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IGME

HETEROGENEOUS AQUIFERS

E. VAZQUEZ-SUÑÉ1

1 Hydrogeology Group, Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering & Geoscience, School of Civil Engineering, Technical

University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: elena.abarca@upc.es

2 Institut für Hydromechanik und Wasserwirtschaft, ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Abstract

Dispersivity is the most significant and difficult parameter to assess in seawater intrusion models. It is well

established that dispersion is enhanced by spatial heterogeneity. While real aquifers in general are

heterogeneous, most models describing saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers do not take into account

spatial heterogeneity. One of the main objectives of this study is to assess the effect of spatial variability

of hydraulic conductivity on effective dispersion in seawater intrusion problems. For this purpose we select

Henry’s problem (1964), both in its diffusive and dispersive forms. An anisotropic Henry Problem is defined

and the effect of the anisotropy in this type problem is investigated. Spatial heterogeneity is analysed

within a geostatistical framework using a methodology based on Monte Carlo analysis. The basic steps are:

first, a geostatistical model is selected and a number of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields are

generated for each model. Second, Henry’s problem is solved for all heterogeneous fields. Specifically, we

aim at finding appropriate effective values for dispersivity as a function of heterogeneity. We find that, for

dispersive problems, both toe position (i.e., seawater wedge penetration) and width of the mixing zone can

be fairly well reproduced by a homogeneous medium with the same effective hydraulic conductivity and

the (constant) dispersion coefficient which is assumed valid at the local scale (local dispersivity coefficient).

Results can be improved by slightly increasing the dispersion values, specifically the geometric mean of the

longitudinal and transversal dispersivity. Furthermore, effective diffusion is virtually equal to the local

diffusion in diffusion dominated problems.

Keywords: seawater intrusion modeling, Henry Problem, dispersive Henry Problem, heterogeneity,

effective dispersion, anisotropy

* Corresponding author

49

Effective dispersion in seawater intrusion through heterogeneous aquifers

Introduction

Seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers exemplifies natural stable density stratification with denser

saltwater encroaching below freshwater. An abstraction of the problem of saltwater intrusion in a vertical

cross-section perpendicular to the coastline was introduced by Henry (1964). The conceptual model is that

of a confined aquifer with homogeneous isotropic hydraulic conductivity, and with the following boundary

conditions (BC): no-flow along the top and bottom boundary and specified groundwater seepage of 6.6e-

5 m/s with salt mass fraction of zero (freshwater) along the vertical inland boundary and a hydrostatic

pressure distribution of saltwater along the vertical seaside boundary. The original Henry Problem considers

advection and diffusion (no dispersion). The parameters originally used are presented in Table 1.

Parameter Value

φ 0.35 Porosity

Dm 1.88571E-05 m2/s Effective diffusion coefficient

K 1.0e-2 m/s Hydraulic conductivity

Q 6.6e-5 m2/s Freshwater total inflow at inland boundary

ω0 0 kg/kg Mass fraction of freshwater

ωs 0.0357 kg/kg Mass fraction of seawater

ρ0 1000 kg/m3 Freshwater density

ρs 1024.99 kg/m3 Seawater density

µ 0.001 kg/m·s Fluid viscosity (same for both fluids)

This configuration leads to a characteristic, stationary saltwater intrusion wedge, penetrating landward on

the aquifer bottom. Henry (1964) provided a semi-analytical solution for this problem configuration. His

solution was revised and improved by Borisov et al. (1996) and Segol (1994). The analytical solution in

both studies was given as an infinite-series solution. The two main drawbacks of this solution are: (1) it

requires a constant, effective diffusion term, and (2) the boundary condition for concentration at the

seaside border is of Dirichlet type. The original boundary condition of the Henry Problem at the seaside

border was subsequently modified by e.g, Segol et al. (1975) and Frind (1982) to represent a more realistic

boundary with freshwater discharge. This modified boundary condition consists of specified pressure along

the seaside boundary (Dirichlet type for flow) with solute concentration equal to seawater concentration

for inflowing portions and resident concentration for the outflowing boundary’s portion. This transport

boundary condition is implemented by specifying the mass flow as shown in equation (1).

