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AERUL ŞI APA

COMPONENTE ALE MEDIULUI

ZIUA MONDIALĂ A APEI


ZIUA MONDIALĂ A METEOROLOGIEI
COMITETUL DE COORDONARE
Prof. dr. A. MARGA Rector, Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai
Acad. D. BĂLTEANU Director, Institutul de Geografie al Academiei Române
Prof. dr. P. COCEAN Prorector, Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai
Prof. dr. Luminiţa SILAGHI-DUMITRESCU Prorector, Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai
Prof. dr. D. PETREA Decan, Facultatea de Geografie, Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai

COMITETUL ŞTIINŢIFIC
Prof. dr. Liviu APOSTOL Universitatea „Al. I. Cuza”, Iaşi
Prof. dr. Octavia BOGDAN Institutul de Geografie al Academiei Române
Dr. ing. D. CIATARÂŞ S.C.C.A. „Someş” S.A., Cluj-Napoca
Prof. dr. doc. P. GÂŞTESCU Universitatea „Hyperion”, București
Prof. dr. J. MIKA Univ. Eszterházy Károly, Eger, Hungary
Prof. dr. C. POPOVSKA Univ. of Ss. Cyril & Methodius, Macedonia
Prof. dr. P. PAUL Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France
Prof. dr. Gh. ROMANESCU Universitatea ”Al. I. Cuza” Iaşi
Prof.. dr. V. SOROCOVSCHI Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca
C.p. I dr. P. STANCIU I.N.H.G.A. Bucureşti
Prof. Dr. doc. K. TAR College of Nyíregyháza, Hungary
Prof. dr. L.TOUCHART Universite d’Orleans, France
Prof. dr. Liliana ZAHARIA Universitatea Bucureşti

COMITETUL DE ORGANIZARE
Prof. dr. G. PANDI Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca
Conf. dr. F. MOLDOVAN Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca
Ing. I. ROŞU Adm. baz. de apă „Someş-Tisa”
Conf. dr. Gh. ŞERBAN Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca
Şef lucr. dr. Adina CROITORU Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca
Şef lucr. dr. R. BĂTINAŞ Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca

SECRETARIAT
Şef lucr. dr. I. HOLOBÂCĂ
Şef lucr. dr. HORVÁTH Cs.
Asist. drd. BARTÓK Blanka

http://aerapa.conference.ubbcluj.ro/
e-mail:aerapa@geografie.ubbcluj.ro
UNIVERSITATEA BABEŞ-BOLYAI
FACULTATEA DE GEOGRAFIE
CATEDRA DE GEOGRAFIE FIZICĂ ŞI TEHNICĂ
în colaborare cu
ADMINISTRAŢIA BAZINALĂ DE APĂ „SOMEŞ-TISA”

AERUL ŞI APA
COMPONENTE ALE MEDIULUI

ZIUA MONDIALĂ A APEI


ZIUA MONDIALĂ A METEOROLOGIEI
18-19 MARTIE 2011, CLUJ-NAPOCA, ROMÂNIA

EDITORI: GAVRIL PANDI ŞI FLORIN MOLDOVAN

PRESA UNIVERSITARĂ CLUJEANĂ


2011
Instituţii partenere:
S.C. COMPANIA DE APĂ „SOMEŞ” S.A. – Cluj
S.C. HIDROELECTRICA S.A. – Sucursala Cluj

ISSN: 2067–743X

© 2011 Editorii volumului. Toate drepturile rezervate. Reproducerea


integrală sau parţială a textului, prin orice mijloace, fără acordul
editorilor, este interzisă şi se pedepseşte conform legii.

Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai
Presa Universitară Clujeană
Director: Codruţa Săcelean
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Tel./Fax: (+40)-264-597.401
E-mail: editura@editura.ubbcluj.ro
http://www.editura.ubbcluj.ro/
CUPRINS

Gavril Pandi, World Water Day – 2011 ..................................................................v

Florin Moldovan, World Meteorological Day – 2011.......................................... vii

János Mika, Global and Regional Climate Change:


New Evidences between Two IPCC Reports ..........................................................1

Lucia Căpăţînă, Effective Flood Risk Management


in the Republic of Moldova: a Strategic Imperativ ................................................9

D. C. Petrescu, D. M. Gavriletea, I. V. Petrescu-Mag,


Integrative Negotiation for Sustainable Water Management...............................14

Carmen-Sofia Dragotă, Cătălina Mărculeţ, Loredana-Elena Mic,


Mapping Wet Time-Scales in the Curvature Carpathians and
Subcarpathians (Romania) by the Standardized Precipitation Index ..................22

M. Luca, R. Balan, A. Manescu, Monitoring the Pollution


of Groundwater in the Area of Industrial Waste..................................................30

Gavril Pandi, The Influenced Flow Regimes ...........................................................38

L. Apostol, O. Machidon, Considerations on the Hail Regime in Moldavia


between the Siret and Prut Rivers ........................................................................45

S. Russel, L. Rossa, Contamination of Surface and Ground Waters


by Runoff Water from a Cattle Farm at Falenty, Poland.....................................53

Paul Calanter, Octavian Serban, Anca Dragomir, Economic and Environmental


Aspects on Energy Alternatives for a Clean Air – Wind Farms...........................61

V. Sorocovschi, Horváth Cs., Assessment of Water Demands


in the Rural Settlements of the Someşean Plateau ...............................................68

Á. Juhász, K. Hrotkó, L. Tőkei, Sap Flow Response


of Cherry Trees to Weather Condition .................................................................76

A. E. Petter, L. Buz, Legal Aspects Regarding the Cooperation


under the Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government
of Hungarian Republic on the Cooperation for the Transboundary
Watercourses Protection and Sustainable Use. Case study: Barcău River Basin ..83

v
T. Tudose, F. Moldovan, Characteristics of Heavy Rainfall Parameters
in the North-Western Romania.............................................................................91

Florina Bran, Ildiko Ioan, Cristina Popa, Financial Crisis, Subsidies


and Climate Change in the Equation of Sustainable Development .....................99

Romanescu Ana Maria, Romanescu Gheorghe, The Hydrological Risk


in the Moldovita River Basin and the Necessary Measures
for the Attenuation of High Flood Waves..............................................................107

Raisa Nastas, V. Rusu, T. Lupascu, Ludmila Staris, Maria Sandu,


Water Conditioning for Food Industry Uses......................................................115

Ilona Pajtók-Tari, János Mika, Zoltán Utasi,


Satellite Observations for Education of Climate Change ..................................122

C. (cas. Axinte) Doltu, D. A. (cas. Timofti) Donciu, Considerations


on the Surface Water Quality Condition in the Siret Hydrographic Basin ........131

Andreea Mihaela Domăşneanu, The Statistical Analysis


and the Quantitative Assessment of Annual Maximum Flows
Recorded in the Hydrographical Basin of Timiş River ......................................139

Adina-Eliza Croitoru, Florentina Mariana Toma,


Considerations on Streamflow Drought in Central Romanian Plain ................147

Gabriela Elena Dumitran, Liana Ioana Vută,


The Eutrophication Phenomenon in Goleşti Lake – Romania ...........................155

Ildiko Ioan, Carmen Valentina Rădulescu, Integrated Mechanisms


for Aproaching Priority Environmental Issues at Global Level ........................163

Mihaela Dumitran, Surface Water Quality in the River Prut ................................171

M. Retegan, M. Borcan, Estimating the Tendency and the Variability


of the Rainfall Amount in Ialomita River Basin
and Their Influence upon the Liquid Run-Off ....................................................178

N. Cianga, D. Costea, The Chlorosodium Mineral Waters in Cluj County,


Lasting Touristic Protection and Capitalization................................................185

Alina-Daciana Dumitra, The Negative Effects Associated to Hydrological


Phenomena of Risk in the Almaş-Agrij Depression and Cluj and Dej Hills.
Social and Economic Effects .............................................................................192

vi
Iulian Pricop, Florian Stătescu,
Risk Factors Influencing Soils Cultivation in Area Răducăneni, Iaşi................198

Vasile Rusu, Larisa Postolachi, Monitoring of Phosphorus Content


in “Water-Particulate Materials-Bottom Sediments System” for River Prut ....206

Ines Grigorescu, Carmen-Sofia Dragotă, Some Issues Related to Dryness


and Drought Phenomena in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area..........................214

A. Ungureanu, A. Unguraşu,
Aspects Concerning Nitrate and Nitrite Pollution of Groundwaters .................222

Maria-Elisabeta Lovász, Irina Dumitraşcu, Ovidiu Traian Popa,


Anca Elena Gurzău, Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides
in Drinking Waters Sampled from Cluj and Hunedoara Counties.....................230

Violeta Gjesovska, Hydrometeorolgical Analysis of Dojran lake.........................238

N. Maier, I. Haidu, Radar Climatology of Hail in the Apuseni Mountains...........247

Liana Ioana Vuţă, Gabriela Elena Dumitran, Some Aspects


Regarding Chlorine Decay in Water Distribution Networks ............................253

I. Minea, D. Butelcă, M. Niculiţă, The Evaluation


of the Hydrological Risks Associated with the Maximum Discharge
in The Upper Water Catchment of the River Bârlad..........................................260

Anca Elena Gurzau, Cristian Pop, Ovidiu Traian Popa, Irina Dumitrascu,
Identification and Risk Assessment of Central Water Supply Systems – Case Study268

Raisa Lozan, Anatol Tărîţă, Raisa Zacasovschi,


Deposition of Sulphur and Nitrogen via Rainwater
(Case Study – the Administrative Territory of the Hincești District) .................276

G. Minea, G. Ioana-Toroimac, L. Zaharia, R. Zarea, M. Borcan,


Spatial Variation of Stream Power in the Buzău
and Ialomiţa River Catchments (Romania)........................................................283

A. Mănescu, M. Luca,
Considerations on the Evolution of the Șomuzu Mare River
Water Quality in the Dolheşti Monitoring Section.............................................292

Carmen Valentina Rădulescu, Florina Bran, Cristina Popa,


Climate Change – between Costs and Benefits ..................................................299

vii
Alin Mihu-Pintilie, Gheorghe Romanescu,
Morphometric and Morphological Suitability of the Relief
from the Crucii Lake Basin (Stânişoarei Mountains) ........................................305

Horváth Cs., St. Buimaga-Iarinca, G. Roşian, Oana-Antonia Pop,


Flow Regimes Spatial Variability ......................................................................313

Reti Kinga-Olga, I. D. Manciula, Factors Influencing the Degree of Pollution


with Chromium of Târnava Mică River in Târnăveni City ................................320

Diana Braga, The Dynamic of Using the Rivers Energy


from Republic of Moldova Territory ..................................................................327

Cornel Blaga, Considerations on the Drought Phenomenon in Cluj County........333

Cristina Burada, Adriana Bacescu, Carmen Manescu,


Variability of the Precipitations Regime for the First Decade
of XXIst Century in Southwestern Romania ........................................................341

V. Nemes, C. Serac, A. Capony, W. Klok, Issues Regarding the Flood Impact


on the Herpetofauna Habitats from Riparian Areas from Barcău Basin...........349

Adina Sanda Șerban, Surface Water Pollution with Heavy Metals


in the Lower Catchment of Jiu River Basin,
According to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/ec)..............................357

Cornelia Diana Hertia, Anca Elena Gurzau, Maria Ilona Szasz,


Technological Process Assessment of the Drinking Water Treatment
at Târgu-Mureș Water Treatment Plant.............................................................365

Marcela-Corina Roşu, Ramona-Crina Suciu, Simina Dreve, T. D. Silipaş,


I. Bratu and E. Indrea, Nanostructured TiO2 Sensitized with Porphyrins
for Solar Water-Splitting....................................................................................373

C. E. (Telteu) Păsculescu, Consideration Regarding the Mean Runoff


of the Main Rivers from the South Dobrogea.....................................................379

Olivia Anca Rusu, Cristina Neagu, Irina Dumitrascu,


Iulia Neamtiu, Alexandru Zeic and Eugen Gurzau,
Assessment of Human Exposure to Toluene Diisocyanate.................................387

V. Paraschiv, The Wind Influence on the Forest Landscape


in the Upper Basin of Mureş River.....................................................................396

viii
Gavriletea Marius Dan, Petrescu Dacinia Crina,
The Climatic Changes Influence on Romanian Agriculture Sector ...................403

Irina Blaga, Risk Weather Phenomena in Cluj County in June 2010 ....................410

Natalia Urban, Study of The Synoptic Situation


That Favor the Freezing Rain in Northwestern Transylvania ...........................418

T. M. Cornea, M. Dima, D. Roca, Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources ..425

M. Alexe, Izabela Amalia Mihalca, The Importance


of Technical Infrastructure in Territory.
Case Study: Drinking Water Supply in Dângău Mare, Cluj County .....................434

I. C. Nicu, Gh. Romanescu, Determination of the Ground-Water Level


by Modern Non-Distructive Methods (GPR Technology) ..................................441

Cociorhan Camelia Simona, Micle Valer, Studies and Research


on Pollution of Environmental Factors in the Area SC Romplumb
Baia Mare from Anthropogenical Activity .........................................................449

Ion Marinică, Iulia Lup, Andreea Floriana Marinică,


Climatic Features of the Autumn 2010 in Oltenia .............................................456

G. Hognogi, G. Nicula, Gabriela Cocean, Flash floods in the Ilişua Basin ..........465

D. Timofti, C. Doltu, M. Trofin, Eutrophication Phenomena in Reservoirs ........473

V. Tiplea, S. Todică, Ioana Simea, T. Anghel, Ionela Georgiana Gavrilă,


Using GIS to Identify Potential Areas Susceptible to Flood.
Case Study: Soloneţ River ..................................................................................479

I. C. Stângă, Use of Logarithmic Function for Drought Severity Assessment.......487

Adriana Muntean, Mirela Coman, The Nitrogen Regime of the Sasar River,
in Baia Mare Section, the Period 2000-2010.....................................................495

Toma Florentina-Mariana, Barbu Ion, Issues Concerning


Occurrence of Floods on the Vedea River .........................................................502

Rodica Mereț, Considerations on the Mineral Waters


from County of Brașov, Spa and Recovery.........................................................510

M. Ştefan, G. Romanescu, Problems of Sea-Going navigation in Kerci Strait.....517

S. A. Alexandrescu, F. Tămășanu, Complex Use of Resources


in the Regional Water Supply Systems ...............................................................526

ix
A. Ungurașu, A. Ungureanu,
Aspects Regarding the Methods of Soil Aeration...............................................533

I. L. Melenti, E. Magyar, T. Rusu, Heavy Metal Analysis


in Waste Water Samples from Valea Șesei Tailing Pond...................................539

Anca Elena Gurzau, Cristian Pop, Ovidiu Traian Popa, Irina Dumitrascu,
Identification and Risk Assessment
of Central Water Supply Systems – Case Study .................................................545

E. Radu, M. Radescu, C. Radu, A. Pandele, M. Minciuna,


Geological and Hydrogeological Considerations on the Phreatic Aquifer
of the Tarnava Mica River Flood Plain and Terraces .......................................553

Roşca Sanda, The Flash Floods Analysis,


Representative for Niraj River between 1970-2008 ...........................................560

C. Nucuţă, C. Timiş, C. Buţiu, O. Scridonesi,


Assessment of Tornados with the Enhanced Fujita Scale in Romania...............568

O. Scridonesi, C. Buţiu, C. Nucuţă, S. Leahu,


Romanian Terminology in the Meteorology of Severe Weather –
Case Study of the Supercell from Arad Country on the 14th of June 2010 .........576

x
WORLD WATER DAY – 2011

Every year 22 March is an occasion to reflect on one of the most vital


elements of geographical crust: water. It is an opportunity to ask ourselves and
others numerous questions regarding the present and future quantitative and
qualitative status of water resources, from which depends fundamentally the
existence of every natural and anthropogenic component of the most complex
system of Earth.
The United Nations awards each year a motto to this day, which should
draw attention to various aspects that concerns water resources. The motto of this
year is Water for Cities and reflects the fundamental link between freshwater
resources and the most developed habitats of mankind.
Earth's freshwater resources are not inexhaustible. Because of regional
distribution of solar energy, the water resources together with all natural resources
present spatial differences. There are areas rich in water and regions where water is
insufficient. The demographic boom, the creation of large urban and industrial
concentrations has led to diminution of water resources in areas where there were
plenty before. And so, the water quantity insufficiency appeared. Society has taken
action, and by spatial-temporal redistribution of resources, this quantitative
deficiency was mostly resolved.
However almost instantly, because of the same factors the water resources
quality insufficiency appeared. Although there were sufficient quantities, the
resources are not suitable for use due to pollution. This second problem is very
difficult to resolve. Society by its very existence pollutes the components of the
natural environment. Urban concentrations, industrial and agricultural activities,
transport, etc. creates quasi-permanently pollution, sometimes very significantly.
Water treatment is therefore a continuous need; therefore, the insufficient quality
can not be solved through structural measures as the quantity problem.
Therefore water has become a general good of society, with a growing
economic importance and value. Prevention and decrease of the two problematic
aspects of water resources must be in constant attention of the contemporary
society. The presence of water determines the daily life of every member of
humanity. However the relationships between this fundamental resource and the
society, particularly urban society, are not often balanced. The period in which it
was considered normal for the resources to meet the requirements is now in the
past. If water can not be managed, in the future it will create significant

xi
imbalances, which will occur primarily in the drinking water of major cities. Future
generation will depend, among other things, on how Earth’s freshwater resources
are managed, protected, and exploited.
UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme addresses problems of
conflicts due to water in urban areas. Regarding the origin and nature of water
scarcity in an urban context they specified the following causing factors:
-quality/extension of drinking water services and their continuity
-quality/extension of waste-water collection treatment
-urban hydrology problems (storm water control)
-impact of large cities upon their environment in particular water resources
use and misuse
-financing of investments issue
-tariff setting and cost recovery
-degrees of freedom left to the urban dwellers vis-à-vis service provider
Water for cities focuses on the potential risks in urban water systems. The
problems arising from urbanization and industrialization are combined with the
effects of climate change whether natural or anthropogenic origin. The conflict
management is the task of governments and nongovernmental organizations, of the
directly involved cities, of each individual and also the wider international
community.
In this context the Physical and Technical Geography Department with
support from the Faculty of Geography and the Babes-Bolyai University, in
collaboration with other institutions from Cluj, organizes the annual conference
with international participation “Air and Water Components of the Environment”.
The first conference, the early first step, was held in 2009. The works of
many specialists, teachers, researchers and practitioners have been published in two
journals of the Faculty of Geography: “Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai” and
“Riscuri si catastrofe”. The successful first edition has urged us to persevere the
following year. There was an ample national and international participation. But
the most important achievement was the publication of a volume dedicated to this
scientific event, which has achieved international DOAJ indexing since then.
This year the conference has for the first time an international scientific
committee, in time the topics crystallized, covering a wide range of issues related
to quantitative and qualitative aspects of air and water resources.
Through this scientific event we wish to honor the World Water Day and
the World Meteorological Day, to represent a drop in the Earth’s “air and water
ocean” in the course toward environmental protection.

Gavril Pandi,
Professor, PhD

xii
WORLD METEOROLOGICAL DAY - 2011

As has been the case in previous years, this year the 23rd of March is
dedicated to the World Meteorological Day. This day is an occasion to
acknowledge and show appreciation to the work conducted by all those who, one
way or another, are in the service of this science in each of the 189 countries
affiliated with the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO). Again as usual, in
2011 the World Meteorological Day is celebrated under a generic title. This year, it
is Climate for you. This choice is intended to suggest that the WMO, through all
the activities it co-ordinates, has set as its fundamental goal serving humankind’s
central interests.
In his 2011 World Meteorological Day address, Dr. Michel Jarraud,
Secretary General of the WMO, makes special reference to some of the major
reunions organized by the WMO over the past 5 years, which have had as debate
points a number of aspects related to a more efficient involvement of Meteorology
and Climatology in the everyday lives of the inhabitants of our planet. Among
these events we may mention: the WMO Technical Conference on Climate as a
Resource (Beijing, November 2005); the WMO Conference on Living with
Climate Variability and Change: Understanding the uncertainties and managing the
risks (Espoo, Finland, July 2006); the WMO International Conference on Secure
and Sustainable Living: Social and Economic Benefits of Weather, Climate and
Water Services (Madrid, March 2007). In the same address, the WMO Secretary
General draws attention to the fact that in 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC), a structure closely connected with the WMO and the
United Nations, was awarded the prestigious Nobel Peace Prize, in recognition of
having drafted and published the 4th report on the current state of world climate,
entitled Climate Change 2007.
The beginning of 2011 has brought about the publishing of the first data
related to the evolution of air temperature on a global scale in the year 2010. The
sources for the data are: UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre/Climatic
Research Unit (HadCRU), the U.S. National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), and
the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). According to
the findings available so far, 2010 can be considered the warmest year since the
first systematic instrument-based observations were conducted (1850). In fact, the
values of the annual global mean temperatures in 2011, 2005 and 1998 are very
close to one another, the differences between them being almost irrelevant

xiii
(±0.09°C). In concrete terms, the mean temperature in 2011 was 0.53°C higher
than the mean annual temperature of the reference period 1961-1990, which is
14.0°C. If we take into account the whole decade 2001-2010, then the mean annual
temperature calculated for this period was 0.46°C higher than the mean annual
temperature of the above-mentioned reference period. Consequent on this, the first
decade of the 21st century became the warmest period of 10 consecutive years since
the first ever systematic instrument-based meteorological observations.
2010 was an exceptionally warm year over much of Africa and southern
and western Asia, and in Greenland and Arctic Canada, with many sub-regions
registering temperatures 1.2 to 1.4°C above the long-term average. In December
2010, the Arctic sea-ice extended over 12 million square kilometres, that is, 1.35
million square kilometres less than the December average during the 1979-2000
period. Nevertheless, in 2010 warming was not the case everywhere, the cooler
regions including the north of Europe and central and eastern Australia.
Against the general background of warming, 2010 was characterised by
numerous risk-posing meteorological and hydrological phenomena. Among them
we can mention, for instance, the torrential rains and the subsequent catastrophic
floods in Sri Lanka (January 2010), those affecting the Rio de Janeiro area
(December 2010) and eastern Australia (again, in December 2010). Also, we can
mention the hottest recorded summer in Russian history and the wildfires that
broke out across Russia in late July-early September 2010. Such events were not
foreign to Romania either, and we may mention in this sense the extremely high
amount of precipitations recorded in the summer of 2010, especially in June, or the
uncommon glazed frost formed on the 1 December 2010. The first two decades of
November 2010 partially compensated for the above, as the weather remained good
and unusually warm for that period of the year, exhibiting daily maximum values
that exceeded 25°C in the southern and south-eastern parts of the country.
In the future, the main mission of the WMO remains that of predicting,
with utmost possible precision, the likelihood of risk-posing meteorological and
climatic phenomena, as well as of contributing, as much as possible, to the
diminution of their negative effects, with special attention devoted to the problem
of Global Warming. In addition, a most efficient management of the climatic
resources of different regions of the world remains an essential task of the
specialised departments in all WMO member states. All of these problems will
represent central issues during the 16th World Meteorological Congress, to be held
between 16 May and 3 June 2010 in Geneva.

Florin Moldovan,
Associate Professor, PhD

xiv
GLOBAL AND REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE:
NEW EVIDENCES BETWEEN TWO IPCC REPORTS

JÁNOS MIKA1

ABSTRACT. – Even the economical crisis was not strong enough to deflect the
anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing for more than one year. It tends to develop
at the upper edge of the IPCC (2007) projection band of uncertainties. The part of
the emitted carbon dioxide remaining in the atmosphere is increasing due to
weakening of both the biospheric- and the oceanic sinks of this greenhouse-gas.
The new radiation balance estimations must admit the imbalance between the
atmosphere and the oceans indicating the fact that the greenhouse warming
definitely takes place. The year 2010 became most likely the warmest one on the
global temperature record. The sea-level rise also follows the most rapid track
among the foreseen scenarios. In the meantime modelling effort to better estimate
regional features of the changes also develop in their full strength. The
ENSEMBLES Project ended in December 2009 and published a lot of maps with
25 km model resolution. These results, however, do not show convergence in the
estimations for many regions, including Central Europe, either.

Keywords: carbon-dioxide, radiation balance, sea-level, regional climate models

1. INTRODUCTION

Climate of our Planet has never been constant, but the recent changes are
by two orders of magnitude faster than the natural changes since the appearance of
anthropogenic effects. The discernable global warming started in the 19th century
and after speeding up in the 20th century, it has reached about. 0.8 K. This fact and
the realization of the likely reasons for the changes, plus rapid development of
computer technology have resulted in systematic investigations of climate science.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) finalised its
Fourth Assessment Report in 2007. The present paper surveys some recent
moments of global and regional climate change issued after the Report.

2. CHANGES IN THE GREENHOUSE GAS CONCENTRATIONS

The worldwide economical crisis led to -1.3% decrease in 2009’s annual


fossil-fuel CO2-emission (Fig. 1.) comparing to 2008. One should note, however,
that this 8.4±0.5 PgC emission is still larger by 37 % than that in 1990, considered
as a reference in various mitigation policy calculations. The annual increase was as

1
Department of Geography, Eszterházy Károly College, Eger, Hungary & Hungarian Meteorological
Service, Budapest, Hungary. E-mail: mika.j@met.hu

1
large as +3.2% in the 2000-2008 period and for 2010 a >3% increase had recently
been projected. (Global Carbon Project, 2010).
The pace of the CO2-emission indicated in Fig. 1 was steeper than any
IPCC (2007) scenario, originated from the study by Nakicenovic and Swart (2000)!
1.0
1
CO2 emissions (PgC y-1)

Trend: 0.31 % y-1


0.8 (p=~0.9)

Airborne Fraction
8 45%
40%
Fossil fuel 0.6
6
0.4
4
Land use change 0.2
2

1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

Fig. 1. Trends in the fossil fuel vs. land-use forms of anthropogenic CO2–emission
1960-2009 (left - Global Carbon Project, 2010) and the fraction of the emission
remaining in the atmosphere (right - Global Carbon Project, 2010)

Natural land and ocean CO2 sinks removed 57% of all CO2 emitted from
human activities during the 1958-2009, each sink in roughly equal proportion.
However, there is the possibility, however, that the efficiency of the natural
sinks is declining. According to complex model calculations, the experienced
decrease in both the biological and oceanic sources in the recent decades broadly
explains this increase. If we can believe in the graph presented by the right panel of
Fig. 1., than a dramatic increase of the airborne fraction is going on with a 5 %
increase, from 40 % to 45 % of CO2 remaining in the atmosphere.
Both the steeper than expected increase of the emission and the increased
fraction of the emitted CO2 point at the possibility, that the present, post-IPCC
(2007) estimate of the main greenhouse gas forcing is even more rapid than it was
assumed by the Report in 2007! This increasing forcing is already seen in the
global radiation balance, as presented in the next Section, below.

3. CHANGES IN THE RADIATION BALANCE

The state of climate system largely depends on the radiation process, and
human activity can primarily modify the radiation processes, too. Hence it was
inevitable to know the actual radiation balance of the Planet with high accuracy.
Recently, Trenberth et al. (2009) re-considered (Fig. 2) the earlier radiation
balance estimations (Kiehl and Trenberth, 1997). The earlier study was based on
observations from 1985-1989, while the recent estimates covered the March 2000 –
May 2004 period. In some cases the difference between the two estimates is ca. 10
Wm-2, or over 20 % in relative terms. Majority of the changes are likely caused by
uncertainties of the estimation, not by the climate change during this short period.

2
Climate change is seen not from these differences but from the 0.9 Wm-2
unbalance between the atmosphere and the underlying surface, i.e. mainly the
oceans. This heat is removed from the atmosphere and leads to slower warming at
the surface. On the other hand, this heat would be given back to the atmosphere
after stabilisation of the atmospheric composition at a certain time, afterwards.

Fig. 2. The global annual mean Earth’s energy budget for the Mar 2000 to May 2004
period (Wm–2). The broad arrows indicate the schematic flow of energy in proportion
to their importance. Source: Trenberth et al (2009) Remark: The Fig. indicates global
averages, independently from the type of the surface in the illustration.

It might be interesting to compare these figures of the energy balance with


those changes summarised by the IPCC (2007: Fig. 2.20). The increase of
greenhouse effect modified the balance by 2.3 Wm-2 since the beginning of
Industrial Revolution. The value is only 1% of the captured Sun originated energy
but 1/5 of the changes happened in the last decade. (The energy balance remains
zero at the top of the atmosphere, but it needs higher temperature near the surface!)
Among the important anthropogenic forcing factors, the greenhouse effect
influences the backward atmospheric long-wave radiation to the surface. (Its
present value is 333 Wm-2, see above in Fig. 2.) The aerosol content modifies
mainly the reflected short wave radiation (79 Wm-2) and, to a smaller extent, the
atmospheric long wave emission (239 Wm-2).
The land use determines mainly the surface-reflected short-wave radiation
and the sensible and latent heat exchange between the surface and the atmosphere.
Among the natural forcing factors, decadal oscillations of solar activity directly
modulate the incoming short wave solar radiation (341 Wm-2), while the few big
volcanic eruptions increase the reflected shortwave radiation 1-3 years.

3
The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide has grown from about
280 ppm before the Industrial Revolution to 385 ppm in 2008 (Copenhagen
Diagnosis, 2009). The methane concentration has grown from 0.715 to 1.774 ppm
in 2005. Both values are much higher than any time in the last 650 000 years! The
atmospheric mass of nitrous oxide has reached 0.319 ppm in 2005 from 0.270.
The components of atmospheric aerosols have modified the atmospheric
radiation balance in the opposite direction. The direct effect of aerosols, mainly the
backscattering of solar radiation is about -0.5 Wm-2. Their indirect effect, through
changes in cloud composition, is another -0.7 Wm-2 since the industrial revolution.
Further small effects, e.g. changes in land use, and increasing carbon
content of snow leading to smaller reflectivity cause -0.1 − -0.2 Wm-2 in the
radiation balance of the Planet. The Report also states that the influence of solar
activity oscillations is +0.12 Wm-2 since 1750. This value is the half of the previous
estimation (IPCC, 2001).

4. CHANGES OF GLOBAL TEMPERATURE AND SEA LEVEL

The global mean temperature is generally derived in comparison with its


1961-1990 average. This solution is explained by the fact that it is not easy to
define the absolute value of the present, or any time’s global mean temperature.
This is explained by the sparse distribution of the observing stations. Fig. 3
indicates long term tendencies of the global mean temperature between 1881 and
2010. As it is seen in Fig. 3, global mean temperature is gradually increasing since
ca. 1960. The year 2010 is one of the warmest ones in tough competition with 1998
and 2005. The warmest decade on the record is the last ten years, for sure.

Fig. 3. Global mean temperature as reconstructed by four international data centres:


NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, NOAA National Climate Data Centre,
Meteorological Office Hadley Centre/Climate Research Unit and the Japanese
Meteorological Agency. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory/Robert Simmon.

4
Another indicator of the thermal processes is the sea level, driven mainly
by the thermal expansion and the water balance with the continental ice. Sea ice
melting does not influence the sea level, in correspondence with the Archimedes’
principle on the floating objects.
Fig. 4 is an evidence of warming showing the sea level rise, combining the
tide gauges and microwave satellite observations. They measure the sea level
heights between 66°N and 66°S in ten-day averages since 1993. Accuracy of the
individual ten-day mean sea-level anomalies, of satellite microwave measurement,
is ±5 mm. According to the processing of the measurements, the rise of sea level is
3.1±0.7 mm per year which mainly happens in the Southern Hemisphere.

Fig. 4. Sea level change during 1970-2010. The tide gauge data are indicated in red
(Church and White 2006) and satellite data in blue (Cazenave et al. 2009). The grey band
shows the projections of the IPCC Report (2007). The graphs show the difference
from the 1993-2001 period’s average in mm unit. The satellite data till 2002 are based
on TOPEX/Poseidon, later on Jason satellites. (Copenhagen Diagnosis, 2009: Fig. 16)

Hence, the temperature increase has already been detected in the upper 3
km layer of the oceans. The reason is that 80% of the radiation balance surplus is
absorbed by the oceans. (This is the 0.9 Wm-2 deviation of the total balance in Fig.
2) This warming together with the thawing of land ice has already caused 17 cm
elevation of sea level (IPCC, 2007).
According to the Copenhagen Diagnosis (2009), the contribution of
glaciers and ice-caps to global sea-level has increased from 0.8 mm/year year in the
1990s to be 1.2 mm/year today. The adjustment of glaciers and ice caps to present
climate alone is expected to raise sea level by ~18 cm, (i.e. by 1 cm more after
three years from 2005, than the IPCC AR4 estimation).
The area of the Greenland ice sheet, experiencing summer melt, has
already been increasing by 30% since 1979, parallel to the increasing air
temperatures. The net ice loss from Greenland accelerated since the mid-1990s and
is now contributing as much as 0.7 mm/year to sea level rise due to both increased
melting and accelerated ice flow.

5
5. RESULTS OF REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELLING

Nowadays the regional features of climate change are mainly based on


finer resolution models imbedded into the mainframe GCMs, providing the
boundary conditions for the partial derivatives of the fine-mash computations.
However, diversity of these results sometimes even in signs, e.g. for precipitation is
several seasons (Christensen et al., 2007; van der Linden, P. and J.F.B. Mitchell,
2009, see on the next page, as well) is a challenge to solve before finally neglecting
the other sources of information applied in the impact and adaptation studies.
One reason of the diversity of regional model results may be the difference
between boundary conditions taken from the mainframe models. This problem is
presented by Fig. 11.6 of the IPCC (2007) Report, where two different mainframe
models led to different responses in the same regional model, even in the sign of
precipitation change in many sectors of Europe.
Table 2 indicate how the ENSEMBLES Project wanted to limit the effects
of the boundary conditions and the variety of the results among the regional
models. But, since far not all combinations of GCM + RCM can be performed for
several (not only practical) reasons, one can calculate that the average number with
which a regional model is combined is only 1.7!

Table 1. ENSEMBLES regional climate model experiments with 25 km horizontal


resolution. The lines indicate the 15 regional models and the columns represent
the 8 global mainframe GCMs, applied in the Project. These 25 combinations
from the 120 ideally possible combinations mean a rather low proportion.

The results differ fairly much even among the regional models (Fig. 5). This
indicates the “large ensemble” where the regional models and the parameterizations
were varied. For temperature this uncertainty involves just the measure of warming
between tolerable to dangerous degrees in many regions of Europe. For precipitation,
however, even the sign of the change is questionable comparing the two deciles.

6
Fig. 5. The 10 % and 90 % deciles of the distribution derived from the forecasts for 2080-
2099 comparing to 1961-1990, summarized in Table 1 and further diversified by a set of
different parameterizations (“large ensembles” see: van der Linden, P. and J.F.B.
Mitchell, 2009) . The first columns always show the temperature changes (K), the second
columns indicate the precipitation changes (%). The upper two pairs of figures indicate the
changes in winter (DJF) whereas the third and fourth pairs correspond to the summer
changes (JJA).

7
6. CONCLUSION

Two main conclusions can be compiled from the presented recent results:
(i.) Both the anthropogenic global radiation forcing and its temperature and
sea-level consequences have been developing according to the IPCC (2007)
assumptions or even worse after 2005. Hence its mitigation remains one of the
most important long-term challenges of our era.
(ii.) On the other hand, even the fast development of the coupled global
and regional models could not really decrease the quantitative uncertainty. Hence,
no single GCM output can be applied for adaptation-related consequences, and the
embedded regional climate models aimed to overcome the insufficiency of the
GCM-resolution are strongly influenced by the boundary conditions.

REFERENCES

1. Cazenave A, Dominh K, Guinehut S, Berthier E, Llovel W, et al., 2009. Sea level


budget over 2003-2008: A re-evaluation from GRACE space gravimetry, satellite
altimetry and Argo. Global Planetary Change 65:83-88
2. Christensen, J.H., Carter T.R., Rummukainen, M., Amanatidis, G., 2007. Predicting
of regional scenarios and uncertainties for defining European climate change risks
and effects: The PRUDENCE Project. Climatic Change 81: Suppl., 1-371.
3. Church J.A., White N.J., 2006. A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level
rise. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33:L01602, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024826
4. The Copenhagen Diagnosis (2009): Updating the World on the Latest Climate Science.
(I. Allison, and 25 co-authors) The University of New South Wales, Climate Change
Research Centre, Sydney, Australia. 60pp.
5. Global Carbon Project (2010): Carbon budget and trends 2009. (K. Assmann + 36
co-authors) [www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget].
6. IPCC (2001): Climate Change (2001): The Scientific Basis. Contribution of
Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental panel
on Climate Change (Houghton J.T., et al., eds.), Cambridge Univ. Press,
Cambridge UK. & New York, N.Y. USA, 881 p. http//:www.ipcc.ch
7. IPCC (2007): Climate Change (2007): The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of
Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change, 2007 (Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B.
Averyt, M. Tignor, H.L. Miller, eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge & N.Y.
8. Kiehl J. T., Trenberth K. E., 1997. Earth's Annual Global Mean Energy Budget.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 78:2, 197-208
9. Nakicenovic, N. and Swart, R. (eds.), 2000: Emissions Scenarios: A Special
Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Cambridge Univ. Press, 612 pp.
10. Trenberth K.E., J. T. Fasullo J. K.,2009. Earth's Global Energy Budget. Bulletin
of the American Meteorological Society 90:3, 311-323
11. Van der Linden, P. and J.F.B. Mitchell eds., 2009: ENSEMBLES: Climate
Change and its Impacts: Summary of research and results from the ENSEMBLES
project. Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB, UK. 160 pp.

8
EFFECTIVE FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT
IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: A STRATEGIC IMPERATIV

L. CĂPĂŢÎNĂ1

ABSTRACT. – Effective flood risk management in Republic of Moldova: a


strategic imperativ. The current status regarding flood risk management in the
Republic of Moldova allows to highlight the inefficacy of existent plans. As a result, it
is necessary to develop a medium and long-term strategy, for a more efficient
management of flood risks that are continuously increasing (2008, 2010). Realizing
Flood Risk and Hazard maps would contribute to the establishment of a quick and
effective Decision Support Spatial System. The scenarios used in flood mapping in EU
member states, the standards linked with flood risk management from EU Flood
Directive (2007), could serve as an example for the Republic of Moldova in order to
reduce the floods impact on the health of people, on the economic activities and on the
environment, as well.

Keywords: flood risk management, EU Flood Directive, flood risk map, hazard map,
risk mitigation.

1. INTRODUCTION

Lately, in the Republic of Moldova the frequency of natural disasters has


increased, especially floods. The European Commission presented in April 2009 a
policy paper known as a White Paper. The main goal of this is to reduce the
European Union's vulnerability to the impacts of climate change through making
measures and policies suitable for it. [1] To this end, the Central and Local
Authorities from Republic of Moldova have to take into account the influence of
climate change in implementation of the decisions on flood risk control.
Flood risk is a combination between the probability and the consequences
of the floods, but flood risk management aimes to propose plans that, by
implementing the proposed measures, would minimize flood risks.[1,2]
In the last two years (2008-2010) the majority of the territory of the
Republic of Moldova was exposed to flood risk, but the most affected areas were
the Nistru and Prut’s floodplain zone. So, the localities that are placed in rivers'
floodplains were the most vulnerable. And, as was expected, the Local Public
Authorities did not have ready a plan for flood management, even though in 2008
they have been confronted with such events. In conclusion, „the lessons were not
learned by them”.

1
Tiraspol State University, Faculty of Geography, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, e-mail:
capatina.lucia@gmail.com

9
2. FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

Floods from June-August 2010 in the Republic of Moldova requires the


empowered institutions/persons to pay more attention to this subject considering
that the floods are affecting not only the economy of the country, but have a direct
impact on the population and environment. The floods from the summer of 2010
caused losses of more than 75 mln. USD, and two human lives. The importance of
mitigating disasters risks in Moldova is major, especially since the forecasts give
evidence of probability of extreme temperatures and heavy rainfall as a result of
climate change.
According to the facts, in Republic of Moldova due to the inefficacy of the
„existing” flood risk management, the measures are taken either during the event or
after-event. The measures that exist in the management plan can not be applied in
practice.
Up to the present day, the Legislation of the Republic of Moldova does not
contain plans of flood risk management that were approved by Government,
exception being the Government Decision nr. 1030/2000 regarding approving The
protection scheme of localities from Republic of Moldova against floods. [3] The
protection scheme is to be implemented in 5 steps of 5 years each step, beginning
with 2000. At the moment, we should already have a complex report on the first 2
steps, but instead of this our country is having more serious problembs than 10
years ago. If the main goal of The Scheme was to protect localities against floods
through technical – engineering measures (purifying river bed and developing
water discharges network, reconstruction of existing protection breakwater and
bridges, in order to increase the security of lands and localities before the dikes,
also constructing the new ones), the failure of implementing these has caused in
thes last years the surface of zones vulnerable towards flood risk to extend.
A well-argumented management plan with real possibilities of
implementing in practice is not the only problem in the Republic of Moldova. The
other problems are: the lack of a building code, low standards in building,
inappropriate planning of the terrain usage, illegal building of houses in vulnerable
areas, outdated system of flood control (over 3500 breakwaters and dams require
urgent repair in order to cope with such crises situations as from 2010), insufficient
works with a protection role against floods, the necessity of establishing a flood
monitoring system at the national and sub-regional level up to international
standards. At same the time, there is a lack of collaboration between the designing
institution „Acvaproiect”, „Urbanproiect”, „Ruralproiect” and the Institute for
Design of Auto Road in order to develop some general complex plans of building
construction, taking into account protected measures against floods.
Thus, emergency situations can happen not only as result of natural
overflow, but also as a result of accidents from the rivers' hydrotechnical
construction. The management of these emergency situations generated by floods
is more than a necessity considering the producing frequency and the dimension of
those effects (over 75 mln USD - 2010).

10
United Nations (UN), during the International Day for Disaster Mitigation
(October 13, 2010), organized, in partnership with Central and Local Authorities in
Hînceşti city, a workshop called „Disaster risks. Learned lessons after floods”
topic. During the session was presented a practical guide regarding management of
emergency situations in case of floods, „Mayor's handbook for emergency
situations management in case of floods” which is used by the chairmen (mayors)
of the local committee for emergency situation from Romania. In the next period, it
is going to be analyzed by the Central Authorities from Republic of Moldova, after
that geared and reassigned at each district from the country, especially to those that
are placed in flood risk area. The proposed measures in the guide need to be
analyzed and completed with others for a quick response in case of emergency
situations.
At the same time, at the national level all efforts are made to realize a
project proposal regarding flood risk management for medium and long term based
on the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), EU Flood Directive
(2007/60/EC), and National Strategy of Flood Risk Management for medium and
long term from Romania.
Taking into account that in the Republic of Moldova the main hidrographic
basins (Prut and Nistru) are transboundary basins, it’s necessary a collaboration
between neighbour countries. In June 2010 Romanian Government and Republic of
Moldova Government signed an Agreement regarding cooperation for protection
and sustainable Prut and Danube water usage. [4]

3. FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN ACCORDING TO EU


FLOODS DIRECTIVE

Flood risk management aims at mitigating the impact of such extreme


events as floods.
A final document, within the EU, was enforced in November 2007 - EU
Flood Directive 2007/60/EC – with the main goal being evaluating and managing
flood risk. At first, the Directive was proposed to the European Commission to be
examined in January 18, 2006, after that it was published in the Official Journal in
November 6th 2007. The Paper was written officially in two languages, English and
French and it consists of 8 Chapters and 19 Articles. However, at the foundation of
the Directive were others documents which were implemented within the EU
member states. [2]
The main document was EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC from
October 23, 2000, published in Official Journal and enforced in December 22,
2000. Among other documents were Council Decision 2001/792/EC, Euratom
from October 23, 2001; Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA) from
June 27, 1985, which was modified 3 times until now: in 1997, 2003, 2009; The
Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive (SEA) from June 27, 2001, etc.
EU Flood Directive regarding floods, has as its main goal minimizing and
controling flood risks that affect population's health, environment, cultural heritage

11
and economic activities. Floods increasing in Europe during 1998 - 2004 (more than
100 major floods), determined EU Authorities to implement the Directive in this
field. Even though the floods are a natural phenomena, through an exact action plan
it will be possible to mitigate both the number of losses of human life and economic
damage. This type of hazard can affect the environment as well, for example in case
of flooding of a storage with toxic substances. This way, the Directive includes some
steps and stages which, once taken, will minimize flood risk. [1,2]
EU member states have to assess preliminary the areas which are exposed
to flood risk both inside the country as well as nearby. The assessment has to be
realized at the end of 2011 so far.
For areas which are exposed to flood risk it is needed to be realized flood
risk and flood hazard maps, identifing areas with high and medium risk. If in the
potentially affected areas there are some localities, enterprises or other potential
risk for the environment, it is necessary that all these elements be pointed on the
map. The deadline of this stage is 2013, included.
Until 2015 it has to be reliazed the plan of flood risk management for each
area. The plan will include a complet cycle of the flood risk management, but
focussed on risk prevention (preventing damage caused by floods), protection
(proposing of measures that will mitigate the impact), preparedness (training the
population from areas that are exposed to flood risk, especially focussed on their
behaviour in case of floods).
However the plan of flood risk management has to revised once every 6
years, the possible changes or modifications will be coordinated with the
responsibles from EU Water Framework Directive.
Precision of management plan depends directly on precision of flood map-
ping process. Thus, in the Directive there are 2 Chapters which describe the steps of
flood hazard and flood risk maps achievement. Also, it will depend on the standards
which are differnt from one area to other. At once, there are presented more than one
mapping scenarious and each country can adapt them on the local conditions.
According to the Directive, the key-elements for an effective flood risk
management are damage preventing by avoiding building houses and other
buildings in flooded areas; taking practical measures for affected areas by floods in
order to mitigate their impact; informing the population about the being flood risk
and the main measures which can be taken in case of flood; developing the plans of
emergency response in case of floods, after that, the final stage is recovering which
has to be faster in order to mitigate the social and economic impact of floods on the
affected population.

4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Regarding the assessment realized by the international experts the main
way of resisting along with one’s community to disaster, it would be getting the
building, planning and land use principles, assessment of public institution safety,
keeping and developing infrastructure that mitigate the risk as well.

12
Another solution for protection against such risks it can be property
insurance in case of floods, practices that used in USA, EU member state. For
example, in Romania there is the Law 260/2008 ragarding mandatory insurance of
houses against earthquakes, landslides and floods. [5]
An important aspect in realizing an effective flood risk management
belongs with collaboration between Central and Local Public Authorities. This
kind of partnership will contribute on best results in the process of both the
abolishment of floods consequences and risk management.
Flood risk management implementation in the Republic of Moldova is
necessary because it implies the existence of strategies, measures, effective plans in
case of floods. It can be mentioned that the flood risk management isn’t based only
on statistical data and theoretical information, but it based on flood hazard and
flood risk maps created on existing standards. This fact is admitting to make
decisions based on fact materials. Even the EU Flood Directive is in
implementation process, the actuality of the analyzed topic and necessities in this
field it will bring that this Paper to be the basic documnet in flood risk
management.
In parallel with working process on the strategy, it is necessary to start an
investment program regarding infrastructure, created with the goal of flood
protecting and its management.
At last, but not the least for an integrated flood risk management it
would be necessary a complex GIS which represented an effective Decision
Support in risk situation management in case of floods.

