned in the topic sentence and must not deviate
from it. For a further explanation on topic sentences, see the Write Right on Topic Sentences.

A coherent paragraph has sentences that all logically follow each other; they are not isolated
thoughts. Coherence can be achieved in several ways. First, using transitions helps connect ideas
from one sentence to the next. For more on transitions, see the Write Right on Transitions.
Second, ordering thoughts in numerical sequence helps to direct the reader from one point to the
next. Third, structuring each paragraph according to one of the following patterns helps to
organize sentences: general to particular; particular to general; whole to parts; question to
answer; or effect to cause.

Remember that a paragraph should have enough sentences so that the main idea of the topic
sentence is completely developed. Generalizations should be supported with examples or
illustrations. Also, details and descriptions help the reader to understand what you mean. Don't
ever assume that the reader can read your mind: be specific enough to develop your ideas
thoroughly, but avoid repetition

An effective paragraph might look like this:

It is commonly recognized that dogs have an extreme antagonism toward cats. This enmity
between these two species can be traced back to the time of the early Egyptian dynasties.
Archaeologists in recent years have discovered Egyptian texts in which there are detailed
accounts of canines brutally mauling felines. Today this type of cruelty between these two
domestic pets can be witnessed in regions as close as your own neighborhood. For example,
when dogs are walked by their masters (and they happen to catch sight of a stray cat), they will
pull with all their strength on their leash until the master is forced to yield; the typical result is
that a feline is chased up a tree. The hatred between dogs and cats has lasted for many centuries,
so it is unlikely that this conflict will ever end.

This paragraph is effective for the following reasons:

1. The paragraph shows unity. All the sentences effectively relate back to the topic sentence at the
beginning of the paragraph.
2. The paragraph shows coherence. There is a flow of thoughts and ideas among the sentences in
this paragraph. There are good transitions employed in the paragraph. The writer also presents
her sub-topics in an orderly fashion that the reader can follow easily.
3. The paragraph is developed. The writer gives herself enough space to develop the topic. She
gives us at least two reasons to accept her argument and incorporates some examples in order
to give those reasons more validity.

Materi Diskusi


You already learned about the paragraph structure in the previous topic. Now, we are going to discuss
topic sentences and main ideas.

Read the following text on a topic sentence. It will help you to have a better understanding on what we
call “Topic sentence”.

Topic Sentences

Most English writers rely greatly on topic sentences to introduce their main ideas. A topic sentence is a
concise, general, and often intriguing sentence that introduces the main point of a paragraph. Generally,
topic sentences begin a paragraph. Next are the supporting sentences, which further develop and expand
on the topic sentence. Finally a concluding sentence finishes up the idea. These three components create
a full paragraph.

Some students dismiss topic sentences because they see that professional writers do not always explicitly
use them. Beware of imitating professionals since their skills are highly advanced. For international
students, topic sentences are usually essential and strongly advisable. Here is a short paragraph with the
topic sentence underlined:

No other inventor has had more impact on modern life than Thomas Edison. Most people know
that he invented the light bulb, but few realize he also invented the light switch, the light socket,
and the three-way wiring system. He also invented ore-crushing machines, underground electric
mains, storage batteries and electric pens. The electric railway car, the railroad signal, the
phonograph, and the motion picture camera are other Edison inventions. In fact, he even invented
wax paper. Seeing how this genius influenced modern life is easy; without him our lives today
would be greatly different.

A topic sentence is the most important sentence in a paragraph. It should briefly sum up the main idea
and be interesting enough to draw the reader into the paragraph. At the same time, this sentence keeps
the writer on track by focusing on only the main idea of the paragraph.

A useful strategy for starting a thesis and developing topic sentences is to use the Table of Contents, and
write a complete topic sentence for every section and subsection. These topic sentences help the students
crystallize their ideas on the various sections. Topic sentences also serve as a “road map” for writers (and
later the readers) to know where they are headed. In other words, without topic sentences, the writer
often does not know what points will end each section and what points will begin the next section. This
wastes a great deal of time.