(1)

where D is the hydrodynamic dispersion tensor, q the Darcy’s flux, and c* is the boundary flux

concentration, which is equal to resident concentration, c, when aquifer water flows towards the sea and

seawater concentration, cs, otherwise. In any case, as shown by the numerical calculations, the choice of

BC has a rather small impact on the overall location of the concentration isolines. The boundary conditions

selected in our work are those of Frind (1982), as shown in Figure 1.

50

18 SWIM. Cartagena 2004, Spain E. ABARCA et al.

Figure 1. On the left, Henry Problem description (Henry, 1964) with modified boundary conditions in the seaside

boundary. On the right, the concentration isolines for the Henry Problem simulated with SUTRA code (Voss and

Provost, 2002).

The Henry Problem has become a classic test case for variable-density flow codes. A good review of the

Henry Problem history is described in Segol (1994). However, the influence of the boundary conditions in

this type problem suggests that it is not the best test for variable-density codes (Simpson and Clement,

2003). The results of the different numerical solutions show no significant discrepancies for grid Peclet

numbers below 1 (Oswald, 1999). References in the literature indicated that this test case is not

representative for the numerical treatment of narrow, more realistic, mixing layers at the interface between

saltwater and freshwater (Voss and Souza, 1987). Several studies have accounted for variable dispersion

to simulate seawater intrusion in this benchmark problem (Frind, 1982; Huyakorn et al., 1987). In this

contribution we consider three cases of a modified Henry Problem with respect to the treatment of

diffusion/dispersion. A comparison is made between the purely diffusive traditional Henry Problem, a fully

dispersive case (no molecular diffusion) and a mixed (diffusive/dispersive) case, also considered in a

previous work (Schwarz, 1999).

Heterogeneity in hydraulic properties, especially hydraulic conductivity, is well known to significantly affect

groundwater flow and solute transport. In variable-density flow systems, heterogeneity can perturb flow

over many length scales, ranging from slight differences in pore geometry to larger heterogeneities at the

regional scale. Yet, few studies have focused on evaluating the impact of heterogeneity on variable density

flow. Mc Kribbin and O`Sullivan (1980) and Mc Kribbin and Tyvand (1982, 1983) investigated the effect

that multiple hydraulic conductivity layers had on thermal convection. Schincariol and Schwartz (1990)

carried out an experimental investigation of variable–density groundwater flow in homogeneous, layered,

and lenticular media. They found that dense water tends to accumulate along bedding interfaces.

Schincariol et al. (1997) numerically reproduced the experimental results of Schincariol and Schwartz

(1990).

Schincariol et al. (1997) carried out numerical simulations incorporating the effects of heterogeneity in the

hydraulic conductivity field and found that the statistical characteristics of the permeability field (mean,

variance, and correlation length) played a critical role in the onset and subsequent growth or decay of

instabilities. In the study of Schincariol et al. (1997) random permeability fields were used for the first time

in connection with gravitational instabilities. Schincariol (1998) studied natural perturbation initiation by

local-scale heterogeneities and concluded that homogeneous field criteria will not be applicable. Simmons

et al. (2001) considered different types of heterogeneity and stated that the presence of instabilities was

intimately related to the structure and variance of the permeability field. Ordered heterogeneities with

vertically oriented high-permeability regions tend to enhance growth conditions while horizontal elongated

structures (stochastic distribution) tend to dissipate free convection through dispersive mixing.

51

Effective dispersion in seawater intrusion through heterogeneous aquifers

All of the described studies focused on instabilities caused by dense fluids overlying lighter ones and not

on saltwater intrusion processes. Few investigations have been devoted to the study of the heterogeneity

in coastal aquifers. Schwarz (1999) studied the effect of heterogeneity for some of the most typical

benchmarks problems for density-dependent flow, including the Henry Problem for saltwater intrusion.

The objective of this work is to assess the effect of heterogeneity in the steady state position of the

saltwater intrusion wedge and to analyze whether a homogeneous equivalent approximation can predict

the interface penetration and the width of the mixing zone.