REFERENCES

1. Freissinet (SOGREAH) Catherine, (2009), The EU Flood Directive, ASEM


WaterNet, WP3 “Flood” July. www.asemwaternet.org/FILESERVER/asem-WP3-
CFt-090708.pdf
2. Mostert E. and Junier S. J., (2009), The European flood risk directive: challenges
for research, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 6, 4961–4988 p. www.hydrol-
earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/6/.../hessd-6-4961-2009.pdf
3. ***(2000) Hotărârea de Guvern privind aprobarea Schemei de protecţie a
localităţilor din Republica Moldova împotriva inundaţiilor, H.G. nr. 1030/2000
din 13.10.2000, Monitorul Oficial (Republica Moldova) nr. 133-136 din 26
octombrie 2000.
4. ***(2010) Acordul între Guvernul României şi Guvernul Republicii Moldova
privind cooperarea pentru protecţia şi utilizarea durabilă a apelor Prutului şi
Dunării, Acordul din 28.07.2010 conform H.G. nr. 1092/2010 din 3.11.2010,
Monitorul Oficial (România) nr. 756 din 12 noiembrie 2010.
5. ***(2010) Legea 248/2010 pentru modificarea şi completarea Legii nr. 260/2008
privind asigurarea obligatorie a locuinţelor împotriva cutremurelor, alunecărilor
de teren sau inundaţiilor, Monitorul Oficial (România), Partea I nr. 844 din 16
decembrie 2010.

13
INTEGRATIVE NEGOTIATION FOR SUSTAINABLE WATER
MANAGEMENT

D. C. PETRESCU1, D. M. GAVRILETEA2, I. V. PETRESCU-MAG3

ABSTRACT. Integrative Negotiation for Sustainable Water Management.


Sustainable water management relies on efficient negotiation among stakeholders. The
importance of the water on all the aspect of the lives and activities of people – private,
economic, social etc – and the complexity of the problems related to it require carefully
planned negotiated agreements over water. Imposed solutions may determine people
not to comply and to make the water resources overused, polluted and degraded.
Instead, negotiated decisions among the stakeholders with interests in water issues
strengthen the quality of the agreements, of the commitment on complying with them
and of the practical implementation. The paper focuses on the relationship between the
skills to design, facilitate and participate in multi-stakeholder negotiations, to conduct
them according to a win-win strategy and the objective of reaching fair, effective and
sustainable solutions and thus improving water management.

Keywords: integrative negotiation, sustainable water management, conflict, interests,


win-win solutions.

1. INTRODUCTION

The watersheds of the world’s 261 transboundary rivers cover almost half of
the land surface of the Earth (Wolf et al. 1999, apud Wolf, 2000). Clean freshwater is
a resource for which there is no substitute, which becomes scarcer every day, while
the demand for it increases rapidly, which is protected and managed through a poorly
developed international legal frame compared to the needs. Under these
circumstances, there is no wonder that the water is one of the most feared and
powerful conflict sources in the world, which draws more and more attention and
requires increasing efforts to be prevented and settled. Sustainable Water
Management is a wise way to diminish and avoid the water conflicts.
Sustainable Water Management means, briefly, to manage the water
resources while taking into account the needs of present and future users.
Sustainability in water management requires sound knowledge from various fields:
geography, biology, engineering and may others. Only the integration of all the
necessary competences into a common effort can lead to the sustainable results
expected. Such multidisciplinary approach includes negotiation skills, too. While the

1
Universitatea „Babeş-Bolyai”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Facultatea de Business, e-mail:
crina.petrescu@tbs.ubbcluj.ro
2
Universitatea „Babeş-Bolyai”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Facultatea de Business.
3
Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara „Ion Ionescu de la Brad”, Iasi, Romania,
Facultatea de Zootehnie.

14
legitimacy of the natural or engineering sciences is never contested, the necessity of
the expertise from other fields, like negotiations, is, sometimes, less obvious.
Throughout this paper we will try to highlight the necessity and importance of a
professional negotiation, with a win-win approach for reaching the results demanded
by a sustainable water management.
Negotiation is omnipresent; it is not exclusively related to business, or
assigned only to business-men, but it exists in any field of our life: cultural, political,
environmental, personal etc. A negotiation is an interactive communication process
that may take place whenever we want something from someone else or another
person wants something from us; during a negotiation, some interests are shared and
some are opposed.
“Negotiations proceed through a form of prudently cooperative communi-
cation. And negotiations commonly follow a recognizable four-step path: preparation,
information exchange, explicit bargaining, and commitment… (The negotiators)
gather in their conference rooms and run through their carefully scripted
openings... They discuss the issues, then usually ask for more and offer less than
they expect to settle for in the end… From here, people get down to the business of
making concessions and establishing commitments. Negotiation is, in short, a kind
of universal dance with four stages or steps. And it works best when both parties
are experienced dancers.” (Shell, 2005, p. 6-7)
Negotiation is not a battle and is not a competition for scoring points, but it
is the most powerful alternative dispute resolution, which enables people with
competing interests to engage in dialogue that leads to mutually beneficial outcomes.
Negotiation is not just arguing, is not manipulation, but it explores mutual interests.
Negotiating does not require aggressiveness, but assertiveness. Negotiation is not a
quick fix, but it requires time and effort (Wachtel, D., 2011).

2. INTEGRATIVE NEGOCIATION FOR SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS

The way a negotiation is conducted depends on the strategy used. There are
two main strategies for negotiation: distributive and integrative. The distributive one
usually takes the form of a win-lose negotiation. This is a zero-sum game, where the
gain of one part means the loss of the other, where the “fixed pie” mentality
dominates the negotiation. The win-lose negotiators determine what they want, raise
that 10 or 15 percent, and then engage is a series of compromises to obtain to a result.
The effort is on the position they take, and getting as much of that position for
themselves as possible. Their mission is not to get a satisfactory deal for both parties.
It is only to win for themselves. The distributive strategy will not support long-terms
relationships and does not create sustainable solutions, so, with almost no exception,
it will not be suitable for a water negotiation.
A totally different approach has the integrative negotiation, which is mostly
found under the form of win-win negotiation. A win-win strategy supposes that both
parts win and the gain of one doesn’t translate into a loss for the partner. In other
words, the participants try to “expand the pie”, to explore each part’s interests and to

15
find creative solution to fulfil them. The win-win negotiators are committed to
meeting their needs, acknowledge that the other party has needs that must be met too
and invest their efforts in finding the best solution for both parties. They believe such
innovative solution (and negotiation strategy) will bring more value to them than any
other.

3. STRUCTURED APPROACH FOR AN EFFECTIVE NEGOTIATION

Like in any other activities, a sound preparation, a clear vision of the process
and a deep understanding of the interests in stake are sine qua non conditions for an
effective negotiation.
Negotiation is not a simple haggling, a mere exchange of demands and
concessions, but includes other activities – before, during and after this exchange.
We can observe three main stages of the negotiation: pre-negotiation, negotiation
itself and post-negotiation, each having various sub-stages.
Pre-negotiation is the stage when the negotiators collect as much
information as possible about the partner, the context of negotiation etc. Among
others (like the best alternative to negotiation, the sources of power etc), there are
two elements that must be always assessed in relation with a negotiation: the stake
(along with the potential of conflict) and the importance of the future relationship
with the negotiation partner (Shell, 2005, p. 172). The stake represents the
importance of the subject which will be negotiated (Petrescu, 2007, p.171). When we
evaluate these two factors on a scale from low to high and compare them to each
other, we obtain four situations, which can be represented on a situational matrix
(Fig. 1; Shell, 2005, p. 172-180):
High

Perceived I.
stake
II. Balanced
Tranzacions concerns

III. Tacit IV.


coordination Relationships
Low High
Percived importance of future
relationship between sides
Fig. 1. Situational matrix
Source: after G. R. Shell, 2005, p. 172

Negotiations focused on water issues are usually located in the “Balanced


concerns” area because both the stake and the relationships are highly important for
achieving a sustainable agreement. This is the most complex and challenging
situation of all four. The win-win strategy is the only adequate one. Here, we must
have a balance between getting favourable prices, terms, imposing bearable
obligations for each part etc and maintaining a trusting relationship. This is

16
important because sustainability is the final goal and, by its nature, this implies
cooperation, which, at its turn, is possible only through good relationships. In most
cases the water issues are very sensitive, they have a high conflict potential. Good
relationships and the concern for maintaining a balanced coverage of all parts’
interests represent the prerequisites for neutralizing the conflicts and preventing
them from damaging the agreement (either future or already closed).
The negotiation itself is the stage when the sides meet to exchange
information, to bargain, to put into practice the strategy, the tactics. Post-
negotiation comprises all the activities following the signing of the agreement and
which are related to it: implementing the agreement, complying with the provisions
of the agreement, writing press releases, analysing the negotiation process,
consolidating the relationship. In water negotiation, the post-negotiation must
never be left aside because it is the time when all the efforts made so far come into
life. The implementation of the agreements is sometimes more difficult than to be
signed because: the timeframe until finalization may be large, the factors that can
affect it are numerous – changes in political, administrative, natural, economical,
social environment –, the resistance to change of the parts involved can be high,
elements that were not foreseen may appear and so on. The press releases are
sometimes not only recommended, but compulsory, because the decisions taken
during negotiation affect many stakeholders that did not take part to the negotiation
process and they must be informed. The consolidation of the relationship among
the participants should be of high concern for them because this is the foundation
for a good implementation of the agreement reached and for future collaborations.

4. DISTRIBUTIVE VS INTEGRATIVE NEGOTIATIONS.


CASE STUDIES – ARAL SEA; WATER OF DRYLANDS

A distributive negotiation is supported by a competitive style and a zero-


sum mentality. It is not an option for water negotiations and it doesn’t create viable
and beneficial solutions, as it shows the following example about the Aral Sea
(source: R. K. Paisley, The Challenge of International Watercourse Negotiations in
the Aral Sea Basin, apud Dore, Robinson and Smith (Eds), 2010, p. 31).
The shrinking of the Aral Sea has been called “one of the planet’s worst
environmental disasters” (***, 2010, Daily Telegraph). The Aral Sea – once the
fourth largest inland body of water in the world – has been steadily shrinking and
by 2007 was reduced to 10% of its original size and split into four lakes. Since the
1950 the two rivers that feed the Aral Sea – Amu Darya and Syr Darya – have been
loosing most of their waterflow due to intensive use in agriculture and
hydroelectric plants, so less and less fresh water gets into the Aral Sea. The Aral
Sea region is now also heavily polluted, creating serious public health problems.
The old prosperous fishing industry has been destroyed, bringing unemployment
and economic hardship. The whole area is plagued by salinization and is
contaminated; the retreat of the sea has also caused local climate change, with
summers becoming hotter and drier, and winters colder and longer.

17
The water demand is increasing, the supply is declining and the nations
repeatedly fail to work together. One of the most acute disagreements over
resource sharing concerns the “energy-agriculture” trade-off between upstream
countries (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) and downstream countries (Kazakhstan,
Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan). The international conflicts related to the
transboundary resource sharing are caused mainly by inadequate national policies
and practices, that lead to an excessive use of water (Bosnjakovic, 2003, p. 30).
The negotiations on water-related issues in the Aral Sea basin have
suffered from the legacies of the Soviet times, such as an inward-looking
bureaucratic approach, top-down control, lack of inter-sectoral communication and
coordination, no participation of the local government or of non-governmental
actors in the decision process, limited knowledge of the modern international water
law, general rivalries between the States, and lack of skills and understanding about
how to reach win-win solutions. Each country approached the problem as a zero-
sum game and attepted to increase its control over water and energy, often to the
detriment of the others. The relatively little consultation over most of the projects
on building new reservoirs and dams or to expand irrigation intensified suspicions
between states. Moreover, the tensionate climate of Central Asia made the
countries imply they are willing to defend their interests by force if necessary
(Bosnjakovic, 2003, p.24).
The countries of the region have frequently expressed their good intentions
to work together, but they have not yet developed a clear and consistent concept for
effective cooperation. The water sector is a striking example of fragmentation,
confusion, and duplication of transboundary cooperation. In the course of recent
years, several regional institutions have been established in the hopes of solving
environmental as well as socio-economic problems in the Aral Sea region.
Toghether with help from other institutions and countries, some success was
achieved, but the enforcement is difficult and the progress is slow. The main
problem of the misuse of water that lead to this desaster is far from being solved.
Cooperation of all stakeholders is still needed. Also, an organization charged with
the long-term development of the river basins as a cooperative effort should
function and deal with issues such as: duties of the basin states with regard to
unilaterally planned water utilization, identification of pollution sources, pollution
abatement, monitoring water quality, responsibilities of states in case of floods,
drought, or emergency situations, environmental impact assessment in the
transboundary context, public information and participation, liability regime for
damage, dispute settlement mechanism (Bosnjakovic, 2003, p. 17-18).
In the Aral Sea basin, much effort is still needed to overcome old visions
and practices and shift from the win-lose approach to a win-win one, that would
integrate all interests – of all states and of all sectors (economical, political, social,
environmental). Competition for water is constantly increasing, cooperation is
hampered by disagreements over who has rights to scarce water and how it should
be used, and tensions will continue to rise unless better mechanisms are put in
place to manage the problems. The basic requirement for resolving upstream–

18
downstream water-related conflicts of interest and to redirect toward a wiser water
management is the political will and ability to negotiate win-win solutions.
While the win-lose mentality wasn’t successful in the Aral Sea case, the
win-win strategy is working very well for centuries for Berbers and Bedouin, as
described in the following case (source: reproduced after Wolf, 2000).
The Berbers of the High Atlas Mountains and the Bedouin of the Negev
Desert have lived in drylands for centuries and more and they had to find a way to
share one of their most precious resources – the fresh water. Their negotiation
skills refined over time through the need of finding lasting solutions and of getting
maximum value from limited and common resources; so, they developed
integrative solutions, which allowed them to survive and which are a precious
lesson to be learned by many of us for our modern water negotiations. The key
points of their win-win agreements are presented hereinafter.
1) Allocate time, not water. Berber water management quantifies water in
units of time rather than in units of volume. International water treaties generally
tend to allocate a fixed amount (divided equally of by specific volume) to each
state. Those that do not designate one state to receive a fluctuation in water supply
simply serve the excuse of the hydrologic reality of a fluctuating river. Allocating
by time allows for two benefits. The first is that it spreads the risk of the
fluctuations of the river as broadly as possible – to the individual user. For
example, when one has rights to one hour of irrigation, the irrigator himself plans
for greater and lesser supply at the most local level. The alternative method of
allocating a set volumetric amount would concentrate risk among those users
selected to bear the burden of fluctuation. In a prior appropriation setting, for
example, risk would be concentrated among the most-recent irrigators; in an
international arrangement, all of the risk would fall to the users of one country. The
second benefit of time (over volume) allocations has to do with the potential of
water markets. Allocating by the clause to “use or lose” that water that was
allocated to you, provides no incentive for a user to conserve. However, if one is
able to save a part of that water that was allocated to him and sell it for a greater
price than the cost of conservation, it is argued that the “invisible hand” can then
guide water to its most efficient use. As religious reasons didn’t allow the Bedouin
to sell water, selling time was an acceptable option. The shift in allocations from
volume to time can be applied to the international settings not by assigning days or
weeks, but by looking for other ways to share the risk of fluctuating supplies. As
real-time models of watersheds are possible, an allocation based on percentages of
real flow rather than firm volumes of hypothetical flow is possible, even in large,
international basins. A switch to percentages would not only have the same risk-
dispersion effect that a time-based system might have, allowing for management of
the river’s fluctuations throughout the basin, but it would also allow for markets
between users even without storage facilities.
2) Assign priorities for different water uses. Along with designating one
state to accept an uncertain supply, an alternative method of allocating a fluctuating
supply is to work on the demand side – that is to prioritize the use or user. Often,

19
the priority was set by giving progressively lower priority to progressively more-
recent users, regardless of how the water is put to use. Berbers and Bedouin
prioritize demand differently, but each provides a hierarchy of importance. This
allows for less important uses to be cut off throughout a valley during low flow
regimes, rather than entire down-stream villages; it also protects investments in
infrastructure. For instance, for Berbers the order of importance is: drinking water
for humans, followed by drinking water for animals, than irrigation water which
flows through the canal system, than water to mills an so on. Unfortunately,
international water treaties have prioritized use only occasionally, generally
focusing instead on allocating fixed amounts. Even in those agreements assigning
priorities in use, the water itself as an environment component or other
environmental aspects are disregarded and requirements related to them are
missing. The problem of equity can be incorporated in the international agreements
in a more balanced way by prioritizing uses; thus the risk is distributed more
equitably, allowing critical uses among all parties to have high priority in times of
fluctuating supply.
3) Protect downstream and minority rights. In the absence of a treaty,
upstream riparian states have a hydrological advantage. In the absence of political
constraints to the contrary, these upstream states have occasionally abused this
advantage. In order to achieve equity in sharing the water, Berbers allow only
traditional diversion structures for water which, through their “inefficiency”, allow
for flow to continue downstream. Bedouin concepts of equity involves honor and
pride, as well as right and wrong, which helps maintaining equity in sharing the
water.
4) Incorporate the tools of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). Each
group (Bedouins, Berbers) has sophisticated mechanisms of dispute resolution,
from which modern international conflict management might benefit. Techniques
include recognition of a defined water authority, “shared vision” exercises (during
which the participants are asked to share their individual views of what the future
might look like both if negotiations are successful and if they fail), “threat” of the
best alternative to negotiation.
5) The ceremony of forgiveness. The “sulha” is followed by both Berbers
and Bedouin: it is an Islamic practice of a ritual ceremony of forgiveness that can
be done after a wrong has been committed. It consists of private, often mediated,
negotiation of redress between the affected parties, followed by a public
declaration of forgiveness and, usually, a festive meal. Once the ceremony is
performed, the dispute may not be discussed, as if it never occurred. The agreement
is legally binding on both the individuals and on the community. A modern version
of such a practice would be the press releases or a public ceremony that would
allow the community affected by a dispute to celebrate its resolution and to be
more committed to the implementation of the agreement reached.

20
5. CONCLUSIONS

Water negotiations are highly challenging and win-win approach even


more. Negotiation is often seen as time-consuming and frustrating, but it remains
the best option to resolve the numerous problems arising out of water disputes in a
way that harmonises the interests about human health and welfare, business
efficiency, environmental balance. Often seen as a rightful and easier process, the
hard-bargaining approach (win-lose) may lead to decisions in the short term, but it
usually produces long-term results that all parties find unsatisfactory. On the
contrary, win-win negotiation places greater emphasis on collaborating, valuing
multiple perspectives, building consensus, integrating interests so as to reach fair,
durable and effective water decisions, to strengthen constructive engagement and
to obtain the actual compliance with the agreements. Furthermore, the use of the
negotiation process itself, practiced with sincerity, skill, diligence and real concern
for mutual benefits, motivates people to invest their trust in each other and trust
fosters relationships, which are vital for implementing the agreements of
negotiations. In water management field, a successful negotiation is one finalized
with an agreement that covers all three dimensions of sustainability – economical,
social and environmental and has all the chances to be followed up by its
implementation.

REFERENCES

1. Bosnjakovic, B., 2003, Negotiations in the context of international water-related


agreements, UNESCO, IHP, WWAP, IHP-IV, Techincal Documents in
Hydrology, PCCP series, no 8.
2. Dore, J., Robinson, J. and Smith, M. (Eds) (2010), Negotiate – Reaching
agreements over water, Gland, Switzerland: IUCN .
3. Fisher, R., Ury, W., Patton, B., 2007, Răspunsul lor…”Da!”: negociază înţelept
fără a ceda, Ed. Almatea, Bucureşti.
4. Moore, Ch. W, Negotiation, http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/usace/
negotiation.htm, accessed on Feb. 2011.
5. Petrescu, D. C. (2007), Negocieri în afaceri, vol. 1, EFES, Cluj-Napoca.
6. Shell, G. R. (2005), Negocierea in avantaj. Strategii de negociere pentru oameni
rezonabili, Ed. Codecs, Bucuresti.
7. Wachtel, D., Improving Your Negotiating Skills: Tips learned in the Trenches,
http://www.negotiations.com/articles/negotiating-skills/, accessed on Feb. 2011.
8. Wolf, A. T., 2000, Indigenous Approaches to Water Conflict Negotiations and
Implications for International Waters, in International Negotiation: A Journal of
Theory and Practice, Volume 5:2, December 2000.
9. ***, 2011, Aral Sea “one of the planet's worst environmental disasters”, in Daily
Telegraph (2010-04-05),
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/7554679/Aral-Sea-one-of-the-planets-
worst-environmental-disasters.html, accessed on Feb. 2011.

21
MAPPING WET TIME-SCALES
IN THE CURVATURE CARPATHIANS AND SUBCARPATHIANS
(ROMANIA) BY THE STANDARDIZED PRECIPITATION INDEX

CARMEN-SOFIA DRAGOTĂ1, CĂTĂLINA MĂRCULEŢ1,


LOREDANA-ELENA MIC1

ABSTRACT. – Mapping wet time-scales in the Curvature Carpathians and


Subcarpathians (Romania) by the Standardized Precipitation Index.
Identifying and describing excess precipitation hazards in the Curvature
Carpathians and Subcarpathians, as well as excess precipitation anomalies to the
mean Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values were analysed over a period of
3, 6, 9 and 12 consecutive months within the 1961 … 2000 interval. Homogeneous
data were recorded at the Lăcăuţi, Întorsura Buzăului, Pătărlagele, Penteleu,
Tulnici, Râmnicu Sărat, Buzău, Ploieşti, Câmpina and Predeal stations. SPI values
are a good indicator for determining and characterising excess precipitation. The
results obtained were synthetised on maps of SPI territorial distribution values (%)
of the extreme precipitation class of the sub-classes: moderately wet (2  2.5) and
extremely wet (2.5). The share of each SPI value set analysed is illustrated on
graphs.

Key-words: Curvature Carpathians and Subcarpathians, excess precipitation,


precipitation anomalies, SPI.

1. INTRODUCTION

The aim of this paper is to outline the wet component of the Curvature
Carpathian and Subcarpathian rain regime by means of the Standardized
Precipitation Index (SPI) developed by McKee, Doesken and Kleist (Colorado
State University) in the early 1990’s (McKee et al., 1993).
The index is used to quantify precipitation anomalies to the mean at
particular time-scales. Noteworthy, the results are comparable for large
geographical areas situated in distinctively different physical-geographical
conditions based on the occurrence probability of some reference quantities
irrespective of time of the year, place, or climate.
The SPI was created with a view to defining and monitoring drought
occurrence and evolution by taking into account only atmospheric precipitation and
not the other elements definitory of drought and precipitation in excess: soil water
resources, soil moisture, underground flow, air and soil temperature, frequency of
characteristic days in the warm season (summer days, tropical nights and
cannicular or tropical days), the presence of hydrometeors in the atmospheric air

1
Romanian Academy, Institute of Geography, 023993 Bucharest, Romania,
e-mail: dragotacarmen@yahoo.co.uk; cmarculet@yahoo.com; loredana_myc@yahoo.com

22
and on the atmosphere-soil interface, etc. However, these shortages in using the
SPI are included in the various time-scales these additional elements act on.
Basically, SPI is applicable to any landform in order to quantify the excess
and deficit of precipitation for different time-scales, first for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48
months (Hayes, 2003), and for shorter time-spans (month, weak). So, one of the
main SPI advanteges is temporal flexibility (NDMC, 1996).

2. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS

The SPI elaboration procedure is detailed out by Colorado State University


<http://ccc.atmosf.colostate.edu/spi.pdf>. The procedure consists in comparing a
gamma distribution probability function with the distribution of the frequencies of
precipitation amounts. The soft required by this SPI variant can be obtained via ftp
(ulysses.atmos.colostate.edu/pub/spi-0.2.tar.z), that works under Fortran language.
Regionalising SPI values for the geographical area studied relied on the
maps of territorial distribution of SPI values for each of the months covered (3, 6,
9, 12) and the sub-classes of the wet category (Păltineanu et al., 2007) obtained by
interpolating the values calculated for 10 basic met stations of the study-area
(Lăcăuţi, Întorsura Buzăului, Pătărlagele and Penteleu) and its neighbourhood
(Tulnici, Râmnicu Sărat, Buzău, Ploieşti, Câmpina and Predeal). The programme
used was Surfer 8 (Surface Mapping System, Golden Software Inc 2002) with
kriging method, point-friging type, no-drift, ordinary kriging option. Assigning
SPI-based precipitation values to the time-scales studied follows a scale of
different value grades. McKee et al. (1993) uses seven such value grades (Table 1).

Tabel 1. Precipitation value grades assigned to the analysed time-scales or to other scales
of interest in terms of the SPI value ( source: McKee et al., 1993)
SPI ≥2 1.5 - 1.99 1.00 - 1.49 0.99…-0.99 -1.00…-1.49 -1.50…-1.99 ≤ -2.00
Precipitation extremely very wet moderately near moderately severely extremely
value grades wet wet normal dry dry dry

In Romania, based on the precipitation data registered over the years 1961-
2000, low SPI value variations were obtained for the extremely wet sub-class. Low
spatial variations occur at 1.8% years, on average, both throughout this country
(from a minimum of 0.0% to a maximum of 7.5%) and in the study-area (Table 2).
A complete and much more accurate regionalisation (on a larger scale) for
the Curvature Carpathians and Subcarpathians was eventually worked out having
in view the initial SPI values and the local conditions (altitude, slope aspect and
slope declivity). The respective maps can be seen on figures 1, 2, 3 and 4. The
shades of gray found in the Arc Gis 9.2. Programme were used to work out a value
hierarchy of SPI magnitudes and range for the extremely wet SPI category. The
number of gray shades (from white to black) corresponds to the frequency classes
mentioned in the legend to each map. The histogrammes indicate the spatial
dimension of each sub-class expressed in percentages (with the same shade).

23
Table 2. Magnitude and variation range of SPI (%) values for sub-classes in the extremely
wet class  2, for 3, 6 ,9 and 12 consecutive months in România over the 1961-2000 period
Class Class
ISP SPI Class >2 (%) total SPI Class >2 (%) total
variation range interval >2 (%) interval >2 (%)
> 3 3.0 -2.5 2.0-2.5 >3 3.0 -2.5 2.0-2.5
Maximum 0.7 1.3 3.1 0.8 1.9 4.3
Minimum 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Mean 3 month 0.1 0.3 1.4 1.8 9 month 0.1 0.3 1.4 1.8
Standard deviation 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.1 0.4 0.8
CV (%) 171.9 89.6 41.1 302.3 143.0 58.9
Maximum 0.6 1.9 3.2 1.5 1.7 7.5
Minimum 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Mean 6 month 0.1 0.3 1.4 1.8 12 month 0.0 0.3 1.4 1.7
Standard deviation 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.4 1.0
CV (%) 231.4 110.7 48.2 460.1 170.7 74.8
*Source: processed after Păltineanu et al.,2007.

The geographical distribution of the SPI 2 (extremely wet class) in the


Curvature Carpathians and Subcarpathians over the three month interval (SPI 3M)
usually varies from 14% to 50%. Highest SPI values (2%) cover 35.7% of the
area in the Clăbucetele Întorsurii Buzăului, the Teleajen Subcarpatians, the
northern sector of the Buzău Subcarpathians, and the outer rim of the Vrancea
Subcarpathians. The SPI value threshold of 1.5% holds the greatest share (50.4%)
occupying the highest summits of the Vrancea, Penteleu and Siriu mountains and
the southern sector of the Buzău Subcarpathians (Fig. 1A). For SPI 6M, the highest
value range (2.5%) is seen in the Vrancea Mountains (28.5% of the overall area);
the areas having a SPI value of 2% represent 31.7% and cover the Clăbucetele
Întorsurii Buzăului, the Siriu Mts, the Întorsura Buzăului and the Comandău
depressions, the Gârbova and Bisoca hills and the Subcarpathian depressions of
Jitia and Lopătari. The lowest SPI values (1%) cover 13.1% of the area in the
value range of 1-1.5% (12.8% of the area) and 1.5-2% (13.9% of the area) in the
Teleajen and Buzău Subcarpathians and in the south-east of the Vrancea
Subcarpathians (Fig. 1B). The distribution of SPI 9M and SPI 12M is similar, in
that the higher values (2-3% and 3%) occur mainly on the summits of the
Curvature Carpathians in proportion of 10.4% and 24.6% (SPI 6M), 9.3% and
36.7% (SPI 12M) of the area of interest respectively. The lowest SPI 6M values
(1.5%) are found in the southern sectors of the Buzău and Teleajen
Subcarpathians, while minimum thresholds (1.0 and 1.0-2.0%) on the SPI 12M
Map overlap most of the Curvature Subcarpathian area (Figs 2A and 2B).
The frequency of the extreme sub-class (SPI 2.5%) of the extremely wet
class in terms of SPI value thresholds calculated for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, remains
in the sub-unity range. The lowest value thresholds (0.2-0.4%) for SPI 3M occur in
the eastern and western marginal areas, rising progressively with the altitude up to
0.6-0.8% in the mountain region and to 0.8-1.0% on the highest summits. The
histogramme shows an overriding proportion (57.0%) of SPI 3M values between
0.4% and 0.6%, whereas the 0.8-1.0% threshold represents only 7.9% (Fig. 3A).

24
A

1B

Fig. 1. The territorial distribution of SPI values 2%, for 3-month scale (A) and 6-month
scale (B), representing the frequency of extremely wet periods in the Curvature
Carpathians and Subcarpathians (Source: processed after Păltineanu et al., 2007)

25
A

Fig. 2. The territorial distribution of SPI values 2%, for 9-month scale (A) and 12-month
scale (B), representing the frequency of extremely wet periods in the Curvature
Carpathians and Subcarpathians (Source: processed after Păltineanu et al., 2007)

26
A

57,0%

18,9% 16,1%
7,9%

0,2 - 0,4 0,4 - 0,6 0,6 - 0,8 0,8 - 1,0

36,8%

22,7% 22,6%

15,3%

2,6%

0,0 - 0,2 0,2 - 0,4 0,4 - 0,6 0,6 -0,8 0,8 - 1,0

Fig. 3. The territorial distribution of SPI values 2,5%, for 3-month scale (A) and 6-month scale
(B), representing the frequency of extreme sub-class of the extremely wet class in the Curvature
Carpathians and Subcarpathians (Source: processed after Păltineanu et al., 2007)

27
A

43,9%

30,5%
25,6%

<0,0 0,0 - 0,5 0,5 - 1,0

83,4%

14,4%
2,2%

<0,0 0,0 - 0,2 0,2 - 0,4

Fig. 4. The territorial distribution of SPI values 2,5%, for 9-month scale (A) and 12-month scale
(B), representing the frequency of extreme sub-class of the extremely wet class in the Curvature
Carpathians and Subcarpathians (Source: processed after Păltineanu et al., 2007)

28
Very low values (0.0-0.2% and 0.2-0.4%) are notable for SPI 6M in hills
and depressions, the highest summits having a 0.8-1.0% record. As shown in the
graph, one-third of the study-area (36.8%) has values of 0.2-0.4%, and only 2.6%
of it reaches the 0.8-1.0% threshold (Fig. 3B). Also in regard of the entire space of
the Curvature Subcarpathians and of the outer rim of the Curvature Carpathians, SPI
9M indicates that the proportion of low values (0.0% and 0.0-0.5%) is of 43.9% and
30.5%, respectively. It is only in the higher mountainous side of the study-area
(which amounts to 25.6% of the overall area) that values stay in the range of
0.5-1.0% (Fig. 4A). When looking at SPI 12M it emerges that only 2.2% of the area
of interest falls into the extreme sub-class of precipitation in excess, with values of
0.2-0.4%, while 83.4% of the area registers values of 0.0% (Fig. 4B).

3. CONCLUSIONS

SPI values 3.0 %, correspounding to the maximum international level set


for the extremely wet class, are absent in the Curvature Carpathians and
Subcarpathians. As a matter of fact, even the extreme sub-class (2.5%) of the
extremely wet class is very poorly represented. In view of the above, it follows that
these values are not specific to our study-area in which Föehn processes make the
intensity of precipitation in terms of SPI values come second after other areas in
Romania. Characteristic of Föehn processes is higher temperature simultaneously
with lower nebulosity and implicitly fewer precipitation, depressed air moisture,
etc. In the Curvature Carpathians and Subcarpathians SPI values are unevenly
distributed, the isolines crossing both the wetter Carpathian sector and the drier
Subcarpathian one, but what essentially counts is the order of magnitude of these
values within the extremely wet class (SPI 2%).

REFERENCES

1. Hayes, M.J. (2003), Drought Indices, U.S. National Drought Mitigation Center-
NDMC, <http://enso.unl.edu/ndmc/enigma/indices.htm#spi>
2. Holobâcă, I. H (2010), Studiul secetelor din Transilvania, Edit. Presa Universitară
Clujeană, 242 p., ISBN: 978-973-610-981-2.
3. McKee, T.B., Doesken, N.J., Kleist (1993), The relationship of drought frequency
and duration to time scales. Preprints, 8th Conference on Applied Climatology,
pp. 179-184, January, 17-22, Anaheim, California.
4. NDMC (1996), North American Drought: A Paleo Perspective.
http://www.drought.unl.edu/monitor/spi.htm.
5. Păltineanu, Cr., Mihăilescu, Fl. I, Seceleanu, I., Dragotă, Carmen, Vasenciuc,
Felicia, Ariditatea, seceta, evapotranspiraţia şi cerinţele de apă ale culturilor
agricole în România, Ovidius University Press, Constanţa, 2007, 319 p., ISBN:
978-973-614-412-7.

29
MONITORING THE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER
IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE

M. LUCA1, R. BALAN2.A. MANESCU3

Abstract - Monitoring of the underground water pollution in the deposit of waste in


industrial area. The paper presents the monitoring of the pollution phenomenon of
underground water in the industrial landfill area. Industrial landfill causes pronounced
underground water pollution in the operation phase, but also in the conservation phase.
The pollution monitoring is carried out on all environmental components: air, soil and
underground water. Pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time by using a tracking and
data reception characteristic control section. The data taken is processed and interpreted to
achieve the best environmental measures in the area of the landfill site. By using
simulation models provides a forecast of the pollution in different periods of time. The
simulation model is applicable to the operating period taking into account the change in
quantities and concentrations of pollutants. This paper presents remediation measures
appropriate to the type of industrial landfill analyzed. The results obtained allow modeling
of environmental protection measures and especially the subsoil and groundwater.

Key words: industrial waste deposits, pollution flow modeling, pollution pheno-
menon, protection.

1. INTRODUCTION

Waste is one of the most pressing environmental problems in the current


state of economic and social development. In Romania there are large amounts of
waste generated each year due to economic development, increase production and
consumption.
Handling, transport and storage of industrial waste causes many cases of
air pollution, soil and groundwater. The pollution produced by industrial landfill
has a negative impact on environment and health. Industrial waste is deposited in
warehouses located within or outside entities. Industrial landfills were not always
designed and built taking into account the risk of environmental pollution. The
design was not considered diverse nature of the harm that would be stored and its
evolution over time. Thus, while some landfills by virtue of their design has not
succeeded in stopping the pollution of the environment:
- heaps of ash from power plants producing electricity and heat;
- slag heaps from the units in the steel industry;
- deposit of residue from the chemical industry and construction materials industry;
- landfills in the oil industry, etc.

1
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University, Faculty of Hidrotechnic, Geodesy and Environmental Engineering, Iasi,
Romania, mluca2004@yahoo.com,
2
Water Administration Prut-Barlad,
3
Iasi, “Gh. Asachi” Technical University, Iasi

30
Landfills produce a groundwater contamination varying durations of time.
The phenomenon of underground sources of water pollution affects their removal
from the circuit and cause water supplies. One problem is the way of
environmental engineering, remediation of groundwater affected by the presence of
landfill.
The amount of hazardous industrial waste generated in Romania has
decreased continuously in recent years due to reduced activities of large economic
units. In this context industrial waste storage dumps in use or in storage, will be
collated and made safe.
In areas with industrial waste will be carried out ecological restoration
works to reduce and prevent the risk of accidental pollution of the environment.
Rules and new standards governing the protection of the environment in
the placement of waste dumps require their cooperation with potting medium.

2. POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN THE INDUSTRIAL


WASTE AREA

Industrial waste is deposited at landfills or entities located within or


outsider. Industrial landfills were not always designed and built taking into account
the risk of environmental pollution. The design was not considered diverse nature
of the harm that would be stored and its evolution over time. Industrial waste
pollutes the environment during the operational phase and later phase post
conservation. Soil is the environmental factor most stable, long trail that keeps
pollution. Soil and subsoil determines default and groundwater pollution.
A research program conducted over six years at the site of an industrial
landfill highlighted its particular impact on groundwater. Landfill belonging to a
Bearing factory opened in 1953. Waste dumps are stored as diverse as nature and
environmental risk: myths inert from the treatment emulsions, carbide, ion
exchange filters, oil residues, dross, ash, brick, etc., (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Overview of the old dump

31
The landfill has changed over time as a constructive form, a waste treatment,
environmental conditions, etc. The phenomenon of pollution produced on site and
in particular on groundwater caused the closure of the deposit. It was refurbished
with a series of works to limit the pollution. Old warehouse is in the stage of
conservation (Fig. 2).
After processing the data collected in monitoring wells conducted in 12
stands of indicators values exceed industry standards required by Table 1, 2 and 3).

Table 1. Water quality parameter values taken from drill F 2 - Albie sepsis
CMA Cl NH4 CCOMn Extract. Cr6+ NO2 pH MTS
Env. Aut. * 0,5 * * 0,05 0,3 8,5 *
Quarter II 60 0.43 21.67 0 0 0.53 6.8 56
Quarter III 48 0.75 20.16 0 0 0.61 7 40
Quarter.IV 55 0.21 22 0 0 0.58 7 50
Mean 2004 54.333 0.4633 21.2766 0 0 0.573 6.93 48.7

Table 2. Water quality parameter values taken from drill F 4 - Stana


CMA Cl NH4 CCOMn Extract. Cr 6+ NO2 pH MTS
Env. Aut. * 0,5 * * 0,05 0,3 8,5 *
Quarter II 300 1.01 20.62 0 0 0.032 6.5 86
Quarter III 290 1.23 24.52 0 0 0.016 6.5 100
Quarter IV 310 1.12 21.64 0 0 0.09 6.5 80
Mean 2004 300 1.12 22.26 0 0 0.046 6.5 88.7

Table 3. Water quality parameter values taken from drill F 5 - East waste dump
CMA Cl NH4 CCOMn Extract. Cr 6+ NO2 pH MTS
Env. Aut.. * 0,5 * * 0,05 0,3 8,5 *
Quarter II 280 0.47 24.69 0 0 0.81 6.5 63
Quarter III 300 0.41 25.61 0 0 0.79 6.5 60
Quarter IV 280 0.36 23.72 0 0 0.8 6.5 36
Mean 2004 288.67 0.4133 24.673 0 0 0.8 6.5 53

Fig. 2. Overview of the dump of old and new.

32
Groundwater in the area is used for water supply to villages in the area.
Pollution it had imposed restrictions on use. Given the lack of sources of water
pollution requires a process for obtaining water quality parameters.
Data-analysis shows significant overshoot in nitrites (NO2) and ammonium
(NH4). Such pollutants have adversely affected groundwater quality in the area.
The phenomenon spread to underground pollution imposed closure of old landfill
and industrial waste in postutilzation passing.
New waste-storage facility was equipped with a monitoring system for
groundwater quality parameters, air and soil.

3. PROGNOZIS OF THE POLLUTION AND/OR DEPOLLUTION


PHENOMENOM OF THE GROUNDWATER

Transport of pollutants in the underground industrial waste was examined


using a mathematical model. Transport model was designed to be used in solving
the following problems:
A. The flow processes through porous unsaturated/saturated media, in the
stationary/transitory regimes.
B. The processes of miscible/non-miscible pollutants transport from porous
unsaturated/saturated media, in transitory regime.
The mathematic models of the transport of pollutants consisted in:
1. Non-governing equations (also called basic) of the flow and/or
transport processes.
2. Contour conditions.
3. Initial conditions (only for the processes dependent of the time t).
The equations governing the flow consist of the equations of the
fluid mass balance – named also the continuity equation and, respectively,
moment equation, the famous Darcy’s equation, generalized to non-
saturated porous media. These can be presented under the following general
form [Voss, C.I., 1984]:

  n  Sw   
    n  S w    v   Q p  (1)
t
 k  kr 
v     p  g    (1)
 n  S w  
where the symbols present the following significations:
n  n  x, y, t  , porosity [1];
  T x , y , z  , water density, [ML-3], temperature dependency T;
 = nabla differential operator, [L-1];
v  v  x, y, t  , the average speed vector of the fluid (water) through the
pores of the porous medium [LT-1];

33
Q p  Q p  x , y ,t  , the intensity of the distributed (punctiform) source of
volume (specific debit) of fluid, [T-1];
  T  x , y ,t  , the dynamic viscosity of water, [ML3T-1], dependent on
the T temperature;
p  p  x, y, t  , fluid pressure from the pores, [ML-1T-2] (the relative
pressure in relation with the atmosphere pressure; the manometric pressure for
p  0 or the vacuum manometer pressure p  0 );
g = g (x, z), gravitational acceleration vector, [LT-2].
The definition relations for each of the classical types of contour conditions are
[Luca, M., 2010]:
1º type 1 contour conditions (Dirichlet);
2º type 2 contour conditions (von Neumann), where are given the values of
the H size flow, according to the n direction of the normal to the Γ frontier.
3 type 3 contour conditions (Cauchy), when the values of the flow qnH (x,
y, z) depend also on the H variable, according to a law considered as linear.
The numerical simulations achieved for different scenarios and for a
certain period can appreciate the dispersion of a pollutant in a carrier of water.
The observation period regarding the underground water layer was
between 2005…2009. In his period, we collected data regarding the pollution
phenomenon parameters. For the prognosis, we considered a period of 10 years,
respectively 2010…2019. The analysis carried out on the main pollutant substances
indicated for the first prognosis stage the consideration of the anion from the NH4
ammonium.
For solving the proposed problems, we achieved a conceptual model, for
which we elaborated a mathematic model of pollutants transport. The mathematic
model represents the flow and transport of pollutants from one layer of underground
water from the analysis field. For the numerical simulation, we used the FEFLOW
program package.
In the analysis, we used a complex of basic data specific to the case study.
The data introduced in the calculation model come from systematic measurement in
13 observation wells positioned in the location of the industrial waste deposit.
We successively treated a flow problem in four scenarios and two flow and
transport problems (therefore, in total, 6 calculation variations) [Luca, M., 2010]:
1. The flow problem for the study duration, t  [0, 1825] days in four
scenarios regarding the functioning of drillings from the area of the closed deposit
(for establishing the optimal scenario)
- without pumping;
- with pumping from the drillings.
2. The flow and transport problem for the study duration, t  [0, 1825]
days, in the scenario established as being optimal within the flow problem (for
monitoring the pollution phenomenon in all the interest points from the domain Ω.

34
Fig. 3. EF scheme in the study area waste industrial dump.

3°. The flow and transport problem in the perspective of the following
decade, t  [0, 1825] days (2010 - 2019), in the scenario established as being
optimal within the flow problem 1° and through the simulation of the contour
conditions and variation of the material parameters.

Fig. 4. The initial piezometric load field for the flow problem represented through the colour
code (numbers in black colour represent the piezometric load of the support points).

35
Fig. 5. The NO4 initial concentration represented by isolines of equal concentration.

A part of the accidentally polluted water sources can be subject to a


depollution process, of certain duration, in order to be reintroduced in the
circuit of water supply for either industry, or population. Through the
analysis and prognosis model conceived, we attempted a response to this
problem that has been affecting, lately, the underground medium, more and
more stringently.
In order to determine the evolution of the pollution process in the
entire interest field, we can only make interpolations on bi-dimensional
fields, according to certain mathematic techniques accepted in this field.
The intensity of the evacuation process of a pollutant soluble in
water through pumping, at a constant debit, decreases to the diminishment
of its concentration in the carrier of water, and in order to obtain /maintain
an acceptable intensity of this process, the pumped debit must be increased,
or certain processes of the pollutant biotransformation be activated.

4. CONCLUSIONS
The interpretation of the data obtained allows the enunciation of the
following general conclusions:
 Monitoring the transport of pollutants in industrial waste must become
a compulsory activity of the waste producer.
 Modeling the transport of pollutants in the soil in the area of industrial
wastes deposits has a special importance for the protection of
underground waters.
 The simulation model elaborated allows the analysis of the pollutant
transport in the area of underground waters by emphasizing the
variation of concentrations in time and space.

36
 The simulation model through the FEFLOW program package has
allowed the analysis and the methods of underground waters
depollution for a certain determined period of time.
 Using the numerical simulation techniques, we can solve both the
problems regarding the monitoring of the pollution process for the
entire duration of the experimental measurements (approached
problems, but insufficiently solved through the current monitoring
techniques), but also the future evolution, on the extended periods, in
different scenarios, of the pollution and/or depollution processes.

REFERENCES

1. David, I., Şumălan, I., Beilici, E., (1998), Influenţa discretizării în modelarea
numerică a transportului poluanţilor în acvifere. Bulet. Ştiinţ. al Universităţii
„Politehnica” Timişoara din România, seria Hidrotehnica, tom 43 (57), vol. I, p.
121-131.
2. Hâncu, S., Moriton, C., Măgdălina, I., (2002), Modele matematice privind transportul
poluanţilor în sol şi în apele freatice. Lucr. Sesiunii Ştiinţifice „150 ani de învăţământ
superior agricol” USAMV, Bucureşti, p. 163-174.
3. Hâncu, S., Marin, G., Vîrsta A., (2003), Transportul şi dispersia poluanţilor. Edit.
BREN, Bucureşti.
4. Luca, M., Bălan, R., P., (2010), The modelling of pollution processes in the area of
industrial waste, Bulet. Ştiinţ. al Univ. “Politehnica” Timişoara, tom 55 (68), Fasc. 1, 2,
seria Hidrotehnica, p. 61-66.
5. Luca, M., Bălan, P., R., (2005), Consideraţii privind punerea în siguranţă a haldelor
de deşeuri industriale, Conferinţa Internaţională, „Monitorizarea Dezastrelor şi
Poluării CI.MDP.2”, Universitatea Tehnică „Gh. Asachi” Iaşi, 2005.
6. Luca, M., Bălan, P., R., (2008), Monitoring the exploitation of the industrial
waste dump, Bulet. Ştiinţ. Instit. Polit. din Iaşi, secţia Hidrotehnică, Tomul LIV
(LVIII) Fasc. 2, p. 25 - 35.
7. Marinov, A., M., Poruţ, A., D., (2004), Model matematic bidimensional, orizontal, al
dispersiei unui poluant în apa subterană. Rev. Hidrotehnica, vol. 49, nr. 5-6,
Bucureşti, p. 26-35.
8. Voss, C., I., (1984), SUTRA. A F.E.M. Simulation Model for Saturated-Unsaturated,
Fluid-Density-Dependent Ground-Water Flow with Energy & Chemically Single-
Species Solute Transport, U.S. Geological Survey, S.U.A.
9. *** NTPA 001/2002, Normativ privind stabilirea limitelor de încărcare cu poluanţi a
apelor uzate industriale şi orăşeneşti la evacuarea în receptorii naturali, H.G. nr.
188/28.02.2002

37
THE INFLUENCED FLOW REGIMES

G. PANDI1

ABSTRACT. The influenced flow regimes. The presence and activities of


humanity influences the uniform environmental system, and in this context, the
rivers water resources. In concordance with this, the natural runoff regime suffers
bigger and deeper changes. The nature of these changes depending on the type and
degree of water uses. The multitude of the use cause different types of influence,
whit different quantitative aspects. In the same time, the influences have
qualitative connotations, too, regarding to the modifications of the yearly water
volume runoff. So the natural runoff regime is modified. After analyzing the
distribution laws of the monthly runoff, there have been differenced four types of
influenced runoff regimes. In the excess type the influenced runoff is bigger than
the natural, continuously in the whole year. The deficient type is characterized by
inverse rapports like the first type, in the whole year. In the sinusoidal type, the
influenced runoff is smaller than the natural in the period when the water is
retained in the lake reservoirs, and in the depletion period the situation inverts. At
the irregular type the ratio between influenced and natural runoff is changeable in
a random meaner monthly. The recognition of the influenced regime and the grade
of influence are necessary in the evaluation and analysis of the usable hydrological
river resources, in the flood defence activities, in the complex scheme of the
hydrographic basins, in the environment design and so on.

Keywords. -natural regime, influenced regime, water use, influence degree,


regime types

1. INTRODUCTION

The completely natural conditions existed within geosystem at mesoscale


confer special laws for riverbed flow processes. The flow regime represents the
whole of the laws and the features for this process during a year. Any river stream,
no matter the size and location is characterized by the flow regime.
The climatic factor, consequence of the solar energy influx distribution, is
the main factor of the flow control. The precipitations are water suppliers, which
provide water for riverbed directly as surface flow, and indirectly as subsurface
flow. The surface flow is characterized by discontinuous water supply and a fast
reaction time of the river, whereas continuity and a slow reaction time characterize
the subsurface flow. The temperature influences the flow by precipitations, state of
aggregation, evaporation intensity and existence of the ice formations within
riverbeds.

1
Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Geography, Clinicilor Street 5-7, 400006, Cluj- Napoca,
e-mail: pandi@geografie.ubbcluj.ro

38
There are many others natural, non-climatic factors that influence the flow:
tectonics and petrography for geology; altitude, morphometry, morphology, aspect,
hypsometry for relief; state, structure and texture for soil; types of associations,
degree of coverage, rainfall interception, evapotranspiration for vegetation; are
many other factors that hallmarked on the river flow regime.
In this very complex context of horizontal and vertical zonality, in addition
with local and regional conditions, the rivers have a great variety of flow regimes.
Of course, zonal distribution of solar energy prevails and due to this, climatic zones
have specific flow regimes.
The great relief units, especially the mountain massifs but the oceans and
the seas (on the shore areas) as well cause characteristic flow regimes. What is
characteristic for spatial and temporal distribution of water drained off quantities is
an infinite combination of general and local factors. Thus, there are relatively few
rivers with a flow regime typical, well defined. These rivers are small usually
having hydrographic basin located within the same climatic zone and the same
relief unit (relatively homogenous).

2. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE NATURAL FLOW REGIME

The human society has a constant upward influence over the environment,
from which it belongs. The influences follow three major ways:
- the areas where the man influence natural processes are extended;
- more and more natural processes are influenced;
- the influence degree of processes is growing.
Of course, water resources make no exception in this respect. Throughout
all ages, humanity settled their habitats near waters. The using of water resources
has exponentially grown and in the same times, a continuous alteration of aquatic
bodies has produced. Today, there is a strong debate over the influencing of natural
hydrologic cycle, not only at micro and mesoscale level, but throughout the globe
as well.
The rivers are water bodies the most susceptible to human influence. The
riverbeds are widespread over huge continental areas. The water from rivers is easy
to use and due to a continuous dynamics is purging itself.
Various activities carried out by humans within riverbeds or riverbeds
surroundings areas modify the natural flow regime laws during time and space.
There is a great variety of activities carried out, classified here under various
criteria:
- The way of flow influencing
- water consumption activities
- redistribution of flow during time activities
- transfer the water from a reservoir to another.
- The time of flow influencing
- permanent activities (industrial type)
- seasonal activities (agriculture type)

39
- The type of human activity
- activities related to following domains: urban, industrial, agricul-
tural, energy supply, transport and recreation.
-According to characteristic of used water
- activities for which are very important: water quantity, water
quality, water surface and potential energy.

3. THE DEGREE OF FLOW INFLUENCING

Demographic boom in the world, widespread of intensive farming and


industrialization process have determined a great stress upon natural water
resources, especially water provide by rivers. Consequently, the more and more
rivers suffer a strong influence and pressure from human part.
The type and magnitude of activities influence the degree and character of
the flow. For the most activities this typification is combined, consequently they
have multilateral influences over the natural flow regime of the river.
Dam lakes have the most spectacular influence for the rivers flow; these
lakes redistribute water resources during time. The activities of industrial
consumption of water and transfer pipes from a reservoir to another can have major
influences as well.
To represent in which degree is influenced the natural flow it is necessary
to compare the value of water quantity drained off and the value of natural flow.
For these recordings it is necessary to be used values taken on the spot or/and
medium values of the same time interval. Thus, temporal and/or spatial relations
with a role for water amounts qualitative assessment are obtained.
Representation of flow’s influencing degree can be expressed in absolute
values, in flow capacities and volume units. However to express the flow’s
influencing degree as relative values is more evident, the quantity of influenced
water being the random variable.

50

40

30

20
Q(m /s)
3

10

0
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII
-10

-20

-30

Fig. nr. 1. Representation of influencing degree in absolute values

40
20

15

10

5
%

0
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII
-5

-10

-15

-20

Fig. nr. 2. Representation of influencing degree in relative values

4.THE TYPES OF INFLUENCED FLOW REGIME

For the rivers, having an influenced flow regime the quantities of water
drained off depends in a great or small manner by the assets existence and
exploitations. The distribution during time of water necessities is a function of
social and economical systems functionality. Consequently, the distribution laws of
water quantities drained off during a year depends of the way and measure of
natural flow regime.
The human component of the environment stays under laws not as rigorous
as those corresponded to natural phenomena. There are many temporal ways to
capture and return, or to redistribute some quantities of water, function of social
and economical necessities.
On the base of a great number of influenced hydrographs analysis, in
various years, located downstream from the influenced riverbeds areas, four types
of influenced flow regime were distinguished.

4.1. Excedentary type


The deviation has positive values throughout a year (Qinfl > Qnat). The
characteristic influenced flows are higher compare to the corresponded natural ones
for every month of the year. This type is typical for rivers that receive an additional
water supply from the others hydrographics basin located in proximity.

41
Fig. nr. 3. Excedentary type model of influenced flow

4.2. Deficitary type


The deviation has negative values throughout a year (Qinfl < Qnat), therefore
monthly influenced flows drained off are smaller then those corresponded to
natural ones. This type is characteristic for the areas downstream where are water
intakes made in riverbed, where from a quantity of water is conducted to a near
hydrographyc basin or to an areas with a constant consume of water. In addition,
this type is found downstream of dam lakes that usually provide water constantly
for consume. The influence degree is not very high for this type also.

Fig. nr. 4. Deficitary type model of influenced flow

4.3. The sinusoidal type


Is characteristic for downstream areas of dam lakes having a dominant role
of redistribution of the water with time, the regularization having an annual
periodicity. This kind of water accumulation can have an energetic or water supply
function. In this accumulation, the water saved during the excedentary period of
spring is subsequently restored to the riverbed during the period with deficitary
flow autumn-winter. For the months when the water is saved, the influenced flows
have a magnitude less then those natural, and for the months when water is
evacuated the ratio reverse the order, the variation graphic having a sinusoidal
shape. The influencing degree has a greater value during the water lakes
accumulation period compare with the period when water is released.
42
Fig. nr. 5. Sinusoidal type model of influenced flow

4.4. Irregular type


This type is characterized by randomly alternation of the ratio between
monthly influenced flows and natural ones. The quantity of water drained off can
have a greater value or a smaller one in comparison to that natural depending on
the social and economical, food and defence against flooding necessities. This type
characterizes downstream areas of the dam lakes that have the role to attenuate
high floods waves, where a period of accumulation is followed by a period when
the water is released. Here the influenced degree can have extremely great values.

Fig.nr.6 Irregular type model of influenced flow

5. CONCLUSION
From the smallest water streams to the very large rivers, the natural flow
regime is more frequently and more intense influenced. It can be said that the
influenced regime became a characteristic of rivers flow, particularly for areas
having a great number of people. Consequently, the characteristic values of the
flow, average values, but especially those extreme, do not form homogeneous
series easy to use for statistics calculations and dynamic analysis. Eventually series
of hydrological data make up having other characteristics in comparison to those
usual for hydrology and water management activities. In order to analyse an assess
usable hydric resources of a river, for activity of defence against flooding, for
complex arrangement of hydrographic basins for environment planning, etc., it is
necessary to take into account besides the natural laws those laws induced by social
and economical necessities.

43
REFERENCES

1. PANDI, G. (2000), Influenced Drainage Regime in the east part of the Carpathian
Basin. Voda i zastita voda srednjeg dela sliva Dunava. Subotica. Yugoslavia
2. ŞERBAN, P., GĂLIE A. (2006), Managementul apelor. Principii şi reglementări
europene. Ed.Tipored. Bucureşti
3. UJVARI, J., PANDI, G., DUMITRESCU, F. (1996), Evaluarea şi valorificarea
resurselor de apă din zona de graniţă româno-maghiară. Határon innen, határon
túl. Szeged. Ungaria
CONSIDERATIONS ON THE HAIL REGIME IN MOLDAVIA
BETWEEN THE SIRET AND PRUT RIVERS

L. APOSTOL1, O. MACHIDON2

ABSTRACT. – Considerations on the hail regime in Moldavia between the Siret


and Prut rivers. The paper is based primarily on data measured between 1961 – 2010.
They are summarized in tables and their interpretation is supported by graphs and
maps. The used data come from climatological weather stations and rainfall stations
that have operated continuously in the analyzed interval [4], [5]. In order to establish
the trend, we used the moving average method, with a 10 year moving average shifted
by one year and the drawing of the trend line using the specialized module of the
EXCEL software. Calculations based on long strings of observations (1967 - 1998)
have shown that the probability of a small number of days with hail or the absence of
the phenomenon is quite high. At the climatological weather stations in the studied
area, the annual number of days with hail is at levels far below those known in the
literature [3] and it has record values for Romania in some of the rainfall stations
(Motoşeni - 0.14 days / year; Mânzaţi - 0.08 days / year). Higher values of the annual
number of days with hail can be reached only on the alignements at higher altitude and
in the cities. We noticed that it is very difficult to detect trends, since we are dealing
with local factors.

Keywords: hail, spatial distribution, evolution.

1. INTRODUCTION

Hail represents a significant climatic risk; although it occurs rarely, it can


shortly result in damages on local or regional scale, depending on the route
followed by the Cumulonimbus clouds that generated it.
In the normal course of activity in various fields, hail is a phenomenon that
must be taken into account while planning outdoor work, especially in agriculture,
where the cultivated species and their vegetation period are under the hail’s
incidence.

2. SPATIAL ANALYSIS

To highlight the differences that exist in the spatial distribution of the


annual number of days with hail, we have used data of the period, being the most
consistent period, taking into consideration meteorological stations and rainfall

1
"Al. I. Cuza" University, Faculty of Geography and Geology, Iaşi, Romania,
e-mail: apostolliv@yahoo.com
2
"Al. I. Cuza" University, Faculty of Geography and Geology, Iaşi, Romania,
e-mail: ovidiumachidon@yahoo.com

45
stations located in the most different geographical and physical conditions (altitude
and degree of relief fragmentation, exposure or shelter from wet and dry air
masses, the coating of the underlying surface, etc.).
The data from some of the stations (e.g. Strunga and Balinteşti) were
registered in the period between 1967 to 1998, but have not included all the years.
However, we preferred to use these data because they helped us a lot in the
separation of differences in the spatial distribution of hail. Based on these
characteristics, some climate characteristics can be assessed in order to respond to
the demands of the daily practice and to the current climatological service.
The average number of days with hail is the parameter that highlights the
qualitative aspect of the phenomenon. Knowing the number of days with hail has a
great practical importance because it gives an indication of the possibility of
production of this phenomenon and therefore, the possibility of damage occurrence
in some days of the year. This possibility should not be neglected while designing
and operating the economic objectives according to regions, while planning various
works according to their timing and to their area and while planning the means of
intervention in case of breakdowns, accidents, etc. The monthly and annual average
number of days with hail is expressed by a ratio between the monthly or annual
number of days with hail and the number of years of that period.

Table 1. Monthly and annual average number of days with hail registered
on climatological weather stations between 1967-1998
Altitude Month
Name of station Sum
(m) II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI
Barnova 396 0.19 0.28 0.25 0.13 0.13 0.09 1.06
Cotnari 289 0.11 0.20 0.17 0.31 0.09 0.09 0.97
Strunga 280 0.06 0.33 0.52 0.06 0.97
Plopana 274 0.21 0.24 0.11 0.09 0.65
Darabani 259 0.03 0.03 0.14 0.23 0.06 0.03 0.51
Avrameni 240 0.09 0.09 0.17 0.06 0.09 0.49
Dorohoi 240 0.06 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.03 0.03 0.52
Roman 216 0.04 0.28 0.23 0.15 0.11 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.89
Onceşti 203 0.11 0.13 0.19 0.09 0.52
Bacau 184 0.06 0.18 0.33 0.21 0.12 0.03 0.93
Barlad 168 0.12 0.19 0.40 0.18 0.11 0.06 1.06
Botosani 161 0.11 0.20 0.34 0.26 0.14 0.03 0.15
Negresti 134 0.06 0.15 0.27 0.18 0.09 0.75
Balintesti 126 0.04 0.08 0.22 0.30 0.17 0.06 0.04 0.91
Vaslui 121 0.03 0.15 0.39 0.30 0.03 0.12 0.06 1.08
Stanca Stefanesti 110 0.14 0.14
Iasi 102 0.06 0.03 0.30 0.21 0.18 0.09 0.09 0.03 0.03 1.02
Adjud 101 0.09 0.21 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.51
Husi 97 0.12 0.09 0.21
Podu Iloaiei 82 0.08 0.13 0.29 0.10 0.04 0.06 0.70
Galati 69 0.12 0.21 0.20 0.17 0.15 0.09 0.03 0.97
Rauseni 62 0.03 0.20 0.14 0.17 0.11 0.06 0.03 0.74
Tecuci 60 0.09 0.12 0.08 0.12 0.08 0.12 0.61
Focsani 57 0.09 0.36 0.23 0.23 0.14 0.05 1.09
Maicanesti 18 0.23 0.14 0.13 0.50

46
Table 2. Monthly average number of days with hail registered on rainfall stations
between 1967-1998
Altitude Month
Name of station Sum
(m) II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI
Dersca 370 0.33 0.13 0.33 0.79
Bacesti 292 0.12 0.08 0.20
Poieni 265 0.19 0.16 0.26 0.23 0.1 0.03 0.06 0.03 1.06
Certesti 255 0.14 0.24 0.07 0.07 0.52
Averesti 255 0.18 0.39 0.27 0.03 0.12 0.03 1.03
Boghicea 254 0.27 0.18 0.18 0.27 0.18 0.09 1.18
Tudora 250 0.09 0.23 0.14 0.03 0.03 0.52
Madirjac 250 0.16 0.25 0.25 0.13 0.06 0.06 0.91
Gherghesti 250 0.05 0.14 0.19
Motoseni 235 0.06 0.08 0.14
Girceni 225 0.06 0.09 0.22 0.06 0.03 0.47
Malusteni 225 0.16 0.36 0.28 0.28 0.08 0.12 0.04 0.04 1.36
Cristesti 220 0.15 0.24 0.32 0.30 0.29 0.06 1.36
Vaculesti 220 0.03 0.16 0.13 0.35 0.03 0.70
Stanita 220 0.05 0.23 0.32 0.18 0.09 0.86
Parincea 205 0.20 0.53 0.67 0.07 0.07 1.53
Gohor 200 0.12 0.18 0.29 0.19 0.78
Havirna 200 0.08 0.28 0.12 0.04 0.08 0.60
Dobrovat 200 0.03 0.03 0.16 0.03 0.16 0.41
Manzaţi 200 0.08 0.08
Al. Vlahuta 200 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.12
Podu Turcului 200 0.17 0.17 0.33 0.33 1.00
Pomirla 190 0.03 0.09 0.23 0.23 0.20 0.03 0.81
Grajduri 190 0.14 0.18 0.5 0.36
Draguseni 185 0.06 0.03 0.16 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.42
Huruiesti 185 0.13 0.25 0.75 0.25 0.13 0.13 1.63
Virlezi 180 0.03 0.13 0.20 0.20 0.07 0.03 0.66
Suharau 175 0.10 0.31 0.31 0.33 0.13 0.08 0.03 1.29
Tibanesti 175 0.12 0.27 0.15 0.03 0.58
Coarnele Caprei 165 0.09 0.13 0.34 0.13 0.13 0.82
Viisoara 165 0.13 0.23 0.17 0.27 0.07 0.87
Baleni 160 0.03 0.20 0.13 0.23 0.20 0.03 0.07 0.89
Pungesti 160 0.06 0.06 0.09 0.22 0.09 0.09 0.03 0.66
Vorniceni 150 0.16 0.19 0.34 0.13 0.03 0.03 0.88
Mogosesti 150 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.22 0.06 0.03 0.06 0.55
Laza 150 0.08 0.08 0.12 0.15 0.19 0.04 0.08 0.74
Rosiesti-Gara 150 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.18 0.04 0.44
Vutcani 150 0.05 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.24
Mileanca 145 0.06 0.23 0.11 0.09 0.06 0.03 0.58
Hirlau 140 0.06 0.35 0.23 0.19 0.03 0.86
N.Balcescu 135 0.03 0.09 0.09 0.06 0.09 0.36
Codaesti 134 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.08 0.32
Suletea 130 0.03 0.09 0.13 0.13 0.06 0.03 0.47
Voinesti 125 0.03 0.19 0.25 0.42 0.22 0.11 0.03 0.03 0.03 1.34
Corod 120 0.11 0.13 0.2 0.1 0.03 0.03 0.61
Nicoresti 120 0.03 0.03 0.22 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.06 0.91
Gorbanesti 120 0.03 0.06 0.10 0.03 0.22
Solesti 120 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.12 0.08 0.42
Roma 105 0.07 0.26 0.16 0.05 0.02 0.56
Radauti-Prut 101 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.09 0.03 0.24
Larga Jijia 100 0.03 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.31

47
Table 2, continuation
Altitude Month
Name of station Sum
(m) II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI
Mitoc 95 0.09 0.06 0.09 0.03 0.27
Santa Mare 95 0.05 0.14 0.24 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.57
Raducaneni 95 0.09 0.15 0.09 0.06 0.39
Cudalbi 90 0.03 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.31
Ripiceni 90 0.03 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.31
Ungureni 90 0.12 0.09 0.06 0.12 0.09 0.48
Tg Frumos 90 0.03 0.08 0.11 0.11 0.19 0.08 0.60
Plugari 80 0.11 0.20 0.17 0.11 0.06 0.65
Grivita 75 0.03 0.03 0.29 0.19 0.16 0.13 0.82
Bivolari 65 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.12
Chiscareni 60 0.14 0.29 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.55
Frasuleni 60 0.04 0.32 0.16 0.08 0.08 0.68
Ghidigeni 50 0.14 0.07 0.25 0.04 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.64
Oancea 47 0.06 0.16 0.03 0.09 0.34
Tg. Bujor 45 0.04 0.04 0.11 0.15 0.04 0.38
Cavadinesti 45 0.10 0.15 0.10 0.35
Pechea 40 0.03 0.06 0.21 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.42
Ungheni 40 0.04 0.15 0.07 0.22 0.07 0.04 0.59
Lunca Banului 35 0.03 0.17 0.24 0.07 0.07 0.03 0.61
Piscu 30 0.22 0.19 0.19 0.15 0.04 0.79
Schela 30 0.14 0.17 0.21 0.07 0.59
Grozesti 30 0.08 0.44 0.32 0.32 0.12 0.04 1.32
Berezeni 30 0.06 0.13 0.19
Firtanesti 25 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.16
Frumusita 25 0.03 0.03 0.15 0.06 0.03 0.30
Fălciu 25 0.18 0.18
Sendreni 20 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.15
Umbraresti 20 0.09 0.32 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.68

The analyzed material showed that on the territory of Moldavia, between


the Siret and Prut rivers, in the period 1967 - 1998, there were an average of 0.08
days with hail per year tat Mânzaţi and 1.63 days with hail per year at Huruieşti
(Table 1, 2).
The relatively small area of land registers significant regional variations in
the average annual number of days with hail. The solar radiation, the general
atmospheric circulation, characteristic from the western sector area especially in
the first part of the warm semester, in correlation with the local geographic factors
determine the differences in the hail’s distribution manifested on the territory of
Moldavia between the Siret and Prut rivers (Fig. 1).
The high frequency of hail in the areas in the west and center of the
territory is explained by the presence of slopes located in the path of the
advancement of the air masses with a pronounced character of instability, which
causes forced upward movements, resulting in Cumulonimbus clouds of which
precipitations as rain showers and hail fall (Machidon, 2009) [2]. High values of
hail frequency can be locally observed around the major urban centers, where
thermal convection is more active, so that vertical upward currents of dynamic
origin were mostly boosted by diurnal thermal convection currents (Machidon,

48
Fig. 1. Distribution of the average annual number of days with hail in Moldavia
between the Siret and Prut rivers (1967-1998)

49
2006) [1]. No doubt that air pollution significantly contributed to these high values,
by increasing the number of condensation nuclei in the urban atmosphere, with an
important role in the genesis of cumuliform clouds, of rain and hail. The dynamics
of air masses, and especially the local context in which it takes place, causes wind
generation with a föhn character present in the areas of the Moldavian Central
Plateau and Tutovei Hills. These warmer and drier winds are able to contribute to
the recording of averages of less than 0.5 days with hail per year (Fig. 1).

2. TEMPORAL ANALYSIS

If we look at the moving average graphics, calculated on 10-years shifted

Fig. 2. The moving average graphics, calculated on 10-years shifted by one year,
of the hail phenomenon at the climatological weather stations between 1961 – 2010

50
Fig. 3. The moving average graphics, calculated on 10-years shifted by one year,
of the hail phenomenon at the climatological weather stations between 1961 – 2010

by one year at the weather stations between 1961-2010, we can notice that it is very
difficult to detect trends, as we are dealing with local factors (Fig. 2, 3).

3. CONCLUSIONS
The highest frequency of hail in areas between the Siret and Prut rivers in
the studied period was encountered in high altitude areas. High frequencies were
registered in the western high areas (the interfluve between the hydrograpic basins
51
of the Siret and Prut rivers and of the Bârlad respectively) then on west-east strips
on height strings (Bour-Ibăneşti Hills, Copalău-Cozancea Hills, to a small extent
the Jijia-Bahlui interfluve, the Iaşi Slope, the Racova Slope-Lohan Hills). High
frequencies (1.02-1.09 days) were also found in big urban centers.
The lowest average values of the number of days with hail were registered
in the western sheltered areas, with a föhn character also in the Prut meadow and in
the Stânca-Ştefăneşti Lake area (due to descending air currents, especially in spring
and at the beginning os summer).
On the whole, in the area between the Siret and Prut rivers a low frequency
of hail is registered compared to the rest of the country’s territory. The lowest
values are similar to those of the area of the minimum values in Romania, the
Danube Delta.
Between 1967 - 1998, the hail phenomenon occurred frequently especially
during the hot season, in May, June and July when a maximum number of days
with hail was recorded. When we analyze the frequency of days with hail we
discover that most days with hail are possible in the months of May, June and July.
From the moving average graphic, calculated on 10-years shifted by
one year of hail phenomenon at the climatological weather stations between 1961
– 2010, it results that the trend line is descending at more than half of the
climatological weather stations.
Usually, regularities are observed and that means that the number of days
with hail increases with altitude and absolute humidity of air. Often this
phenomenon is difficult to explain, the occurrence of hail depending on the
particular individual characteristics of atmospheric fronts in relation to landscape
morphology.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

O. Machidon is supported by a POSDRU grant /89/1.5/S/49944,


“Developing the innovation capacity and improving the impact of research through
post-doctoral programs”, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Iasi.

REFERENCES

1. Machidon, O. (2006), The necessity and opportunity of the protection from


hailstorms in the departments of Vrancea and Galati, Present Environment and
Sustainable Development, vol. III, Editura Univ. „Al. I. Cuza”Iaşi, 2007.
2. Machidon, O. (2009), Fenomenul de grindină în bazinul hudrografic Bârlad, Teză
de doctorat, Fac. de Geografie-Geologie, Univ. “Al. I. Cuza”, Iaşi.
3. *** (2008), Clima României, Editura Academiei Române
4. *** (1961-2010), Meteorological Tables TM 1, TM 2, TM 11,TM 12, National
Meteorological Administration of Romania.

52
CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATERS
BY RUNOFF WATER FROM A CATTLE FARM AT FALENTY,
POLAND

S.RUSSEL1, L.ROSSA2

ABSTRACT. – Contamination of surface and ground waters by runoff water


from a cattle farm at Falenty, Poland. The paper presents the results of the
analysis of runoff water from a cattle farm at Falenty near Warsaw, Poland. The
water samples came from two wells collecting the outflow, the nearest draining
ditch and the nearest stream. The sampling frequency was higher in the rain
periods. The reaction, conductivity, COD, concentration of ammonia, nitrite, and
nitrate nitrogen, as well as phosphates was determined. Additionally, the total
quantity of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, fungi, Proteus sp., sulphide
reducing bacteria and the coliform index was also counted. Results showed an
increased level of COD and higher concentration of phosphate ions in the
rainwater in the area of the farmyard. Relatively high microbiological indexes
were also observed. During periods with rain, the values of the biochemical
demand for oxygen (COD) and concentration of phosphate ions exceeded the
thresholds for flowing waters.

Keywords: water contamination, runoff water, cattle farm

1. INTRODUCTION

Inflow of pollutants from farmlands is one of the causes of the


deterioration of surface waters. Sources of runoff pollutants commonly occur in
rural settlements. Studies carried out by the Institute of Technology and Life
Science in Falenty between 1999-2001 indicated a significant inflow of organic
pollutants from villages where cattle was reared (Rossa, Sikorski 2006). Significant
concentration of different sources of organic, biogenic and also toxic pollutants
occurs in areas of cattle farms (Doruchowski, Hołownicki 2003; Sapek, Sapek,
Pietrzak 2000). In various types of rearing farms, increased pollution of soil and
groundwater was noted near livestock buildings and storage places of natural
fertilizers (Rossa 2003; Sapek 2002).
The presented studies were focused on determining the actual
concentrations of pollutants in rainwater runoff from two cattle farms differing in
the size of cattle herds and its influence on the quality of surface and groundwater.
The study included collecting samples and their analysis from wells and storm-
water drainage collectors, from streams acting as runoff receivers and two
piezometers.

53
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

The studies were carried out on rainwater sewage samples from the
experimental farm of the Institute of Technology and Life Science in Falenty.
The farm (Fig. 1) is located in the Mazovian voivodship, in the Pruszków
county, Raszyn district. It lies within the Mazovian Lowland in the Raszynka
drainage basin in the Utrata and Bzura catchment area. The surface of the area is
flat, with the medium elevation at 112 m a.s.l. The groundwater level occurs at 1 to
3 m below surface level. Soils of the area are developed from loam and loamy sand
and gravel. They are represented by podzols and combisols.
The study object was a 1100 m2 fragment of the yard, adjacent to a shed
with 10 tractors. To the south of the yard is located a cow-shed with 130 cows. The
cow-shed does not have a manure settling tank. The manure is directed through a
manure channel using a collecting well into a covered reservoir. After storage and
fermentation in the basin, manure is transported by a waste removal truck onto
pastures and occasionally also onto fields. The manure is removed every day from
the cow-shed.
For experimental purposes, a system of farmyard drainage was constructed
in 2009. Rainwater is directed on the surface to a 47-m long and  160 mm in
diameter PVC collecting channel built underground along the communication
route. The channel with a gradient of 1% and with inlets for rainwater, is connected
with a measuring reservoir comprising two wells made of reinforced concrete, of a
diameter 1.2 m each, distributed in series at the level of the well bottom. A
depression was made in the bottom of the second well facilitating removal of the
total volume of rainwater sewage from the measuring reservoir. In the case when
volume of the inflowing rainwater exceeds the working volume of both wells, the
water excess is directed through a  160 mm spillway into a retention-infiltration
reservoir with a working volume of 8. 0 m3, total depth of 1.20 m, working depth
of 0.60 m, 3 x 10 m in size and embankment gradient at 1:1. From this reservoir the
rainwater sewage is pumped out directly onto the neighbouring pastures.
A piezometer with a filter installed at the depth of 1. 70 m was located
beyond the rainwater reservoir towards the groundwater runoff in order to collect
groundwater samples.
Two effluent wells with a filter located above the groundwater level were
installed in 2007 for study purposes in the farm at Falenty. The wells were intended
to intake water from the aeration zone. The first was localized near the
communication route and the second – beyond the dewatered area in a depression
along the cattle route.

54
14
13
3 2
12 11

4
5

10
5

6 7

8 9

0 100
Fig. 1. Scheme of sampling sites in the Experimental Farm at Falenty 1 – hardened
surface, 2 – cow-shed, 3 – umbrella roof for cattle, 4 – machine repair stand, 5 –
garages, 6 – workshop, 7 – umbrella roof for agricultural machinery, 8 – calf shed, 9 –
warehouse, 10 – office building, 11 – storm water channel, 12 – measurement wells, 13 –
rainwater tank, 14 – piezometer, 15 – well with filter placed above groundwater level

Samples for physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis were collected


according to the requirements of polish norm PN-EN 25667-2 with increased
frequency during the rain periods, as well as for comparison in the rainless periods
from seven control points:
 effluent well located in the farmyard near the communication route,
 effluent well located in the depression near the cattle route,
 the nearest ditch that at heavy rainfall incidentally dewaters the area of the
farm,
 an eastern stream flowing from Laszczki, capturing runoff water,
 well of the measuring point in 2009,
 piezometer located beyond the measuring point in 2009.

55
The following physical and chemical indexes were determined in the
collected samples of rainfall sewage, surface and groundwater: conductivity,
COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), concentration of phosphates and ammonium,
nitrite and nitrate nitrogen. The chemical analysis included also measurement of
concentration of heavy metals, higher aromatic hydrocarbons and the sum of
chloroorganic pesticides. Moreover, total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic
bacteria, number of fungi, MPN(Most Probably Number) of sulphate reducing
bacteria, number of representatives of genera Proteus sp. and Coli index were
determined.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The analysis comprised fourteen series of samples collected in 2009-2010. Table 1


shows the minimal, maximal and average values of the physical and chemical
indexes determined in the rainwater runoff and in the surface and groundwater of
the farm.
Table 1. Average, minimal and maximal values of conductivity (µS·cm-2), chemical
oxygen demand (COD) (mgO2·dm-3) and concentrations of nitrate, ammonia, and nitrite
nitrogen, and phosphorus in phosphates (mg·dm-3). Increased values are in the II class
quality threshold according to polish Regulation of the Ministry of Environmental
Protection from 2008.

Measurement point
mgN-NO3·dm3

mgN-NH4·dm3

mgN-NO2·dm3
Conductivity

mgPO4·dm3
mgO2·dm-3
µS·cm-2

N-NO3

N-NH4

N-NO2
COD

PO4
pH

Xmin 6.00 125.00 0.22 0.08 0.19 0.02 1.21


Well located in farmyard Xmax 7.50 1287.00 339.27 26.70 2.69 0.75 16.60
Xav 6.75 483.87 132.78 3.99 0.91 0.18 7.27
Xmin 6.22 258.00 0.22 0.00 0.18 0.00 1.75
Well located near cattle
route Xmax 7.04 1960.00 228.55 4.70 5.25 0.44 18.60
Xav 6.74 1043.38 80.05 2.04 1.18 0.10 6.48
Xmin 6.00 125.00 0.20 0.00 0.20 0.00 1.80
Nearest draining channel Xmax 7.46 1918.00 208.60 3.80 5.30 0.40 18.60
Xav 6.96 775.47 80.59 1.72 1.61 0.08 6.93
Xmin 6.50 226.00 0.22 0.00 0.16 0.01 2.45
Nearest stream Xmax 7.88 1940.00 261.44 6.80 4.30 0.86 20.10
Xav 6.99 915.24 87.12 2.07 1.73 0.11 8.98
Xmin 6.10 193.00 16.70 0.20 1.10 0.08 0.97
Well on measuring point Xmax 7.60 692.00 317.90 1.35 5.80 0.35 10.90
Xav 6.90 373.00 135.77 0.81 2.40 0.18 5.88
Xmin 6.56 320.00 0.22 1.15 0.35 0.02 1.84
Piezometer Xmax 7.10 1454.00 194.15 8.10 0.64 0.24 3.90
Xav 6.72 849.25 74.75 4.81 0.45 0.08 2.44

Most indexes reached the highest values in the water collected from the
well located in the farmyard and from the well on the measuring point – i.e. in the
rainwater runoff. Water from the ditch had the highest conductivity values, which

56
points to the presence of mineral compounds, and water from the sewage well had
the highest COD values, indicating organic pollution. Decrease of COD values in
the ditch water may be linked with the influence of vegetation and soil.
The distribution of the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and phosphates
was different; the highest values were noted in surface waters.
The lowest values of the indexes were noted in the water from the
piezometer. However, due to the average phosphate concentration, the water did
not meet the thresholds of class II of groundwater according to the polish
Regulation of the Ministry of Environmental Protection from 23.07.2008, Dz.U.
2008.143.896.
Exceeded values were noted for the average COD level and average
concentrations of phosphates meeting the thresholds for class II of groundwater
(Order MOŚ/143). The regulation does not state the threshold values for the
remaining classes of surface water quality. Comparison with the threshold values
stated for the last class of water with permissible quality in the previously valid
regulation gives similar values (Order MOŚ/143).
The average COD values in rainwater sewage collected from the sewage
well exceed the levels permissible for sewage discharged to water and soil (Order
MOŚ/137).
A seasonal variability has been observed in the values of conductivity,
COD and concentrations of nitrate and ammonia nitrogen. COD and ammonia
nitrogen concentration values were higher in spring and autumn. The highest
concentrations of nitrate nitrogen were noted in spring and summer.
The total pollution of water reflected in the conductivity values
significantly increased during spring thaws.
Table 2 shows the minimal, maximal and average values of
microbiological indexes determined in the studied samples of surface and
groundwater in Falenty.
The highest content of mesophilic bacteria was noted in water from the
effluent wells. In turn, rainwater sewage indicated the highest total content of fungi
and the highest probable content of sulphate reducing bacteria and bacteria
representing Proteus sp.
The average vales of the Coli index are maintained at the level of 10-
2 -3
-10 , but the highest values of the Coli index in water samples collected
during several years from the dewatering ditches reached 10-4. There was a
significant dispersion of the results of microbiological indexes, but seasonal
changes were not observed. The highest sanitary pollution of the studied
water samples was observed during the rainless season, which can be
explained by the lack of groundwater exchange and a low state of surface
waters.

57
Table 2. Average, minimal and maximal values of the total number of psychrophilic
bacteria in 1 cm3, total number of mesophilic bacteria in 1 cm3, total number of fungi
in 1 cm3, sulphate reducing bacteria (MPN), Proteus and Coli index.

MPN content of sulphate


Total content of fungi in
philic bacteria in 1 cm3
psychrophillic bacteria

Total content of meso-

reducing bacteria
Total content of
Measurement point

Proteus index

Coli index
in 1 cm3

1 cm3
Xmin 3.00x104 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00x10-4 0.00
Well located in
Xmax 9.75x107 1.80x106 6.70x103 140.00 1.00x10-2 1.00x10-2
farmyard
Xav 1.02x107 7.51x105 1.79x103 56.67 1.00x10-3 1.00x10-3
Xmin 6.00x104 5.00x105 2x102 25.00 1.00x10-4 1.00x10-4
Well located near
Xmax 6.70x105 1.76x106 1.60x103 140.00 1.00x10-3 1.00x10-2
cattle route
Xav 3.50x105 1.15x106 7.75x102 80.00 1.00x10-4 1.00x10-3
Xmin 1.10x105 0.00 3.00x102 0.00 1.00x10-5 1.00x10-3
Nearest draining
Xmax 2.83x107 2.59x107 8.45x106 140.00 1.00x10-1 1.00x10-2
channel
Xav 2.99x106 2.96x106 7.69x105 61.25 1.00x10-2 2.00x10-3
Xmin 1.00x104 8.00x105 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Nearest stream Xmax 7.50x105 6.90x106 1.90x104 110.00 1.00x10-2 1.00x10-2
Xav 1.00x105 7.68x105 6.33x102 47.23 1.00x10-3 1.00x10-3
Well on measuring
1.04x104 9.5x105 0.00 321 1.5x10-6 1.00x10-3
point
4 4 -3
Piezometer 4.15x10 0.00 2.95x10 1.00x10 0.00

The values of the analyzed microbiological indicators were also higher in


water samples collected in autumn during continuous rainfall; particularly high was
the total content of psychrophilic bacteria. Water samples from effluent wells in the
farmyard of the Institute of Technology and Life Science in Falenty fulfil the
sanitary conditions of sewage discharged to water and soil, because bacteria of the
Salmonella group were not noted in them.
The first series of determinations of toxic and hazardous substances was
carried out; the results are presented in Table 3.
The content of higher aromatic hydrocarbons and oil-derived substances in
rainfall sewage from the farmyard in Falenty was shown to exceed the permissible
norms. Likewise were noted exceeded concentrations of zinc in the stream
capturing the runoff in Falenty.
A higher pollution of samples of rainfall sewage collected from systems of the
storm-water drainage was noted in relation to the samples collected from the
streams. At present, polish legal acts supply norms for only two parameters of
rainfall sewage: suspension up to 100 mg·dm-3 and oil-derived substances up to 15
mg·dm-3.The remaining parameters were therefore compared with the requirements
for purified communal sewage, which, however, does not reflect the actual
pollution of rainfall sewage.
The results of the first series of analysis of toxic and hazardous substances
may suggest exceeded pollution of the runoff from the Falenty farms. The values of
concentrations of some higher aromatic hydrocarbons exceed ten times the norms
permissible for surface waters (Order MOŚ/162).

58
Table 3. Concentration of chlorine-organic pesticides (µg·dm3), heavy metals (µg·dm3),
oil-derived substances (mg·dm3) and higher aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples
collected from the farm.
Well on measuring point in
Measurement point Stream from Laszczki in Falenty
Falenty
1 2 3
Sum of chlorine-organic pesticides <0.01 <0.01
Oil-derived substances 0.6 0.5
Mercury Hg <0.01 <0.01
Lead Pb 0.06 <0.02
Cadmium Cd <0.001 <0.001
Nickel Ni <0.02 <0.02
Zinc Zn 0.32 0.02
Copper Cu 0.05 <0.005
Chromium Cr <0.02 <0.02
Fluorene 0.0319 0.0146
Fenantrene 0.2996 0.0308
Antracene 0.0695 0.0025
Fluoroantene 0.8007 0.0233
Pirene 0.6409 0.0182
Benzo(a)antracene 0.2548 0.0048
chryzene 0.0620 0.0010
Benzo(b)fluorontene 0.4979 0.0085
Benzo(k)fluorontene 0.2294 0.0037
Benzo(a)pirene 0.4861 0.0082
Dibenzo(a,h)antracene 0.1707 <0.0004
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene 0.3184 0.0052
Indeno(1,2,3cd)pirene 0.3778 0.0078
Sum 4.2397 0.1286

4. CONCLUSIONS
Analysis of the studies carried out in 2007-2009 allows formulating
the following conclusions:
• Rainwater from the farmyards of the cattle farms in Falenty
discharges large quantities of organic compounds, nitrate nitrogen
and phosphates. However, the average concentrations of these
compounds and COD values do not exceed the values permissible
for sewage discharged to water and soil, but are higher than the
recently determined threshold values for the quality classes of
flowing water.
• COD values and phosphate concentrations in the ditch and stream
receiving rainwater runoff from the area of the Institute of
Technology and Life Science in Falenty exceed the recently
determined threshold values for the quality classes of flowing water.
59
• Chemical pollution of groundwater from the first aquifer horizon
does not exceed the permissible norms.
• Increased values of some microbiological indexes may suggest
sanitary hazard posed on the water environment by the inflow of
rainfall sewage due to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms.

REFERENCES

1. Doruchowski G., Hołownicki R. (2003), Przyczyny i zapobieganie skażeniom wód


i gleby wynikającym ze stosowania środków ochrony roślin. Zesz. Eduk. z. 9, s.
96-115, IMUZ – Falenty.
2. Rossa L. (2003), Zanieczyszczenia wody gruntowej w bezpośrednim sąsiedztwie
obiektów hodowlanych Zakładu doświadczalnego w Falentach. Woda Środ. Obsz.
Wiej. t. 3 z. spec. (6) s. 149-157, IMUZ-Falenty.
3. Rossa L., Sikorski M. (2006), Ocena stopnia zanieczyszczenia wód deszczowych
odprowadzanych z zabudowanych obszarów wiejskich. Ochrona Środowiska nr. 2
s. 47-52 PZiTS Wrocław.
4. Sapek B.: (2002), Jakość gleby i wody w gospodarstwach demonstracyjnych. Zesz.
Eduk. z. 7 s. 57-71. IMUZ-Falenty.
5. Sapek A., Sapek B., Pietrzak S. (2005), Rola produkcji zwierzęcej w rozpraszaniu
składników nawozowych z rolnictwa do środowiska. Dobre Praktyki w rolnictwie,
sposoby ograniczania zanieczyszczeń wód. S. 5-31. RCDRRiOW Przysiek.
6. ***(2006), Rozporządzenie Ministra Ochrony Środowiska z dnia 24 lipca 2006 r.
w sprawie warunków, jakie należy spełnić przy wprowadzaniu ścieków do wód lub
do ziemi, oraz w sprawie substancji szczególnie szkodliwych dla środowiska
wodnego Dz. U. 137 p. 984 z 2006 r.
7. ***(2008), Rozporządzenie Ministra Ochrony Środowiska z 23.07.2008 w sprawie
kryteriów i sposobów oceny stanu wód podziemnych Dz. U. 143 p. 896 z 2008 r.
8. ***(2008), Rozporządzenie Ministra Ochrony Środowiska z dnia 20 sierpnia 2008
r. w sprawie sposobu klasyfikacji stanu jednolitych części wód powierzchniowych
Dz. U. 162 p. 1008 z 2008 r.

The paper was supported by grant nr NN 305036934 KBN (Committee of Scientific


Research)

60
ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS ON ENERGY
ALTERNATIVES FOR A CLEAN AIR – WIND FARMS

PAUL CALANTER1, OCTAVIAN SERBAN1, ANCA DRAGOMIR2

ABSTRACT. - Economic and environmental aspects on energy alternatives


for a clean air – wind farms. Wind energy represents an increasingly more
attractive alternative in Romania. Regulations concern investment and operation
of installations, but also energy recovery and environmental protection. Wind
farms development, sustained by landscape, wind speed distribution and investors
financial promotion, competes with the prudence imposed by the potential
environmental impact (biodiversity, microclimate, etc), and the lack of historical
data and information structuring. Adequate organization and dissemination of
relevant information might be valuable for investors and sustainable development
strategies.

Keywords: “atmosphere protection“, “wind energy”, “environmental data”, and


“impact”

1. INTRODUCTION

Fossil fuels combustion in energy sector has a major contribution to the


generation of greenhouse gases emissions (GHG) - mainly carbon dioxide.
Emissions reduction represents an important mean to protect the environment and
to improve the health status of the population - the major requirement in the
context of a sustainable development strategy – knowing the association of the
greenhouse effect with climate change.
On the other hand, fossil fuels are limited and expensive resources.
According to the Romanian National Agency for Mineral Resources (2009), under
the current extraction level the national oil and gas resources are industrial
exploitable for 15 years, while coal would be available for about 30 years.
At present, the alternative of renewable energy – solar, wind, geothermal,
hydro, and biomass - becomes more and more attractive at global scale. The use of
renewable energy offers a "clean" alternative for energy production, which allows
considerable reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases and also fossil fuel
savings.
By ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, Romania has undertaken to reduce in
2008-2012 the GHG emission levels by 8% compared to the level of 1989, its
reference year. By the Decision No 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament on
the effort of Member States to reduce GHG emissions so as to comply with the
1
The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies – Doctoral School, 11, Take Ionescu Street, Sector 1,
Bucharest
2
SC CEPSTRA GRUP SRL, 15 Anibal Teohari, Sector 5, Bucharest

61
commitments of the Community for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases until
2020, Romania has a limit for greenhouse gas emissions of +19% compared to the
GHG emission levels in 2005.
According with the provisions of 2009/28/EC Directive on the promotion
of the use of energy from renewable sources, Romania as Member State has a
target allocation, at the level of the year 2020 of 24% share of energy from
renewable sources in the gross final consumption, representing a growth of 6.2%
compared to the year of reference 2005 (the reference value for 2005 was 17.8%).

2. WIND ENERGY POTENTIAL IN ROMANIA IN TERMS OF RE-


NEWABLE ENERGY USE AND GHG EMISSIONS REDUCTION

2.1 Wind Energy Potential in Romania


Romania's energy strategy has been developed for 2007-2020. The general
objective of the strategy for the energy sector is to satisfy the requirements of
energy – in the present and for the medium and long term - at a suitable price, for a
modern economy and a civilized standard of life, in terms of quality, safety, while
complying to the principles of a sustainable development.
One of the priority objectives of Romanian policy for the energy sector is
promoting the valorization of renewable energy sources (RES), Romania having a
total potential of energy renewable sources evaluated and published since 2003.

Table 1. The national technical potential of renewable sources of energy in Romania


Annual Equivalent energy
Source potential economy Application
(Thousand toe)
60 x 106 GJ 1433 Thermal energy
Solar energy
1200 GWh 103.2 Electric power
Energy from wind
23 x 103 GWh 1978 Electric power
(theoretic potential)
3
Hydro energy 40 x 10 GWh 3440 Electric power
Thermal energy
Biomass and biogas 318 x 106 GJ 7591
Electric power
6
Geothermal energy 7 x 10 GJ 167 Thermal energy
Source: GD no. 1535/2003 - “Strategy for the Promotion of Renewable Sources
of Energy”

It can be noticed the wind energy potential in energy power generation


from renewable sources could reach a theoretical maximum of 13.4 %.