Methodology

The approach taken in this work is to numerically study the effect of heterogeneity in seawater intrusion

problems. The SUTRA code (Voss and Provost, 2002) was used for the simulations of the Henry Problem.

The grid is regular, with 256 x 128 elements. This grid discretization was found fine enough to ensure the

convergence of the solution and allows a sufficient resolution of the random permeability fields used for

the heterogeneous simulations. Benson et al. (1998) studied numerical dispersion in this type of problem

(diffusive and dispersive form) using SUTRA and found out that the solution was stable for grid spacing

smaller than 4 cm. They concluded that, in highly variable velocity fields, Eulerian models display less error

than Lagrangian models, because of the Eulerian uniform first-order truncation error. The boundary

conditions used have been discussed above and are shown together with the model domain in Figure 1.

We consider two distinct problems, depending on whether the medium is treated as homogeneous or

heterogeneous.

(2)

(3)

(4)

where l is the length of the aquifer section and d is the aquifer thickness.

The semianalytical solution for this problem was evaluated for the following values of these parameters:

a= 0.263, b= 0.1 and ξ= 2.

The geometry and the boundary conditions of this problem are considered to represent seawater intrusion

process realistically; however the produced mixing zone width is overestimated according to most real data

52

18 SWIM. Cartagena 2004, Spain E. ABARCA et al.

Figure 2. Concentration isolines for a homogeneous anisotropic dispersive Henry Problem simulated with SUTRA

code. Notice the more realistic shape of the transition zone. The anisotropy ratio (rK=Kv/Kh) for this

simulation is 0,66.

obtained in electrical conductivity profiles in boreholes. This is due to the high value of the diffusion

coefficient used. Another unrealistic aspect is that mixing does not take into account a velocity dependent

dispersion. A modified Henry Problem is proposed for this work. The two modifications included are, first,

the hydraulic conductivity is anisotropic, and second, we incorporate velocity dependent dispersion. Figure

2 shows the isoconcentration lines for a dispersive anisotropic Henry Problem. The shape and width of the

transition zone for the variable dispersion case is considered more realistic and to better represent real

data of vertical salinity distribution.

It is necessary to introduce two new dimensionless numbers that define this modified problem together

with a and ξ. The traditional will Henry Problem constitute a particular case.

The first new number is the anisotropy ratio (rk) and it is defined as:

(5)

where kh is the horizontal permeability and kv is the vertical permeability. The permeability values

considered in the simulation for the homogeneous cases are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Generic parameters used in the anisotropic homogeneous Henry Problem simulations

Parameter Value

kh 1.2550700D-09 m2 Horizontal permeability

kv 8.3805601D-10 m2 Vertical permeability

rK 0.66 Anisotropy ratio

The b parameter was modified to take into account not only constant diffusion but also velocity dependent

dispersion. Different values of the b parameter were studied:

(6)

53

Effective dispersion in seawater intrusion through heterogeneous aquifers

(7)

(8)

The local longitudinal dispersivity coefficient (αL) used for the dispersive case is chosen so that it is equal

to Henry’s original b value and the transversal dispersivity coefficient (αT) is a tenth of the longitudinal one.

That is,

(9)

(10)

The reference cases used in this study and their values of the dispersivity coefficients are listed in Table 3.

Table 3. Diffusivity/dispersivity coefficients used in the simulations for the reference cases.

Diffusive 1.88571E-05 0 0

Mixed 9.42855E-06 0.05 0.005

Dispersive 0 0.1 0.01

The parameter bgeo correlates better with the obtained results for a set of different simulations with

different values of αL and/or αT. Therefore the results of this study are always compared to this bgeo

parameter.

For the different scenarios considered we analyze our results in terms of:

– Ltoe: Penetration of the seawater intrusion wedge measured as the distance between the seaside

boundary and the point where the 50% mixing line touches the aquifer bottom (see Figure 3).

– WMZ (Width of the Mixing Zone): It is measured as the mean width between the 25% and 75%

mixing lines. In order to avoid problems due to boundary effects this width was considered only

between the 0.2·Ltoe and 0.8·Ltoe (see Figure 3).