62
Table 2. The objectives, forecasts and achievements at national level for the use of rene-
wable energy sources
Unit 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2010 2015 2020
The evolution of final consumption of energy
Final
Thousand
consumptio 25498 24768 24768 24022 25303 23056 25537 28507
toe
n of energy
Gross final
Thousand
consumption 27970 27041 27246 26486 27673 25246 27966 31212
toe
of energy
Energy Thousand
4479 4921 4635 4658 5279 4807 5758 7491
from RES toe
Proportion
of energy
% 16.01 18.2 17.01 17.59 19.08 19.04 20.59 24
from RES
in total
Source: Provisional document in the field of Energy from renewable sources, 2010 & GD
no. 1535/2003 - “Strategy for the Promotion of Renewable Sources of Energy”
According to the Provisional document in the field of Energy from
renewable sources, 2010, to properly fulfill the objective for the year 2020,
Romania will have to use 63.5% of the total available potential of renewable
energy sources. *** (2010)
Wind energy use is relatively recent in Romania. The trend and forecast for
the installed capacity and electric power production is presented in table 3.
Table 3. Evolution on installed capacity and electric power production using wind energy
2005 2008 2010 2015 2020
Installed power capacity (MW) 1.320 5.222 560 3200 4000
Electricity Production (GWh) 0.227 4.978 460 6614 8400
Source: Provisional document in the field of Energy from renewable sources, 2010 & GD
no. 1535/2003 - “Strategy for the Promotion of Renewable Sources of Energy”
2.2. Estimated GHG Emissions Reduction
Energy represents the most important sector in Romania in terms of GHG
emissions. The Energy sector accounted for 66.7% of the total national GHG
emissions in 2008 (without LULUCF).
Table 4. Greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector
Category ID Category name Base year (1989) 2008
1 1. Energy 188410.3 101991.4
1.A.1 1.A.1. Energy industries 106310.3 47584.8
1.A.2 1.A.2. Man. industries and construction 37551.0 18157.4
1.A.3 1.A.3. Transport 5815.1 14683.6
1.A.4 1.A.4. Other sectors 10540.8 10921.9
1.A.5 1.A.5. Other NA. NE NA. NE
1.B 1.B. Fugitive emissions 28193.1 10643.7
Source: UNFCCC Database

63
The GHG emissions from the energy sector decreased in 2008 with 45.87%
compared with the base year.
To estimate the GHG emissions reduction in Romania as a result of the use
of wind energy, there were calculated the emissions resulting from the combustion
of equivalent quantities of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, fuel oil), to obtain the
same quantity of energy. The calculation of the significant GHG emissions (CO2,
CH4 and N2O), strictly for the fuels combustion process was developed based on
2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

Table 5. Evaluation of GHG emissions reduction by using Romania’s potential of wind energy
Thousand tones of CO2 equiv
Energy production
Sector replaced annually
Wind energy
Thousand Liquid
(GW h) Lignite Natural gas
toe fuels
Annual theoretical
Electric
potential of wind 23000 1978 8332 4626 6059
power
energy
2008 Electricity Electric
4.978 0.428 1.8 1.00 1.31
production power
Electric
2010 Forecast 460 39.56 166.44 93 121
power
Electric
2015 Forecast 6614 568.8 2396 1330 1742
power
Electric
2020 Forecast 8400 722.4 3043 1689 2213
power
TOTAL GHG emissions reduction by using whole
61717 34389 44930
national energy potential of RES
TOTAL GHG emissions reduction by energy from RES
22110 12337 16102
achieved in 2008

These calculated values could be actually corrected in the sense of an


additional reduction as a result of GHG emissions “saved” from the fossil fuels
extraction, preparation and distribution.
It can be seen that the GHG emissions in 2008 where actually smaller with
about 12 to 20% due to the use of SRE, but the share of wind energy was quite
insignificant.
Even though the use of the entire national wind energy potential could
determine a significant GHG emissions reduction, the technology, infrastructure
and environmental restrictions limits wind energy valorization.

64
3. WIND FARM
INVESTMENS
Because of its geographical
position, Romania has a
temperate to continental
climate, also influenced by
its varied topography.
Accordingly, there have
been delimited 5 wind
areas, taking into account
the wind energy potential
50 meters above ground and
higher.
The wind maps
presented in figure 1, show
a generally high energy Source: ICEMENERG
potential, especially along
the Black Sea Coast (on-
shore and off-shore) where
the climate is mild, and in
the alpine area where the
climate is severe.
Despite this general
favorable picture, the area
available for wind farms
location is actually smaller
due to various limitations,
imposed by environmental
factors, especially the
biodiversity concern and
severe climate conditions.
Figure 2 illustrates
the defined exclusion areas
obtained by overlapping the Source: http://www.unesco.pub.ro
thematic layers representing Figure 1. Maps of wind potential in Romania
birds Special Protection
Areas (SPA), Sites of Community Interest (SCI), national reservations, parks and the
Carpathians Protection Convention limit, but also the bioregions and major rivers.
The alpine area was defined as an exclusion area due to its rough climate,
with long periods of low temperature and icy conditions, and also difficult to reach.
Also, the on-shore pontic bioregion is entirely covered by the SPA and SCI
delimited by the environmental authority, as it offers favorable living conditions
for wild flora and fauna. The banks of the major rivers are also proposed as
exclusion areas as they are both wild life supporting and provide bird’s orientation
guidance and resting places during migrations.

65
Source of thematic layers: NEPA Biodiversity
Figure 2. Biogeographically exclusion areas

Beyond the fact that the investments in wind farms seems to be financially
attractive, the overview of the available locations is not updated with general
exclusion areas related to military, aviation and communications buffered zone(s),
and due to other existing or under authorization projects.
Also, the allowable/available options for the connection to the national
electric network should be made available.

4. CONCLUSIONS
Romania has significant wind energy potential. Valorization of this
potential would “save” the fossil fuels limited resources and would considerably
reduce GHG emissions, contributing to the climate change mitigation efforts.
Assuming the simplifying hypothesis that the wind potential energy would
substitute an equivalent amount of energy generated by burning fossil fuels, there
were calculated the potential savings of GES emissions based on the IPCC 2006
methodology.
From the environmental point of view, there are not clear provisions
concerning the wind-farms allowable locations. A map of exclusion areas was
drawn by overlapping the layers corresponding to Natura 2000 areas, parks and
reservations, but also taking into account the major river courses as wild life
supporting. Additional exclusion areas are needed to draw the overall available
locations. Systemising and updating the information on environmental constraints
and changes occurring in the infrastructure can improve investors’ guidance on the
overview of available locating zones.

66
REFERENCES LIST

1. *** (2003) Hotărâre privind aprobarea Strategiei de valorificare a surselor


regenerabile de energie, HG nr. 1535 din 18/12/2003, publicat in Monitorul
Oficial, Partea I nr. 8 din 07/01/2004
2. IPCC, Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2006) Guidelines for
National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
3. *** (2010) DOCUMENT PREVIZIONAL(in conformitate cu articolul 4 (3) al
Directivei 2009/28/CE)
4. http://www.scienceline.ro, accessed on January, 31, 2011
5. http://solarsales.ro/potential-eolian-romania accessed on February, 1, 2011
6. http://www.nestarconstruct.ro/harta-vanturilor-din-romania accessed on February,
2, 2011
7. http://www.mmediu.ro/protectia_naturii/protectia_naturii.htm accessed on February,
3, 2011
8. http://www.romaniadigitala.ro/ro/paduri.php, accessed on February,3, 2011
9. http://www.showcaves.com/english/ro/region/Karst.html accessed on February, 3,
2011
10. http://www.aircraft-charter-world.com/airports/europe/romania.htm accessed on
February, 3, 2011

Acknowledgments
This work was co-financed from the European Social Fund through
Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013.
Project number POSDRU/107/1.5/S/77213 „Ph.D. for a career in interdisciplinary
economic research at the European standards” (DOCCENT).

67
ASSESSMENT OF WATER DEMANDS IN THE RURAL
SETTLEMENTS OF THE SOMEŞEAN PLATEAU

V. SOROCOVSCHI 1, HORVÁTH Cs.2

ABSTRACT. –Assessment of water demands in the rural settlements of the


Someşan Plateau. Through this paper we have evaluated four different water
demand calculations, which would allow the development of water supply
strategies on a short, medium and long term. Judging by the second variant of
calculation the total water needs of the localities, from the Someşean Plateau,
ranges from 40,9 l/s, for the first variant, to 199,4 l/s, in case of the second variant.
Water demand was estimated at administrative level (district, commune and
localities), for the main river basins and their related sub-basins, and also on a
geographical sub-units level. Regardless of the variant we used when calculating
the weight of units or analyzed subunits, this remains the same. For example, the
Cluj County holds 66.5% of the necessary water in the Someşean Plateau,
followed by the counties of Sălaj and Maramureş with 28.8% and 5.7%. The river
basins of Someş and Someşul Mic represent approximately equal weights (48.3%
and 48.6%), while the basin of Lăpuş is defined by a very small percentage. The
share that defines different administrative subunits, either geographical or
hydrographical, depends on the area, density and size of the related localities. The
share of water that belongs to each geographic subunit from the Someşean Plateau
ranges between 33.8% (in the Cluj Hills) and 6.3% (in the Sălătruc Hills). The
water volumes required annually by the Someşean Plateau localities oscillates
between 1288 m3, in the first case scenario and 6281 m3 in the fourth case. So, the
evaluated water volumes should be decreased, on average, by about 30%,
depending on the specific circumstances of the territories studied by taking into
account the unfavorable position of some towns to the main hydrographical
course, the size of settlements, as well as the opportunities of their future
development.

Key words: water necessity, specific water consumption, Someşean Plateau, rural
settlements

1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Integrant part of the Transylvanian Depression, the Someşean Plateau


represents the North – North-Western compartment of it, the most extended unit
from the three subdivisions of the Transylvanian Plateau. The geographic
individuality of the Someşean Plateau is imposed not only by the river network but

1
Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Geography, 5-7 Clinicilor Street,
400006. Cluj-Napoca, Romania. E-mail: sorocovschi@yahoo.com
2
Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Geography, 5-7 Clinicilor Street,
400006. Cluj-Napoca, Romania. E-mail: hcsaba@gmail.com

68
also by the relatively wet and cool climate, determined by the predominance of the
higher relief and the relatively easy advection of the western and north western air
masses through the “Poarta Someşană”.
Adding to these, the particularities of the bio-pedo-geographic cover,
manifested in the predominance of the forestry – predominantly maintained in the
high hills- and the luvisoils at different grades of argil-lluviation. Another
particularity of the region is the lack of cities, which are grouped in the Someşul
Mic Valley, and at the
confluence of the two Someş
Rivers, the Someşul Mic and
the Someşul Mare rivers.
The small and mid
sized rural settlements are
situated, in most cases, in the
major river valleys, in the
tributaries or at the inflow
basinets of these. According to
the particularities of the
geographic features, in the
Someşean Plateau, we can
delimitate more subdivisions
(Fig. 1).
The key elements
which were taken into
consideration at the assessment
of the present water needs were
the population numbers, the
number of small and large
animals, the economical
specifics and the social facilities
– utilities of the settlements.
In the assessment for
the population water needs
Fig. 1. Someşean Plateau main subdivisions (public and household needs)
there were considered the following four specific variants represented by four
contingency consumptions: 40 l/resident·day, 65 l/resident·day, 110 l/resident·day
and 195 l/resident·day.
In assessing the water need for the animals, there were considered the
following specific consumptions: 50 l / day for large animals and 8 l / day for small
animals. The total water requirement values, calculated for the four variants, in the
Someşean Plateau ranges between 40.9 l/s and 199.4 l/s.

69
2. WATER DEMAND AT COUNTY LEVEL

For the four mentioned alternatives, the water demand was computed at the
level of settlement, communes and the Someşean Plateau related counties.
The assessed water needs for the Someş Plateau in the four variants of
calculation varies between 40.9 l / s ( in the 1st variant) and 199.4 l / s (in the 4th
variant) (Table 1).

Tabel 1. Corresponding water demand variants


in the Someşean Plateau related counties
Water needs variants (l/s)
County
I II III IV
Cluj 26.796 43.543 73.689 130.630
Sălaj 11.755 19.101 32.325 57.304
Maramureş 2.344 3.808 6.445 11.425
Total 40.895 66.452 112.459 199.359

Regardless the computation variant, the percentage on the three counties


from the total water demand remains the same. Thus, Cluj County ranks first with
66.5% of the necessary water of the Someş Plateau, followed by the counties of
Salaj by 28.8% and Maramures with 5.7% (Fig. 2).

Mara- l/s
mureş 140
5.7%
120
100
80
Sălaj
28.8% 60
40
20 Cluj
0 Sălaj
Cluj
V1 Maramureş
65.5% V2 V3
V4

Fig. 2. Comparison of water needs Fig. 3. Water demand on county level assessed
on counties related to the with the four computation variants
Someşean Plateau

The differences between corresponding values for the extreme water needs
variants calculations, at the county level, are very large and can be provided in
stages. In Cluj County the difference between the mentioned computed variants is
103.8 l / s, and for the settlements related to Salaj county is 45.6 l / s (fig 3).

70
Analyzing the water demand measured at the parish level by the second
variant of calculation, it is noted that of all communes (39), only in two (Aghiresu
and Baciu) the water necessity is included in the range between 5 and 6 l / s.

In the water demand


interval of 3 and 4 l/s only one
5.1% commune (Căşeiu) is included, and
2.6% 12.8% between 2 and 3 l/s nine
communes, which represent 23.1 %
23.1% of the total demand. The most
communes are included in the water
39 demand interval of 1 and 2 l/s
(56.4%) and those included in the
interval of 0 and 1 l/s represent a
56.4% much smaller percent (fig. 4).
The weight of water
demand on different communes has
0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 5-6 been assessed also on the three
counties related to the Someşan
Fig.4. Communes weight assessed on the Plateau. This depends on two para-
water demand intervals meters which are closely correlated:
the area owned by the county in the
study area and the number of the involved communes. Of course, there are also
other parameters which intervene, included such as the number of population in the
commune center and villages, the morpho-logical features of the landscape etc. So,
the communes related to Cluj County are included in the five defined water
requirement intervals, but in area related to Salaj and Maramures counties there
were no communes in which the water demand exceeded 3 l / s or 2 l / s.
Whichever variant of calculation we use, the weight held from the water
demand, by communes in the Cluj County, is maintained between 0.02% (Apahida
represented by a single town) and 13.4% (Baciu). From the Cluj County water
necessity a large weight is assigned to Aghiresu (12.5%), Căşeiu (7.7%) and
Chinteni (5.3%) communes. Smaller percentages of 4 and 5 % have Chiueşti,
Gârbău, Sânpaul and Câţcău, also between 3 and 4 % the communes Vad, Bobâlna
and Aşchileu.
From the Salaj county water necessity, the communes of Gârbou, Gâlgău
and Ileanda each hold between 11 and 12%, and the percentages in the communes
Surduc (10.9%), Letca (10.6%) and Băbeni (9.3% ) are close to these. Lower
percentages, between 5 and 7%, occur in the communes of Cristolţ, Şimişna,
Poiana Blenchii, Zalha, Rus and Lozna (fig.5).
The communes of Maramures County, which are related to the Someşean
Plateau, are few and have weights ranging from 8,8% (Valea Chioarului) and
36.2% (Coroieni) from the total water demand. In the other two other communes
the weight is between 26 and 30%, Boiu Mare (28.7%) and Vima Mică (26.2%).

71
Lozna Zalha
Gârbou Rus
5.0% 5.8%
11.6% 5.3%
Gâlgău Poiana
11.2% Blenchii
5.9%

Ileanda Şimişna
11.2% 6.4%
Cristolţ
Surduc Băbeni 7.0%
10.9% Letca 9.3%
10.6%

Fig.5. Weight of communes, from the water demand,


assessed at the Sălaj County level.

Calculation of water demands at local level reveals a number of other


spatial and quantitative features, which are useful in determining the water supply
systems in the Someş Plateau. So, out of the total 215 localities, in nearly one
quarter (22.3%) the assessed water demand has values below 0.100 l/s and this may
be ensured in most cases from their own. The settlements included in this category
do not require their involvement in water supply systems. Exceptions are only
those that are in advantageous situation regarding the main supply network.
If we take into account that, localities with water demand between 0,100
and 0,200 l/s (24.2% of total) are located unfavorably regarding the water supply
network, the required water demand of the Someş Plateau rural areas are far
reduced from the first stage of evaluation.
The number of localities with water requirements greater than 0.200 l/s,
represent a little more than half of rural settlements of the Someşan Plateau
(53.5%).

3. WATER DEMAND COMPUTED AT WATERSHEDS LEVEL

The water demand for the four calculated variants was computed at the
level of the first-order watersheds of the major collectors (Someş, Smeşu Mic and
Lăpuş).
From the analysis of the total water requirement at the level of the three
major watersheds stands out the fact, that from the entire 66.391 l/s (2nd variant),
which represents the Someşean Plateau total water necessity, the Someş and
Someşului Mic watersheds have approximately equal weights (48,3 % and 48,6 %)
while the Lapus catchment represents only a very small percentage (3,1 %).
Whichever variant of calculation, the weights remain the same, only the total water
requirement values range between 40 856 l / s (variant I) and 199,175 l / s (variant
IV).

72
Codor Intefluviu
3.2% 5.8%
Mărului
3.8%

Lujerdiu
6.2% Fig. 6. Assessed water
demand related to the
Nadăş Someşul Mic River
Lonea 48.6%
11.4% catchment

Borşa
14.8%

Feiurdeni Valea
0.8% Caldă Chinteni
0.3% 5.1%

The assessed water needs in the Someşul Mic watershed (computed with
whichever variant), almost half is represented by the Nadăs basin (48.6%). This is
followed by the Borşa and Lone rivers, which hold between 10% and 15% of the
total water demand (Fig. 6). And lastly, with insignificant water demand appears
Valea Caldă and Feiurdeni (less than 1%).
Olpret
5.2%
Sălătruc
Interfluviu 15.0%
30.1%

Vad
3.4%

Fig. 7. Water demand


Poiana assessed in the
9.8% catchments related to
the Someş River
Brâglez
11.2% Şimişna
8.8%
Iapa
Cristolţel 2.7%
Lozna Ileanda
6.4%
2.3% 5.1%

From the assessed water demand in the Someş Basin, the most significant
percentage, between 9% and 15%, have the following sub-basins: Sălătruc,
Brâglez, Poiana and Şimişna; and the rest, represent a much smaller percentage,
between 3% and 6% (Fig. 7).

73
4. WATER DEMAND COMPUTED AT GEOGRAPHICAL
SUBUNIT LEVEL

The knowledge of the water demand required by the rural areas, at


geographical subunit level, is useful in the research conducted by specialists
dealing with the regional sustainable development studies. Like in case of the water
demand assessment at catchment level, the required water volume depends on the
area, the density and size of rural settlements. Thus, the localities of Cluj Hills,
which cover the largest surface from the Someşean Plateau, regardless of the
variant of calculation, require the largest quantities of water from 13,8 l/s (1st
variant) to 67,4 l/s (2nd variant).
The Someş Corridor ranks second in the amount of water demand,
however occupies a smaller area than the other subunits (Şimişna-Garbou Hills Dej
Hills, Purcăret Boiu-Mare Plateau), but it has a much higher density of rural
settlements. So, the water requested by the rural settlements in the Someş Corridor
has been evaluated at values between 7.9 l/s in case of the 1st variant and 38,6 l/s in
the 2nd variant.
The smallest quantities of water are needed by the settlements of the
Sălătrucului hills, between 2.6 l/s and 12.6 l/s (Table 3).

Tabel 2. Computed water demands in the main geographical subunits


of the Someşean Plateau
Geographical Water demand variant (l/s)
subunit name I II III IV
Clujului Hills 13.8 22.5 38.0 67.4
Dejului Hills 7.0 11.4 19.3 34.3
Şimişna-Gârbou Hills 5.5 8.9 15.1 26.7
Someşului Corridor 7.9 12.9 21.8 38.6
Purăreţ-Boiu Mare Plateau 4.1 6.6 11.2 19.8
Sălătrucului Hills 2.6 4.2 7.1 12.6
Total 40.9 66.5 112.5 199.4

The weight held, from the total water demand, evaluated at the entire
Someş Plateau by the settlements of Dej Hills (17.2%) and the Someş Corridor
(19,4%) are close in magnitude. These are followed in sequence by the Şimişna -
Garbou Hills with 13,4%.
Also the Purcaret Boiu-Mare Plateau’s settlements water demand is
relatively small, representing only 9,9% of the total water necessity in the Someş
Plateau. The explanation is that however the Purcaret Boiu-Mare Plateau occupies
a very important area, though the density and the population of the rural
settlements are reduced.

74
5. CONCLUSIONS

The annual water volumes required by the settlements of the Someşean


Plateau oscillate between 1288 m3, 1st variant, and 6281 m3 in the fourth variant
(Table 3).

Tabel 3. Water volumes required by settlements


at the major watersheds level
Water demand variant (m3)
Watersheds
I II III IV
Someşu Mic 627 1019 1724 3056
Someş 621 1010 1710 3031
Lăpuş 40 65 109 194
Total 1288 2094 3543 6281

The assessment of water demand in several variants enables decision


makers to develop strategic plans for the rural settlements water supply, for short,
medium and long terms.
Knowing the water demand at watersheds, administrative units and
geographic subunits level is necessary for long time planning and integrated
management of water resources. It is also important in the knowledge of water
necessity at the level of counties, communes and villages to eliminate existing
faults or others that may occur in the water supply of settlements. The geographic
subunits water demand assessment provides useful data in regional studies
conducted by experts in various fields (geography, environment, agriculture, etc.).

REFERENCES

1. Băcănaru, I., Cândea, V.(1977), Aspecte geografice în alimentarea cu apă a


localitaţilor rurale şi urbane din România, SCGGG, geogr. XXIV, 2,
Bucureşti.
2. Buta, I., Sorocovschi, V.(1975), Aspecte privind alimentările cu apă potabilă
şi industrială din bazinul Someşului Mic, SUBB, Geol.-Geogr., Cluj.
3. Mănescu, Al., Sandu, M., Ianculescu, O.(1994), Alimentări cu apă, Editura
Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti.
4. Maier, Q., Mocrei, I.(1996), Utilizarea terenurilor şi rezervele de apă
subterană din Podişul Someşan, Analele Universităţii “Ştefan cel Mare”
Suceava, An V, Edit. Universitate, Suceava.
5. Sorocosvchi, V.(1999), Alimentarea cu apă a Câmpiei Transilvaniei (partea a
III-a), SUBB, Geogr., XLIV, 1, Cluj-Napoca.
6. Sorocovschi, V.(1999), Disfuncţionalităţi în alimentarea cu apă în zone de
contact interjudeţene, SUBB,Geogr., XLIV, 2,Cluj-Napoca.
7. Sorocovschi, V., Pop, R. (2001), Aspecte privind alimentarea cu apă a
oraşelor din Judeţul Cluj, SUBB,Geogr.2, XLVI, Cluj-Napoca.

75
SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES
TO WEATHER CONDITION

Á. JUHÁSZ1, K. HROTKÓ2, L. TŐKEI1

ABSTRACT. – Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. The


main goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded onto
different rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to the
meteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at
‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation of
solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiation
and sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in close
relation (cubic) also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existed
between sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherry
trees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

Keywords: meteorological factors, water uptake, sap flow, Prunus Mahaleb

1. INTRODUCTION

Sap flow (SF) measurement system is well known tool to estimate the
water consumption of the trees, apart from it following the sap flow parallel the
current weather circumstances the soil-plant-air interaction can be understood.
Systematic attention has been intended to the study of transpiration in many
scientific disciplines: in the physiology of plants, hydrology, ecology, and
meteorology (Prazák et al., 1994; Granier et al., 2000; Lagergren and Lindroth,
2002; Daudet et al., 1999; Montero et al., 2001).
The capacity of carrying water from the soil to the leaves is regarded as a
limiting factor, and the plant is considered to be capable of regulating the water
output by transpiration depending on the water content in the plant body (Prazák et
al., 1994). Estimation of stand transpiration requires analysis of among-tree
variation of sap flow (Köstner et al., 1996), which is commonly scaled up to stand
level and considered as representing transpiration (Lagergren and Lindroth, 2002).
Recent findings suggested that sapflow or transpiration of trees may be closely
linked to plant hydraulic variables and environmental factors (Du and Yang, 1995;
Cienciala et al., 1997; Lagergren and Lindroth, 2002). There is increasing evidence
of higher frequency of climatic extremes as a result of global climatic change (Karl
et al., 1995). The annual variability of precipitation may be high and distribution of
rainfall during the growing season very uneven (Mika, 2011; Bartholy et al., 2010).

1
Corvinus University of Budapest, Faculty of Horticultural Sciences Department of Soil Science and
Water Management (H-1118, Budapest, Villányi u. 29-43.) e-mail: agota.juhasz @uni-corvinus.hu
2
Corvinus University of Budapest, Faculty of Horticultural Sciences, Department of Floriculture and
Dendrology (H-1118, Budapest, Villányi u. 29-43.)

76
This may affect uncertainty in the fruit production. There has been increasing proof
on the impact of climatic factors on water fluxes (Oltchev et al., 2002; Devitt et al.,
1997; Calder et al., 1997; Welander and Ottosson, 2000). If the environmental
factors vary, sap flow can fluctuate widely. It is therefore important to study the
sap flow and associated mechanisms under different wheater conditions.
Sweet cherry is important commercial plantation and one of the pioneer
species used successful in Hungarian fruit market (Hrotkó et al., 2009). In spite of
it there is not any exact information on water use of high density sweet cherry
orchards.
SF of ‘Rita’ sweet cherry trees on sandy soil in Soroksár was monitored by
the heat balance Dynamax packaged SF measuring system in the vegetation period
of 2009. Furthermore global radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, precipi-
tation and soil moisture were measured synchronously. The SF measurements are
carried out using Dynamax Flow 32 equipment with Dynagage SF gauges
(Dynamax Inc., Houston, TX, USA) developed from the designs published by
Sakuratini (1981,1984), Baker and Van Bavel (1987) and Steinberg et al.
(1989,1990b). In our study we analyzed the sap flow rate of the trees on four
different rootstocks as a function with meteorological parameters.

2. MATERIAL AND METHOD

The investigations were carried out in Soroksár (47°22’N,19°09E, 103 m


above sea level) at the Experimental Farm of Corvinus University of Budapest on
four selected trees in sixth leaf. The cultivar is ‘Rita’, ripening early, between 22 -28
May. The selected trees were budded onto Prunus mahaleb ’Érdi V’ seedlings, on
’Korponay’ seedlings, on Prunus canescens x Prunus cerasus GiSeLA 6, and on
Mazzard (Prunus Avium). As the growth vigor of rootstocks concerns, based on the
tree size in average of 9 trees the ’Érdi V’ is considered as vigorous, while ‘Kor-
ponay’ as moderate vigorous, according to investigations of Gyeviki et al. (2009).
The experimental orchard is planted to 4 x 2 m spacing with 1250 treesha-1
density in spring 2004. Trees are trained to Hungarian spindle (Hrotkó et al., 2007).
The applied heat balance method for measuring SF rates is practical and capable of
great precision. In general, installation of the gauges followed procedures
recommended by the manufacturer (Dynamax, 1990). Measurements were made by
gauges SGA50-ws (trunk diameter: 45-65 mm), SGA70-ws (trunk diameter: 65-90
mm). The measurements were carried out by sensors set on the trunk at 40-50 cm
height from the soil surface under the leaf canopy.
Sap flow was measured between May and August of 2009, on 45 sample
days. Air temperature, precipitation, air humidity, soil moisture at two different
depth were also measured parallel with sap flow direct in the canopy (Fig 1.). The
daily observation was round the clock, outputs from the gauges were monitored
every 15 sec and signals were recorded as 15 min averages apart from some error.
Global radiation was registered by the Hungarian Meteorological Service, in
Pestszentlőrinc 10 km far from our field.

77
Fig 1. Precipitation, irrigation and soil moisture on the research field

In the investigated period at the experimental area was 204.1 mm


precipitation and the area was irrigated by dropping system with 80.25 mm water.
During May and August fell circa half of the average precipitation of the flavoured
in this months. In June rained 117.4 mm which is twice of the revealing mean. In
July the area is come in for 80% of average rain amount. Based on the soil
moisture content monitored at 30 and 60 cm depth can be said that the fisrt period
of the investigation when there was adequate amount of precipitation and
irrigation, the soil moisture was higher in the upper (30cm) zone while in the first
dry decade of July, the water loss of the soil surface increased by evaporation that
why the deeper soil layer (60cm) was more wet temporally.

3. RESULTS

We have made dimensionless profiles for the 45 measured day for each
rootstocks to show the correlation between the sap flow and the meteorological
elements. First we searched for the highest global radiation value. At the time of
the highest radiation rate, we checked the sap flow, vapor pressure deficit, and
temperature data, and have done with that values the dimensionless profiles. As the
figures show there is positive nonlinear correlation between daily SF and vapor
pressure deficit (VPD), with the increasing VPD sap flow rises cubic (Fig 2.). SF
of trees is very intensive by the decreasing air humidity. Between SF and global
radiation there is parabolic relation (Fig 3.). High level of global radiation might
limit water use. In this case stomas are going to close to avoid more water loss by
the transpiration. The relation between the SF and temperature is not so obvious.

78
Fig 2. Non-linear regression between the sap flow related
to the vapor pressure deficit f(x)=ax3+bx2+cx+d

Fig 3. Non-linear regression between the sap flows related to the global radiation
f(x)=a(x-b)2+c

Typical diurnal sap flow (SF) course are shown on Fig 4. and Fig 5. In the
morning around 6:00 a.m. started the increasing sap flow which became quite
quick and reached the first daily maximum (1.7 lh-1) around 8:00, between 10:00
and 14:00 there is not so high variability in the transpiration, the curves can be

79
marked by plateau. On the two selected days the second highest level is shown
between 14:00-16:00. Comparing to the very intensive morning sap-flow after
18:00 p.m. the water flow slowly reached the minimal level. Daily SF curves of
trees with different rootstocks run near to each other and SF reach the peaks almost
at the same period. On the13th of May there was 3.5 mm irrigation and the day
before 7.5 mm, in the previous 10 days there was not any rainfall, and the soil
moisture set ~0.15VV%. At the 80% of the day sap flow did not exceed 1lh-1. On
the 3th of July between 8:00 and 16:00 the SF passed 1lh-1. In the previous 10 days
fell 61.4 mm precipitation.

Fig 4. The daily sap flow trend on the selected day

4. CONCLUSION
The sap flow course is determined by the current weather conditions. The
most important factor which has an effect for the water uptake is the global
radiation and vapor pressure deficit. It can be written by parabolic and cubic
functions.
Many reports exist about studying the influence of light, drought, temperature and
soil fertilization on transpiration (Welander and Ottosson, 2000; Montero et al.,
2001), controlled under some special experimental conditions. The data we report
was obtained under field conditions. Our results suggested that air VPD and global
radiation were the major factors determining SF, while air temperature were only
minor factors, which accorded with the studies of Daudet et al.(1999) on Juglans
regia L. Strong positive correlation between daily transpiration rate and daytime
mean VPD for E. grandis and P. radianta was also found by Myers et al.(1998).
Considerable differences are found between trees on different rootstocks in the
daily sap flow course. On the selected days the sap flow of the tree budded on
dwarfing rootstock starts the most intensive.

80
Fig 5. The daily sap flow trend on the selected day

REFERENCES

1. Baker, J. M., and C.H.M. van Bavel, (1987), Measurement of mass flow of water
in the stems of herbaceous plants, Plant Cell Envir. 10:777-782.
2. Bartholy J., Pongracz R. (2010), Analysis of precipitation conditions for the
Carpathian Basin based on extreme indices in the 20th century and climate
simulations for the 21st century, Physics and Chemistry of Earth, 35: 43-51.
doi:10.1016/j.pce.2010.03.011 (IF: 0.975)
3. Calder, I.R., Rosier, P.T.W., Prasanna, K.T., Parameswarappa, S., (1997),
Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input a possible explanation from
southern India, Hydrol. Earth System Sci., 1:246-256.
4. Cienciala, E., Kucera, J., Lindroth, A., Čermák, J., Grelle, A., Halldin, S., (1997),
Canopy transpiration from a boreal forest in Sweden during a dry year, Agr. For.
Meteorol., 86:157-167.
5. Daudet, F.A., Le, X.R., Sinoquet, H., Adam, B., (1999), Wind speed and leaf
boundary layer conductance variation within tree crown−Consequences on leaf-
to-atmosphere coupling and tree functions, Agr. For. Meteorol., 97:171-185.
6. Devitt, D.A., Piorkowski, J.M., Smith, S.D., Cleverly, J.R., Sala, A., (1997), Plant
water relations of Tamarix ramosissima in response to the imposition and
alleviation of the soil moisture stress J. Arid Environ., 36: 527-540.
7. Du, Z.C., Yang, Z.G., (1995), Comparative study on the characteristics of
photosynthesis and transpiration in Aneurolepidium chinensis of different soil
types Acta Bot. Sin., 37(1):66-73.
8. Dynamax, 1990. Dynagage TM Installation and Operation Manual, Dynamax,
Houston, TX, USA. P. 80.

81
9. Granier, A., Biron, P., Lenoine, D., (2000), Water balance, transpiration and
canopy conductance in two beech stand Agr. For. Meteorol., 100:291-308.
10. Gyeviki, M., Magyar, L., Bujdosó, G., Szügyi, S. and Hrotkó, K. (2009),
Evaluation of Hungarian Mahaleb rootstocks with new sweet cherry cultivars, 6th
ISHS International Cherry Symposium, Renaca Vina del Mar, Chile Book of
Abstracts, 149.
11. Hrotkó, K., Magyar, L., Simon, G. and Gyeviki, M., (2007), Development in
intensive orchard systems of cherries in Hungary, Int. Journal of Horticultural
Science, 13.(3) 79-86.
12. Hrotkó Károly, Magyar Lajos, Hoffmann Sarolta, Gyeviki Márta (2009),
Rootstock evaluation in intensive sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) orchard.
International Journal of Horticultural Science 3, 7-12.
13. Karl, T.R., Knight, R.W., Plummer, N., (1995), Trends in high frequency climatic
variability in the twentieth century Nature, 377:217-220.
14. Köstner, B., Biron, P., Siegwolf, R., Granier, A., (1996), Estimates of water vapor
flux and canopy conductance of Scots pine at the tree level utilizing different xylem
sap flow methods Theor. Appl. Climat., 53:105-113.
15. Lagergren, F., Lindroth, A., (2002), Transpiration response to soil moisture in
pine and spruce trees in Sweden Agr. For. Meteorol., 112:67-85.
16. Mika János (2011), 2010 szélsőségei, félidőben két IPCC Jelentés között, plenáris
előadás, 2011.január 19. Szentendre, III. Magyarországi Klímacsúcs
17. Montero, J.I., Antón, A., Lorenzo, P., (2001), Transpiration from geranium grown
under high temperatures and low humidities in greenhouses Agr. For. Meteorol.,
107: 323-332.
18. Myers, B.J., Benyon, R.G., Theiveyanathan, S., Criddle, R.S., Smith, C.J.,
Falkiner, R.A., (1998), Response of effluent-irritated Eucalyptus grandis and
Pinum radiata to salinity and vapor pressure deficits,Tree Physiol., 18:565-573.
19. Oltchev, A., Cermak, J., Gurtz, J., Tishenko, A., Kiely, G., Nadezhdina, N., Zappa,
M., Lebedeva, N., Vitvar, T., Albertso, J.D., Tatarinov, F., Tishenko, D.,
Nadezhdin, V., Kozlov, B., Ibrom, A., Vygodskaya, N., Gravenhorst, G., (2002),
The response of the water fluxes of the boreal forest region at the Volga.s source
area to climatic and land-use changes. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth,
27:675-690.
20. Prazák, J., .ír, M., Tesař, M., (1994), Estimation of plant transpiration from
meteorological data under conditions of sufficient soil moisture J Hydrol., 162:
409-427.
21. Sakuratini, T., (1981), A heat balance method for measuring water flux in the stem
of intact plants, J. Agric. Meteor.37:9-17.
22. Sakuratini, T., (1984), Improvement of the probe for measuring water flow rate in
intect plants with the stem heat balance method, J. Agric. Meteor. 40:273-277.
23. Steinberg, S.L., C.H.M. van Bavel, and M.J. McFarland (1989), A gauge to
measure mass flow of sap in stems and trunks of woody plants, J. Am. Soc.
Hort.Sci.114:466-472.
24. Steinberg, S.L., C.H.M. van Bavel, and M.J. McFarland (1990), Improved sap
flow gauge for woody and herbaceous plants, Agron. J. 82:851-854.
25. Welander, N.T, Ottosson, B. (2000), The influence of low light, drought and
fertilization on transpiration and growth in young seedlings of Quercus robur L.
For. Ecol. Manage., 127:139-151.

82
LEGAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE COOPERATION
UNDER THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT
OF ROMANIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF HUNGARIAN REPUBLIC
ON THE COOPERATION FOR THE TRANSBOUNDARY
WATERCOURSES PROTECTION AND SUSTAINABLE USE
CASE STUDY: BARCĂU RIVER BASIN

A.E. PETTER1, L. B8=2

Abstract: - Legal aspects regarding the cooperation under the Agreement


between the Government of Romania and the Government of Hungarian
Republic on the cooperation for the transboundary watercourses protection and
sustainable use. Case study: Barcau River Basin. By presenting the legal
aspects of the Agreement between the Government of Romania and the
Government of Hungarian Republic on the cooperation for the transboundary
watercourses protection and sustainable use implemented through the joint
Regulations, the collaboration details between the two countries are established,
underlining the most important objectives of it.
The case study shows the implementation of the general aspects in the
Barcău/Berettyó River Basin, namely: the meteorology and hydrology data and
information mutual transmission, water quality common assessment by the
evaluation of the physical-chemical and biological results of the analyses
performed on water samples commonly, the presentation of the water sampling
and flow rate measurement sections, of the intervention sections in case of oil
products accidental pollution and the hydrometric stations, their placement on the
watercourses, the flood protection elevations and the transmission frequency of the
elevations during special situations and the flood common assessment.
The concept of river basin water management according to the Water Framework
Directive (2000/60/CE) is better illustrated within the transboundary areas, when
two or more countries have to jointly manage the same water resource without
prejudices on any party. The idea of “river basin solidarity” must have the
precedence, when the dialog and the communication have an important role.

Key words: transboundary water sustainable development, water quality common


assessment, meteorology and hydrology data and information mutual transmission,
Water Framework Directive.

1. Introduction: Background of the Romanian - Hungarian hydrotech-


nical cooperation
The first water agreement between the two countries was signed at
Bucharest, on April 14th, 1924, being in force until 1945. Collaboration periods
followed, namely 1945-1961, 1962-1965, 1965-1970, 1970-1986 and the

1
Ministry of Environment and Forest, 12 Libertăţii Blvd., sector. 5 Bucharest, anna.peter@mmediu.ro
2
Crisuri River Basin Directorate, 35 Ion Bogdan Str., Oradea, Bihor County,
loredana.buz@dac.rowater.ro

83
agreement was revised four times. On June 25th, 1986 in Bucharest, the Convention
between the Government of Romania and the Government of Hungarian Republic
regarding the regulation of the hydro-technical issues of the boundary and
transboundary watercourses was signed. The Convention came into force on
November 20th, 1986.
Based on the experience and the good results reached by the
implementation of the Convention and aiming to develop their cooperation for
boundary and transboundary water protection and sustainable use, transboundary
ground water and ecosystems protection, the Romanian Government and the
Hungarian Government started the negotiation of a new agreement in line with the
provisions of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE (WFD) that came into
effect on December 22nd, 2000. Within the EU accession process, both states
harmonized their national legislation with the EU WFD.
The Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of
Hungarian Republic on the cooperation for the transboundary watercourses
protection and sustainable use has been signed on September 15th, 2003 and has
been approved by the Romanian Government through the Governmental Decision
no. 577/2004, being published in the Official Journal no.400 dated May 5th, 2004.

2. Legal aspects regarding the Romanian-Hungarian hydrotechnical


cooperation

The Agreement covers the following Rivers: Tur, Someş, Crasna, Barcău,
Ier, Crişul Repede, Crişul Negru, Crişul Alb and Mureş.
The most important objectives are: reaching a good water status, water
status damage prevention and pollution control, prevention, limitation and control
of the extreme events effects on the transboundary watercourses, (floods, droughts,
accidental pollution) development of the water quality monitoring and assessment
systems, water resources sustainable development, promotion of common
technological research and development within the Agreement areas.
The Agreement includes provisions regarding the ongoing and future
actions that might change the status of water, aquatic environment and biotope,
when these actions have effects on the transboundary water, mainly: water intakes
and discharges, wastewater discharges and leakages from point and diffuse
pollution sources, dangerous accidental water pollution that cannot be avoided and
removal of their effects, hydraulic works, flood control works and defense
measures against flooding from rivers and inland waters and against ice and water
courses regulation activities.
The Agreement provisions are implemented according to the Regulations
that establish the details of the Parties’ cooperation. The Romanian – Hungarian
hydrotechnical Commission has the authority to develop new regulations and to
revise the existing ones. Now the following Regulations are in force:
1. The Regulation regarding the organization and operation of the
Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical Commission (Annex no.1 to the Protocol of

84
the 17th Session of the Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical Commission, signed
in Oradea, on February 2nd, 2006);
2. The Regulation on border crossing and contact between water bodies of
Romania and the Republic of Hungary (Annex no.5 to the Protocol of the 18th
Session of the Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical Commission, signed in
Nyiregyhaza, on March 30th, 2007);
3. The Regulation on information exchange and performance on a reciprocal
basis of the visual observation flights by the water management bodies from
Romania and the Republic of Hungary in cases of flooding extraordinary danger
from rivers and inland waters, and in case of accidental pollution with transboundary
effect (Annex no.5 to the Protocol of the 17th Session of the Romanian – Hungarian
hydrotechnical Commission, signed in Oradea, on February 2nd, 2006);
4. The Regulation on the procedure to follow in order to prevent, combat,
limit and control the adverse effects of the dangerous accidental pollution on rivers
that form or cross the Romanian – Hungarian border (Annex no.4 to the Protocol of
the 21st Session of the Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical Commission, signed
in Tg. Mures, on April 16th, 2010);
5. The Regulation on the water courses flood control (Annex no.3 to the
Protocol of the 6th Session of the Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical
Commission, signed in Hajduszoboszlo, on June 11th, 1993);
6. The Regulation on the inland water courses flood control (Annex no.2 to
the Protocol of the 8th Session of the Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical
Commission, signed in Nyiregyhaza, on June 30th, 1995);
7. The Regulation on the expenditure reimbursement for water transfer and
internal water pumping (Annex no.2 to the Protocol of the 17th Session of the
Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical Commission, signed in Oradea, on February
2nd, 2006);
8. The Regulation regarding the water quality monitoring on the rivers that
form or cross the Romanian – Hungarian border (Annex no.3 to the Protocol of the
17th Session of the Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical Commission, signed in
Oradea, on February 2nd, 2006);
9. The Regulation on the meteorology and hydrology data and information
mutual transmission between Romania and the Republic of Hungary (Annex no.4
to the Protocol of the 17th Session of the Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical
Commission, signed in Oradea, on February 2nd, 2006);
10. The Regulation on the operation of Bekes dam at + 510 cm high on the
Hungarian territory correlated with Ant pumping station operation on the
Romanian territory (Annex no.4 to the Protocol of the 18th Session of the
Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical Commission, signed in Nyiregyhaza, on
March 30th, 2007);
11. The Regulation on the systematic hydrometric observations and
common determination of the water resources of the border waters (Annex no.6 to
the Protocol of the 18th Session of the Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical
Commission, signed in Nyiregyhaza, on March 30th, 2007);

85
12. The Regulation on the procedure to follow in case of examination of
the actions with possible transboundary effects (Annex no.7 to the Protocol of the
17th Session of the Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical Commission, signed in
Oradea, on February 2nd, 2006);
13. The Regulation on the procedure applicable to projects likely to cause
transboundary impact (Annex no.6 to the Protocol of the 17th Session of the
Romanian – Hungarian hydrotechnical Commission, signed in Oradea, on February
2nd, 2006);
14. The Regulation regarding the collaboration between the territorial
bodies in case of low water levels (extraordinary) on the rivers within the
hydrographical subunits that form or cross the Romanian - Hungarian border
(Annex no.3 to the Protocol of the 21st Session of the Romanian – Hungarian
hydrotechnical Commission, signed in Tg. Mures, on April 16th, 2010);
The present collaboration refers to:
 the meteorology and hydrology data and information mutual transmission
between both Parties special units, aimed at detailed and operational
information on meteorological and hydrological phenomena ongoing or likely
to take place on the territories of the two countries in order to effectively serve
the national economies and to prevent or limit the damages caused by
hazardous weather and hydrological phenomena;
 joint assessment of the transboundary rivers water quality by evaluating the
results of the physical - chemical and biological samples from water samples
taken in common. In this context there is an annual intercalibration activity of
the laboratories of the two Parties, nominated for this activity;
 ensuring all the conditions agreed for the water management works within the
scope of the Agreement, namely: dams, sluices, dikes, pumping stations, etc.;
 regulatory and approval activities of all the works from both territories
according to the scope of the Agreement;
 monitoring of the Agreement and into force Regulations implementation by
organizing sessions of the Committees, subcommittees, examinations carried
out on both territories, etc.

Case study: Barcău/Berettyó River Basin


The Barcău/ Berettyó River Basin is located in the northern part of the
Crisuri River Basin, at the contact of the Plopisului Mountains and Silvaniei Hills.
Crossing the Romanian-Hungarian border, the length of this watercourse is of
195.6 km, of which 134 km in Romania and 61.6 km in Hungary, draining an area
of 6095 km2. From the spring to the junction with Crisul Repede River, in
Hungary, near Szeghalom, the river runs through various landforms - mountains,
hills, plains - highlighting, in physical - geographical terms, the of complexity of its
basin.

86
The analyze of the flood occurred during June 16th, 1997 - June 21st, 1997
The joint Regulation on the water courses flood control stipulates the
measures that need to be taken and the necessary works that have to be performed
so that the flood and ice defense activity to be conducted in a coordinated and
operational manner before and not during high water and ice periods on the sectors
of the watercourses mentioned in the Regulation.
The defense measures during high floods are carried on in three phases:
Phase I of defense (defense preparedness), Phase II of defense (effective defense)
and Phase III of defense (intensive defense, extraordinary situation).
During Phase I of flood defense, the responsible local water management
authorities take the following measures, each on its own territory: put into service
the information, surveillance and security system, verification of the defense
constructions, installations, materials and means, eventually completing them,
monitoring the flow conditions, closing the sluices of the dikes according to the
sluices operation norms, keeping opened the dam locks; reading and registering the
water levels measured by the leveling rods is performed at 07 and 19 hours on the
Romanian territory and at 06 and 18 hours on the Hungarian territory and shall be
communicated to the competent local water management authorities of the other
Party at 08 and 20 hours, respectively at 07 and 19 hours.
Simultaneously with the transmission of the water levels, the data on the highest
elevations at the determinant leveling rods shall be transmitted.
During Phase II of flood defense, the responsible local water management
authorities take the following measures, each on its own territory: intensification of
the information, surveillance and security system activity, day and night
surveillance and security of the defense constructions and installations, tracking of
the flow conditions, performance, according to the necessities of the defense
works. The dam locks shall be kept opened and the dikes sluices shall be kept
closed. The reading and registering of the water elevations shall be done at every
six hours namely on the Romanian territory at 01, 07, 13 and 19 hours and on
Hungarian territory at 00, 06, 12, 18 hours. The critical levels shall be
communicated four times a day to the competent local water management bodies of
the other Party, in one and a half hour from the reading.
When the levels are transmitted, the most important events related to the flow
conditions and the status of the flood defense works are also communicated to the
other Party. There are also mutually transmitted data on the highest level of the
flood no later then three hours from its notice. During this phase, the Romanian
local water management authorities shall communicate the hydrological forecast
prepared for the determinant leveling rods.
During Phase III of flood defense, the responsible local water
management authorities take the following measures, each on its own territory:
further intensification of the information, surveillance and security system activity,
day and night surveillance and security of the defense constructions and
installations in the damaged areas, tracking of the flow conditions, performance,
according to the necessities of the defense works in order to limit the flood effects.

87
The dam locks shall be kept opened and the dikes sluices and pipes shall be kept
closed. The reading and registering of the water elevations shall be done
continuously at every two hours namely on the Romanian territory at odd hours
and on the Hungarian territory at even hours. The critical levels shall be
communicated six times a day to the competent local water management bodies of
the other Party, around 05, 09, 13, 17, 21 and 01 hours on the Romanian territory
and around 08, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours on the Hungarian territory. In case of
extraordinary situations, by request, the levels may be transmitted at every two
hours.
In 1997 on Barcău/Berettyó River Basin territory a flood occurred for
which a Romanian-Hungarian evaluation was performed, in order to observe all the
unexpected phenomena that appear during floods, so that in the future the
necessary measures for the reduction of the catastrophic effects to be known.
The Romanian Party’s evaluation:
The peak at Sălard was due to the heavy rains from the middle and north-
east parts of the river basin and also to the large relief differences from the region.
Although the Ciutelec reservoir on Bistra River was put into service because of the
precipitation of 120 - 130 mm fallen on Bistra uncontrolled river basin, its
contribution was considerable, helping to increase the peak flow of Barcău River at
Salard hydrometric station, where the highest flow rate so far with a probability of
1 - 2% was recorded. In addition, flood flows have increased significantly from the
earlier rains of 30 - 40 mm, and in approx. 3 - 4 days they have caused the flood.
The Hungarian Party’s evaluation:
Due to the rainfall from the Barcău river basin on Romanian territory
during June 14th – 15th that reached in many locations even 100 mm (Marghita,
Chiribiş, Marca, Săcuieni and Suplacu de Barcău), a flood exceeding the Phase III
level formed (Table no.1, Figure no.1). The flood was due to the heavy rain of
great intensity fallen in short time, which discharge was not even delayed by the
influence of Crisuri afflux. Thus, the intensity of the flood increased on the upper
sectors, while on the lower sector at Szeghalom it was already decreased. The river
reached the peak of 521 cm at Kismarjá remaining to 21 cm below the maximum
water level recorded by then. The flood was not important from the dike pressure
point of view, but the intensity of the increase on the upper sector (Kismarja: 30
cm/hour) exceeded any value until then. The elevations reached peaks during two
days on Barcău River.

Table no. 1 The flow rates recorded during June 16th – 21st, 1997
Date MARCA SĂLARD POCSAJ BERETTYOUJFALU
15.06.1997 06:00 8.01
15.06.1997 12:00 34.4 41.6
15.06.1997 15:00 44.7 38
15.06.1997 18:00 36 89 24.5
15.06.1997 24:00 23.3 244 44
16.06.1997 06:00 13.2 310 101 24.3

88
Date MARCA SĂLARD POCSAJ BERETTYOUJFALU
16.06.1997 12:00 12.8 284 148 41
16.06.1997 15:00 12.4 262 153 56
16.06.1997 18:00 8.01 244 152 181
17.06.1997 06:00 186 117 169
17.06.1997 12:00 160 106 162
17.06.1997 18.00 135 97.8 150
18.06.1997 06.00 106 82.4 124
18.06.1997 07:00 103 81.3 121
18.06.1997 18:00 73.4 69.4 103
19.06.1997 06:00 57.3 60 84.6
19.06.1997 18:00 42.4 52.5 72.8
20.06.1997 06:00 32.9 48.3 64.8
21.06.1997 06:00 24.2 42 51.5

Figure 1. The hydrograph of the flood from June 16th – 21st, 1997

CONCLUSIONS:
1. There is a very good collaboration related to the emergency situations
between the water management authorities of the two Parties.
2. The high elevations and the afflux influence on the Crişuri Rivers
represent a flood risk on the Barcău River junction sector also in the situation when
from the river upper sector there is no flood occurring.
3. Due to the narrow dike bank area of the Barcău River, a further
narrowing of this area or the afforestation is not allowed because these activities
would worsen the conditions of drainage.
4. The floods formed on the Ier upper river basin are mitigated in Andrid
reservoir.

89
5. The reservoirs on Barcău and Ier tributaries from the Romanian territory
have a positive influence in flood mitigation.
6. The flood occurred on the basin depend of the rainfall repartition on the
basin area and of their quantity and intensity and can not offset the endemic areas,
where floods appear more frequently.
7. The floods occurred in the upper areas may have more peaks or a
singular character, but in the downstream area due to the propagation and river bed
storage, although composed, the floods generally have two peaks split by a bridge
of flow rates, having high values similar to these peaks.
8. The efficiency of Ciutelec reservoir on Bistra River is noticeable in
flood mitigation on this tributary, excepting the cases when heavy rainfalls occur
on the rest of the Bistra River Basin up to the discharge in Barcău River.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Măhăra, Gh. (1977), Crişurilor Plain. Physical-geographical study, from the


volume „ Crişurilor Plain, Crişul Repede, Ţara Beiuşului. Research of Romania’s
geography”, Scientific and Encyclopedic Publishing, Bucharest;
2. Posea, Gr. (1997), Western Plain of Romania (Banato-Crişana Plain), „România
de Mâine” Foundation Publishing, Bucharest;
3. Ujvari, I. (1972), The geography of Romania’s watercourses, Bucharest Scientific
Publishing House;
4. *** (1992),The Geography of Romania, vol. IV, Bucharest Academy Publishing;
5. The Governmental Decision no. 577/2004, published in the Official Journal
no.400 dated May 5th, 2004 for the approval of the Agreement between the
Government of Romania and the Government of Hungarian Republic on the
cooperation for the transboundary watercourses protection and sustainable use,
signed on September 15th, 2003, in Budapest.
6. Study: The hydrography and floods of Barcău River – Crişuri River Basin
Directorate and TIKÖVIZIG Debrecen;
7. ***, The Archive of the Crişuri River Basin Directorate, from Oradea;
8. ***, The Archive of the Water and Environment Protection Directorate
(Tikövizig), from Debrecen.

90
CHARACTERISTICS OF HEAVY RAINFALL PARAMETERS
IN THE NORTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

T. TUDOSE1, F. MOLDOVAN2

ABSTRACT. - Characteristics of heavy rainfall parameters in the north-


western Romania. The paper analyzes the frequency, duration, intensity and
quantity of heavy rains in north-western Romania, based on data from 14
meteorological stations in that area, located in different terrain conditions, using
1975-2009 period. Identification of the torrential rains was made on Hellmann’s
criteria. In the review period were identified 271 torrential rainfall events,
representing only 0.89% of all precipitation cases with significant intensity in
generating liquid surface flow. During the year, the highest frequency of
occurrence is from June to August (between 61.5 and 90% of cases), with a slight
predominance of June. In terms of duration, the highest shares of torrential rains
have 3-6 hours (37.3%), followed by those of 1 to 2 hours (25.1%), this structure
revealing different genetic conditions. Diurnal variation shows maximum
occurrence of heavy rains in the afternoon and evening (between 13 and 20
Romanian Summer Time - RST), the phenomena starting earlier in mountainous
areas (11-12 RST) and later in the lowlands (16-17 RST). Water amounts varies
quite large, with values ranging between 1.2 and 82.7 mm, and their average
intensity is between 0.12 and 1.80 mm/min, being noticed a strong correlation
between average duration and intensity of rainfall, it ultimately reducing the growing period.

Keywords: heavy rain, diurnal variation, intensity, Northwestern Romania

1. INTRODUCTION

Taking into account the spatial and temporal manifestations of heavy rains
characteristics, these are extreme precipitation events, whose analysis is important
because of their effects (floods, spills on the slopes and intense training material,
etc.). In order to improve the knowledge of the event, there were made a series of
studies aimed at the phenomenon as a whole or its particularities. Gorbatchev
(1923), studying the relationship between the duration, intensity and frequency of
rains, showed that each region had a maximum potential for precipitation of a rain
event, which depends on the system that generates it and the landscape features.
Predescu (1937), in a study of the rain events over 20 mm per hour fell to
Cluj in the summer months (April-October) during 1929-1936, analyzed the
statistical characteristics of rainfalls, observing a series of correlations between
their duration, frequency and intensity.
1
National Meteorological Administration, Northen Transylvania Regional Meteorological Centre,
Romania, e-mail: t_traiant@yahoo.com
2
„Babeş-Bolyai” University, Faculty of Geography, 400006, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, email:
moldovan@geografie.ubbcluj.ro

91
Popovici et al. (1998), studying torrential rains from Oradea, based on
Wussow criteria, concluded that the highest frequencies of heavy rains with the
average intensity between 0.32 and 0.40 mm/min. (equivalent to an amount of
19.2-24.0 mm/hour) belong to the 50.2-79.5 min. class period.
Bogdan and Niculescu (1999), studied the torrential rains in Romania in
the 1933-1975 period, using the Hellmann’s criteria, pointing out that the longest
and quantitatively more significant events are frontal torrential rainfalls (over 4
hours), and that the frequency of rains has "a great non-periodic variability" (p. 101).
Dragotă (2006), used Hellmann’s adapted criteria in order to extract heavy
rain events from 130 Romanian weather stations, located up to 1500 m high, in the
1961-1996 period, emphasizing the same uneven territorial distribution.

2. DATA AND METHODS

This study approaches some statistical characteristics of heavy rains in


north-western Romania, using data on rainfall intensity during the warm season
(April-October), for the mountain stations warm season was considered June to
September, due to the dominant solid precipitations in the other months. The
analyzed period is 1975-2009, during which it were identified based on Hellmann’s
criteria a total of 271 torrential events, representing only 0.89% of total rainfall
cases being able to generate sheet flood. There were used data from 14
meteorological stations, their location and altitudinal scale being as follows: Satu
Mare (123 m) and Supuru de Jos (159 m) in the lowlands, Baia Mare (216 m),
Sighetu Marmaţiei (275 m) and Ocna Şugatag (503 m) situated in Maramureş
Depression and Baia Mare Depression, Cluj-Napoca (410 m) and Dej (232 m),
located along the Someşului Mic Valley; Huedin (560 m) located in Huedin
Depression, Turda (424 m), located in the Alba Iulia-Turda Corridor, Zalău (295
m), and Bistriţa (366 m) located in the hilly area; Băişoara (1384 m, Muntele Mare
Mountains), Vlădeasa 1800 (1836 m, Vlădeasa Massif) and Iezer (1785 m, Rodnei Mountains).
In order to perform the analysis, the statistical facilities offered by
Microsoft Excel program were used. On this basis, sums, averages, hourly,
monthly and multi-monthly frequencies were calculated. On some data sets a series
of nonparametric tests were applied to identify their homogeneity and the presence
of the temporal trend. In this respect, it has been used tests offered by the XLSTAT
trial version program: Mann-Kendall and Homogeneity test, which were applied to
the following heavy rains parameters: amount of water during the rain event,
average and maximum intensity, duration of maximum intensity. The analysis
concluded that processed data sets did not show a trend or temporal jumps, which
could influence the outcome of the research.

3. RESULTS
Torrential rains structure reveals their highest frequency in Maramureş and
Baia Mare Depression (between 6.6 and 9.6%), followed by mountain area (6.3-
10.3%), hilly and valley regions (4.4-8.5%). The highest percentage values are

92
specific to summer’s months, reaching up to 87.1% cumulative frequency, with the
highest values in June (30.3%) and July (29.9%). The regional structure is
relatively uniform, standing out the mountain area (23.2%), followed by the
Maramureş and Baia Mare Depression (20.7%) and some isolated places in the
hilly area. An important aspect of structure is the low monthly frequencies of
torrential rainfalls in late spring (April, 0.7%) and autumn (October, 1.1%).
Regarding the duration, the predominant heavy rains are those of 3 to 6
hours (37.3%), followed by those less than one hour (25.1%) and 1 to 2 hours
(20.3%). The spatial distribution shows that, in the case of heavy rains with
duration of 3-6 hours, the highest frequencies are strictly in the mountain area
(11.1%), followed by those from Maramureş and Baia Mare Depression (9.2%) and
by the eastern valley corridors of Apuseni Mountains (7.0%). Torrential rains
lasting less than an hour have the highest percentage values isolated in the analyzed
area: Baia Mare Depression (Baia Mare, 4.4%), the depression and valley areas
situated north-east and east of the Apuseni Mountains (Turda, 2.6%, Cluj-Napoca,
2.2%, Huedin 2.2%) and mountain area (Iezer, 2.6%).

3.1. Diurnal variation


The diurnal variation structure of torrential rains beginning moment shows
the highest percentage values in the afternoon and in the evening, their timing
being differentiated as follows: the earliest heavy rains start in the mountain area of
Apuseni (11 to 12 RST), where the maximum frequency is recorded in the
afternoon (14-15 RST); the rest of the studied area has the highest frequencies of
the beginning of the heavy rain events between 16-19 RST, standing out some
isolated depression and valley areas from north-east and east part of the Apuseni
Mountains (Huedin, Cluj-Napoca, Turda), hilly area (Zalău) and Baia Mare
Depression. There is a second maximum occurrence of high torrential rain
frequencies, between 22-24 RST, more prominent in the lowlands.
In relation to the duration of rainfalls, it is remarkable that in the case of
those under one hour the frequency of occurrence is higher in the afternoon and
evening, but the spatial distribution is uneven, standing out the plain area and some
depression areas (Baia Mare, between 16-18 RST), the mountain area of Apuseni
and some valley areas next to it. A similar situation was recorded in the case of rain
events that lasted 1 to 2 hours and of those longer than 3 hours, the highest
recorded frequencies being during daytime.

3.2. Rainfall intensity


As torrential rains have been selected by a principle that establishes the
relationship between duration and average rain intensity their structure class is
directly influenced by the selection criteria, therefore, the average intensity class
<0.17 mm/min has no cases of heavy rains less than 3 hours (Table 1). On the other
hand, it is observed an inverse correlation between duration and intensity of rains;
the events with high average intensities have reduced durations.

93
Table 1. The frequency of heavy rains intensity classes, according to their duration (%)
Duration Average intensity (mm/min) Maximum intensity (mm/min)
<0.17 0.17-0.41 >0.41 <0.5 0.5 – 1.0 >1.0
< 1 hour - 0.7 24.5 - 1.5 23.6
1-2 hours - 14.0 6.3 - 1.5 18.8
2-3 hours - 14.8 0.7 - 1.5 14.0
3-6 hours 26.9 10.3 - 0.4 9.2 27.7
> 6 hours 1.8 - - - 0.7 1.1
Total 28.7 39.8 31.5 0.4 14.4 85.2

Analysis of average intensity torrential rains variation depending on their


duration notes that this decreases with the increase in duration, heavy rains with
high average intensity (more than 1 mm/min) have, generally, less than 20 min
duration. Using the Curve Expert program, it was determined the nature and value
of regression coefficient (r) between duration and average intensity of heavy rains,
standing out that it is statistically significant, with it’s values between 0.86 and
0.98 (Table 2). The correlation type is logarithmic or power.

Table 2. Regression equations and coefficient values of time-average intensity of heavy rains
Weather Regression Coefficient values Weather Regression Coefficient values
station equation a b r station equation a b r
Satu Mare y = axb 69.37 -1.16 0.86 Dej y = a + blnx 1.26 -0.20 0.95
Supuru y = a + blnx 1.72 -0.29 0.93 Cluj-N. y = axb 7.75 -0.68 0.87
Baia Mare y = axb 5.03 -0.60 0.96 Turda y = a + blnx 1.45 -0.22 0.88
Sighetu M. y = axb 11.20 -0.80 0.98 Huedin y = a + blnx 1.31 -0.20 0.88
Ocna Ş. y = axb 11.41 -0.76 0.88 Băişoara y = axb 6.56 -0.66 0.87
Zalău y = a + blnx 1.69 -0.29 0.94 Vlădeasa y = a + blnx 1.27 -0.20 0.92
Bistriţa y = axb 5.48 -0.62 0.97 Iezer y = a + blnx 1.45 -0.23 0.94

Maximum intensity of heavy rainfall has the highest percentage values of the
occurrence time in the afternoon and in the evening, with an occurring peak between
17-20 RST in the low area, respectively between 14-19 RST in the mountain area
(Fig. 1).
Diurnal variability of maximum intensity time occurrence varies depending
on the rainfall length: those with time length to an hour have the highest
frequencies in the afternoon and in the evening throughout the unit (between 13-22
RST), with higher values in the mountain area, in the Maramureş and Baia Mare
Depression, hilly and valley areas; a similar structure presents rains whose duration
is between 1 and 2 hours, except that the highest frequencies occur in the
mountains, in the hilly and valley areas. The rainfall events lasting more than 2
hours have one maximum of occurrence in the afternoon and another one in the
night, whose length grows with increasing time duration of the rainfall.
Maximum intensity torrential rains class structure reveals the
predominance of the >1.0 mm/min class (85.2%) followed by the 0.5-1.0 mm/min,
respectively the <0.5 mm/min class (Table 2). Data show the growth of the
maximum intensity at the same rate as their frequency.

94
Iezer
Vlădeasa
Băişoara
Huedin
T urda
Cluj-N.
Dej
Bistriţa
Zalău
Ocna Ş.
Sighetu
Baia M.
Supuru
Satu M.
0_1

2_3

4_5

6_7

8_9

10_11

12_13

14_15

16_17

18_19

20_21

22_23
RST

0.00-0.25 0.25-0.50 0.50-0.75 0.75-1.00


1.00-1.25 1.25-1.50 1.50-1.75 1.75-2.00
1.75-2.00

Fig. 1. Diurnal variation in the frequency of occurrence time of maximum intensity (%)

Analysis of the intensity classes according to the duration of the rainfall


shows that, regardless of the class, the highest frequency of rainfall is when
duration exceeds 3 hours for the class 0.5-1.0 mm/min (9.9%), while those of more
than 1.0 mm/min have 28.8% (the frequency decreasing with the duration’s growth)
(Table 2).
Diurnal variation of maximum intensity occurrence moment regarding the
analyzed intensity class reveals that in the case of 0.5-1.0 mm/min class, the time
of its occurrence is relatively random, not having a well individualized structure,
the only exception being in the mountain area, where it occurs mainly in the
afternoon (13-17 RST). In the case of heavy rainfalls with the maximum intensity
higher than 1.0 mm/min, the highest frequencies appear only in the afternoon and
evening, especially in marginal east and north-east areas of the Apuseni Mountains
(Huedin, Cluj-Napoca and Turda), between 14 and 20 RST, respectively in the
Maramureş and Baia Mare Depression, and in some hilly areas (Zalău), where
they occur between 17 and 20 RST.
Torrential rainfalls have maximum intensity structure with the highest
percentage values belonging to 2-5 min class (55.4%), followed by the 1 min
(24.0%) and 6-10 min (18.1%), while over 30 min class is missing. The spatial
distribution shows that the highest frequencies of 2-5 min appear isolated in some
depression areas (Baia Mare, 5.5%) and on a larger scale in the mountain area of
Apuseni and in its marginal east and north-east areas (Huedin, Cluj-Napoca, Turda,
with values ranging between 4.4 and 5.9%).
The time of occurrence of maximum intensity from the beginning of the
torrential rain event (in minutes), is an important element in both the dynamics of
its activity and prognosis. It is characterized by a relatively heterogeneous
structure, the highest frequencies belonging to the 11-20 min time class (19.2%),
followed by 21-30 min (12.6%) and 1-5 min (11.1%). The spatial distribution

95
shows the highest values in the lowlands, hilly and valley areas, for the 11-20 min
class, respectively in the depression area of Maramureş and in the valley one, for the
1 to 5 min class.
The distribution according to the duration of the heavy rainfall shows that
events lasting under an hour have the largest percentage in the case of 11-20 min
class (7.3%), followed by the one of 0 min; for 1 to 2 hours duration, the highest
ratio belong to the 11-20 and 21-30 min classes, totaling 8.5%, and in case of 2-3
hours, rates are relatively evenly distributed (Fig. 2).
>6 hrs.

3_6 hrs.

2_3 hrs.

1_2 hrs.

<1 hrs.
0

1_5

6_10

11_20

21_30

31_40

41_50

51_60

61_90

91_120

121_180

181_360

>360
min

0.0-0.8 0.8-1.6 1.6-2.4 2.4-3.2 3.2-4.0


4.0-4.8 4.8-5.6 5.6-6.4 6.4-7.2 7.2-8.0
7.2-8.0

Fig. 2. The time appearance frequency (%) of torrential rain’s maximum intensity (min),
according to rainfall duration (hours)

Rains of 3-6 hours duration have the highest percentage values for the 11-
20 and 21-30 min classes, totaling 10.3%, respectively for those of 61-90 min
(5.9%) and for 121-180 min class (4.8%), while events lasting more than 6 hours
have an uneven distribution, the starting point moment of the rain being random
(Fig. 2).

3.3. The torrential rainfall amounts


The average hourly water amount varies quite widely (between 1.1 and
28.4 mm/event), with the highest values in the afternoon and during the night.
Diurnal variation of hourly average amounts/torrential rain event notes values
higher than 9.0 mm between 12 to 23 RST in the valley and depression areas of the
region; between 14 and 23 RST in the mountains, the Maramureş and Baia Mare
Depression and in the hilly areas, and between 15 and 23 RST in the plain area. A
second less contoured maximum is present in the nighttime (from 23 to 05 RST),
especially, in the hilly area, partly in the valley and mountains area, and between
00 and 04 RST in the plains and in Maramureş and Baia Mare Depression. The
structure shows a series of higher isolated values (above 18.0 mm/hour) in Baia
Mare Depression (between 15-17 RST), in the hilly and valley area (17-19 RST,
Bistriţa and Dej), in mountainous area (22-03 RST, Iezer, Vlădeasa 1800) and in
the plains (19 to 21 RST, Satu Mare), as a result of extreme torrential events, which
led to significant amounts of water.

96
The average hourly maximum intensity varies between 1 and 18 min, the
temporal distribution of their maximum values being random, standing out,
however, higher values during the afternoon and night. Compared to spatial and
temporal structure of the duration of maximum intensity, the average hourly
maximum quantities of water determined by the intensity of these rains is more
homogeneous, the mean values being between 0.8 and 12.0 mm/hour.
The highest amounts of water are registered in the afternoon and the
beginning of the night, particularly in the Maramureş and Baia Mare Depression,
hilly area, the valley and the depression area located in north-east of the Apuseni
Mountains (Fig. 3).
Iezer
Vlădeasa
Băişoara
Huedin
T urda
Cluj-N.
Dej
Bistriţa
Zalău
Ocna Ş.
Sighetu M.
Baia M.
Supuru
Satu M.
0_1

2_3

4_5

6_7

8_9

10_11

12_13

14_15

16_17

18_19

20_21

22_23
RST

0.5-2.0 2.0-3.5 3.5-5.0 5.0-6.5


6.5-8.0 8.0-9.5 9.5-11.0 11.0-12.5
11.0-12.5

Fig. 3. Hourly average amounts of water (mm/hour) of maximum intensity heavy rains

Hourly significant amounts of water (between 5.0 and 11.0 mm) are
recorded during the night too, especially in the Maramureş and Baia Mare
Depression, and partially in the hilly and mountainous area (Fig. 3).

4. CONCLUSIONS

Torrential rains’ structure notes the highest frequency in the Maramureş


and Baia Mare Depression and in the mountains area (more than 6.6% for each
analyzed station). Rains have this feature less frequent in the lowlands. Throughout
the year, their highest share belongs to the summer season (87.1%), with the
highest frequency in the mountain area. Considering duration, rainfall of 3 to 6
hours are dominant (37.3%). The occurrence of rainfall is more frequent in the
afternoon and evening, up to 3-4 hours earlier in the mountain areas than the plains
and depression. The second maximum occurs at midnight, in Maramureş and Baia
Mare Depression, the hilly and valley areas.
Regarding the average intensity, the ruling classes are those with mean and
high values (above 0.17 mm/min), due to the principles of selection used.

97
Maximum rainfall intensity occurs most often in the afternoon and in the
evening. The highest values of the frequency are delayed in the plain area. The
intensity class structure shows that those over 1.0 mm/min are dominant (85.2%).
Diurnal variation shows the highest frequencies in the afternoon and in the evening,
with a slightly uneven spatial structure, regardless of the category class. Duration
of maximum intensity ranges between 2 and 5 min (55.4%) followed by the 1 min
class (24.0%). Maximum intensity duration up to 5 min holds up almost 80% of the events.
The beginning moment of maximum intensity from the torrential rain’s
time start totals almost half of the events in the first 30 min, the 11-20 min time
class being dominant. It is noted that there are two secondary maximum (61-90 and
181-360 min), which belong to the torrential events that last over 2 hours.
Heavy rains average hourly water amounts ranges quite widely. The
diurnal variation has the highest values in the afternoon and evening, due to short
rain events, higher in number and intensity. For maximum intensity, the hourly
average water amounts are recorded throughout the afternoon and evening, but the
spatial distribution is uneven, as torrential rain are precipitation events with a large
territorial discontinuity.

REFERENCES

1. Bogdan, Octavia, Niculescu, Elena (1999), Riscurile climatice din România,


Compania Saga-Internaţional, Bucureşti.
2. Dragotă, Carmen-Sofia (2006), Precipitaţiile excedentare în România, Editura
Academiei Române, Bucureşti.
3. Gorbatchev, P. P. (1923), Concerning the relation between the duration, intensity,
and the periodicity of rainfall. Mon. Wea. Rev., 51, p. 305–308.
4. Haidu, I. (1997), Analiza seriilor de timp: aplicaţii în hidrologie, H.G.A.,
Bucureşti.
5. Haidu, I. (2002), Analiza de frecvenţă şi evaluarea cantitativă a riscurilor, în vol.
Riscuri şi Catastrofe, Editor V. Sorocovschi, Editura Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-
Napoca, p. 180-207.
6. Popovici, Ana, Dragotă, Carmen-Sofia, Măhăra, Gh. (1998), Evaluarea
climatologică a ploilor din Câmpia Crişurilor prin parametrii de durată, cantitate
şi intensitate, Analele Universităţii din Oradea, seria Geografie, VIII, p. 75-81.
7. Predescu, C. (1937), Studiul averselor la Cluj, Extras din Buletinul Observatorului
Meteorologic dela Academia de Agricultură din Cluj, no. 5/1937, Cluj.
8. Tudose, T., Moldovan, F. (2009), The intensity of significant rainfalls in the warm
season, in the north-western part of Romania, Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai,
Geographia, LIV, 3, Cluj-Napoca, p. 56-63.
9. *** (1975-2009), Arhiva Administraţiei Naţionale de Meteorologie, Bucureşti.
10. http://www.xlstat.com/en/products/xlstat-time accessed on January, 5, 2011.
11. http://www.curveexpert.net/download/ accessed on January, 17, 2011.

98
FINANCIAL CRISIS, SUBSIDIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE
IN THE EQUATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

FLORINA BRAN1, ILDIKO IOAN2, CRISTINA POPA3

ABSTRACT. – Financial crisis, subsidies and climate change in the equation of


sustainable development. An irreducible situation such as the contemporary financial
crisis creates the premises of major overthrow in decision criteria. Meanwhile,
significant progresses in overcoming the ecological crisis, fueled mainly by the climate
change are also in relation with such changes. This convergence is easy to be observed
due to logical connections. If its existence was noticed at decisional levels is the
overarching question that structure the paper. Since the answer is positive, there are
explored the visions and plans of measures developed within this confrontation. There
is applied a global approach and that is why each discussion considers also the
implications of economic globalization and of global environmental action as influence
factors on the path and direction of change.

Keywords: financial crisis, climate change, fossil fuels, subsidies, sustainable


development.

1. INTRODUCTION

Sustainable development is a continuous challenge that animates the


debates in science, in policy making and creates an intense information flow within
the science-policy dialogue. Its accomplishment necessitates significant changes
for which the momentum is quite rare.
The third millennium is foreseen as a consequence of basic mutations in
the deployment of economic activities, geopolitical relations, human interactions,
but above all in the architecture of values against which we measure ourselves in
the constant effort of filling with significance the human existence. As it expected
these changes are the results of irreducible situations that have impact on the global
population at such a rate that policy-corporate decision makers feel threatened their
interests.
The first part of the paper refreshes the debate of sustainable development
by bringing in discussion its main challenges. The interface that connect financial
crisis, subsidies, and climate change in the equation of sustainable development is
energy. Therefore the next section there is granted with a generous space for
analyzing the energy perspectives and the global vision on changes that will occur

1
Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Faculty of Agro-Food and Environmental Economics,
Bucharest, 010961 Mihail Moxa 7, Romania, e-mail: florinabran@yahoo.com
2
Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Faculty of Agro-Food and Environmental Economics,
Bucharest, 010961 Mihail Moxa 7, Romania, e-mail: ioanildiko@yahoo.com
3
Minsitry of Environment and Forests, e-mail: cris20072002@yahoo.com

99
in the structure of sources used by humankind starting with the position recently
launched by the International Energy Agency. As long as the architecture of
incentives that will determine profound changes in global energy economy is
regarded it is noticed that most of the documentations are converging toward
cutting subsidies for fossil fuels. This measure is discussed in order to highlight its
impact against the triple bottom line of sustainable development: economic, social,
and environmental.

2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

In the first decade of the new millennium sustainable development is


assumed in most developed countries as a strategic vision for the only possible
future. Despite this wide consensus the path toward sustainable development could
be quite different from one country to another. The main challenges to be
addressed are: substitutability, equity, uncertainty and irreversibility.
The capital model which gained a widespread application in contemporary
economy states that stock of capital should be preserved and all the expenses
should be covered from the interest brought in by the capital. In neoclassical
economics capital is considered as a single entity, regardless to the patterns of its
components. This view is challenged by ecological economics that recognizes
more capital types (natural, human, social, manufactured, financial etc.) and
interprets the capital model according to these new condition. Thus, the stock of
each capital type should be maintained. Thus, substitutability is not infinite, the
loss of one type of capital, e.g. natural, could not be compensated by using more
from another type of capital, e.g. manufactured. Sustainable development
necessitates the adoption of the ecological economics’ capital model.
Equity refers to the share of benefits coming from the exploitation of
resources among its users. According to its first and most frequently cited
definition, sustainable development is the development that allow to satisfy the
needs of present generation without compromising the chance of future generations
to satisfy their owns (Bruntland, 1987). That means an equitable share of benefits
among generations as users. Although complying with such a requirement could be
difficult because there are countless future generations, there is little knowledge
about the real needs of current generation and how technological progress will
reshape the chances, it is addressed mainly by stressing the need of increased
efficiency and of correlating the path of extraction with the path of renewal (Bran
and Ioan, 2002).
The infatuation of complete knowledge on the world brought humanity
very close to catastrophic transformations of the world. This was possible since the
positivist approach, emerging some hundreds years and being responsible for most
of the scientific progresses, assumes that the anything could be explained in an
analytical manner, departing from the behavior and characteristics of components.
Since many things were decomposed and their behavior and/or functioning was
and understood and verified it was created the illusion that we, humans, have an

100
exhaustive knowledge and that all that could count for us could be foreseen,
allowing time and resources for preparation and adaptation. Environmental
degradation, among others, taught us a different lesson: our knowledge on human-
nature interaction is limited and even the existing one is not valued entirely, there
are processes that cannot be understood by using the analytical approach, and
changes that escape our understanding could undermine human existence and
wellbeing. Thus, in order to go forward to sustainable development it is necessary
to recognize that there are uncertainties and that they could trigger irreversible
changes.

3. ENERGY OUTLOOK

The world energy system faces, according to IEA (2008), two major challen-
ges: securing continuity in energy providing and reform of energy supplying system
in such a way that a significant carbon dioxide emission reduction to be obtained.
Securing continuity in energy supply represent a major challenge because,
at world level, it is foreseen a continuous and strong increase of energy demand
(EIA, 2005). This trend is explained trough economic growth, correlated with
population growth and productivity increase, especially in developing countries.
Table 1. Population level and growth until 2030
Region Population (millions) Population growth

2005 2030 Millions %


North America 441 542 100 0.8
Western Europe 534 548 45 0.1
OECD Pacific 200 194 -6 -0.1
OECD 1 175 1 284 110 0.4
Latin America 423 535 112 0.9
Middle East and Africa 779 1 265 486 2.0
South Asia 1 482 2 023 541 1.3
South-East Asia 395 500 104 0.9
China 1 322 1 481 159 0.5
OPEC 560 803 242 1.4
Developing countries 4 961 6 606 1 645 1.2
Transition economies 341 338 -3 0.0
World 6 477 8 228 1 751 1.0
Source: OPEC (2007), World Oil Outlook 2007, pg.31, www.opec.org, 20.11.2008

According to the most recent scenarios made by different international


organizations (OPEC, IEA, EIA), at global level the population will increase with
an annual rate of 1%, reaching more than 8 billion inhabitants in 2030. From the
total population growth 94% will be due to the demographic evolutions of
developing countries and North America (table 1). Productivity increase is due to
capital increase, international trade intensification within globalization, and the
impact of economic reforms.

101
In these conditions it is estimated a world economic growth of more than
3% at the purchasing power parity. Regional contribution to this growth is
differentiated as it is resulting from data presented in table 2. Thus, China could be
considered an engine of global economic growth. In addition, in 2004, 2005, and
2006 China recorded two digit economic growth rates. A very dynamic growth is
to be expected in India also where to a large population has to be added the results
of economic reforms that will improve productivity and will enhance capital
endowment.

Table 2. Annual average GDP growth rates (purchasing power parity)


Region 2006- 2011- 2016- 2021- 2026- 2006-
2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2030
North America 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.5
Western Europe 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.9
OECD Pacific 2.4 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.8
OECD 2.5 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.1
Latin America 3.8 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.7 3.1
Middle East and 4.3 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.5
Africa
South Asia 6.5 5.3 4.8 4.4 4.1 5.0
South-East Asia 4.5 3.9 3.6 3.2 3.2 3.7
China 8.3 6.1 5.7 5.5 5.3 6.2
OPEC 4.8 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.7
Developing 6.3 5.0 4.7 4.5 4.4 5.0
countries
Transition 5.2 3.2 2.7 2.5 2.5 3.2
economies
World 4.2 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.5
Source: OPEC (2007), World Oil Outlook 2007, pg.33, www.opec.org, 20.11.2008

In the last decades the cumulated energy consumption of China and India
represented an increasing proportion of the world consumption. Thus, in 1980,
their cumulated consumption represented 8% of the world total, while in 2005 this
proportion was double, being estimated to reach one quarter of world consumption
in 2030 (EIA, 2005). USA’s participation to world consumption is expected to drop
from 22% (2005) to 17% in 2030.
World energy consumption is expected to increase continuously until 2030,
with 1.6% annual rates, reaching 17 010 Mtoe. Securing continuity in energy
supply is conditioned by massive investments in energy infrastructure. The current
financial crisis is not expected to affect long term investments but could lead to
delays in the accomplishment of ongoing projects. More than half of the
investments will be necessary for maintaining the current level of supply. In oil and
natural gas industry investments are also needed for the exploration of new
reserves and for increasing processing capacities. Thus, in the 2006-2020 period
the refining capacity will need to be expanded with 13 Mbarrels per day.

102
The energy supply system reform in order to reduce carbon dioxide
emissions or in other terms the diminishing of energy’s carbon intensity is needed
for protecting the global climate system. Climate change is considered one of the
most important environmental problems to be faced by humankind.
1400

1200 Indirect emissions

grams carbon dioxide equivalent per k


Direct emissions
1000

800

600

400

200

0
Coal Natural gase Hydro Solar Wind Nuclear
Source: IAEA, 2000

Fig.1. Carbon dioxide emissions in electric power production

It is interesting to notice that for obtaining energy from other primary


sources necessitates also the use of fossil fuels and implies carbon dioxide
emissions. Fig.1 illustrates the carbon dioxide emissions per energy unit resulting
directly, through burning, or indirectly, through the life cycle.
Energy sector has a key role in greenhouse gas emission reduction, the
main changes being increased energy efficiency, modification of primary energy
sources structure, and the development of new carbon storage technologies.

M id 21st century
animals
Late 20th century biomass
coal
Early 20th century oil
natural gase
M id 19th century nuclear
hydrogen
15th Century

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%


Source: Bruzzi, L., The dual role of energy: driving force for development and threat for
environment, Uniadrion Summer School on International Cooperation and Sustainable
Development Policies, Bologna, 2004

Fig.2. Structure of primary energy sources in different historical stages

The accomplishment of such changes is possible if governments will


succeed in applying a combination of policy instruments (regulations, financial
incentives, communication, and information) that secure continuity of energy
supply and emission reduction in an integrated manner. IEA (2008) considers that
the elimination of subsidies in non-OECD countries could bring a major demand
reduction and thus important emission reductions too.

103
Climate and energy policy created pressures will not lead to significant
changes in energy sources structure in the fore coming decades (fig.2).
According to IEA (2008), fossil fuels will have an important contribution
in satisfying the energy needs. This is estimated to be 80% in 2030, and 60% in
2050. Further, oil will be the dominant fuel although the coal demand is increasing
in absolute terms due to its use for power generation and China and India (85% of
the global consumption growth). Oil will have a 30% quota of world energy
consumption in 2030.

4. FINANCIAL CRISIS’ IMPACT ON INVESTMENTS

The recent financial crisis generated a powerful global action, outstanding


by its intensity and global coordination. Nevertheless, the mitigation actions should
be replaced by regular actions that should be constructed by considering both the
causes of the crisis and the vision on the next growth model.
According to OECD (2009), the growth model has to rely more on medium
and long term approaches that will result in being: i. stronger, ii. cleaner; and iii.
fairer. Stronger means that better regulation of financial markets, a healthy balance
between markets and government, and policies to promote more innovative long-
term growth in a more balanced global economy. Cleaner refers to a low carbon
growth path, in line with ongoing efforts to mitigate climate change. Supporting
economy should not be an excuse for environmentally harmful investments. Fairer
signifies more effective trade, investment, and development policies, stronger
social frameworks and a common global governance structure based on
cooperation between developed and developing countries. In this respect, open
markets remain a fundamental principle of well-functioning economies.
In the equation of sustainable development, financial crisis play a role by
creating momentum to change criteria for investments, by the cleaner component
of the growth model. This is also linked to climate change, since cleaner
investment means going away from conventional fuels to other types of energy,
such as renewable energy sources (RES). This “move” is also necessary since these
cleaner energy sources cannot compete with fossil fuels since investments made in
their exploitation are already recovered and were made using huge subsidies.
Another supportive reason is that exploitation of RES necessitates large
investments with efficiency indicators becoming attractive only on a medium and
long term perspective.
The win-win opportunities are represented by:
- green tax reform – moving away from labor and capital towards
pollutants or polluting activities and using auctioned pollution permits
that generate revenues;
- reforming and removing inefficient policies, especially subsidies to
fossil fuel production and consumption;
- removing barriers to widespread practice in energy and transport
efficiency.

104
Other opportunities for green growth are related to public investments in
energy efficiency of buildings, public transport, renewable energy networks, more
efficient water treatment supply and sanitation, as well as infrastructure to prevent
flooding, and other environmental risks and degradation.

5. POTENTIAL OF REMOVING SUBSIDIES FOR FOSSIL FUELS


TO CONTRIBUTE TO GHG EMISSION REDUCTIONS
In a long-term perspective removing subsidies has an important
environmental contribution through what is called by OECD (2009) as double or
triple “dividend”. This will arise from:
- removing inefficiency in resource allocation in the economy;
- pushing the green agenda; and
- saving governments and tax payers money.
According to Stern (2007), the trading scheme of GHG emissions
implemented through the Kyoto Protocol has the potential to reduce the amount of
emissions to the level required to not exceed the 2 Celsius degree increase of global
average temperature.
5

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Fig.3. The effects on GHG emissions of removing fossil fuel subsidies in emerging
and developing countries combined with caps on emissions in developed countries
(horizon 2050)
However, there are voices that point on the difficulties of meeting the
emission goals even in countries with high commitments in this respect, such as the
European Union. Further, the recent high level climate meetings (Copenhagen
2009, Cancun 2010) are evidence for the resistance to change toward a low carbon
future. Thus, other means of reducing emissions should be considered. OECD sees
subsidy removal for fossil fuels as one of these.
Fossil fuel and electricity subsidies accounts for more than a half of total
subsidies around the world being of 310 billion USD in 2007. Combining the
effects of emission caps for developed countries and removing subsidies for fossil
fuels will produce by 2050 a 10% reduction of GHG emissions at global level, with
the largest reduction in Oil-exporting countries, Russia, and non-EU eastern
countries (fig.3).

105
Removing subsidies to fossil fuels production and consumption is a
difficult decision to make given its harsh social impact. Another consequence that
arrive via demand drop is income loss in oil exporting countries. Such impact will
hit especially Russia and non-EU eastern countries. Meanwhile, the impact on
GDP, calculated as percentage deviation in 2050 from the 2005 level is negative
for the same country groups, being comprised between -1.8% and -4.7%.

6. CONCLUSIONS

The challenges of sustainable development remains after more than two


decades of converging efforts at high decision levels. Its environmental dimension
is a great contributor in this respect with climate change on the top o priority list.
The paper examined two means to contribute in this area: changes in investment
patterns due to the new growth model emerging in the aftermath of the financial
crisis and the removal of subsidies for fossil fuel production and consumption.
In the first case we found that the new growth model has a “green”
component stemming in green-tax reform, reforming and removing inefficient
policy measures, and removing barriers of energy and transport efficiency. As long
as the second component is regarded, the triple “dividend” that could be obtained
includes pushing the green agenda. However there are important barriers to
overcome, such as social impact and income loss for oil exporting countries.
Further research should consider what are the economic and social
implications of this global picture in Romania and if there are measures to be
applied in order to prevent revenue and GDP loss due to subsidies removal.

REFERENCES

1. Bran, F., Ioan, I. (2002), Ecosferă şi politici ecologice, Bucharest: ASE


Publishing.
2. International Energy Agency (2008), World Energy Outlook 2008 – Executive
Summary.
3. OECD (2010), Synthesis report on the strategic response, Meeting of the OECD
Council at Ministerial Level, 24-25 June 2009.
4. OECD (2010), Preliminary results on key elements of the green growth toolkit,
Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, 27-28 May 2010.
5. OPEC (2007), World Oil Outlook 2007.
6. Stern, N. (2007), The Economics of Climate Change. The Stern Review,
Cambridge University Press.

106
THE HYDROLOGICAL RISK IN THE MOLDOVITA RIVER BASIN
AND THE NECESSARY MEASURES FOR THE ATTENUATION
OF HIGH FLOOD WAVES

ROMANESCU ANA MARIA1, ROMANESCU GHEORGHE1

ABSTRACT. – The Moldoviţa river basin is situated in the northern part of


Eastern Carpathians. It is a main right side tributary of Moldova river. The average
multi-annual flow recorded in Lunguleţ and Dragoşa hydrometric stations has the
value of 1.638 m3/s, and 5.099 m3/s, respectively. The last catastrophic floods in
Moldovita river basin occurred on 26th July 2008, with the high flood wave at
17:00. A maximum flow of 539 m3/s was recorded and a water level rise to 400m.
The high flood was devastating, damaging many houses and household
attachments, social and economic buildings. Over 20 ha of agricultural land were
affected in Vatra Moldoviţei. The waters flooded over 7 households in Valea
Stânei village and in Ciumârna, four gabions on the left river bank and 2 little
bridges were destroyed. In Vatra Moldoviţei village, 180 m of dam as well as a
footbridge were destroyed, and a wood deposit was flooded. In Paltinu village, the
commune road was 70% damaged, two bridges were severely affected, and the
bridge defence collapsed over a distance of 50 m. As a result of the anthropical
intervention, the catastrophic floods are more and more frequent.

Key words: floods, hydro technical works, deforestation, management.

1. INTRODUCTION

The aggressiveness and frequency of the torrential rains, especially of


those exceeding 100 mm in 24 hours cause increased flows in most of the
Romanian rivers. In the last 10 years the floods in eastern Romania have had an
almost regular frequency of 2 years. In this time interval, the Siret, Suceava,
Trotuş, Prut rivers etc. recorded historical flows (Romanescu, Nistor, 2010;
Romanescu et al., 2011).
Moldoviţa river basin, in the northern part of Eastern Carpathians, is
affected greatly by massive deforestation and tree fell. For this reason floods are
very frequent, with significant material and even human losses. As this region is a
very important tourist area, it is imperative that the damages are diminished and the
necessary measures are taken immediately.
Although floods became repeated and usual phenomena in the eastern part
of Romania, detailed studies have been done sporadically, and most of the time
they did not have a practical finality. The most important contributions to the study
of floods in the east of Romania or to the research of the general principles causing
                                                            
1
University „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” of Iaşi, Faculty of Geography and Geology, Department of Geography,
Bd.Carol I, 20A, 700505, Iaşi. E-mail: anaromanescu@yahoo.com; geluromanescu@yahoo.com.

107
their recording belong to the following authors: Apostol, 1985; Diaconu, 1999;
Mustăţea, 2005; Podani, Zăvoianu, 1992; Romanescu, 2003, 2006, 2009;
Romanescu et al., 2009, 2011; Smith, Ward, 1998; Sorocovschi, 2003, 2007, etc.

2. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

Moldoviţa river basin is situated in the north of Romania, in the northern


part of Eastern Carpathians, in Obcinele Bucovinei Mountains. The river has its
source at the altitude of 1200 m, a length of 51.6 km and the area of the river basin
covers 563 km2. After draining the mountain territory, the river flows into the
Moldova River, a tributary of the Siret River (Fig. 1).
The river basin stretches on NW-SE direction and its shape is symmetrical.
Moldoviţa river basin gets narrower next to Vama, at the confluence with Moldova
River. The mathematical limits are: 47030' and 47050' north latitude and 25036' and
25046' eastern longitude.

Fig. 1. Geographical location of Moldoviţa River on the territory of Romania

3. METHODOLOGY
The statistical data were obtained from Siret Basin Administration in
Bacău, Moldova Meteorological Centre in Iaşi and Romanian Waters National
Administration in Bucharest. The data were processed within the Geo-archaeology
Laboratory, Faculty of Geography and Geology, Iaşi.
Field observations and measurements were done in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
and 2010, along the flood plain of Moldoviţa River. Daily water levels were
monitored in the three stations and topographical measurements were done
upstream and downstream these stations.
All the analysed data were collected from 2 Hydrological Stations
(Dragoşa and Lunguleţ) and they refer to the maximum flows recorded in the
period 2006-2010.