– SMF (Salt Mass Flux): Mass of salt that comes into the system through the seaside boundary (kg of

salt/s). This parameter is critical for the salt mass exchange across the saltwater/freshwater interface.

A sensitivity analysis was performed for the two new parameters (rk and bgeo) in a homogeneous medium.

In Figure 4, the seawater wedge penetration (Ltoe), the width of the mixing zone and the salt mass flux

dependence on bgeo is shown for the three considered cases (fully diffusive, fully dispersive and mixed). The

higher bgeo, the shorter the seawater penetration, and the thicker the mixing zone gets. The incoming salt

54

18 SWIM. Cartagena 2004, Spain E. ABARCA et al.

Figure 3. Sketch showing some of the values used for comparison between the different scenarios.

mass flux also increases with the bgeo value. Figure 5 shows the results of the dependence on the

anisotropy index (rk). Little effect is observed both in the penetration and in the width of the transition

zone. However, as it may be expected, the effect in the incoming mass flux is relevant: the higher the

vertical permeability, the higher the amount of salt mass flux.

Figure 4. Results of the three studied anisotropic cases and their relation to bgeo

Figure 5. Results of the three studied anisotropic cases and their relation to the anisotropy (rk)

55

Effective dispersion in seawater intrusion through heterogeneous aquifers

The amount of salt mass flux entering the system through the seaside boundary is controlled by the mixing

phenomena in the transition zone, i.e., by diffusion or dispersion. In the dispersive dominant cases, flow in

the mixing zone is almost parallel to the isoconcentration lines; that means that mixing is controlled

predominantly by the transverse dispersivity. Diffusion/dispersion also controls the width of the mixing

zone; therefore, a relation between the saltwater mass flux and the width of the mixing zone is expected.

This relation is plotted in Figure 6a for different values of bgeo. An almost linear relation is shown, but two

different slopes can be distinguished, one for the diffusive dominant cases and a second one for the

dispersive case. In Figure 6b, the same result is plotted but for simulations with different anisotropy ratio.

There is no variation in the width of the mixing zone for the dispersive case, although for a higher rk, the

vertical permeability is higher and thus, salt inflow also increases. The relation for the diffusion dominating

cases for different rk values is inverse. There is an increase in the seawater mass flux but a slight reduction

in the width of the mixing zone for high values of rk.

Figure 6. Relation between the incoming mass flux and the width of the mixing zone for different values of bgeo (a)

and different values of the anisotropy ratio (rK)(b).

To evaluate the effect of heterogeneity and the equivalent diffusion/dispersion coefficients in an equivalent

homogeneous medium approach, 60 random permeability fields were generated. The heterogeneous fields

were generated using the GCOSIM3D code (Gomez-Hernandez and Journel, 1993). The hydraulic

conductivity distribution is assumed to follow a log-normal probability density function. The geostatistical

model used is spherical with anisotropic correlation lengths of 0.15 m and 0.045 m in horizontal and

vertical directions, respectively, with a mean value equal to the logarithm of Henry’s hydraulic conductivity

and a variance of 1. The anisotropic Henry Problems described in the previous sections were simulated for

each of the heterogeneous realizations and for the three dispersion cases: diffusive, mixed and dispersive.

The results of those simulations were compared to their corresponding homogeneous solution. The

homogeneous effective media to compare with were built with the following effective parameters:

56

18 SWIM. Cartagena 2004, Spain E. ABARCA et al.

– the effective permeability in x and y directions is the mean value of the horizontal and vertical

permeability of the set of 60 heterogeneous realizations.

– the values of the diffusivity/dispersivity coefficients were set equal to the local coefficients used in

the heterogeneous simulations.

Results

Some examples of the solutions obtained for the concentration distribution in heterogeneous dispersive

cases are shown in Figure 7. Some patterns that appear in this solution are general for all the

heterogeneous results:

– As expected, the slope of the interface is lower in the high permeability zones while the slope

increases in the low permeability zones.

– Isolines tend to accumulate in high permeability zones (white) while they tend to spread out in low

permeability zones. For this reason, isolines seem to accommodate under high permeability zones.