108
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The factors generating the floods are connected to the landforms


(morphology, slope, and cross section), climate (precipitations and temperatures),
vegetation, human activity etc.
Moldoviţa Valley reflects the typical features of the valleys developed in
mountain regions. The alternation of narrow valley sectors with wider sectors, the
asymmetry of the transversal profile, the altitude differences, the variation of the
slopes etc give a clear personality to this landform unit.
In Lunguleţ and Dragoşa hydrometric stations the multi-annual average
flows are 1.638 m3/s and 5.099 m3/s, respectively. In Dragoşa hydrometric station
the highest flows were recorded in 1950, 1969, 1970, 1072, 1973, 1978, 1979,
1981, 1991, 2002 and 2008, with Q exceeding 6.500 m3/s.
The maximum flow is the cause of the most destructive slope processes
and of the floods in the flood plain. Therefore, a quantitative evaluation (spatial
and temporal) has not only a scientific importance, connected to the accelerated
landform modelling (denudation, erosion, siltage), but also a significant practical
importance, for designing all the hydro technical and hydro-ameliorative works.
High waters and high floods, as phases of the periods with high flow, occur
in the warm period of the year (May - November) and they are produced by the
combined effect of snow melting and spring torrential rains (mixed high floods), by
the summer rains, and sometimes by autumn rains (simple high floods). Very
seldom, floods can occur in winter as well (in December 1995, when liquid
precipitations increased from 0.7 to 6.3 l/m2 in 24 hours (25.XII), reaching a
maximum of 35 l/m2 on 27.XII.1995).
The maximum flow and the catastrophic high floods are generated by the
summer rains, when the maximum flow of the rivers can be 2-3 times higher than
the maximum spring values. As a consequence of the torrential summer rains, high
floods with very high amplitudes can occur: July 1991, 27-28 June 1995; 2 July
1998; 5 June 1999; June 2006; July 2008.
The number of high floods varies according to the season, most of them
occurring during spring, but also summer, and very few in autumn or winter. For
the analysed period, the highest number of high floods was recorded in 1972, 1988,
1996, and the lowest number in 1985 and 1987.
The catastrophic high flood recorded in May 1970 was caused by a
complex of factors simultaneously interfering in a long time interval. The releaser
factor was represented by the intense liquid precipitation over large areas. Under
such conditions, in Dragoşa station, the maximum flow had the value of 176 m3/s
(13.V.1970, 1415hours). The spring high waters usually have two waves, very
rarely only one. In this case, the first increase was less significant (85 m3/s),
generated by snow melting, and the latter increase was richer (176 m3/s), with

109
nivopluvial supply. A high flood of high intensity occurred in June, the same year,
with a maximum flow of 231 m3/s in Dragoşa.
In the case of the high flood recorded in July 1981, the first peak was
higher than the latter. The main cause generating this high flood was represented
by the high amount of precipitations. Under such conditions, the maximum flow of
245 m3/s was recorded on 17th July, 1500 hours. The flow coefficient reached the
value of 0.86. The intensity of the maximum flow was slightly higher than that of
the high flood recorded in May 1970. The phenomenon can be explained by the
higher intensity and duration of the rains in July 1981, when precipitations
exceeded 35 l/m2/1h.

Fig. 2. Flow hydrograph in Dragoşa hydrometric station in 2006 – high flood 1

At the station in Dragoşa, the total duration of the high floods varies
between 80 and 322 hours, and the increase duration has values between 9 and 77
hours. The shape coefficients of the high floods have values between 0.10 and
0.32.
In 2006, the average flow of Dragoşa River was 6.300 m3/s. The rain lasted
from 30.05.2006, 07:00 hours to 13.06.2006, 17:00 hours. The peak of the high
flood occurred on 02.06.2006, 21:00 hours, with a maximum flow of 130.0 m3/s,
and the height of the flow of 297 m (Fig.2).
On 14.06.2006, 07 :00 hours, the rains started, and they lasted until
22.06.2006, 17 :00 hours. The peak of the high flow was recorded on 15.06 2006,
21:00 hours, with a maximum flow of 134 m3/s, and the height of the river of 300 m
(Fig.3).

110
Fig. 3. Flow hydrograph in Dragoşa hydrometric station in 2006 – high flood 2

At the station in Lunguleţ an annual average flow of 2.03 m3/s was


recorded in 2006. On 01.06.2006, 07:00 hours, the rains started and the lasted until
09.06.2006, 17:00 hours. The peak of the high flood was recorded on 02.06.2006,
21:00 hours, with a maximum flow of 41.3 m3/s, and a water level of 218 cm. Five
days later, a second high flood recorded, on 14.06.2006, 07:00 hours, which lasted
until 22.06.2006, 17:00 hours. The peak of this high flood reached 40.7 m3/s and
the height of the river was 217 cm.
In 2008, at the station in Dragoşa, an average flow of 6.55 m3/s was
registered. The rains started on 23.07.2008, 06:00 hours, and they lasted until
08.08.2008, 06:00 hours. The peak of the high flood was recorded on 26.07.2008,
between 17:00-18:00 hours. With the flows of 539 m3/s, and 509 m3/s respectively,
and the level of 400 cm, and 390 cm respectively, this high flood was devastating,
with immense losses in the flooded areas (Fig.4).
The latest floods in Moldoviţa river basin were recorded in the summer of
2008, more precisely at the end of June, 2008.
During the high floods in the summer of 2008, immense quantities of logs
were transported and deposited in the flood plain. As a result, plugs were formed
at the foot of the undersized bridges. The river basin is severely deforested and the
flood plain hosts many houses, frame saws etc. The majority of the rural
settlements in Moldoviţa river basin are situated in the flood plain.

111
Fig. 4. Flow hydrograph in Dragoşa hydrometric station in 2008

The simulations with GIS program demonstrate the high flooding degree of
the settlements. The simulations were done for Paltinu and Râşca–Dărmăneşti Putna.
The localities of Râşca–Dărmăneşti Putna are crossed by Moldoviţa River
and Săcrieş. When a 4-5 m high plug is formed, the water with the level of 4 m
would flood entirely the inhabited area (Fig.5).
In the areas where the height of waters reached 1 m, the intra-village
affected surfaces are as large as 5 ha, and the affected road network can be as long
as 1.18 km. In the area flooded by the waters reaching the level of 4 m, the affected
intra-village area would be as large as 45 ha, and affected the road network as long
as 6.3 km. For a height of 5 m, 62.48 ha would be destroyed in the intra-village and
the length of destroyed roads would be 9.09 km. Under such conditions, this area
would be entirely destroyed by the high flood wave.
Paltinu village belongs to Vatra Moldoviţei commune and it is situated on
the valley of Boului stream. For a level of 1 m, the effects are minor: about 0.41
km of roads destroyed. For a water height of 2 m, an area of 3.16 ha in the intra-
village would be affected, as well as 0.92 km of roads. If waters reach a level of 4
m, the affected intra-village area would be significant, covering approximately
16.40 ha, and the length of affected roads would be 2.22 km.

5. CONCLUSIONS

Like any dynamic geographic system, the rivers in Moldoviţa river basin
have reflected the connection with the climatic factors while recording such flow
decrease or exaggerated level increase.
Located in a mountain area of the Eastern Carpathians, in the periods with
precipitations exceeding the average, the flows of the rivers in Moldoviţa river
basin increase, overflowing the banks. The high flood waves cause devastating

112
floods in the settlements situated in the flood plains. Many years were recorded
when high floods produced important material loss, affecting households, bridges,
small bridges, commune roads, roads, railways, dams etc. The latest catastrophic
floods in Moldoviţa river basin occurred on 26 July 2008, with the high flood wave
recorded at 17:00 hours.

Fig. 5. Flood simulation in Râşca – Dărmăneşti Putna

The high flood affected many households, social and economic buildings.
Over 20 ha of agricultural land were severely affected in Vatra Moldoviţei. In the
same village, the list with the loss can continue: 180 m of dams, footbridges, and a
deposit for wood material. In Paltinu, the commune road was 70% damaged, two
bridges were severely destroyed and the bridge defence collapsed over a distance
of 50 m.
In order to defend the settlements, hydro technical works for regulating the
flood plain were done and dams were built: works for defending and consolidating
the banks, embankment works, water courses regularization and canalling works,
works, works for fighting against depth and surface erosion, building up of bridges
etc. Unfortunately, some of these works were undersized or they have a support
pillar in the thalweg. This is why the plugs are formed so frequently, contributing
to the formation of a barrage.

Acknowledgements

The hydrological data and the GIS data were processed and analysed in the
Geo-archaeology Laboratory of the Faculty of Geography and Geology of Iaşi.

113
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Apostol, L. (1985), Contribuţii la cunoaşterea regimului precipitaţiilor


atmosferice în obcinele Bucovinei. Lucrările Staţiunii de Cercetări „Stejarul”,
Seria Geografie, Piatra Neamţ 8, 15-25.
2. Diaconu, S. (1999), Cursuri de apă. Amenajare, Impact, Reabilitare. Editura
HGA, Bucureşti.
3. Mustăţea, A. (2005), Viituri excepţionale pe teritoriul României. Geneză şi efecte.
Editura Institutului Naţional de Hidrologie şi Gospodărire a Apelor, Bucureşti.
4. Podani, M., Zăvoianu, I. (1992), Cauzele şi efectele inundaţiilor produse în luna
iulie 1991 în Moldova. Studii şi cercetări de Geografice, Bucureşti 39, 45-54.
5. Romanescu, G. (2003), Inundaţiile – între natural şi accidental. In: Riscuri şi
catastrofe, Editor Victor Sorocovschi, Editura Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-Napoca
2, 130-138.
6. Romanescu, G. (2006), Inundaţiile ca factor de risc. Studiu de caz pentru viiturile
Siretului din iulie 2005. Editura Terra Nostra, Iaşi.
7. Romanescu, G. (2009), Evaluarea riscurilor hidrologice. Editura Terra Nostra,
Iaşi.
8. Romanescu, G., Lupaşcu, A., Stoleriu, C., Răduianu, D., Lesenciuc, D.,
Vasiliniuc, I., Romanescu, Gabriela (2009), Inventarierea şi topologia zonelor
umede şi apelor adânci din grupa centrală a Carpaţilor Orientali. Editura
Universităţii „Alexandru I. Cuza” Iaşi.
9. Romanescu, G., Nistor, I. (2010), The effect of the July 2005 catastrophic
inundations in the Siret River’s Lower Watershed, Romania. Natural Hazards,
Springer (in press). DOI: 10.1007/s11069-010-9617-3.
10. Romanescu, G., Jora, I., Stoleriu, C. (2011), The most important high floods in
Vaslui river basin – causes and consequences. Carpathian Journal of Earth and
Environmental Sciences 6(1), 119-132.
11. Smith, K., Ward, R. (1998), Floods. Physical Processes and Human Impacts. John
Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
12. Sorocovschi, V. (2003), Complexitatea teritorială a riscurilor şi catastrofelor. In:
Riscuri şi catastrofe, Editor Victor Sorocovschi, Editura Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă,
Cluj-Napoca 2, 39-48.
13. Sorocovschi, V. (2007), Vulnerabilitatea componentă a riscului. Concept,
variabile de control, tipuri şi modele de evaluare. In: Riscuri şi catastrofe, Editor
Victor Sorocovschi, Editura Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-Napoca 6(4), 58-69.

114
WATER CONDITIONING FOR FOOD INDUSTRY USES

RAISA NASTAS1, V.RUSU1, T.LUPASCU1


LUDMILA STARIS1, MARIA SANDU2

ABSTRACT. – Water conditioning for food industry uses. Tap (drinking)


water from many localities of Moldova doesn’t always correspond to the “Sanitary
standards for drinking water quality” or to the requirements of the “Regulation for
non-alcoholic beverages”, requiring the need for additional purification/
conditioning. This paper presents research regarding the removal/adsorption of the
main pollutants in tap water (iron, manganese, aluminum, humic substances,
trihalomethanes) on supports of local carbon adsorbents made from vegetable
products (stones of peach and plum, walnut shells). Experiments were performed
in dynamic conditions in columns of carbon adsorbents. As work solutions was
used tap water where pollutants have been introduced in amounts equivalent to 3
maximum allowable concentrations. Carbonaceous adsorbents used for
removal/adsorption of pollutants in dynamic conditions, reveal a capacity of up to
1:400 volumes adsorbent: solution before breakthrough. Combined filter, utilizing
active carbons, was constructed and tested for conditioning of tap water for
beverage and food production. The results demonstrated efficient remove of
organic substances and heavy metals by filtering of about 700 volumes of water
per volume of filter.

Keywords: drinking water quality, active carbons, absorption, organic substances,


heavy metals.

1. INTRODUCTION

Analysis of the available data indicates the unsatisfactory situation


concerning quality of potable water in many settlements in Moldova, as well as
feed water for food and beverage production. The raw water for beverage and food
production has to meet special toxicological, medical, and technological
requirements and has to be of satisfactory taste and odor [1]. Usually, the water
treatment and conditioning technologies in this area incorporate several methods
that are characterized by the raw water composition and the requirements of the
subsequent water use.
Chemical analysis of tap water in different zones of Republic of Moldova
demonstrated that tap water from surface sources contains small amounts of
organic substances and aluminum, but tap water from underground sources
contains high level of iron [2].
1
Institute of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 3, Academiei str., MD-2028, Chisinau,
Republic of Moldova, e-mail: nastasraisa@yahoo.com
2
Institute of Ecology and Geografy, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 3, Academiei str., MD-2028,
Chisinau, Republic of Moldova

115
The conditioning of raw water for the use as feed for beverage and food
production requires the correction of the concentrations of several constituents in water.
The purpose of this work was to test vegetal carbonaceous adsorbents, with
a broad spectrum of physical-chemical characteristics, for removal of humic
substances (HS), trihalomethanes (THM), aluminum, iron (III), and manganese (II)
from water.

2. EXPERIMENTAL

A broad spectrum of vegetal carbonaceous adsorbents have been tested on


adsorption of humic substances (HS), chloroform (THM) and metals (under static
condition), to chose the more efficient adsorbents.
Structural parameters (obtained from sorption isotherms of nitrogen at 77 K)
of active carbons and surface chemistry are presented in tables 1 and 2.

Table 1. Structural parameters of activated carbons obtained [3]

SBET, Sme, Smicro, Vs, Vmicro, D,


Sample Characteristics 2 2 2 3 3
m /g m /g m /g cm /g cm /g Å
CAP23 Obtained from 957 110 846 0,57 0,42 23,8
peach stones
Obtained from
plum stones,
CAPrO36 1199 128 1071 0,68 0,51 22,7
oxidized with nitric
acid
SBET – BET surface area; Smicro, Sme – micropore and mesopore surface area,
respectivelly; Vs – total pore volume; Vmicro – micropore volume; D – average
pore diameter.

Sorption processes for the more efficient adsorbents were performed also
in dynamic conditions. The length of column was of 60 cm and diameter 1,5 cm,
the speed of filtration was about 10 m3/m2h.

Table 2. Surface chemistry of activated carbons characterized by modified Boehm method [4]

Quantity of the functional groups. Character of the functional groups.


Amount, meq/g Amount, meq/g

Sample Titrant Carboxylic Phenolic Basic


0,05 N 0,1 N 0,05 N 0,1 N Strong Weak
NaHCO3 Na2CO3 NaOH HCl acidic acidic
CAP23 0,10 0,29 0,58 0,59 0,10 0,19 0,29 0,59
CAPrO36 0,99 1,47 2,48 0,43 0,99 0,48 1,01 0,43

116
For simultaneous removal of HS, THM and heavy metals water samples
were passed through two consecutive columns (with total working volume about
66 cm3) with active carbon (CAP23) and oxidized active carbon (CAPrO36). In the
effluents there has been determined the concentration of ingredients and pH values,
chemical oxygen demand (COD), permanganate oxygen demand (MnOD), organic
matter (OM) and hardness (HD).
The concentration of humic substances and chloroform have been
determined by two procedures, wet-oxidation method and ultraviolet absorptin
method (λ=254 nm and λ=280 nm) [5,6]. Metals ions have been determined by
fotocolorimetric methods [6,7].
Working solutions, which consist of amounts equivalent to 2-3 maximum
allowable concentration, have been modeled on natural waters of Republic
Moldova (tap water from Chisinau, surface water from Ungheni, and from
underground sources, Singerei).
The combined filter utilizing active carbon CAP23 (obtained from peach
stones) and active carbon CAPrO36 (obtained from plum stones, oxidized with
nitric acid) was constructed and tested for conditioning of tap water for beverage
and food production.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Chemical composition of tap water obtained from surface and underground


sources in different zones of Moldova was determined. Parameters of quality for
water samples are presented in table 3. Results demonstrated that tap water from
surface sources contains appreciable amounts of organic substances, and tap water
from underground sources contains high level of iron.
Previously results demonstrated that active carbon CAP23 (obtained from
peach stones) posses highest sorption capacity for humic substances (HS) and
chloroform (THM), and oxidized activated carbon CAPrO36 (obtained from plum
stones, oxidized with nitric acid) – for metals (aluminum, iron, manganese) [8]. On this
basis, the removal of Al3+, Fe3+ and Mn2+ from individual solutions was performed in
dynamic frontal method utilizing oxidized active carbon CAPrO36, obtained from
plum stones. In this case, oxidized active carbon CAPrO36 works as an ion-exchanger
(Fig. 1). The removal of humic substances (HS) and chloroform (THM) from
individual solutions was performed using columns with carbonaceous adsorbent
obtained from peach stones CAP23 (Fig. 2).
Removal efficiency of HS, THM and heavy metals from their mixture have
been studied using two consecutive columns with active carbon (CAP23) and
oxidized active carbon (CAPrO36). The output curves of adsorption of Al3+ ions
from mixture and pH values of effluents (using the dynamic frontal method) are
presented in figures 3A and 3B. Carbonaceous adsorbents used for removal of
pollutants in dynamic conditions reveal a capacity of up to 1:400 volumes
adsorbent: solution before breakthrough (Fig. 3A).

117
Table 3. Water quality for different locations of the Republic of Moldova

Parameters of quality Locations


Chisinau, Ungheni Singerei
r. Nistru r. Prut Ground water
pH 7,2 7,3 7,2
Turbidity, mg/l 0,9 0,5 0,3
TDS, mg/l 330 277 964
Alcalinity,mgE/l 2,88 2,54 9,8
Oxidability, mgO/l 2,1 2,1 2,1
DOC, mgC/l 3,06 2,98 3,48
CDOC, mgC/l 2,28 2,33 2,48
Iron, mg/l 0,27 0,20 1,1
Mangan, mg/l <0,01 <0,01 <0,01
Aluminium, mg/l 0,28 0,29 0,01

Adsorption (integral on effluents) of Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+ ions and chloroform


CHCl3, and humic substances HS are presented in figures 4A and 4B.

a, mg/g a, mg/g
1,0
0,6
1 1
0,5 0,8

0,4
0,6
2
0,3
2
0,4
0,2 3

0,2
0,1

0,0 0,0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Vel, L Vel, L

Fig. 1. Adsorption (integral on effluents) Fig. 2. Adsorption (integral on effluents)


of Fe3+ ions (curve 1), Al3+ ions (curve of humic substances (curve 1) and
2) and Mn2+ ions (curve 3) on oxidized chloroform (curve 2) on active carbon
active carbon (CAPrO-36) in dynamic (CAP-23) in dynamic conditions.
conditions.

Sorption processes of humic substances (HS), chloroform (THM) and


metals (aluminum, iron and manganese), studied under dynamic conditions from
solutions modeled on tap water, demonstrated that obtained adsorbents possess
high sorption properties for organic and inorganic pollutants and may be utilized
for tap water treatment.

118
A B
Ce/C0 pH
8
1,0

0,8 6

0,6
4

0,4

2
0,2

0,0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Vel, L Vel, L

Fig. 3. The output curve of adsorption of Al3+ ions in dynamic conditions (A), and pH
values of effluents (B). Model solution, containing Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+ ions, chloroform
CHCl3 and humic substances HS.

A B
a, mg/g
a, mg/g
0,10
1 12
1
0,08
10
2
0,06 8

6
0,04
3 4

0,02
2
2
0,00 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Vel, L Vel, L

Fig. 4. Adsorption (integral on effluents) of Fe3+ ions (curve 1A), Al3+ ions (curve 2A)
and Mn2+ ions (curve 3A), humic substances (curve 1B) and chloroform (curve 2B) in
dynamic conditions from mixture.

The combined filter utilizing active carbon CAP23 (obtained from peach
stones) and active carbon CAPrO36 (obtained from plum stones) was constructed.
This combined filter was tested under dynamic conditions for remove from tap
water at high flow velocities of the impurities.
The results demonstrated efficient remove of organic substances and
heavy metals by filtering of about 700 volumes of water per volume of filter
(Tab. 4, Fig. 5).

119
Table 4. Quality characteristics* of water passed thorough combined filter with active
carbon CAP23 (obtained from peach stones) and active carbon CAPrO36
(obtained from plum stones)

Vl/Vs HD HCO3- Cl- SO42- pH MnOD Corg OM


0 3,7 226 48,6 84 7,70 1,93 2,94 5,89
200 1,5 110 44,2 55 6,45 0 0,08 0,16
300 2,2 104 43,8 68 6,50 0,08 0,05 0,10
400 2,5 122 44,8 63 6,55 0,28 0,13 0,26
500 3,3 134 43,7 68 6,55 0,30 0,15 0,30
600 3,5 163 44,7 63 6,95 0,90 0,35 0,70
700 3,4 177 41,8 65 7,05 1,00 0,36 0,72
800 3,7 183 41,8 66 7,10 1,60 0,74 1,48
900 3,7 169 43,7 72 7,15 1,70 1,32 2,64
1000 3,7 188 41,9 71 7,15 1,60 2,15 4,30
1100 3,7 183 42,4 78 7,20 1,90 2,60 5,20
*
MnOD – permanganate oxygen demand, mg O2/L, Corg, mg/L, Organic matter OM, mg/L, Hardness
HD, meq/L, content of ions, mg/L. Filter volume 0,595 L, Vl/Vs is the water volumes: sorbent volume
ratio passed thorough filter. Dynamic velocity of filtering 15 L/h. Initial water Vl/Vs = 0.

COD, mg O2/L
8

6
Fig. 5 Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
5
of water passed thorough combined
4 filter with active carbon CAP23 and
3 oxidized active carbon CAPrO36.
2

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
V1/Vs,

4. CONCLUSIONS

Sorption processes of humic substances (HS), chloroform (THM) and


metals (aluminum, iron, manganese) were studied under dynamic conditions from
solutions modeled on tap water. It was demonstrated that obtained adsorbents
possess high sorption properties for organic and inorganic pollutants and may be
utilized for tap water treatment.
Carbonaceous adsorbents used for removal of pollutants in dynamic
conditions reveal a capacity of up to 1:400 volumes adsorbent: solution before
breakthrough.

120
The combined filter utilizing active carbon CAP23 (obtained from peach
stones) and active carbon CAPrO36 (obtained from plum stones) was constructed
and tested for conditioning of tap water for beverage and food production. The
results demonstrated efficient remove of organic substances and heavy metals by
filtering 700 volumes of water per volume of filter.

REFERENCES

1. Official Monitor of Republic of Moldova, (2007), Nr. 131-135, art. Nr : 970 (rom).
2. Lupascu T., Nastas R., Rusu V., Sandu M., Staris L. The improving of drinking
water quality through proceedings on activated carbons. Proceedings of the Second
International Conference on Ecological Chemistry, Chisinau 2005, pp. 89-92.
3. Maroto-Valer M. Mercedes, Dranca I., Lupascu T., Nastas R. Effect of adsorbate
polarity on thermodesorption profiles from oxidized and metal-impregnated
activated carbons. Carbon, (2004), 42, pp. 2655-2659.
4. Nastas R., Rusu V., Giurginca M., Meghea A., Lupascu T. Chemical structure
modification of vegetal active carbons surface. Rev. Chim. (Bucharest). 2008,
Vol. 59, Nr. 2, pp. 159-164 (rom).
5. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Pub.: American
Public Health Association; American Water Works Association; Water
Environment Federation, USA, 19th Edition 1995.
6. Lurie Iu. Iu., Analiticeskaya himia promyshlennyh stocnyh vod. Moskow: Himia,
1984, 448 p.
7. Lurie Iu. Iu., Unifitirovannye metody analiza vod. Moskow: Himia, 1971, 375 p.
8. Lupascu T., Nastas R., Ciobanu M., Arapu T., Rusu V. New vegetal carbonaceous
adsorbents for natural water treatment. Proceedings of The Anniversary
Conference of INECO-15 years, Chisinau, 2006, p. 218 (rom).

121
SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS FOR EDUCATION
OF CLIMATE CHANGE

ILONA PAJTÓK-TARI1, JÁNOS MIKA1,2, ZOLTÁN UTASI1

ABSTRACT. – This paper surveys the key statements of the IPCC (2007) Report
based mainly on the satellite-borne observations to support teaching climate
change and geography by using the potential of this technology. In the
Introduction we briefly specify the potential and the constraints of remote sensing.
Next the key climate variables for indicating the changes are surveyed. Snow and
sea-ice changes are displayed as examples for these applications. Testing the
climate models is a two-sided task involving satellites, as well. Validation of the
ability of reconstructing the present climate is the one side of the coin, whereas
sensitivity of the climate system is another key task, leading to consequences on
the reality of the projected changes. Finally some concluding remarks are
compiled, including a few ideas on the ways how these approaches can be applied
for education of climate change.

Keywords: climate change, climate models, satellite remote sensing, climate


sensitivity

1. INTRODUCTION

The future teacher of geography has to know about everything which is


related to his or her profession in the real life. This is especially true for the devices
where either the factual knowledge or the interdisciplinary relations can well be
emphasized. From both points of view the satellite imagery and processing is such
a tool. Since this device reveals figuratively the tiny details of the surface to us.
Faculty of Natural Sciences of Eszterházy Károly College uses the satellite images
of EUMETSAT during 3 years for educational and scientific purposes starting in
autumn of 2010. Running a little bit ahead in time let us be playing about with the
thought that this imaginary right is available as physical reality for us already. How
we would be able to make use of it merely our basis topic in the interest of the
education of the climate change?
The satellites support the climate change in four ways: Firstly the
modification of the climate, the so called external forcing factors are worth
mentioning, especially the atmospheric aerosol particles, exhibiting large spatial
variability which demands the use of the satellite technology.

1
Department of Geography, Eszterházy Károly College, Eger, Hungary. E-mail: utasiz@ektf.hu,
pajtokil@ektf.hu,
2
Hungarian Meteorological Service, Budapest, Hungary. E-mail: mika.j@met.hu

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Secondly, we emphasize the role that helps to justify the changes in such a
global covering that would not be possible in any other way especially in the
uninhabited regions and the oceans, not allowing the ground-based observations.
Testing climate models forms the third group of climatic applications, if these
models are able to give back the present value of single variables or its past
changes. Finally, testing the model sensitivity is a fourth application. It asks, if the
atmospheric short-, and long wave radiation feedbacks, shaping its balance, are
equal to their real intensity.
This question is really important, because the feedbacks influence the
climatic sensitivity. In any case, the balance of these feedbacks in the models
sensitivity causes as big uncertainty, as the variability of the greenhouse gas
emissions scenarios.

2. SPECIFICS OF REMOTE SENSING

Satellite technology is based on electromagnetic radiation observations.


The use of remote sensing techniques from space is advantageous, since this is the
only way to observe a wide range of geophysical parameters on a global scale to
acceptable accuracy in a consistent and repeatable manner (Silvestrin, 2010). The
satellite images have fairly high spatial resolution and high (though, costly)
temporal resolution already achievable over vast areas. This technology allows us
to measure locations of the Earth system impossible or difficult to access, mainly
by the all-weather day-and-night capability for microwave sensing. This
technology is able to measure several parameters at same time and it can be highly
automatic, from acquisition to exploitation. One may even state that on a per-
measurement basis, usually far less expensive than any other means of geophysical
observations (Silvestrin, 2010).
However, the technology has some caveats too (Silvestrin, 2010). One
must always consider that remote sensing data are results of indirect measurements
where the observed signal is always affected by more factors than just the one,
targeted by the observation. Therefore, further assumptions and models are needed
to interpret the measurements, e.g. to calibrate sensor, to remove perturbing effects,
etc. The area of the measurement target is often relatively large, raising the
representativity issue, considering surface heterogeneities. Due to these problems,
validation of remote sensing measurements is often not possible in an optimal way
and the estimation of the errors of the data products can be difficult.
Satellite remote sensing is based on primary and combined electromagnetic
quantities, e.g. absolute intensities in specific wavelength intervals, intensities
relative to the intensity of a reference source at the same wavelength, ratios of
intensities at different wavelengths, etc. These quantities are observed in two
characteristic groups according to the wavelengths. These are the microwave and
the optical (infrared) parts of the parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Optical sensing of the surface takes place in visible and near-infrared (ca.
0.3-1.3 µm), middle-infrared (ca. 1.5-1.8, 2.0-2.6, 3.0-3.6, 4.2-5 µm) and thermal

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infrared (7.0-15 µm) parts of the spectrum, constrained by the atmospheric
windows. The microwave sounding can use a rather large window between 10
MHz – ca. 100 GHz.
The wavelengths in the two regions differ by around 5 orders of
magnitude: features observed are very different and usually highly complementary.
The two groups exhibit very different spatial resolutions: only tens of km for the
microwave, whereas 1 km is easily achieved for the optical measurements. On the
other hand, microwave sensing is little affected by atmosphere and clouds (but
rainfall may be a problem), and they can even penetrate vegetation, dry soil and
snow. For the visible wavelengths clouds are obstacles, and daylight is also a
condition. In the optical part of the spectrum various atmospheric corrections are
needed to clear the targeted signal from other effects. In this respect, wide and
partly unknown radiation parameters of the aerosol components are the problem.
For microwaves the surfaces appear smoother than in the optical region,
hence larger occurrence of mirror-like reflections is available. This can be utilized in
case of both passive and active remote sensing. Active sensing offers more control on
incident energy, enabling new sensing capacities. However, legal and technological
constraints also occur with the microwave spectrum allocation (interference with
other sources), lidar (laser-radar) safety issues, etc. (Silvestrin, 2010).

3. CHANGES OF CLIMATE

Detection of changes in the climate system is a rather difficult and long-term


task of the satellite based remote sensing. The key problems are the limited accuracy of
the observations, i.e. the non-random, systematic error, or bias, that defines the offset
between the measured value and the true one. There is also the limited precision of each
observation, i.e. its random errors. Suitable averaging of the random errors can improve
the precision of the measurement, so this problem is not a strict obstacle of the long-term
observations. But, the limited stability, i.e. the time varying accuracy, when no absolute
standard is available can lead to systematic error as a function of time. Finally, the
representativity might also be a constraint though a good sampling strategy can mitigate
this problem (Doherty, 2010).
There is a very large number of variables in the climate system. The most
straightforward, and also realistic ones to observe by remote sensing, are listed in Table
6.4, according the present and future activity of the “ESA Climate Change Initiative”
(Liebig, 2010). It is not possible to overemphasize how important it is to have multi-
variable objective data on recent climate changes. Any national or larger scale policy
decision on the mitigation of the changes or on the adaptation to them should be based on
the detection of the changes. (Attribution of them is another task, with substantial
synergies with the detection, as well.).
Common sense, physical considerations and also the technical possibilities and
constraints lead the decision on the priorities among these variables. The first two drivers
are needed to have the maximum set of fairly independent physical state variables, as
soon as possible. The first 11 variables of the ESA mission are bold set in Table 1.

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Table 1. Essential climate variables, as considered by the ESA Climate Change Initiative.
Observation of the 11 bold-set variables is already in process (Liebig, 2010).
Atmosphere Surface Air temperature, precipitation, air pressure, water
vapour, surface radiation budget, wind speed &
direction.
Upper air Cloud properties, wind speed & direction, Earth
radiation budget, upper air temperature, water vapor
Composition Carbon dioxide, methane & other GHGs, ozone, aerosol
properties
Ocean Surface Sea-surface temperature. Sea-level, sea-ice, ocean color,
sea state, sea-surface salinity, carbon dioxide partial
pressure
Sub-surface Temperature, salinity, current, nutrients, carbon, ocean
tracers, phytoplankton
Terrestrial Glaciers & ice caps, land cover, fire disturbance, fraction of absorbed
photo-synthetically active radiation, leaf-area index (LAI), albedo,
biomass, lake levels, snow cover, soil moisture, water use, ground water,
river discharge, permafrost and seasonally frozen ground

Among the variables in Table 1, the most frequently used one is the near
surface air temperature, which increased 0.8°C in the last 100 years (Copenhagen
Diagnosis, 2009). The temperature of the second part of 20th century on average
was very likely above all 50 years in last 500 year’s, and likely even in the last
1300 years.
An example of satellite remote sensing for climate change detection is the
microwave remote sensing. By this methodology it was possible to detect same
warming in the lower and middle layers of the troposphere together with the surface
changes during the newer examination. (See IPCC 2007: Fig. 3.16 for the methodo-
logy and Fig. 3.17 for the long-term changes, not showing here for the lack of space.)
The warming (caused by anything) could be proven beside the air
temperature with the change of other geophysical characters. Such variables are the
area of snow cover and sea ice which could be detected well only in the era of
satellites. Fig. 1 shows the changes of these components of the cryosphere in the
last decades. As it is shown in Fig. 1 both the snow cover and the sea ice area have
decreased in the last decade parallel to the global warming over the Northern
Hemisphere. Both changes are apparent and statistically significant.
On other hand, around Antarctica the sea ice has been increasing, despite
the near-surface warming over the majority of the continent (Steig et al., 2009).
This pattern has been attributed to intensification of circumpolar westerlies, in
response to changes in stratospheric ozone, letting less warm air masses into the
centre of the island. This, in turn, leads to colder centre of Antarctica and
southward shift of the Polar front. In Fig. 1, the linear trend of ice cover decreasing
is 33±7 thousand km2 per decade. Its magnitude is -2.7 %, and it is significant.
Simultaneously, the ice-cover expansion, as much as 6±9 thousand km2 per
decade, is not significant in the Southern Hemisphere.

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Fig. 1. The extension of snow cover on the continents of Northern Hemisphere in two
following satellite observation interval during the thawing period, between 1967 and
1987, and 1988 and 2004 respectively (a). The modification of snow cover represented by
color squares showing almost on every place 5-15 or 15-25% shortening in time. The
continuous lines are 0 and 5 °C mean isotherms of air temperature for total 1967-2004
periods in March-April. The biggest area decreasing is nearly parallel with the isotherms.
The next two figures show the extension of oceanic ice cover on the Northern (b) and
Southern Hemispheres (c) between 1979 and 2005. The dots show the yearly mean ice
extension, with decadal smoothing. (IPCC 2007: Fig. 4.3, 4.8 and 4.9).

4. TESTING OF CLIMATE REPRODUCED BY MODELS

The climate system, the atmosphere, the lands, the oceans, the biosphere
and solid water (the cryosphere) is one of the most complicated non-linear systems.
The spatial scales of the system start from the millimeter magnitude of cloud-
physical processes until the length of the Equator.
The temporal scales of the system changes between the few minute long
micro turbulence to the many hundred year long ocean circulation. No model is
able to take everything into consideration. Besides the lack of computer capacity,
we have to consider the lack of knowledge derived form the limitations of the
observation network.
For this reason, testing climate models is very important. The simpler part
of testing is to check whether the fields in the models, simulated with present
external circumstances, fit reality. A positive example of this validation is shown in
Fig. 2. It demonstrates that the water content of atmosphere and its changes was
estimated relatively well by the model and was fitted to the reality via sea surface
temperature as lower boundary condition. We can state that the dynamical
processes of the atmosphere can handle the atmospheric water content.

126
It is also worth mentioning, that the increasing trend of water content
during this two decades, with global warming behind, points at the positive inter-
relatedness of temperature and water content at global scales: Warming climate
initiates increased water vapor content, leading to further warming, as is also
mentioned in the next Section.

Fig. 2. The anomaly of vertically integrated water vapor content above the ocean,
expressed in percent of 1987-2000 period average. The values are simulated by the
general circulation model of Geophysical Fluid Laboratory, Princeton and observed by
the SSM/I satellite. The model was driven by observed sea-surface temperature, as lower
boundary condition, otherwise by external climate forcing. The model well reproduces
the slow increase of water vapor content in connection with warming, and the inter-
annual fluctuation in relation to the El Nino/La Nina oscillation (IPCC 2007: Fig. 9.17).

5. TESTING CLIMATE MODEL SENSITIVITY

The final aim of climate modeling is to project the future climate in response
to reasonable changes in the external forcing factors. These external factors and their
uncertainty are influenced by many circumstances. Among others, they are the world
population, the structure of energy industry, development difference between the
regions, etc. The other uncertainty factor is how correctly we simulate the sensitivity
of climate system, namely the expected temperature in response to given changes of
the external factors. We are not really able to estimate the first uncertainty source,
due to its complexity, but we can validate the climate sensitivity simulations through
testing certain particular processes. These particular processes are the climate
feedback mechanisms, including variables and processes, that change due to climate
changes, but which re-direct the measure of climate change, as well.
The expected changes in the global average could be determined from Fig.
3. The expected changes are shown using the three scenarios of the IPCC Report
(IPCC 2007) assuming constant atmospheric composition as it was in 2000. The
right side of Fig. 3 shows the absolute uncertainty of three basic scenarios in
addition to three more popular alternatives given in the Report 2001.

127
If we compare the uncertainty originated from different emission scenarios
from sensitivity differences of the models, we have to assess both uncertainty
sources to be similar. Hence, decreasing the difference of climate models,
reflecting better knowledge of the real sensitivity, would be equally useful from the
point of view of the prediction as reduction of the uncertainty of future emissions.

Fig. 3. Global mean temperature scenarios. The solid lines show the changes of global
mean temperature. The lines before 2000 show the observed values and their ±1 standard
deviation. Later they are the results of all available model simulations as deviation from
the 1980-1999 average, according to the A2, A1B, and B1 scenarios. The lower, almost
constant line is for the experiment with constant concentrations after 2000. The right
hand columns show the uncertainty, characterized by 60% higher and 40% lower values
(IPCC 2007: Fig. 10.29).

Above it was shown that the sensitivity of climate models differs form each
other. It is important to test simulated feedbacks in the models, in which the satellite
observation will have important role. The most frequently referred to figure of the IPCC
(2007) Report shows how the mean Earth’s temperature can change according to the
possible scenarios and climate sensitivity values.
In Fig. 4 two tests of such feedback are shown. The long-wave radiation emitted
from the surface is influenced only by water vapor content of atmosphere under clear
sky. The more water vapor is in the atmosphere, the bigger part of the surface long-wave
radiation can be absorbed. It means that a smaller part of the energy could leave into the
space. The water vapor is a greenhouse gas itself causing more than the a half of the
natural greenhouse effect. But, since water vapor content of the atmosphere is changing
mainly due to internal processes of the climate system, from environmental point of view
we do not consider it as a greenhouse gas.

128
Fig. 4. Model estimation of most important elements of (cloudless) long wave (a) (Allan
et al., 2004: Fig. 2) and shortwave balance (b) (IPCC, 2007: Fig. 8.16). In first figure the
HadAM3 climate model of British Hadley Centre, calculated for tropical area, under
clear sky, shows that the long-wave component decreases too fast with increasing water
vapor content of upper stratosphere. It means that the model simulates a bigger value for
the irradiance than it was measured by ERBS and HIRS satellites. This error means too
strong negative feedback in the model. We can also see how the short-wave balance
depends on surface albedo in case of 17 different models in the lower part of the figure.
The vertical axis shows the albedo decrease depending on unit global warming as one
difference between 20th and 22nd Century simulated climates. The horizontal axis shows
the ratio of satellite observed April-May albedo and temperature values for the Northern
Hemisphere. The seasonal albedo sensitivity is estimated using data fields of ISCCP
cloud climatology and ERA-40 atmosphere analysis projects. The models produce large
deviations from this value, and in majority they exhibit weaker feedback than the
empirical estimation. Both errors lead to smaller climate sensitivity than in reality.

The upper part of Fig. 4 demonstrates that the mentioned model overesti-
mates the influence of water vapor on the irradiance. It means that the model
simulates the most important stabilizing negative feedback of the climate system to
be weaker than in the reality. Contrary to this, the positive feedback has got the
biggest influence on short wave balance connected with the changes of snow and ice
cover. The stronger the warming is, the larger area of the elements of cryosphere will
thaw, and the albedo of a large area will be darker instead of snow and ice with high
reflectivity. Since the snow-free surface is able to absorb more energy and use it for
warming of the atmosphere, it will amplify the warming as well.

6. CONCLUSION
The use of remote sensing from space is advantageous, since it allows us to
observe a wide range of climate parameters on a global scale in a consistent and
repeatable manner. There are several parameters that can practically be observed
only this way.
Though there are some constraints in accuracy and in precision, as well,
the moderate space and time resolution, which is enough for climate science
applications, mean that they are not especially limiting. Detection of climate

129
change is important since ground-based detection has many local influences and
other practical constraints, especially concerning the cryosphere and the strongly
related sea-level.
The third group, the validation of the present climate model simulations
could have been more detailed, but the results of the comparison are rather model-
dependent with some uncertainties in the indirect observations. More attention was
paid to the validation of the feedback mechanisms, determining the radiation
balance of the atmosphere largely influencing the sensitivity of our climate to the
external forcing factors. Undoubtedly, this is the most policy-related aspect of
climate science.
For teaching climate change in any school subject, satellite images always
bear the advantage of undoubted fidelity. Both the primary products and
composites are straightforward tools to understand weather. Though the above
illustrated possibilities required far more elaborations than that in case if a single
image or a moving series of them, the satellite images are of high confidence
among the public (students or pupils). Hence, the above indicators of climate
change and its research by climate modelling can effectively be applied to illustrate
the statements of contemporary climate science.

REFERENCES

1. Allan R.P., 2004. Water Vapour Feedback Observations and Climate Sensitivity.
In: IPCC WG-I Workshop on Climate Sensitivity, Paris, France, 26–29 July, 2004,
63-65 (http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/meeting/CSW/product/CSW_Report.pdf)
2. The Copenhagen Diagnosis (2009): Updating the World on the Latest Climate
Science. I. Allison, N.L. Bindoff, R.A. Bindschadler, P.M. Cox, N. de Noblet,
M.H. England, J.E. Francis, N. Gruber, A.M. Haywood, D.J. Karoly, G. Kaser, C.
Le Quéré, T.M. Lenton, M.E. Mann, B.I. McNeil, A.J. Pitman, S. Rahmstorf, E.
Rignot, H.J. Schellnhuber, S.H. Schneider, S.C. Sherwood, R.C.J. Somerville, K.
Steffen, E.J. Steig, M. Visbeck, A.J. Weaver. The University of New South Wales,
Climate Change Research Centre, Sydney, Australia. 60pp.
3. Doherty M., 2010. Systematic Observation Requirements for Climate GCOS and
ESA’s approach. “New Space Missions for Understanding Climate Change”
Summer School Alpbach 2010, 27 July-August 5, Alpbach, Austria. See:
www.summerschoolalpbach.at.
4. IPCC (2007): Climate Change (2007): The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of
Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change, 2007 (Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M.
Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, H.L. Miller, eds.) Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge UK & New York NY, USA.
5. Liebig V. (2010): Satellite Missions for Climate Observations. “New Space
Missions for Understanding Climate Change” Summer School Alpbach 2010, 27
July-August 5, Alpbach, Austria. See: www.summerschoolalpbach.at
6. Silvestrin P., 2010. On Observation Techniques from space in support of climate
change studies. “New Space Missions for Understanding Climate Change”
Summer School Alpbach 2010, 27 July-August 5, Alpbach, Austria. See:
www.summerschoolalpbach.at

130
CONSIDERATIONS ON THE SURFACE WATER QUALITY
CONDITION IN THE SIRET HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN

C. (CAS. AXINTE) DOLTU1, D.A. (CAS.TIMOFTI) DONCIU2

ABSTRACT. – Considerations on the surface water quality condition in the


Siret hydrographic basin. The surface water resources in the Siret river basin are
about 17% of total water resources of the country and consist mainly of the Siret
River, its tributaries and in a very small extent, from lakes and ponds. The study of
the water quality variation of Siret River is done according to the organoleptic,
physical, chemical, biological and bacteriological characteristics which are
determined by analysis of groups of qualitative and quantitative indicators that
vary with specific environmental conditions. Thus, the authors follow, through stu-
dies on the evolution of state parameters of the Siret river water quality in different
sections of monitoring,to assess the degree of pollution and its impact on river.

Keywords: water quality, monitoring, specific indicators, Siret river, degree of


pollution.

1. INTRODUCTION

The water quality is a major objective in water management, where the


monitoring activity plays a decisive role, representing the instrument in water
policy development. The assessment of water quality is performed using quality
indicators which are variable sizes, the number of items within each category of
indicators was determined according to specific conditions, the intended purpose
and nature of pollution sources.
In Romania, the water quality is monitored according to the structure and
methodological principles of Integrated Monitoring System in Romania,
restructured in accordance with the requirements of European Directives.
The elaboration of water quality synthesis is based on processing a large
volume of information obtained through knowledge work out by local units of the
Romanian Waters National Administration.
The rivers water quality is variable from one sector to another and is
influenced by natural and the anthropogenic factors. The characterization of
ecological status and ecological potential of the surface water consist in monitoring
of biological, physical-chemical and hydromorphological parameters and is based
on a classification system into five classes, thus: class I – “very good”, class II –
“good”, class III – “moderate condition”, class IV – “poor”, class V – “bad”.

1
„Gheorghe Asachi” Tehnical University, Faculty of Hydrotechnics, Geodesic and Environmental
Engineering, Iasi, e-mail: cristinadoltu@yahoo.com
2
„Gheorghe Asachi” Tehnical University, Faculty of Hydrotechnics, Geodesic and Environmental
Engineering, Iasi, e-mail: diana_timofti@yahoo.com@yahoo.com

131
In this paper the authors follow, through studies on the evolution of state
parameters of water quality Siret River, to evaluate the degree of pollution and its
impact on river.

2. RISK FACTORS ON THE SURFACE WATER OF SIRET


HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN

Since 2007, over a length of 26,506 km, was organized the supervision of
water quality on middle courses and lower courses of rivers from Romania as a
result of apparition the human activities impact on water quality.
For the evaluation, from physico-chemical point of view, the overall
water quality, in each section of the surveillance, were calculated separately for
each indicator, with insurance values of 90% and 10% for dissolved oxygen and
they were compared with the limit values of quality classes stipulated by the
normative with five quality classes. The biological quality of watercourses has
been carried out based on monitoring of the following elements: macroinver-
tebrates, microfitobentos, phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes and fish.
The surface water resources in the Siret catchment are about 17% of total
water resources of the country and consist mainly of the Siret River, its tributaries
and in a very small extent, from lakes and ponds. After the evaluation of water
quality from the hydrographic basin have been identified 43 significant pollution
sources, the most important categories of pressures being: punctiform pressure,
diffuse and hydromorphological.
The punctiform sources of significant pollution are domestic, industrial and
agricultural and the diffuse sources of pollution are represented mainly by chemical
fertilizers used in agriculture (which vary between 1.61 kg P / ha and 10.01 kg N /
ha), pesticides used to control pests (0.9 kg / ha), domestic animals, rural
agglomerations and urban areas. Regarding the significant hidromorfolgice
pressures from Siret River area, they consist of hydrotechnical and management
works realized in cascade.
The evaluation of the risk on water bodies, take into account the criteria for
identifying pressures and the criteria for evaluating their impact. Thus, in the study
has been taken into account of the pollutions by organic matter, nutrients pollution,
pollution from priority substances / dangerous and hydro-morphological
alterations.
The status of surface water body in the hydrographic basin, in terms of
risk, is as follows:
- From a point of view of organic substances, 20 (5.88%) of water bodies
are subject to risk, 10 (2.94%) possible risk and 310 (91.18%) without risk;
- From a nutrient point of view of 16 (4.7%) water bodies are subject to risk,
12 (3.53%) possible risk and 312 (91.77%) without risk;
- From a point of view of priority hazardous substances, 0 water bodies are
subject to risk, 4 (1.17%) possible risk, 336 (98.83%) without risk;

132
- From a point of view of hydromorphological alterations, 34 (10%) water
bodies are subject to risk, 29 (8.53%) possible risk and 277 (81.47%)
without risk.

3. THE WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS IN THE SIRET RIVER IN


THE 2006-2008

The Siret River is analyzed of water quality by recorded values in the


different control sections positioned along the River (Siret, Hutani and Lespezi)
and main tributaries (Suceava, Bistrita, Moldova, Şomuzului Mare, etc.) in the
period 2006-2008.
The samples were collected once a month for three years. Among the main
monitorized indicators with the impact on the Siret river water quality, emphasize:
Ca2+, Chlorides, Fe, Detergent, Na, 0 phosphates, Phosphorus, Mg, N-NO2-, N-
NO3-, sulfate and residue (Fig.1).

a. Ca (mg/l) b. Chlorides (mg/l)

c. Fe (mg/l) d. Detergent (mg/l)

e. Na (mg/l) f. o Phosphates (mg /l)

133
g. Phosphorus (mg P/l)
h. Mg (mg/l)

i.N-NO2- (mg N/l) j.N-NO3- (mg N/l)

k.Residue (mg/l) l.Sulfate (mg/l)

Fig. 1. The leading indicators monitored in the period 2006-2008,with the impact
on Siret river water quality.

After analyzing these indicators the Siret river water quality, in 2006, in
Siret section, in terms of annual averages is "very good", except the Ca2 + indicator
that induces the quality of "good".
It noted the "very good" quality water in terms of indicators of dissolved
oxygen and sulfate, esexceeding , during the 12 months monitoring, the values
above normal. At the same register at the "very good" state is included and the
filterable residue indicator , for which was recorded an exit of this class only in a
single month (January 2006). In terms of indicators of ammonium ion N-NH4 + and
nitrite N-NO2-only in July were recorded values of the “good” status.
In Hutani section, the water of Siret River loses of quality, three indicators
of lowering at the “good” state: : N-NO2-, Ca 2+ and Magnesium Mg2+ and in
Lespezi section the water quality to descend at "good" status under the influence of
five indicators (nitriti N-NO2-, nitrogen N-NO3-, sulfates, Ca 2+ and magnesium
Mg2+).

134
During 2007 and 2008, Siret River water quality is better than that
recorded in 2006. Were recorded only two indicators that induce water quality, the
"good" status (N-NH4+ and Ca2+ ), against three indicators registered in 2006 in
section Hutani. In the Siret section the N-NO2- indicator lead to good quality status,
the others demonstrating the “very good” status, and in the Lespezi section all of
indicators fit the water quality in “very good” status.
The water quality of the tributaries will influence both negative and
positive the water quality of Siret receiver. Table 1 presents the water quality
evolution of the Siret River tributaries in 2006. It can be seen as the main indicators
that change the status of water quality in this region are: N-NO2-, Ca 2+ , N-NO3-, N-
NH4+, Mg2+, phosphates and Sulfaţi.
The Bistrita River has a beneficial influence on the Siret river water quality
due to its water quality "very good" in terms of all indicators.

Table 1. The water quality evolution of the Siret River tributaries in 2006

During 2007 and 2008, the Suceava river status is improved maintaining
the “very good” quality in most monitored sections (Brodina, Milisauti, Itcani,
Liteni and Dragomirna ) and in the Mihoveni and Tisa sections only the N-NO2-
indicator induce the status of “good”.

135
The Bistrita river suffer a slight degradation of the water quality in 2007,
due to the fact that the chloride and Mg2+ indicators, lead to lower quality from
“very good” to “good”. In 2008 he returns to "very good" status quality.
The Moldova River in 2007 has improved water quality compared to 2006
as having a status of "very good" in the Fundu Moldovei control section and as
"good" in the av.Gura Humorului control section due to the Mg2+ indicator and in
the Baia control section due to the N-NO2-, N-NO3- and Ca2+ indicators . In 2008,
this tributary recorded a positive evolution in terms of water quality over the
previous year.
The Water quality of the other tributaries have the same regim in 2008, as
in previous years. The poor state are recorded in Pozen where the water quality
drops to the level of “bad”.
The status of the rivers water quality in the biologically point of view in
the Siret river basin was evaluated based on analysis phytobenthos,ichthyofauna
and macrozoobenthic . In table 2 is shown the situation of the lengths (2809 km)
of river assessed, cumulate on the quality classes, depending on the ecological
status.

Table 2. Total lengths of river analyzed which dependent on the ecological status
according to the Siret River Basin.

As a conclusion we find that in the Siret River Basin, during 2006-2008,


the surface water quality, assessed over a length of 4228 km, according to data
from devices made by the University "Stefan cel Mare" Suceava, was distributed as
follows: 1499 km of river (35.5%) - class I, 1658 km of river (39.2 %) - class II,
681 km of river (16.1 %) - class III, 172 km of river (4.1 %) - class IV-, 218 km
of river (5.2%) - class V (Fig.2).

Fig. 2. The water quality along the rivers in the Siret River Basin

136
4. THE PROTECTION AND RESTORATION MEASURES OF THE
SURFACE WATER QUALITY.

One of the important measures for maintaining quality of water resources


is the activity of prevention and control of accidental pollution. In accordance with
the Water Law no.107/1996, modified and supplemented by OUG No. 3 of 5
February 2010, the prevention and control of accidental pollution is organized by
the National Administration "Romanian Waters" through its Watershed,based on
by:
- the plans developed for each river basin organization for to
approve of the organization and operating rules of the alarm
system in case of accidental pollution of waters in Romania;
- the own plans for water users wich are potential polluters;
- the units that use water,will develop a program to combat the
accidental pollution effects produced by units located in the
upstream;
- monthly is prepared the Bulletin of Water Quality, which presents
the status surface water quality, groundwater, surface water
intended for abstraction for drinking water production and the
situation of the main sources of pollution etc.
The increasing and maintaining a river water quality is achieved through
structural techniques( stop the pollution, changes in legislation and water quality
standards, education, machining regime change in hydropower plants, preventing
the discharge of toxic substances, wetland restoration) and structural techniques
(fences, security, handling of vegetation and organic substances etc.).
The prevention of water pollution is safer than treatment. In the case when
preventive measures were applied too late or have not had the desired effect is
made to treatment which is extremely costly, complicated and always with the risks
and unwanted side effects.
The water protection is not only by avoiding certain pollutants reaching the
waters, but also by maintaining a more natural and healthy form with an intact
capacity of natural purification.

5. CONCLUSIONS

The paper aims the monitoring, for a period of three years, of the
evolution of surface water quality in the Siret hydrographic basin and determining
the degree of pollution at the water.
The study of the water quality variation of Siret River is done according to
the organoleptic, physical, chemical, biological and bacteriological characteristics
which are determined by analysis of groups of qualitative and quantitative
indicators that vary with specific environmental conditions.
The Siret River is analyzed of water quality by recorded values in the
different control sections positioned along the River (Siret, Hutani and Lespezi)

137
and main tributaries (Suceava, Bistrita, Moldova, Şomuzului Mare, etc.) in the
period 2006-2008.
Using the samples collected it was determined that the main indicators
with the impact in water quality, during the period analyzed (2006-2008), were:
Ca2 +, Chlorides, Fe, Detergents, Na, 0 phosphate, Phosphorus, Mg, N-NO2-, N-
NO3-, sulfate and residues.
S-a constatat ca in bazinul hidrografic Siret calitatea apelor de suprafata,
evaluate pe o lungime de 4228 km, a fost distribuita pe urmatoarele clase de
calitate: 1499 km (35.5%) - class I, 1658 km (39.2 %) - class II, 681 km (16.1 %) -
class III, 172 km (4.1 %) - class IV, 218 km (5.2%) - class V.
The water protection is not only by avoiding certain pollutants reaching the
waters, but also by maintaining a more natural and healthy form with an intact
capacity of natural purification.

REFERENCES

1. Aristica Balaban (2008) „ Studii fizico-chimice şi biologice referitoare la poluarea


apelor Dunării”, Teză de doctorat, Bucureşti.
2. Irina Elena Florea (2010) „Geochimia mediului în aria de prelucrare a petrolului
din Bazinul Trotuşului”, Ţeză de doctorat, Iaşi.
3. Marilena Diaconu (2008) „Calitatea apei din bazinul superior al râului Argeş-
Amonte de Goleşti”, IWM Conferences.
4. *** Legea apelor nr.107/1996 modificată şi completată prin OUG nr.3 din 5
Februarie 2010.
5. http://www.apesiret.usv.ro
6. http://www.mmediu.ro/gospodarirea_apelor/calitatea_apelor/raport_2009.pdf
7. http://www.scribd.com/doc/19475537/Probleme-Generale-Privind-Poluarea-
Apelor.

138
THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND THE QUANTITATIVE
ASSESSMENT OF ANNUAL MAXIMUM FLOWS RECORDED
IN THE HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN OF TIMIŞ RIVER

ANDREEA MIHAELA DOMĂŞNEANU1

ABSTRACT. – The statistical analysis and the quantitative assessment of


annual maximum flows recorded in the hydrographical basin of Timiş river.
We should calculate the frequency of flooding in this part of the country and
determine the flow values or maximum levels with certain probabilities of
exceedance in order to study the statistical analysis and the quantitative assessment
of the annual maximum flows, based on the values related to the annual maximum
flows recorded in the hydrometric stations from the basin. The setting of these
indicators represents only an early stage in the analytical approach to flood risk of
this basin, which should be followed by other complementary stages that include
the setting of parameters related to the receptors sensitivity to the action of this
risk type, to the exposure of the receiving elements, to the value of the receivers
and, finally, to the setting of the flood risk value.

Keywords: hydrographical basin, hydrometric stations, maximum flows, flood


risk, statistical analysis, frequency, overflow probability, return period.

1. INTRODUCTION
Recently, the achievement of a deeper analysis of the flood risk in areas of
the country that have been severely affected by this type of risk in recent years has
proved to be necessary.
These regions include the Timiş river basin, especially its low plains area,
which has been hit by the occurrence of major floods for years. We can mention
especially the most recent floods from 2000 and 2005, which led to the flooding of
several areas of land, to the record of many unfortunate damages and in most cases
even loss of life.
Because the flood risk is the combination of the likelihood of flooding and
potential adverse effects to human health, environment, cultural heritage and
economic activity associated with the occurrence of a flood, a flood risk study for
the river basin concept should not be treated separated from the concepts of
frequency, probability and time (or period) to return or comeback of this
hydrological extreme events (Haidu, 2002).
This study aims to be a comprehensive overview of the mathematical
statistics applied in the quantitative analysis and assessment of maximum flows
recorded on the basin of Timiş river by applying the calculation methodology of

1
West University from Timişoara, Faculty of Chemistry, Biology and Geography, Department of
Geography, Timişoara, Romania, e-mail: domasneanu_andreea@yahoo.com

139
frequency and probability of exceeding the maximum flow, important and
indispensable steps in the analytical approach of the flood risk.

2. THE WORKING METHODOLOGY

Data referring to the annual largest flow values collected from 13


hydrometric stations, which are very well distributed in the territory, because they
are located in different parts of the basin, with a wide variety of physical and
geographical conditions (fig. 1), have been used in view of the statistical analysis
and quantitative assessment of maximum flows recorded in the basin of Timiş
river. The study period is considered long enough and representative, because
during those 35 years, from 1975 until 2009, the annual peak flow values present
significant variation, including the absolute maximum flow values recorded for the
floods from 2000 and 2005 (fig. 2).

Fig. 1. Hydrometric stations and hydrotechnical works in the basin of Timiş river

In addition to the annual maximum flow values, the records of the largest
floods during a year have been taken into account, which have been found at
hydrometric stations, containing the extraordinary measurements of flows and
levels of the largest flash floods taking place each year.

140
1400

1200

1000

800
Q (mc/s)

600

400

200

0
1975
1976

1977
1978

1979
1980
1981
1982
1983

1984
1985

1986
1987
1988

1989
1990

1991
1992
1993

1994
1995

1996
1997
1998

1999
2000

2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

2006
2007

2008
2009
Anul

Teregova Sadova Caransebeş Lugoj Brod Şag

Fig. 2. Annual maximum flows (1975-2009) at the main hydrometric stations on Timiş

Thus, based on the values of the annual maximum flows, the relative and
absolute frequencies were calculated primarily for two hydrometric stations located
on Timiş river. The frequency analysis is important within the flood risk study
because it is a statistical method of prediction, consisting of the study of these
events that happened in the past in order to define the probability of occurrence of
values in the future (Haidu, 2002).
The absolute frequency (n x) represents the number of cases in each flow
interval, and the relative frequency is determined by the ratio of absolute frequency
and total number of cases, a ratio that multiplied by 100 helps us find the respective
relative frequency percentage (%) (Teodorescu, 2003). Thus, the relative frequency
can be determined by the equation:
f ( x )  nnx
where: nx - the absolute frequency
n – the total number of cases

The empirical distribution of curve parameters have been calculated by the


method of moments (Arghiuş, 2006) using the formulas for calculating the most
important statistical characteristics of a range of data, namely the arithmetic mean
(QMmed), the coefficient of variation (Cv) and the asymmetry coefficient (Cs). These
features of the range of data consisting of the annual values of maximum flow rates
have been calculated using the following formulas:

141
Q
Q   Mi
Mmed n

2
 (k - 1) Q
C  i , where k  Mi
v n i Q
Mmed
3
 ( k  1)
i 3
C  C
s n v
where:
QMmed – the arithmetic mean of the maximum flow;
QMi – the maximum flow corresponding to the number from the range of
terms;
n – the number of terms in the range of data;
Cv – the coefficient of variation;
ki – the module coefficient;
Cs – the coefficient of asymmetry (Arghiuş, 2006).

A very useful method of hydrometric and hydrological data processing is


the calculation of the probability of occurrence of certain maximum flow rates
(Teodorescu, 2003). Thus, the empirical exceedance probabilities can be calculated
using the formula:
m  0,3
p  100%
n  0,4
where:
m – the number of the maximum flow from the range of terms in
decreasing sequence;
n – the number of terms in the range.

The classical method of determining the probability of exceedance, i.e. the


distribution range with three parameters (Pearson III), has been used for the
statistical analysis of the range of maximum flows from the 13 hydrometric
stations, and the maximum flow values with different probabilities of exceedance
have been obtained using the following formula (Arghiuş, 2006):

QMp=QMmed (Cv*øi +1)

The values of the øi coefficient, which vary depending on the value of the
coefficient of asymmetry (C s) and the value of the probability of exceedance, have
been extracted from page 14 of document: http://teaching.ust.hk/~civl253/lecture
%20notes. files/frequency%20analysis%202.ppt. Based on these values, on the
values of the coefficient of variation and on the average values of the maximum

142
flows from each hydrometric station, the peak flow values with different
probabilities of exceedance (Q MP) have been obtained and are presented in table 2.

3. THE INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

The absolute frequency values and relative frequency values for the two
hydrometric stations studied, namely Teregova, close to the springs of Timiş, and
Şag located on the lower course of Timiş river, where the flood risk is high, are
shown in Fig. 3. By analyzing the frequency of the two hydrometric stations, one
can note that, as we move away from the source of Timiş river, the frequency curve
of annual maximum flows changes greatly increasing the flow rate range with the
highest values of flows, within which the rates recorded for the catastrophic floods
of 2000 and 2005 are also found.
Teregova Şag
70 25 40 14
60 35 12
20
30
Frecvenţa (%)

Frecvenţa (%)

50
Nr. de cazuri

Nr. de cazuri
10
40 15 25
8
20
30 10 6
15
20 10 4
5
10 5 2
0 0 0 0
0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 >100 100-250 250-400 400-550 550-700 700-850 >850
Intervalul de debit (mc/s) Intervalul de debit (mc/s)

Fig. 3. The histogram of frequencies for the hydrometric stations of Teregova and Şag

The results obtained by calculating the empirical distribution curves


parameters and the corresponding maximum flows with different probabilities of
exceedance or return period are shown in tables 1 and 2. By analyzing these results,
we notice that the values of the coefficient of variation (Cv) vary from a
hydrometric station to another, recording the minimum value (0.52) for the
hydrometric station located in Şag on Timiş river and the maximum value (1.03)
for the hydrometric station located in Nădrag, on Nădrag river, a tributary of Timiş.
The high values of the coefficient of variation, characteristic of the hydro-
metric station from Nădrag, are due to the range of data referring to peak flows, to some
exceptional values, such as the maximum flow recorded in 2000, approximately six
times higher than the annual average of maximum flows during 1975-2009.
The lower values of the coefficient of variation are due to the adjustment
of the runoff, whether it is a natural adjustment (the high coefficient of forest
coverage within the basin and the high value of average altitude of the
hydrographical basin) or it is an anthropogenic adjustment (through hydrotechnical
works in the basin).
We may include among the hydrotechnical works carried out within the
basin the completion of the permanent accumulation of Trei Ape, which strongly
modifies the water flow regime in Timiş river, starting with its springs. The
influence of this accumulation, as well as the influence of the Semenic Canal,
through which water is transferred from Timiş to Bârzava, is felt in the minimum,

143
average and maximum of the water flow on Timiş river throughout its upper and
middle course.
Table 1. Hydrological characteristics of the hydrometric stations in the basin
Multian. Absolute Average
Hydrom. Year of Hmed average Q maxim. Q maxim. Q
Stream station constit. F (km2)* (m)* (m3/s) (m3/s) Year (m3/s) Cv Cs
Timiş Teregova 1907 167 901 2,5 108 1975 23,93 0,95 1,79
Rece Rusca 1957 163 1184 4,6 180 1999 43,35 0,73 0,37
Feneş Feneş 1964 125 973 2,8 156 1999 37,78 0,75 0,38
Timiş Sadova 1951 560 936 10,5 328 2000 108,2 0,70 0,17
Timiş Caransebeş 1966 1072 765 18,4 441 2000 183,2 0,56 0,03
Voislova-
Bistra Bucova 1958 232 892 3,9 280 2000 51,75 0,85 1,52
Poiana
Şucu Mărului 1958 77 1430 3,0 176 2000 32,16 0,9 1,94
Bistra Poiana
Mărului Mărului 1958 79 1442 2,7 96 2000 27,92 0,73 0,29
Nădrag Nădrag 1963 36 742 0,7 63,5 2000 10,91 1,03 3,77
Timiş Lugoj 1950 2706 666 37,9 1247 2000 418,9 0,59 0,07
Şurgani Chevereş 1964 138 141 0,4 40,3 2005 15,35 0,72 0,06
Timiş Brod 1971 3682 569 31,1 1290 2005 415,6 0,62 0,1
Timiş Şag 1961 4493 477 35,4 1084 2000 424,7 0,52 0,03
* Source: (Munteanu Rodica, 1998)

We notice that the maximum flow values with the probability of


exceedance of 1% vary quite sharply from one station to another. As we move
further away from sources of Timiş, these values increase, except for the last
hydrometric station (Şag), where a decrease is recorded.
Table 2. Maximum flow rates with different probabilities of exceedance / return period
Maximum flow rates with different probabilities of
exceedance / return period
Hydrometric
No. Stream station 0,5 1 2 4 10 20
200 100 50 25 10 5
1 Timiş Teregova 118,2 103,5 88,7 73,8 53,9 38,6
2 Rece Rusca 136,7 126,1 114,9 102,8 85,0 69,2
3 Feneş Feneş 121,3 111,9 101,9 91,1 75,1 60,9
4 Timiş Sadova 317,4 295,4 271,7 245,9 206,7 171,1
5 Timiş Caransebeş 447,5 421,9 394,0 362,9 314,8 269,6
6 Bistra Voislova-Bucova 223,7 198,2 172,4 146,2 110,4 82,1
7 Şucu Poiana Mărului 154,4 135,0 115,6 96,0 70,1 50,3
8 Bistra Mărului Poiana Mărului 86,1 79,8 73,0 65,6 54,6 44,7
9 Nădrag Nădrag 72,8 58,0 47,9 36,6 22,8 13,8
10 Timiş Lugoj 1078,8 1012,0 939,6 860,0 738,2 625,5
11 Şurgani Chevereş 44,9 41,9 38,6 35,1 29,6 24,6
12 Timiş Brod 1103,7 1034,1 958,6 875,6 748,6 631,1
13 Timiş Şag 993,6 938,4 878,3 811,4 707,8 610,7

144
This reduction in the hydrometric station from Şag of the maximum flow
values with the probability of exceedance of 1% is due to the maximum flow
values recorded during the floods in 2000 and 2005 which were significantly
reduced due to the impermanent accumulation from Pădureni, located between the
two hydrometric stations, which stored a volume of flood wave attenuation of 20
million m³. However, at least in 2005, the maximum flow value recorded at the
hydrometric station in Şag was an exceptional value in terms of its classification
within the statistics, and the probability of exceedance corresponding to this flow
rate was 4%.
The peak flows have been influenced by the breaking of dams and the
retention of significant volumes of water in the permanent and impermanent
reservoirs upstream from it (Fig. 1) for all hydrometric floods recorded at this
station from 1975 to 2009.
During the last flash floods, the carrying capacity of the major river beds
was exceeded downstream from the hydrometric station from Şag, because the
defense dams have been designed to resist a flood with the probability of
occurrence once every 20 years (Report on the flood from April 2005 in the
hydrographical basin of Banat , INHGA).
Fig. 4 and 5 display the charts referring to the theoretical curves with
different probabilities of exceedance from the basin’s hydrometric stations, which
allow the setting of small intervals of the probability of exceedance, so needed in
practice.
Teregova Sadova

160 400
140 350
120 300
100 250
Q (mc/s)

Q (mc/s)

80 200
60 150
40 100
20 50
0 0
0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100 0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100
P (%) P (%)

Caransebeş Lugoj

600 1400
1200
500
1000
400
Q (mc/s)
Q (mc/s)

800
300
600
200
400
100 200
0 0
0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100 0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100
P (%) P (%)

Brod Şag
1400 1200
1200 1000
1000
800
Q (mc/s)

Q (mc/s)

800
600
600
400
400
200 200

0 0
0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100 0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100
P (%) P (%)

Fig. 4. The charts referring to the distribution curves from the hydrometric stations located on Timiş

145
Rusca Feneş

180 160
160 140
140 120
120 100

Q (mc/s)
Q (mc/s)

100
80
80
60
60
40 40
20 20
0 0
0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100 0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100
P (%) P (%)

Poiana Mărului - Şucu Voislova-Bucova

200 300

250
150
200
Q (mc/s)

Q (mc/s)
100 150

100
50
50
0 0
0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100 0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100
P (%) P (%)

Nădrag Chevereş

90 60
80 50
70
60 40
Q (mc/s)
Q (mc/s)

50 30
40
30 20
20
10
10
0 0
0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100 0,1 0,5 1 2 4 10 20 100
P (%) P (%)

Fig. 5. The charts referring to the distribution curves from the hydrometric stations
located on the tributaries of Timiş river

4. CONCLUSIONS
This study of statistical analysis and quantitative assessment of annual maximum
flows represents an earlier stage in the analysis of the flood risk in the hydrographical
basin of Timiş river. The stage in which we have determined the frequency, the
probability and the return period of such extreme events should be followed by other
additional stages, which complete the flood risk analysis and which should be rendered
clearly on the flood risk map of the hydrographical basin of Timiş river.

REFERENCES
1. Arghiuş, V. (2006), Analiza statistică a debitelor maxime anuale în bazinul hidrografic montan
al Arieşului, Riscuri şi catastrofe, an V, nr. 3, Editor Victor Sorocovschi, Editura Casa Cărţii de
Ştiinţă, Cluj Napoca, 232-238;
2. Haidu, I. (2002), Analiza de frecvenţă şi evaluarea cantitativă a riscurilor, Riscuri şi catastrofe,
Editor Victor Sorocovschi, Editura Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj Napoca, 180-207;
3. Munteanu, Rodica (1998), Bazinul hidrografic al râului Timiş - studiu hidrologic, Editura
Mirton, Timişoara;
4. Teodorescu, N., I. (2003), Hidrologie generală în 19 teme, Editura Mirton, Timişoara;
5. *** (2005) Raport privind viitura din anul 2005 în spaţiul hidrografic Banat, constituit de
I.N.H.G.A şi Administraţia Naţională de Meteorologie, Bucureşti, 2005.
6. http://teaching.ust.hk/~civl253/lecture%20notes.files/frequency%20analysis%202.ppt accese
don February, 1, 2011.

146
CONSIDERATIONS ON STREAMFLOW DROUGHT
IN CENTRAL ROMANIAN PLAIN

ADINA-ELIZA CROITORU1, FLORENTINA MARIANA TOMA1

ABSTRACT. – Considerations on Streamflow Drought In Central Romanian


Plain. As one of the most important hydrological phenomenon in the area,
streamflow drought was identified using daily discharge flow data series for 30
years (1980-2009). The data were recorded in seven observation points located on
six rivers, in the central part of the Romanian Plain (between Olt and Argeş
rivers). Some aspects of duration and severity of the hydrological drought events
were calculated: number, average and maximum duration, daily average discharge
flow and streamflow deficit volume of hydrological drought events. Mann-
Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimation for trends detection were applied in order
to analyze trends of those features in the studied region. As main conclusions:
most part of the considered rivers show similar behavior with general increasing
trends of the most analyzed drought parameters; the only exception is Glavacioc
river, with decreasing slopes for the great majority of the parameters. For the
mean daily discharge flows, insignificant slopes were calculated.

Keywords: hydrological drought, duration, severity, Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s


slope, Central Romanian Plain.

1. INTRODUCTION

Drought phenomenon is affecting nowadays, very large areas all over the
world. E. Bryant (1992), based on the multicriterial hierarchy, considered it as the
most important hazardous phenomenon in the world. Many scientific papers and
projects had as their main goal to study the phenomenon in different regions of the
globe (Assessment of the Regional Impact of Droughts in Europe, 2001, Sectoral
Impacts of Drought and Climate Change, 2008, Evaluation of Arizona Drought
Watch: The State's Drought Impacts Reporting System, 2009, State Drought
Planning in the Western U.S.: A Multi-RISA-Agency-NIDIS Collaboration, 2010).
Southern and Eastern regions of Romania are considered more and more
vulnerable to different kinds of drought: meteorological, hydrological or
pedological. The implications become more important because they are considered
as main agricultural areas of the country (Croitoru and Toma, 2010). That’ why
many authors studied the drought from meteorological (Bogdan and Niculescu,
1999, Stângă, 2009) or hydrological perspectives (Ştefan et al., 2004, Ghioca, 2008,
Holobâcă, 2010, Sorocovschi, 2010).

1
"Babeş-Bolyai" University, Faculty of Geography, 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, e-mail:
croitoru@geografie.ubbcluj.ro, florentinatoma01@yahoo.com

147
Some of the hydrological analysis of wider regions or for the entire country
considered rivers from Central Romanian Plain too (Ujvari, 1972, Zaharia, 1993,
2004, Ştefan, 2004), but no consideration on hydrological drought were made.
Because the drought is considered the most important natural hazard affectig the
Central Romanian Plain, the main purpose of this paper is to study some issues on
the hydrological drought.

2. METHODS AND DATA

2.1. Methods
Hydrological drought in terms of streamflow drought is defined when
the flow decreases below a given values. It defines a threshold, q0, below which
the river flow is considered as a drought (Yevjevich, 1967). This approach allows
simultaneous characterisation of streamflow droughts in terms of duration (di),
severity (or deficit volme, si) and time of occurrence (Hisdal et al., 2001).
Among other types of thresholds (a well-defined flow quantity, a
percentage of the mean flow), we decided to use a percentile from the flow
duration curve because expressing flows as exceedance values allows flow
conditions in different rivers to be compared.
According to European Union Project ARIDE (Demuth and Stahl, 2001),
the threshlod may vary from 70% to 90% exceedance probability. Usually, the
lower level thresholds (90%) are recommended when short data series are used and
higher threshold (70%) are to be used for region where inter-annual droughts are
specific (droughts lasting longer than a year). For this study, the 80% excedeence
probability of seasonal flow was used for many reasons. The same percentile was
successfully used by Holobaca (2010) when studied drought in Transilvania
Tableland. In the case of a longer than one season drought event, the threshold
changes according the specific flow. High flow season was considered from
November till March, while low flow season was from April till October.
A special soft was used to identify drought events. The soft performs finds
the intervals with running days with discharge flow under a specified value. Thus,
the hydrological drought event begins when the discharge goes under the 80%
excedance probability value and ends when the discharge increases over that
threshold, depending on the season of the day.
The soft identifies the beginning date, calculates the length (in running
days) and the total volume of discharged water in the drought period (and thus
permits the calculation of the discharge deficit volume). At the same time, it
associates a drought event to that year to which the beginning date belongs. That’s
why, sometimes, during the same year, one or more drought events with a total
number of days higher than 365 are found. As an example, during 1993, there were
four events identified at one station: 35 days long (February, 8), one day long
(March 23), three days long (April, 12), 15 days (May, 9) and 409 days (May, 29).
In that situaton, the last event ended in July 11, 1994.

148
To detect and estimate trends in the hydrological drought parameters time
series, the Excel template MAKESENS (Mann-Kendall test for trend and Sen’s
slope estimates), developed by researchers of the Finnish Meteorological Institute
(Salmi et al., 2002), was used. In Romania, the same method and software have
also been used with good results to identify trends in different data series
(temperature, precipitations, fog) (Holobaca et al., 2008, Muresan and Croitoru,
2009, Croitoru and Toma, 2010).
The procedure is based on the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test for the
trend and Sen’s nonparametric method for the magnitude of the trend (Mann, 1945,
Kendall, 1975). Sen’s method uses a linear model to estimate the slope of the trend,
and the variance of the residuals should be constant in time.
The MAKESENS software performs two types of statistical analyses: first,
the presence of a monotonic increasing or decreasing trend is tested with the
nonparametric Mann-Kendall test, and then, the slope of a linear trend estimated with
Sen’s nonparametric method is computed (Gilbert, 1987). In MAKESENS, the tested
significance levels are 0.001, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1.
Both methods are used here in their basic forms.

2.2. Data
For hydrological drought, daily data of the discharge flows recorded in
seven hydrometric stations were employed (fig. 1). Five of the hydrological data
sets covered 30 years, from 1980 until 2009. Only two hydrological data series are
available for a period of 22 years long (those recorded on Glavacioc and Neajlov).

Fig. 2. Hydro-meteorological network in Central Romanian Plain

149
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

3.1. Hydrological drought parameters


To analyse the hydrological drought, first few basic parameters as mean
multiannual discharge flow and excedeence probability thresholds were calculated.
The values were computed both for the entire year and for different seasons (low
water season from April till October and high water season from November till
March).
Then, five specific parameters of the hydrological drought (HD) have been
analysed: mean multiannual number of the hydrological drought events (HDE),
mean multiannual duration of the HDEs, maximum duration of HDEs both in their
average and absolute values, mean annual cumulated duration of HDEs, average
daily discharge during HDEs and the mean discharge deficit volume (Table 1).
Finally, trends in the specific parameters of HD were identified.
In the Central Romanian Plain (sector between Olt and Argeş rivers),
annual discharge flows have their maximum values, for all the rivers considered, in
late winter or early spring (February and March), while the minimum values are
specific to August and/or September. The multiannual discharge flows varies very
much inside the region, depending on the rivers (Table 1). Thus, the highest values
were recorded on the main rivers of the region, Vedea and Neajlov (over 5 m3/s
and respectively, 4 m3/s), while the lowest flows were recorded on tributaries Valea
Câinelui and Glavacioc (less than 1 m3/s).
The hydrological drought parameters also show different values depanding
on the rivers size. Thus, the mean annual number of HDEs varies, generally,
between three and nine, while the maximum number of events was between 10, in
the eastern part of the region, and 25, in central area. Otherwise, the analysis
revealed for Teleorman river the highest values both for average and for maximum
number of HDEs, for the two hydrometric stations considered. It worth mention
that there are two rivers that experienced years without any HDE (Călmăţui and
Neajlov) at the end of ‘80s and at the beginning of the ‘90s.
The longest HDEs as average values were recorded on the lowest rivers in
terms of discharge flow, Câinelui and Galvacioc, while the lowest values were
specific to southern stations: Teleormanu and Crîngu on Teleorman and Călmăţui rivers.
Cumulated duration of HDEs analysis show that dry periods are more
longer in Vedea Hydrographic basin than in the others, with more than 140
days/year as average and more than 300 days/year as maximum values.
If the absolute maximum duration of a single HDE is considered, the
variation in the area is very large, from less than 200 days, on the most important
river, Vedea, up to almost 500 days, on the little Câinelui River.
About the longest HDEs on Câinelui River (492 days), it has to be
emphasized that the dry period began on 8 of August 2008 and did not finished
until the analyzed period ended (31st of December 2009). This means that it may be
even longer, if the considered dataseries would be extended. Otherwise, this river is
the only one analysed that dries during summer and autumn. Thus, it experienced 8

150
dryness events with a cumulated period of 431 days, which the longest was in 1993
and lasted 123 days (from 1st of July till 31st of October).

Table 1. The hydrological drought parameters in Central Romanian Plain


(1980-2009)
Cal-
Hydrographic basin Vedea ma- Argeş
tui

(Tatarasti HS1)

Valea Câinelui
River

(Teleormanu

Glavacioc2
Teleorman

Teleorman

Călmăţui

Neajlov2
Vedea

HS)
Paramenter

Basic (reference) parameteres


Q3 (cm/s) 5.20 1.29 2.42 0.242 1.26 4.16 0.834
Q3 for unfreezing season (m3/s) 6.10 1.06 2.60 0.211 1.25 3.83 0.666
Q3 for freezing season (m3/s) 9.41 1.62 4.03 0.577 1.77 4.49 1.07
80% - EPT4 (m3/s) 2.94 0.683 1.77 0.050 0.809 3.01 0.482
80%-EPT4 for unfreezing season
2.27 0.511 1.48 0.055 0.720 2.52 0.295
(m3/s)
80%-EPT4 for freezing season(m3/s) 2.39 0.719 2.07 0.099 1.22 2.58 0.399
Hyrological drought parameteres
m6 1 3 3 1 0 0 1
5
Annual number of HDE A7 6.8 8.14 11.1 4.3 4.2 3.32 5.82
M8 15 25 18 12 12 12 10
m 3.0 4 1.7 2.5 0 0 3.6
Annual mean HDEs duration
A 25.8 25.9 15.5 47.7 14.9 18.4 29.6
(days)
M 108 106 40.7 149 53.7 122.5 190
Average cumulated HDEs A 141.6 161.6 158.2 184.6 87.5 77.3 118.5
duration M 324 365 300 567 322 252 246
Absolute maximum duration of
M 198 306 164 492 278 244 190
one HDE (days)
m 1.44 0.373 1.21 0.017 0 0 0.114
Multiannual average daily
3 A 1.85 0.5 1.43 0.048 0.6 1.4 0.206
discharge during HDE (m /s)
M 2.31 0.705 1.85 0.093 1.78 2.47 0.391
m 1.85 0.9 1.6 0.2 0 0 1.1
Multiannual mean streamflow
3 A 67.1 11.4 25.1 6.61 5.5 12.7 5.97
deficit (mil. m )
M 175.5 29.5 51.3 39.6 18.2 50.2 13.4
1
Note: – Hydrographic Station; 2 – Data available for 1988-2009; 3 –Mean multiannual
discharge flow 4 – Exceedance probability threshold; 5 – Hydrological drought event; 6 –
minimum value; 7 – mean value; 8 – maximum value; 9 - Hydrological drought.

Actually, considering both mean and absolute maximum values of HDEs,


no rule seems to be identified in the area between multiannual discharge flows
values and the length of HDEs. Thus, we consider that rather meteorological
factors, such as temperature and the intensity of the evaporation, may play the main
role in the occurrence of the HDE than hydrological parameters values of the
analysed rivers.
151
As expected, the mean multiannual daily discharge during HDEs, has the
highest values on Vedea River and the lowest on Câinelui River.
The highest values of the multiannual streamflow deficit volume were
found on the main rivers (Vedea and Neajlov), but the lowest value was not on the
less important river in terms of mean multiannual discharge flow (Câinelui river).
Streamflow deficit volume analyses shows the lowest value specific to
Galvacioc and not to Câinelui River. Mean multiannual deficit value recorded on
Câinelui River ranges this river as the fifth in decreasing order, before Călmăţui
and Glavacioc while, if maximum annual values of the deficit volume are
considered, the same river can be placed also before upper Teleorman river
(Tătărăştii de Sus hydrographic station).

3.2. Trends of hydrological drought parameters


For the same parameters, trends were identified and mean slopes were
calculated for the 30 years period considered (table 2).
Mean annual number of HDEs, has different behavior in the area. There are
four rivers with decreasing trends, and only one river to which increasing trend is
specific (Călmăţui). For Câinelui River and Neajlov, stationary trends was identified.

Table 2. The hydrological drought parameters trend in Central Romanian Plain


(average slope/decade)
Cal-
Hydrographic basin Vedea Argeş
matui
Valea Câinelui
(Tatarasti HS)

River
(Teleormanu

Glavacioc2
Teleorman

Teleorman

Călmăţui

Neajlov2
Vedea

HS)

Paramenter

Q -0.250 -0.085 -0.231 0.000 0.235 0.000 -0.125


Mean annual number of HDE
 * * **
Mean annual HDE length Q 0.914 0.722 0.528 1.363 0.731 1.229 0.297
(days)  ** * ** + ** +
Mean annual number of HD Q 3.235 4.165 2.091 4.933 5.100 4.000 -3.235
days  + *** *
Absolute maximum HDE Q 1.905 1.477 1.533 2.636 2.813 2.500 -1.500
length  + + + *** +
Mean daily discharge during Q -0.002 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.004
HDE (m3/s)  +
Mean annual stream-flow Q 1.484 0.298 0.512 0.110 0.307 0.696 -0.161
deficit (mil. m3)  + *** *
Note: 1 – Statistically significance: = 0.1; * - =0.05; ** - =0.01; *** - =0.001.

For mean annual HDEs lenghs, the positive slopes are generalized in the
area and on six of the seven rivers, values show statistically significance. Also,
mean annual cumulated duration of HD is increasing with slopes from 2

152
days/decade to more than 5 days/decade. There is one exception in the area
(Glavacioc river), where a negative slope was calculated.
General increasing is also specific to absolute maximum duration of an
HDE, with 5 statistically significant situations. The slopes vary between
1-3 days/decade. On Glavacioc rivers, a decreasing trend was found (1.5
days/decade).
Considering mean daily discharge during HDEs, no significant changes
seem to be. Only a very slow negative slope was identified on Glavacioc river
(0.004 m3/s/decade).
Mean annual streamflow deficit volume trend indicate positive values for
all the rivers, excepting Glavacioc. The slopes are between 0.1 and 1.5 mil.
m3/decade, with highest values for Vedea and Neajlov while the lowest were
identified for Câinelui River.

4. CONCLUSIONS

Analysing the hydrological drought parameters there are few main conclu-
sions we reached at.
Thus, there is no direct or reverse correlation between mean multiannual
discharge flows and the parameters of the hydrological drought events in the area.
Generally, there is an increasing trend of hydrological drought
phenomenon in the area characterized by less events, but which are longer. The
most important duration of drought was specific to central area, on Câinelui river,
both in terms of mean multiannual value and absolute maximum values of the
1980-2009 period. The most important intensity (given by the streamflow deficit
volume) was specific to the main rivers of the area (Vedea and Neajlov). Dryness
phenomena were recorded only on one river (Câinelui river).

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154
THE EUTROPHICATION PHENOMENON IN GOLEŞTI LAKE -
ROMANIA

GABRIELA ELENA DUMITRAN1, LIANA IOANA VUTĂ2,

ABSTRACT. – Eutrophication on worldwide scale, as an effect of the anthropic


impact, is one of the most serious problems that affect the quality of the water.
Existence of a large percentage of lakes with eutrophication problems, demands a
predictive tool for the quality of these ecosystems.
This study present the qualitative analysis of such an ecosystem, based on ecological
modelling. This paper proposes an ecological model (nutrient-phytoplankton) that
describes the biochemical behaviour of a eutrophic reservoir. The 1D model
developed allows the estimation of nutrients concentration and algae biomass and
nutrient limited evidence on algal growth rate. The model was calibrated and
validated with data from 2008 and 2009 in Goleşti Lake. The model reproduces
spatial and temporal concentration distribution of water quality constituents.

Keywords: lake, eutrophication, ecological model, nutrients, water quality.

1. INTRODUCTION

The study of water quality in lake or reservoirs is important in controlling


the eutrophication phenomenon. Eutrophication of lakes is caused by the inflow of
nutrients, in particular nitrogen and phosphorus that are released especially from
human activities. A number of physicochemical and biological changes may occur
as a result of eutrophication. Thus, the concentration of nutrients increase so the
primary production of organic matter rise and thus the amount of organic material
in a state of decomposition in water increase, all those processes having major
effects on lake water quality. Typical symptoms of eutrophication are the increase
of water turbidity and sedimentation rates, which will reduce the amount of light
reaching submerged plants, appearance of flowering water, lush development of
higher aquatic plants, formation of a film of floating algae, unpleasant smell of
water, reduced transparency, oxygen deficiency in bottom layer of water, followed
by formation of hydrogen sulphide and massive death of fish (Dumitran& Vuţă,
2010). So, accumulation of predisposing factors conditions can generate excessive
biological productivity growth, leading to imbalances in the matter and energy
flows (Bryhn, & Håkanson, 2009).

1
University "Politehnica" of Bucharest, Power Engineering Faculty; Hydraulic, Hydraulics
Machinery and Envirnmental Engineering Department, 060042 Bucharest, Romania, e-mail:
dumitran@hydrop.pub.ro.
2
University "Politehnica" of Bucharest, Power Engineering Faculty; Hydraulic, Hydraulics
Machinery and Envirnmental Engineering Department, 060042 Bucharest, Romania, e-mail:
l_vuta@yahoo.com.

155
The quality of the main lakes in Romania in terms of trophicity degree
reveals the following aspects regarding nutrients concentrations in 92 monitored
lakes: 6.32 % corresponded to ultra and oligotrophic category, 23.16 % -
mesotrophic category, 36.24 % - eutrophic and 34.28 % - hypereutrophic.
Concerning the phytoplankton biomass, 38.95 % of Romanian lakes corresponded
to ultra and oligotrophic category, 23.16 % - mesotrophic, 15.79 % - eutrophic and
22.1 % - hypereutrophic (Iliescu, 2009 ).
The purpose of this study was to develop a model for Goleşti Lake that
could simulate water quality, help develop an understanding of the processes
affecting water quality, and predict changes in water quality. In recent years some
water quality problems in the Goleşti Lake were found and the concentration of
eutrophication indicators placed the water lake in the eutrophic category. Having
the evolution of quality indicators from the lake as a starting point, a theoretical
study will be carried out, that will refer to the elaboration of a model, which refers
to the way a lake ecosystem works.

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL

Aquatic trophic chains are complex system which can be schematized by


matter and energy transfer processes. The lakes dynamic is characterized by energy
and mass exchange processes. Dominant flow of energy comes from the kinetic
energy of wind and thermal energy produced by solar radiation. The vertical profile
of temperature/density established in a lake results by superposing these two
energy contributions.
The energy transfer over the different trophic chains starts with solar
energy intake by primary producers and its absorption at the chlorophyll level. A
part of the gross primary production is loss by respiration, but the net primary
production is used by the next trophic level for alimentation. Thus, the primary
consumers absorb this energy. The part of primary production which is not used is
consumed by bacteria. Assimilated fractions correspond to secondary production
and represent the energy flux which crosses the primary consumers trophic level.
The energy leaving the food chain goes directly to decomposition, due to
dissipative processes (Popa, 1998).
The most important problem in developing high quality models is to
identify the adequate mathematical formulae to describe the transformation
processes for the considered level of trophic chain (Jorgensen ş.a. 1986). This
paper presents an ecological model which describe the annual cycle of nutrients,
phytoplankton and zooplankton for an aquatic ecosystem. The model presented in
this paper is dealing only with the biochemical part of the process. For this model,
four state variables are taking into account: two nutrients, phytoplankton and
zooplankton biomass.

156
3. STUDY CASE

The study case concerns the Goleşti Lake, which is an accumulation lake
on the interior waters of Romania. It was created after the completion of a dam
built on the Argeş River and it has a complex use allowing the flood attenuation,
generation of hydroelectricity, household and industrial water supply, and
irrigation. The lake has a volume of 55 million m³ and a maximum depth of 32 m.
This reservoir is a heavily modified water body. Its physical characteristics have
been substantially changed and to achieve good surface water status it is necessary
to changes its hydromorphological characteristics which would have a significant
adverse impact on the water environment.
Experimental physicochemical and biological data for a period of two
years, from 2008 to 2009, were available for the Golesti Lake. The measurement
frequency of these indicators, according to European norms, is four times per year.
Thus, it is observed that the mean water temperature varies between 2°C and 23°C
and the values of dissolved oxygen concentrations between 6.91 and 13.3 mg/l
(Fig. 1).
1,6 25

1. Dam - photic layer


2. Middle
3. Tail

20

Temperature (°C), Disolved oxygen (mg/l)


Phytoplankton density (100*ex/m3)

1,2

15

0,8

10

0,4
5

0,0 0
Staţia
1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
II III IV V VI VII VIII X XI XII II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X

Time(mounth)
Phytoplankton density (100*ex/m3) Disolved oxygen (mg/l) Temperature (°C)

Figure 1. Experimental values of water temperature, dissolved oxygen and biomass


concentrations.

Concerning the time evolution of nutrients content, it is observed that the


total mineral nitrogen concentration takes values between 0.2 and 1.18 mg/l, while
the total phosphorus concentration changes from 0.044 to 1.43 mg/l. Also, in the
Golesti Lake, the phytoplankton which is dominated by diatom and chlorophyta
varies between 1.78 and 5.3 mg/l (Fig. 2).
One way to characterize the health of lake is by using phosphorus,
chlorophyll a, and Secchi depth transparency data to calculate the Trophic State
Index-TSI (Carlson 1977). This index provides a way to rate and compare lakes
according to their level of biological activity on a scale from 0 to 100. This scale

157
goes from 0 – 100, with 0 being the least trophic state (corresponding to an
oligotrophic lake) and 100 being the most trophic (corresponding to a
hypereutrophic lake).
45 1,4
1. Dam - photic layer
2. Middle
40 3. Tail
1,2
Biomasa (mg/l), Clorofilla a (µg/l), Total phosphorus

35

Total inorganic nitrogen(mg/l)


1
30

0,8
25
(10*mg/l)

20
0,6

15
0,4

10

0,2
5

0 0
1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Staţia
II III IV V VI VII VIII X XI II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X

Time (mounth)
Biomass (mg/l) Chlorofilla a (µg/l) Fosfor total (mgP/l) Total inorganic nitrogen (mg/l)

Figure 2. Experimental time variations of concentration values of phosphorus, nitrogen,


chlorophyll a and phytoplankton biomass.

The TSI values obtained for Goleşti Lake (Fig. 3) indicate that the
lake is in large proportion in eutrophic status.
100

90

80

Hipereutrophic lake

70
TSI

60
Eutrophic lake

50

40 Mesotrophic lake

30
2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
II III IV V VI VII VIII X XI II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X Staţia

Time (mounth)
TSI Chl TSI TN TSI TP

Figure 3. TSI values for Stanca Costesti Lake

Thus, the resulting TSI values show that in the large majority of the study
period the Goleşti Lake is placed in the eutrophic category. But also exist some
exception; like in early summer 2008 the lake can be placed in the hypertrophic
category if considering the phosphorus values and in 2009 the lake became
mesotrophic for a short period regarding at the nitrogen and chlorophyll content.