Figure 7. Solution of the concentration distribution for four heterogeneous dispersive realizations. Black lines show

the 10-20-30- …-90% mixing lines.

In the following paragraphs, we present the results on the penetration of the saltwater wedge and on the

width of the mixing zone for the heterogeneous simulations, their comparison with the homogeneous

cases with local values of dispersion, and how the agreement between both results could be improved.

57

Effective dispersion in seawater intrusion through heterogeneous aquifers

The distribution of the results of the heterogeneous simulations is shown in Figure 8a (Ltoe) and Figure 8b

(width of mixing zone) in box plots for each of the three considered cases. On the left of these box plots

the results for the homogeneous cases are plotted. The horizontal dashed lines are drawn for the

comparison between results. A description of the results for each of the considered dispersion cases

follows.

Diffusive case

The solution obtained with the homogeneous effective medium represents quite well the mean of the

heterogeneous results distributions for the purely diffusive case, both in terms of penetration and width of

the mixing zone. Therefore, the local value of the diffusion coefficient used in the homogeneous case seems

to be the appropriate parameter to represent the mean heterogeneous behaviour.

Figure 8. Boxplot diagrams of the distribution of the Ltoe (top) and width of the mixing zone (bottom) for the

heterogeneous simulations and their corresponding plot of the homogeneous medium results. The horizontal lines

are drawn for comparison purposes.

58

18 SWIM. Cartagena 2004, Spain E. ABARCA et al.

Mixed case

In the mixed case the WMZ is well represented by the homogeneous medium, while the toe penetration is

overestimated. To reduce the toe penetration for the effective case, a slight increase in the

diffusion/dispersion coefficient (bgeo) would be needed as was shown in the sensitivity analysis for the

homogeneous case. But at the same time, this would lead to an increase in the width of the mixing zone

that would worsen the WMZ comparability. Therefore, it is not appropriate to increase the bgeo value of the

homogeneous effective system for the mixed case.

Dispersive case

The results for the purely dispersive homogeneous case diverge more from the mean of the heterogeneous

results both in terms of Ltoe and WMZ. Both fits would be improved by increasing the value of the

dispersivity coefficient, that is, the value of the bgeo parameter.

The relation between the SMF and the WMF for the heterogeneous cases is represented in Figure 9.

Seawater mass flux is in, virtually, all cases, underestimated in the homogeneous simulations. The salt

inflow is, in most of the heterogeneous realizations, remarkably higher than the salt mass flux in the

homogeneous case. Moreover, the realizations that present a higher amount of salt through the seaside

boundary are the same for the three considered cases (diffusive, mixed and dispersive). Therefore, the SMF

is controlled more by the permeability field than by the diffusion/dispersion mechanism.

Figure 9. Relationship between the SMF and the WMF for the heterogeneous simulations and the homogeneous

results.

Figure 9 also shows that the WMZ has a slightly inverse correlation with the SMF for the heterogeneous

diffusive cases. This effect is also observed in the simulations for the mixed case. However, for the dispersive

cases, there is not such a relationship between the amount of salt that comes into the aquifer, that is highly

variable, and the WMZ that stays more or less constant. These relations were also observed for the

59

Effective dispersion in seawater intrusion through heterogeneous aquifers

anisotropic homogeneous case as the vertical permeability or rk value is increased (Figure 6b). Therefore,

the increase in the SMF is due to locally higher vertical permeability in different heterogeneous realizations

near the seaside boundary.

Discussion

When comparing the results of the heterogeneous simulations with those of a homogeneous anisotropic

medium with the same local diffusion/dispersion coefficient, the results of the penetration width of the

mixing zone compare favorably. Only for purely dispersive cases, a better fit would be accomplished with

a slight increase in the equivalent dispersion coefficient. The seawater mass flux is however

underestimated in the homogeneous effective cases with local dispersion coefficients. The higher amount

of salt that comes into the system in the heterogeneous media is related to the local increase of the vertical

permeability near the seaside boundary.

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by the European Commission (SALTRANS project, contract EVK1-CT-2000-00062).

The first author was funded by the Catalonian Government.

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61

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