158
4. MODELLING APPROACH

The most common modelling approaches of lake eutrophication are based


mostly on steady-state input-output equations (Chapra, 1997). For the mass-
balance, generally, the nutrient concentration is calculated from inputs, and
chlorophyll a concentration or another indicator of phytoplankton biomass
(Jorgensen, 1981) is predicted by correlation with the limiting nutrient.
The ecological model presented in this paper allows the simulating of four
constituents: total inorganic nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), phytoplankton
(A) and herbivore zooplankton (Z). Phytoplankton is considered as a pool of
primary producers and is driven by the nutrient concentration and by the dynamics
of grazers. It is described (eq. 1 Table 1), by the growth term, production, the loss
by respiration and mortality terms, and by the grazing. In production term the
optimal growth, growthmax, is multiplied by a dimensionless factor, which
simulates limitation to growth due to sub-optimal levels of light intensity,
temperature, and nutrient concentration. The limiting factors are computed
following the standard formulations: the Michaelis Menten –Monod for nutrient
limitation, the Steele formulation for the limitation due to light intensity, and an
exponential relation for temperature. The evolution of the zooplankton (eq. 2 Table
1) is described by the grazing term –using the Holling type II relationship between
phytoplankton and zooplankton concentration- and by the mortality term, which is
described by a first order kinetic (Malmaeusa, 2004). Phosphorus and nitrogen are
the main nutrients considered by the model (eq.3 and eq.4 Table 1).

Table 1. Differential equations for the state variables in ecological model

A
 PP  loss   A  c za  A  Z (eq.1)
t
Z
 aca    c za  A  Z  k dz  Z (eq.2)
t
TP
 a pa  1     cza  A  Z  a pc  kdz  Z  a pa  Pp  A  S P (eq.3)
t
TN
 ana  1     cza  A  Z  anc  kdz  Z  ana  Pp  A  S N (eq.4)
t
The parameter values found to give the best fit between simulated data
and the lake’s mean annual patterns are reported in table 2.
Table 2. The kinetics coefficients and value used in the model
Parameter Assigned value Parameter Assigned value
growmax 0.85 day-1 aca 40 mg C/mg Chla
ksp P 5 mg/l  0.6
ksp N 15 mg/l apa 1 mg P/mg Chla
cza 5 mg/l ana 0.18 mg N/mg Chla

159
5. RESULTS AND DISCUTION

The model was calibrated and validated based on 2008 and 2009 data. The
calibration procedure required a balance between phytoplankton growth and loss of
available nutrients from the water column. Particular attention was placed on the
dynamics of phosphate as this nutrient was the main one limiting phytoplankton
biomass in Goleşti Lake. The ecological model was calibrated by tuning the model
parameters within their observed literature ranges, as derived and used in the model
sensitivity analysis.
The comparison between simulated and observed nutrient concentration
values for the study lake is shown in figure 4.

Figure 4. Comparison between observed and simulated data for the nutrients

The predicted total phosphorus and total inorganic concentrations are in


good agreement with empirical values for lake raported in scientifical literature.
In close correlation with lake ecosystem functioning, the model consider
that algae flowering begins at the end of the spring mixing (75th day of the year).
The nutrients concentration is in indirect correlation with the algal production. Due
to algae bloom, the nutrients concentration starts to decrease, and, when the
phytoplankton peak is reach, the decomposition processes, along with the
resuspension ones, generate a growth of the nutrients concentration (especially on
the phosphorous).
In Goleşti lake there are spring peaks in TP and chlorophill concetration,
which are reproduced by our model. These peak concetration are explained by the
mobilization of phosphorus from sediments due to spring turover and rapid growth
of phytoplankton with concurrent zooplankton growth inhibited by the low water
temperature. In the summer period the reactive soluble phosphorus is strongly
assimilated by plants in the epilimnion layer and the primary production is the
result of decreasing the amount of nutrients available.
Since just the herbivorous zooplankton is considered a delay between
zooplankton peak and phytoplankton peak is natural to appear, as in fig.5.

160
Fig. 5. Numerical spatial distribution of TP, TN, A and Z concentration in Golesti Lake

It can be seen that the model provides reasonable results for phytoplankton
and zooplankton biomass, soluble reactive phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations.
In order to quantitatively verify the model performance, the root mean square error
(RMSE) was computed. The ideal value for RMSE is 0 and from the results, it was
found that algae and phosphorus simulation had the largest error (1.61 respectively
1.59). For the nitrogen the RMSE was 0.52.

6. CONCLUSION

Water quality models are important tools to support the optimization of


aquatic ecosystem rehabilitation programs and assess their efficiency. Management
models for aquatic systems can be used to determine which measures in the
watershed or in the water body have been effective and which one should be used
in the future.
An ecological model was configured for the Golesti Lake from Romania
and it was calibrated and validated with data from 2008 and 2009. The model
simulates a simple food chain with only 3 levels (nutrients, primary producers and
consumers). The choice of those state variables for the model represents a
compromise between available data and the need to simulate the biochemical
behaviour of the lake.
The results obtained agree well with the experimental data for the water
quality constituents such as TP, TN, A and Z biomass. The values of the kinetic
coefficients obtained from model calibration and validation analyses are consistent
with the values reported in the literature. However, little discrepancies exist
between the observed and simulated data.
From the verification, it was concluded that the developed model was
capable to simulate the water quality dynamics of the studied area with a
reasonable accuracy.

161
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The work has been co-funded by the Sectoral Operational Programme


Human Resources Development 2007-2013 of the Romanian Ministry of Labor,
Family and Social Protection through the Financial Agreement POSDRU/89/1.5/
S/62557.

REFERENCES

1. Dumitran G.E., Vuta L.I., (2010). Study on Lake Izvorul Muntelui Rehabilitation,
Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, doi: 10.1016/j.simpat. 2010.05.008.
2. Bryhn, A,C. and Håkanson, L., (2009). Eutrophication: model before action.
Science, Vol. 324, 723-723.
3. Iliescu S., Sinteza Calitaţii Apelor din Romania - 2009, (2009), Administratia
Nationala „Apele Romane”.
4. Popa R., (1998), Modelarea calităţii apei din râuri, H*G*A* Bucureşti.
5. Jorgensen S.E., Kamp-Nielsen L., Jorgensen L.A., Examination of the generality
of eutrophication models, Ecological Modelling, Vol. 32, pp.251-266.
6. Chapra S.C., (1997) Surface Water –Quality Modeling, McGraw-Hill, New York.
7. S.E. Jorgensen, L.A. Jorgensen, L. Kamp-Nielsen., (1981), Parameter estimation
in eutrophication modelling, Ecological Modelling, vol. 13, 111-129.
8. Carlson, R.E., (1977). A trophic state index for lakes. Limnololy and
Oceanography, 22: 361-369.
9. Malmaeusa J.M., Håkanson, L., (2004), Development of Lake Eutrophication
model, Ecolological Modelling 171, 35–63

162
INTEGRATED MECHANISMS FOR APROACHING PRIORITY
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AT GLOBAL LEVEL

ILDIKO IOAN1
CARMEN VALENTINA RĂDULESCU2

ABSTRACT. – Integrated mechanisms for approaching priority environmen-


tal issues at global level. At global level, there are considered priority
environmental issues two interdependent processes that are essential for the
support the processes that provide living conditions and wellbeing for the entire
humankind: climate change and loss of biodiversity. Payments of ecosystem
services became already well-known and applied economic instruments, although
there are still many uncertainties in the knowledge of eco-economic interdepen-
dencies. The paper discusses these aspects in the first part highlighting advantages
and disadvantages, while in the second part there is analyzed an integrated
program of the United Nations, which was designed for making progress toward
both climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The REDD program – Reduction of
Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation – is addressed to developing
countries and it started in 2008. Based on assessment reports we will try to
formulate a number of conclusions regarding the program’s effectiveness.

Keywords: climate change, biodiversity loss, market based instruments, REDD.

1. INTRODUCTION

Deterioration of subtle mechanisms that support the ecological balance and


meanwhile the human wellbeing is a recognized fact by the scientific community
and it also better and better acknowledged by the society. At global level are
considered as priority environmental issues two interdependent processes that
undermine these mechanisms: climate change and loss of biodiversity.
As long as climate change is regarded, although the results are still modest,
it could be discussed numerous governmental measures that indicate the
implication of high decisional levels in climate change mitigation: restrictive
regulations on emissions, carbon markets, green certificate markets, carbon taxes,
the European emission trading scheme (ETS) etc. These mechanisms are based on
the assumption that marketization could not be avoided and that market is the most
efficient means to make the equilibrium between demand and supply to correspond
with the social optimum, although the “invisible hand” of the market is quite
contested in situations that are less problematic in terms of information availability
than climate change.

1
Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Faculty of Agro-Food and Environmental Economics,
Bucharest, 010961 Mihail Moxa 7, Romania, e-mail: ioanildiko@yahoo.com
2
Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Faculty of Agro-Food and Environmental Economics,
Bucharest, 010961 Mihail Moxa 7, Romania, e-mail: cv_radulescu@yahoo.com

163
On the other hand, slowing down the loss of biodiversity is foreseen also as
a result of market relations’ expansion. Thus, payments for ecosystem services
became already well known and applied economic instruments, despite the many
knowledge gaps regarding the eco-economic interdependencies.
The paper discusses these aspects in its first parte, while in the second one
we analyze an integrated program of the United Nations, which was designed for
fostering progress in both climate change mitigation and halting biodiversity loss.
The REDD program – Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and forest
Degradation – is addressed to developing countries, being started in 2008. Based
on the available assessment report we formulate a number of conclusions regarding
the effectiveness of this program.

2. MARKET BASED INSTRUMENTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL


PROTECTION

Since the initial recognition of the positive correlation between economic


growth and environmental degradation at the beginning of the 1970s a lot of
progress was made in addressing the most challenging issues such as climate
change, pollution, ozone depletion, deforestation, water scarcity, waste
management, to name only the most prominent ones.
Environmental degradation was interpreted in economic terms as an
expression of market failure. This means that free market is unable to provide an
allocation of resources that secure a proper quality of environmental factors or a
proper level of ecosystem services. Therefore, there is needed a correction that will
allow externalities to be included in market prices resulting in a decoupling of the
economic growth from environmental degradation. The correction could come in
many shapes and these means are known as policy instruments. A widespread
classification system (Bran, 2002; Bran and Ioan, 2002; Rojanschi and Bran, 2002;
Rojanschi et al., 1997) group these instruments in three categories:
- regulation and standards, also known as command and control
instruments;
- taxes and subsidies or market based instruments; and
- social-communicative instruments.
Each category has its advantages and drawbacks. In fact, environmental
policy is implemented by using a combination of these instruments the challenging
question being the receipt of blending or how to establish the most appropriated
instrument to address a certain environmental issue. In this respect, Rojanschi and
Bran (2002) provide some guidance. Thus, they stress that the only type that cannot
be avoided is the first one: regulations and standards. For instance, these are
needed for establishing emission ceilings for trading schemes (market based) or the
framework for voluntary agreements (social-communicative). According to Bran
and Ioan (2002) command and control instruments are featured by some serious
disadvantages: are very time-consuming; could give the wrong impression that
something is done; cannot cover all situations in an equitable and flexible manner.

164
The last decades gave a lot of focus for market based instruments. The
main reason for supporting them is efficiency. Regulation must provide only a
framework for the emergence of new markets. IPCC (2007) recognizes that the
global emission trading scheme established by the Kyoto Protocol has the potential
the reduce emissions to a level that will allow humankind to avoid the catastrophic
effects of climate change. In case of dangerous substances, such as pesticides or
other chemicals, these instruments could not guarantee for the sudden withdrawal
even if there is plenty of evidence about their toxic effects.
The price-correction could be shaped as a tax or subsidy sized in
accordance with the size of the externality, or as a new market for the rights to
pollute or impact in other ways on the environment’s quality. The mechanism of
action for these two types is presented in fig.1.

Pollution Pollution
price price
Demand for
pollution rightss Supply of pollution Demand for
permits pollution rights

Pigouvian tax
P P

0 0
Q Pollution Q Pollution
quantity quantity
Source: Bran, F. (2006), The efficiency of using pollution permits in fulfilling environmental
protection goals, Bucharest: ASE Publishing, pp. 64-74.
Fig.1. The mechanism of action for pollution permits and for „green” taxes

Climate change is recognized as the most important environmental issue


today. Fighting this problem could be effective only by a global approach seconded
with energetic national programs which are convergent in their goals with the
objectives.

2500

2000
million USD

1500

1000

500

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Source: Carbon Finance Unit, World Bank


Fig.2. Evolution of carbon funds at the World Bank

165
Most of the strategies for climate change mitigation use market based
mechanisms. This is implemented at global level by the Kyoto Protocol by the
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). For example, he World Bank’s Carbon
Finance Unit uses money contributed by governments and companies in OECD
countries to purchase project-based greenhouse gas emission reductions in
developing countries and countries with economies in transition. The so called
carbon funds increased steeply in the last years (fig.2).
The European Union, which is recognized for its environmental leadership,
also chose these instruments in order to meet Kyoto commitments. In fact, there are
two market based instruments that are enforced for reducing greenhouse gas
emissions: the emission trading scheme (ETS) and green certificates. Plumb and
Zamfir (2009) conclude that the later proved to be quite effective in the promotion
of the use of renewable energy sources for electricity production.

3. REDD – REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM


DEFORASTATION AND FOREST DEGRADATION

The recent emphasis on the economic dimension of environmental issues is


most easily to be noticed in case of nature conservation or fight against biodiversity
loss. In this area, in no more than a decade a concept was advanced, checked,
debated, and up taken in policy framework. This concept is ecosystem service (for
definitions see box 1). Although it was proposed in the very early age of
environmentalism, it becomes a subject of intensive research only in the late 1990s.

Box 1. Ecosystem services - definitions


Ecosystem services are material, energy, and information flows from the natural capital
stocks which combine with the services of the manufactured and human capital for
producing human wellbeing (Constantza et al., 1997).
Ecosystem services are benefits obtained by humans from ecosystems. These include
providing, regulation, support, and cultural services (MEA, 2003).
Ecosystem services are components of nature consumed or used directly for producing
human wellbeing (Boyd and Banzhaf, 2006).

Today, ecosystem service is a common place in the policy documents.


Projects like Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, TEEB (The Economics of
Ecosystems and Biodiversity), and GEM-CON-BIO (Governance and ecosystems
management for the conservation of biodiversity) had an important contribution in
this respect.
The concept reflects a quite obsolete anthropocentric nature-human mind
map (fig.3), which is based on the perception that the value of nature reflects only
its utility.

166
Formative influences

Nature Individual and social Human society


services

Products

Source: Ioan, I., Bran, F., Rădulescu, C.V. (2010), Dimensiunea managerială a conservării naturii,
Bucharest: Universitară Publishing.
Fig.3. Nature for humankind

Despite the theoretical basis, there are already great expectations to create
markets for the ecosystem services. Among the first initiatives of this kind there is
REDD – Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation which
is the first payment for ecosystem services (PES).
REDD is a program proposed by the United Nations that aims to fight
climate change, but along with this broad goal there are also pursued biodiversity
and poverty reduction targets in developing countries. The program is underpinned
by the fact that in these countries deforestation is the main source of greenhouse
gas emissions. It intends to use funds from the developed nations for avoiding
deforestation in developing ones by using complex financial mechanisms.
The collaborative program will have two components: (i) assisting
developing countries prepare and implement national REDD strategies and
mechanisms; (ii) supporting the development of normative solutions and
standardized approaches based on sound science for a REDD instrument linked
with the UNFCCC. The program will help empower countries to manage their
REDD processes and will facilitate access to financial and technical assistance
tailored to the specific needs of the countries.

Source: UN-REDD Program.


Fig.4. REDD partner countries

The partnership comprises 29 countries to be supported with financial


resources. These are divided according to the way of how the support is made
available (fig.4). Thus, there are 12 countries which receive direct support and

167
other 17 countries participating as observers to the Programme's Policy Board, and
through participation in regional workshops and knowledge sharing.
The donor countries supposed to be the developed ones. Till date there are
not many to be found on this list. In fact, there are only three: Norway, Denmark,
and Spain. The first and largest contributor is Norway with almost 150 million
USD contribution, which represent almost 93% of the total contributions. Less than
half (76 million USD) of the total contribution is allocated for supporting projects
in developing countries as approved budgets. Nevertheless, not all this amount is
transferred yet, and only around 7 million is the expenditure recorded to date.
Countries that have approved budgets, ordered by the size of this budget
(fig.5), are: Democratic Republic Congo, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Panama,
Paraguay, Bolivia, Zambia, Viet Nam, Tanzania, Cambodia, Solomon Island, and
Philippines. Until now only in two of the countries were recorded expenditures and
these are Congo and Viet Nam.

Congo

Papua New Guinea


Indonesia
Panama

Bolivia
Paraguay

Zambia
Viet Nam

Tanzania
Cambodia
Solomon Island

Philippines

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Million USD

Source: UN-REDD Programme.


Fig.5. REDD countries by their budgets

Since its implementation, REDD was carefully watched by the scientific


community which made reports on its implementation progress, potential to bring
in benefits, barriers to be overcame, and outcomes. Kanowski et al. (2010)
reviewed the literature on the subject and made an inventory on the potential
benefits and dis-benefits (Box.2).
Box 2. Potential benefits and dis-benefits of REDD
Potential benefits
The prospective immediacy of its benefits.
Cost-effectiveness, relative to other mitigation options.
Support of biodiversity conservation and delivery of other environmental services.
Contribution to poverty reduction and improved rural livelihoods.
Potential dis-benefits
Implementation arrangements could deny the rights of indigenous and forest-dependent
peoples over their territories and resources and prejudice progress towards more

168
decentralised, locally-empowering modes of forest governance. For example, indigenous
peoples’ agency in REDD+ negotiations remains problematic (Schroeder, 2010), and there
is continued disagreement on what constitutes a REDD+ eligible “forest”.
A focus solely on forest carbon will override concerns about biodiversity conservation,
particularly if the definition of ‘‘forests’’ eligible for REDD+ credits does not distinguish
between natural forests and plantations and encourages replacement of the former by the
latter.
The additionality, leakage, and permanence of forest-based emissions reductions compared
to those of other sectors.
Source: Kanowski, P.J, McDermott, C.L., Cashore, B.W. (2010), Implementing REDD+:
lessons from analysis of forest governance, Environmental Science and Policy, article in
press, 859, pp.2.

The most powerful reason to support REDD is that storing carbon in forest,
in addition to its co-benefits in terms of biodiversity preservation and poverty
alleviation, could “buy time” to prepare a more comprehensive climate strategy.
Such action is needed considering the difficulty in making progress in climate
negotiation, case that is illustrated by the happening of the Copenhagen
Conference.

4. CONCLUSIONS

Climate change is the most challenging environmental concern due to its


global scale that involve difficult international negotiations, strong relation with
one of the most important resource on which human kind depends – fossil fuels,
and catastrophic outcomes in case that no changes are made.
As any other environmental issue, climate change was addressed using a
wide area of policy instruments. For the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, the
international agreement for climate change mitigation, prevalence was given to
market based instruments, at least for Annex I countries. This means to create a
new market for carbon dioxide emissions that allow states and companies to trade
emission permits. The potential of this mechanism to reduce emissions to a safe
level is accredited climate change economics. Nevertheless, the Kyoto Protocol is
about to end in 2012. the Copenhagen Conference in 2009 revealed huge
difficulties in negotiation emission targets toward a new and more comprehensive
global climate agreement. Thus a new problem raised: from where could by bought
time for preparation.
Based on a quite obsolete human-relation mind map (“Nature for
humanity”) the concept of ecosystem service brought in nature conservation
projects the flexibility of market approaches. Designing an ecosystem service
payment scheme at global level seemed very attractive in increasing efficiency.
From here to the potential of such project to sequestrate carbon (one of the
regulating services of ecosystems) was only one step, which was made by
designing the REDD program.

169
The program comprises twelve developing countries in which forests are
already assessed to be included in ecosystem payment schemes. The payers are
represented by the program itself, managed by the United Nations, and some donor
countries. Since 2008 then the program started, three such countries were involved:
Norway, Denmark, and Spain. The largest donor is, by far, Norway, accounting for
93% of the total contributions. Democratic Republic of Congo is the country that
received to date the largest financial support (almost 8 million dollars), while
Philippines accounts for the smallest budget (0.5 million dollars).
Although controversies still persist, we found that there is a solid argument
to support this program at least because it is able to buy the time needed for the
preparation of a more comprehensive climate agreement.

REFERENCES

1. Bran, F. (2002), Componenta ecologică a deciziilor de dezvoltare economică,


Bucharest: ASE Publishing.
2. Bran, F., Ioan, I. (2002), Ecosferă şi politici ecologice, Bucharest: ASE
Publishing.
3. Bran, F. (2006), The efficiency of using pollution permits in fulfilling environmental
protection goals, Bucharest: ASE Publishing, pp. 64-74.
4. Boyd, J., Banzhaf, S. (2006), What are ecosystem services. The need for
standardized environmental accounting units, Discussion paper, Resources for the
future, Washington, DC.
5. Constantza, R., d’Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B.,
Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O’Neill, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P., van
den Belt, M. (1997), The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural
capital, Nature, nr.387, pg.253-260.
6. Ioan, I., Bran, F., Rădulescu, C.V. (2010), Dimensiunea managerială a
conservării naturii, Bucharest: Universitară Publishing.
7. Kanowski, P.J, McDermott, C.L., Cashore, B.W. (2010), Implementing REDD+:
lessons from analysis of forest governance, Environmental Science and Policy,
article in press, 859, pp.1-7.
8. MEA (2003), Ecosystems and human well-being. Current state and trends, volume
1, Island Press.
9. Plumb, I., Zamfir, A.I. (2009), A comparative analysis of green certificates
markets in the European Union, Management of Environmental Quality: An
International Journal, volume 20, no.6, pp.684-695.
10. Rojanschi, V., Bran, F., Diaconu, G., Iosif, G.N., Toderoiu, F. (1997), Economia şi
protecţia mediului, Bucharest: Tribună economică Publishing.
11. Rojanschi, V., Bran, F. (2002), Politici şi strategii de mediu, Bucharest:
Economică Publishing.

170
SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE RIVER PRUT
1
MIHAELA DUMITRAN

ABSTRACT: Water is an increasingly important and why it is important to surface


water quality, which is given by the analysis of physical - chemical, biological and
observing the investigation of water, biota, environments investigation. Analysis of
the Prut river in terms of biological and physical elements - chemical. Evaluation
of ecological and chemical status of water was done according to order of approval
of the standard classification nr.161/2006 surface water to determine the ecological
status of water bodies.

Keywords: Prut, surface water, water body;

1. INTRODUCTION

National water monitoring system includes two types of monitoring, as


required by the Law 310/2004 amending and supplementing the Water Law
107/1996 which took over the provisions in the Water Framework Directive
60/2000/CE and other EU Directives. Carry out a role with supervisory monitoring
to assess the status of all water bodies within river basins, and an operational
monitoring (integrated surveillance monitoring) for bodies of water are not likely
to meet objectives for water protection. Depending on the quality characteristics of
water bodies have made different types of monitoring programs for each section:
monitoring program (S), operational Program (O), the investigation (I), the
reference (R) Program “best available section” (CBSD), the intercalibration (IC),
Monitoring Program for vulnerable zones (ZV), the monitoring of the ichthyofauna
(HI), Habitats and Species Protection Program (HS), International Convention
Programme (CI) and Programme CAPM. These programs are consistent with the
requirements of the Framework Directive and other European water policy.

2. METHODS AND MATERIALS

Monitoring surface water quality of Prut river basin catchment area is


achieved by tracking in surveillance monitoring (monthly and quarterly campaigns)
and fast flow (daily and weekly campaigns) physical - chemical indicators,
biological and bacteriological. Were monitored 11 streams, totaling 1608 km.
Pollution indicators for monitoring the supervision and monitoring were conducted
sampling at the control section 33. The fast flow water quality monitoring was
conducted at a daily frequency monitoring section and a section with a weekly
frequency: Prut - Darabani (flow weekly) and Prut - Ungheni (daily flow).

                                                            
1
“Ghe Asachi “Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Hydrotechnical, Geodesy and Environmental En-
gineering, Bd. Dimitrie Mangeron, nr.67, 700050 Iaşi, România, E-mail: MihaelaDumitran@yahoo.com

171
The best sections available are: Prut - Darabani, Prut - Ungheni Prut -
Şiviţa and Elan - Dimitrie Cantemir. To establish the natural conditions of
reference and background concentrations in 2009 to monitor a single reference
section (Bahlui – Vama cu Tabla). Investigation media were reviewed in 2009:
Water Biota Suspended solids
The overall quality of the river basin Prut in 2009, has undergone major
changes over the previous year, showing a trend of preserving it. Framing the water
quality is as follows (Fig. 1- 3 ).
- the biologically: 1282 km were classified as class II quality, 311 km in
class – III- a and 15 km in quality class.
- the physical - chemical point of view: 88 km of river were located in
first class quality, 767 km of river were located in class II quality, 545
km class III, 197 km in class IV and 11 km in the a V-a class.
Prut River ranged as follows: 88 km in the first grade quality and 654 km
of class II quality.

Fig. 1. Monitoring sections with quality classes

Source :Prut Barlad River Basin Water Administration

Fig. 2. Distribution Fig. 3. Evolution of quality classes


of river with quality class between 2003 / 2009
Source :Prut Barlad River Basin Water Administration

172
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Analysis and interpretation of results obtained in the fast flow


For operational knowledge of the situation Prut River Basin water quality
were established observation points to the transmission of information daily and
weekly flow established in critical areas with regard to the criterion of point
sources of pollution, transboundary criterion, the criterion for drinking water
abstraction.
In 2009, two sections are set in the fast flow that characterizes the border
rivers: Prut - Darabani (flow weekly) and Prut - Ungheni (daily flow).

Table 1. Arithmetic average values of the indicators in 2009


Parameter analyzed U.M. Prut Darabani Prut Ungheni / Tutora
Frequent S Z
0
Water temp C 10,8 14,17
pH unit.pH 8,0 8,05
Oxygen regime
Dissolved Oxygen mg/l 8,59 9,83
CCOMn mg/l 2,81 3,02
Nutrient
N-NH4+ mg/l 0,076 0,066
N-NO2- mg/l 0,031 0,008
N-NO3- mg/l 0,918 1,225
Total Phosphorus mg/l 0,062 0,073
Salinity
Fixed Residue mg/l 349,7 351,9
Metals (total concentration)
Copper µg/l 8,65 3,13
Zinc µg/l 10,76 8,25
Chromium µg/l 2,1 1,16
Iron mg/l 0,41 0,63
Other relevant chemical indicators
Phenol µg/l 1 2,88
Cyanide µg/l 1 0,21

Note: Z - daily, S – weekly


Source :Prut Barlad River Basin Water Administration

- Daily fast flow


- Section Ungheni the Prut river is considered as the daily flow downstream
outlet is powered Tutora where drinking water treatment plant to the city. Water
from this section fall into class II quality indicator as phenols.
- Weekly fast flow
- Section Darabani the Prut river flow is analyzed weekly. Water from this
section fall into class II of quality indicators by specific nutrient regime

173
RECORDED IN THE GLOBAL WATER QUALITY MONITORING
SECTION
Evaluation of ecological and chemical status of water was done according
to order of approval of the standard classification nr.161/2006 surface water to
determine the ecological status of water bodies, correlating the results of chemical
and biological assessment.
Ecological status is expressed as state structure and functioning of aquatic
ecosystems and surface waters is represented by the parameters obtained as a result
of physical-chemical monitoring, biological and hydro-morphological characte-
ristic of each monitoring program.
The general principle of classification of ecological status has been on for
five groups of indicators - the regime of oxygen, nutrients, mineralization, specific
toxic pollutants of natural origin and other relevant chemical indicators, weighted
by evaluating the effect of all indicators, based on the arithmetic average.
Characterization of overall quality, level section, is the outcome of the group with
the worst situation, not taking into account situations where natural background
significantly exceeded the permissible limits, assessed on the basis of analytical
data in the sections "controls."

River stretch characteristic length in the year 2009


Table 2. Registered quality in relation to physical and chemical indicator
Length (km)
River
The section of river Quality class
Total I II III IV V
Oroftiana - Stanca Costesti - - 115 - - -
Prut Stanca Costesti -Baseu river - 88 - - - -
Baseu river –Dunare - - 539 - - -
742 88 654 - - -
Source: Prut Barlad River Basin Water Administration
Table 3. River stretch characteristic length in the year 2009 registered quality
in relation to biological indicators

Length (km) din care


River The section of river Quality class
Total I II III IV V
Prut Entry county Vaslui - exit countyVaslui 167
TOTAL 167 167
Elan Source Murgeni 16
locality Murgeni - cfl. r. Prut 57
TOTAL 73 16 57

TOTAL Prut (km) 240 183 57 0

TOTAL Prut (%) 100 76,25 23,75 0,0

Source: Prut Barlad River Basin Water Administration

174
4. CONCLUSIONS
After detailed analysis of the quality of surface water flowing Prut river
basin following results:
In 2009, the surveillance monitoring network to track the status of bodies of
water quality. The qualitative analysis resulted:
 Surface water quality has been greatly influenced by wastewater discharges
and uses of the main cities located in the river Prut.
 Water quality was affected by drought period that took place this year, from
June to September, which resulted in the concentration of pollutants in water.
Also, in terms of hydrological year 2009 was characterized by a steady
decrease until below the average flow values in most multi-gauging stations
in Prut river.
 Water quality in most sections has not undergone major changes over the
previous year, showing the trend of preservation.
 Prut river basin indicators of iron, manganese, copper and selenium is a
natural background loading, resulting in high values of these indicators in the
control analysis.
Quality surface water
Prut River presents a framed pure water quality class I and class II 12% to
88% quality of its length. In the river was classified as class II as the entry to the
needle. Stanca Costesti (115 km), and leg action. Stanca Costeşti - Başeu (88 km)
river falls in first class quality. After the confluence with Başeu river , water falls
Prut river class II quality due to the influence Başeu river, Jijia river and diffuse
sources in the area.
On the lower Prut River, tributaries direct : Elan and Chineja, showing class
III-IV quality Prut river not affect quality.
In 2007 the Prut river water quality is Prut river presents a pure water placed
in class II as per 98% of its length. Thus, the river was classified as class II as the
entry to the confluence with the river Jijia a length of 358 km. Hence, a length of
13 km downstream from the confluence with Jijia its main tributary, he goes into
grade III quality class back then in section II of the section downstream Prisecani –
confluence with Danube over a length of 371 km.
In 2008 the Prut river water quality:
- Prut River presents a framed pure water quality class I and class II 39% to
61% quality of its length. Thus, the river was within the first class quality at entry to
the confluence with the river Başeu (203km) and the junction section Moşna river -
Pruteţ river confluence (Bumbata) - 83 km. On a length of 237 km section
confluence with Başeu river – confluence Moşna river, water falls Prut river grade II
quality due to the influence Başeu river, Jijia river and diffuse sources in the area.
Across the state water quality basin including from the distribution of river
sections on categories of quality according to different order no. 161/2006
Flowing surface water quality Prut river basin in the monitoring sections, the
class framed in quality results in the following sections dividing along the main
rivers of Prut river basin:

175
- Prut river
Oroftiana – downstream Stanca Costesti section
From the point of entering the river Prut Romania (Oroftiana) and to the
accumulation Stanca - Costesti a length of 115 km, the overall quality of water was
placed in quality class II, imposed by monitoring sections Prut - Oroftiana, Prut –
Radauti Prut and the Prut - Darabani.
Stanca - Costesti – confl. Baseu river section .
In this section (88 km) Prut water falls in first class quality, feeling the
influence Başeu river and diffuse pollution sources.
Confluence Baseu river - confluence Danube section
The distance of 539 km, passing the Prut quality class II, this type of
quality is maintained up to the confluence with the Danube, which is apparent
from the analysis of control sections on the lower Prut River: Dranceni,
Bumbăta, Oancea, Şiviţa şi Giurgiuleşti. This class is due to the influence of
diffuse sources in the area.  

Table 4. Sections graded supervision – Prut river basin – 2009

Ecological status Physical – Chemical indicators that determine quality


R
Monitoring

i
Section
No

(S)

v
e Fizical
r Other Chemical Sapro-
R Sali-
Nutrient indicator indicators bic
O nity
s that determine index
quality
1 Oroftiana I II I II II I
NO2, N
2 Darabani I I II II I Total chlorides, II
sulfates
Radauti CBO5,
3 S II I I - CCO-Cr
II
Prut
CBO5, CCO-Cr,
4 Stanca - II I I I Chlorides, II
sulfates
5 Ungheni S I I I I - II
CBO5, CCO-Cr,
6 Prisecani S II I II II Chlorides, II
sulfates

CBO5, CCO- Cr,


Prut

7 Dranceni S II II II II NO2,NO3, P, II
chlorides, sulfates

CBO5, CCO-Cr,
8 Bumbata S I II II I NO2, NO3, P, II
Chlorides, sulfates

NO2, NO3,Ptotal,
9 Oancea - I II II II chlorides, sulfates
II

CBO5, CCO- Cr,


10 Sivita - II I II II chlorides, sulfates
II

CBO5, CCO-Cr,
11 Giurgiulesti S II I II II chlorides, sulfates
II

Source :Prut Barlad River Basin Water Administration 2007

176
Sections graded supervision – Prut river basin – 2007
R
i
Ecological staus

Monitoring(S)
v
Physical – chemical indicators that determine quality

Section
e
No

r
Fizical – chemical
Other Saprobic
RO Nutrient Salinity indicators that
indicators index
determine quality
1 Oroftiana I I I I-II I-II II
2 Darbani S I I I I-II I-II II
3 P Radauti – Prut I I I I-II I-II II
4 r Stanca S I I I I-II I-II II
5 u Ungheni S II II I II II II
6 t Prisecani S II II II III III II
7 Dranceni S I I I I-II I-II II
8 Bumbata II I I I-II II II
9 Oancea II I I I II II
10 Sivita S II I II I II II
11 Giurgiulesti S I I II I II II

Protection water quality:


- Modernization of urban waste water treatment plants Botosani Dorohoi
Săveni, Darabani, Flamanzi, Iasi, Harlau, Tg. Frumos, Husi, Beresti and Tg. Bujor;
- Execution of a new treatment plants for the Botosani area south of the
city - Tulbureni - water or waste transport in the area (about 300 l / sec) at existing
wastewater treatment plant;
- Improved operating efficiencies, one of Urban wastewater treatment
plants through an appropriate operating according to regulations, operation,
maintenance and operation;
- Improving the Investment principles of rehabilitation and upgrading an
operating efficiencies, a pre-treatment station uses water from a Prut river;
- Evacuation-replacement technology systems HYDRAULICS a tip from
livestock manure dry;
- Provide user-level laboratories and surveillance requirements for Water
Quality Control, version accordance with the European directives and legal.

REFERENCES

1. Giurma I.,(2000) Water management systems, Ed. Ceres, Bucuresti.


2. Prut - Barlad river Basin Water Administration - Methodological Guidelines
for delineation of surface water bodies - rivers and lakes
3. Prut - Barlad river Basin Water Administration (2007 ..2009)- Water Quality
Summary.
4. Prut - Barlad river Basin Water Administration - Detailed instructions on
setting exceptions to the environmental objectives of the Water Framework
Directive (2000/60/EC)

177
ESTIMATING THE TENDENCY AND THE VARIABILITY
OF THE RAINFALL AMOUNT IN IALOMITA RIVER BASIN
AND THEIR INFLUENCE UPON THE LIQUID RUN-OFF

M. RETEGAN1, M. BORCAN1

ABSTRACT: Estimating the tendency and the variability of the rainfall


amount in Ialomita river basin and their influence upon the liquid run-off.
The paper focuses on an analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall
amounts (meteorological parameter ) from Ialomita River Basin and also the
influence that rainfall has upon the liquid run-off, expressed by the mean monthly
discharges (hydrologic parameter) in a common period of time (1961-2007).
The study of the evolution of the above mentioned parameters has been based
upon the data recorded from 6 weather and river stations which we considered to
be representative for the studied area.
For these weather stations we have used, calculated and statistically interpreted
the chronological data series of the mean monthly and annually rainfall amounts
while for the river stations we have taken into account the mean monthly and
yearly liquid discharges.
We have also tried to establish inter-connections between the two parameters,
in order to demonstrate the tight link that is between them on both a time-space
scale and in a regional context.
Any alteration of the liquid drainage is caused by alterations in the climatic
system, mainly the rainfall patterns.
In order to identify the tendencies in the dynamics of the rainfall amounts and
the mean liquid run-off and also to establish their statistic significance we have
used the Mann-Kendall test (with the help of MAKENSIS programme).

Keywords: hydrological and climatic parameters, spatial and time tendencies,


inter-connectivity, Ialomita river basin.

1. OBJECTIVES
In this paper we have tried to identify the supposed tendencies in the
variability of the mean monthly rainfall (the climatic parameter) as well as the
tendencies in the evolution of the mean monthly and annual liquid discharges (the
hydrologic parameter) on basis of the Mann-Kendall statistical test. The run-off
volume of the hydrographical surface network is always inter-connected with the
climatic parameter. Rainfall always represents the genetic key factor in the
constitution of the liquid run-off both on slopes and in river beds. The highest
water discharges are usually triggered by heavy prolonged rainfall, while the lack
of rainfall or scarce rainfall determines a poor liquid run-off.

1
Institutul Naţional de Hidrologie şi Gospodărire a Apelor, Bucuresti, mihai_rete@yahoo.com,
bmihaela1978@yahoo.com

178
In order to study and identify the interdependence between these two
parameters (climatic and hydrological) we have chosen a vast area of land,
represented by the Ialomita river basin, which encompasses a large variety of
landforms and climatic conditions, but overall acts unitary from a hydrological
point of view.

2. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF IALOMITA RIVER


BASIN

The Ialomita River Basin gathers very different geographical conditions,


especially when talking about landforms. These tend to descent gradually in
altitude from north to south, from a maximum altitude of 2505 m (Omu Peak,
Bucegi Mountains) to a minimum level of 6-10 m, close to the confluence with the
Danube.
Thus, the mountain region represents 14.31% of the total area of the basin,
the hills and plateaus region takes about 23.6% of the total area while the rest of
55.8% is represented by plains and lowland territories.
The Ialomita River Basin is covered by mountains in its northern extremity
(Bucegi Mts, Clabucetelor Mts), then its central territories are covered by a
transition sub-Carpathian step (The Prahova and Buzau Sub Carpathians), while
the south and east of the basin are occupied mainly by low land territories, which
include primarily plains of different types that extent to its confluence with the
Danube River, south from the village of Giurgeni.

3. THE DATA BASE AND METHODOLOGY USED

3.1 The data base


Ialomita River Basin offers ideal conditions for performing hydrological
studies (it has a very well developed hydrometric network, with a total number of
21 stations) but less favorable for climatic analysis, since only 6 weather stations
activate on its territory.
In order to perform such an analysis we have used:
 series of pluviometric data: monthly and yearly rainfall for the 1961-
2007 period for six weather stations (fig.1) and also the maximum
amount of rainfall recorded over a 24 hours period for the same time
lapse and the same locations
 series of hydrological data: mean monthly and yearly liquid
discharges for the same period of time 1961-2007 at six corres-
ponding hydrometric stations.

179
Fig.1. The map of the hydro-meteorological network in Ialomita River Basin.

The analyzed weather and river stations are presented in tables 1 and 2.
Table 1. Data regarding the hydrometric stations in Ialomita River Basin

Mean Maximum
Nr. F
River River Station liquid liquid
crt (Km2)
discharge discharge
1 Azuga Azuga 83 1,91 94
2 Prahova Busteni 136 2,85 123
3 Doftana Tesila 288 4,52 311
4 Ialomiţa Targoviste 686 8,35 691
5 Teleajen Moara Domnească 1398 9.11 850
6 Ialomiţa Slobozia 9154 45.5 818
*According to NIHWM data
Table 2. Data regarding the weather stations that we have used in our analysis
Nr. The altitude The maximum amount
River Multiannual average
crt of the station of rainfall in 24 hours)
1 Predeal 947 1090 122.1
2 Sinaia 1034 1510 106
3 Campina 770 461 118.4
4 Targoviste 679 293 137.6
5 Ploiesti 635 164 102.4
6 Slobozia 468 40 62.6
*According to NAM data

180
3.2. Methodology
The statistical analysis of the weather and hydrological data series
consisted by adopting the Mann Kendall test. The Mann Kendall test (a test used
for identifying the tendencies) takes into account the analysis of two types of
statistic analysis: for data series with less than 10 cases the S test is used, while for
data series consisting of more than 10 cases one must apply the Z test, which
displays a normal distribution pattern. In order to identify the correct tendency of
the analyzed parameters, we use four levels of significance, table 3.

Table 3. The meaning of the symbols corresponding to the four levels


of significance of the Mann Kendall test
*** α = 0.001
** α= 0.01
* α = 0.0 5
+ α= 0.1

This means that the level of significance 0.001 corresponds to a 0.1%


probability of being wrong in the estimation of the correct tendency, which in turn
shows that the estimation performed by the test has a very high degree of accuracy.
Using the inter correlation functions we have tried to determine a
correspondence between rainfall and liquid run-off, while for the maps and spatial
analysis we have used GIS methods (extensions of the ArcGis 9.2. soft).

4. OUTCOMES

Our performing of the Mann Kendall test upon the series of rainfall data
suggested that the weather stations of Predeal, Campina, Targoviste and Slobozia
exhibit an increase tendency especially for the month of September (a significance
level of 0.05 to 0.1). We have also identified increase tendencies for the months of
March and October at Slobozia weather station (significance level of 0.05).
The only weather station showing decrease tendency is Campina (with a
significance level between 0.05 and 0.01) in the months of February (significance
level = 0.01) and may (significance level = 0.05). Regarding the Mann Kendall test
performed upon series of annual rainfall data we can observe decrease tendencies
only for Sinaia 1500 weather station.
Ploiesti weather station, even if it is located in a transition area between the
mountainous region to the north and the plain region to the south and east, does not
show any decrease or increase tendencies regarding the monthly or yearly rainfall.

181
Table 4. The monthly and yearly tendencies of rainfall
for several weather stations in the Ialomita River Basin

Mean rainfall
Time Predeal Sinaia 1500 Campina Targoviste Ploiesti Slobozia
I
II **(-)
III *(+)
IV * (-)
V *(-) *(-)
VI
VII
VIII
IX + (+) +(+) *(+) *(+)
X +(+)
XI
XII
AN *(-)
(-) decrease tendency
(+) – increase/rise tendency

Our performing of the Mann Kendall test upon the series of hydrological
data pointed out the following aspects: for most of the river stations we have
identified decrease tendencies of the mean monthly and annual discharges.
For the majority of the hydrometrical stations we have observed decrease
tendencies of the mean monthly and annual discharges. Only Busteni river station
exhibited increase tendencies of the mean monthly and yearly liquid discharges.
These decrease tendencies are situated between the significance level 0.01 in May
for Azuga river station and 0.1 in January (Azuga, Targoviste), february (Azuga,
Moara Domneasca), may (Moara Domneasca and Slobozia) and june (Slobozia).
Regarding the entire area of the Ialomita River Basin for the period 1961-
2007 we can identify a general decrease tendency of the mean monthly liquid
discharges concerning 75% of the river stations that we have focused upon.
Increase tendencies of these monthly and yearly liquid discharges are
easily observed at 25% of the river stations located in Ialomita River Basin, mostly
in Prahova River Basin.

Table 5. The monthly and yearly general tendencies of the mean liquid discharges
in Ialomita River Basin, calculated with Mann Kendall statistics test (river stations)
Stations
Moara
Azuga Buşteni Teşila Târgovişte Slobozia
Domnească
Months
I +(-) +(-)
II +(-) *(-) +(-) +(-)
III +(+) *(-) *(-)

182
Stations
Moara
Azuga Buşteni Teşila Târgovişte Slobozia
Domnească
Months
IV *(-)
V **(-) *(-) *(-) +(-) +(-)
VI *(-) *(-) +(-)
VII *(-) *(-) +(-)
VIII
IX
X +(+)
XI
XII
Annual **(-) *(-)
(+) decrease tendency
(-) increase tendency

Even if the period 1961-2007 shows a general trend of increase regarding


the surface liquid run-off, this has not reflected completely in the run-off regime.
Besides Prahova River Basin, the other sub-basins that together form the Ialomita
River Basin exhibited a decrease tendency, with significance levels of 0.1 which
means a 10% possibility of us being wrong in our estimations.

5. THE INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN RAINFALL AND


LIQUID DISCHARGES

We have calculated for the period 1961-2007 the variation of the rainfall
amounts for each month and year. Since in most of the cases the variability is
common for the majority of the stations (80%) we have defined as an index of the
average the series of monthly data that exhibit under average liquid run-off.
Similarly we have calculated the rainfall index by averaging the data series for the
weather stations that we have taken into consideration.
The interdependence function between the indexes of rainfall and run-off,
when considering all the months of the year, shows that the rainfall fluctuations
usually stand 2-3 months ahead the run-off fluctuations. These represent the
difference between the moment in which the rainfall occurs and the subsequent
liquid run-off that it triggers. Positive values demonstrate that an increase in the
amount of rainfall usually produces an increase in the liquid run-off (for the cold
season). We have analyzed the variation of the correlation coefficient between
rainfall amounts for each month of the year and the liquid run-off for the next 3
months. Thus the rainfall that falls in January and February influences the liquid
run-off in March or April, which corresponds to a significance level of 95%. This
is because the snow that accumulates in winter months melts gradually and
transforms into liquid discharges over the first one or two spring months. This time
lapse decreases to 0 during summer months.

183
6. CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES

The statistic interpretation of hydrological and meteorological data series


in Ialomita River Basin allowed us to identify certain tendencies regarding the
variability of the analyzed parameters (mean monthly and yearly rainfall amounts
and discharges).
Tendencies are less obvious when discussing about rainfall amounts, yet an
increase can be observed, especially for September (significance levels of 0.1 and
0.05). Regarding the surface run-off, the tendencies are more obvious and are
representative for all the river stations that we have analyzed, especially for the
winter months (february) and spring (may) with different levels of significance
(most of them being situated between 0.1 and 0.01).
As a consequence we intend to analyze these modifications in order to
understand the role they play in the drainage processes.
Also, the analysis of the correlations between the liquid run off and rainfall
show that there is usually a 2-3 months delay in winter time period between the
moment of the specific rainfall or snowfall and the moment in which the highest
discharges are recorded and no difference in summer. We have identified dry
periods in 1973-1975, 1986-1995 and 2000-2004.

REFERENCES

1. Borcan, M., Bujor, M., Retegan M, (2010) The Analysis of the Hydro-Climatic
Risk Phenomena in the Ialomita-Buzau Area. Structural and Unstructural
Measures for Prevention and Intervention, Ohrid, Macedonia
2. SALMI T., MÄÄTTÄ A., ANTTILA Pia., RUOHO-AIROLA Tuija.,
AMNELL Toni, (2002) Detecting trends of annual values of atmospheric
pollutants by the mann-kendall test and sen’s slope estimates -the excel
template application makesens; Editura Oyj, Helsinki.
3. UJVARI, I. (1972), Geografia apelor României, Edit. Ştiinţifică, Bucureşti.
4. *** (1971), Râurile României. Monografie hidrologică, IMH, Bucureşti.
5. *** (1966) Monografia hidrologică a bazinului Ialomiţa, Comitetul de Stat al
Apelor, Institutul de Studii şi Cercetări Hidrotehnice, Bucureşti

*Institutul Naţional de Hidrologie şi Gospodǎrire a Apelor

184
THE CHLOROSODIUM MINERAL WATERS IN CLUJ COUNTY,
LASTING TOURISTIC PROTECTION AND CAPITALIZATION

N.CIANGA1, D.COSTEA

ABSTRACT. – The chlorosodium mineral waters in Cluj County, lasting


touristic protection and capitalization. This study represents a continuation of
the research and assessment of the resources of chlorosodium mineral waters on
the territory of Transylvania Depression, especially regarding the appearance of
salt springs, which are still not to be found in the literature of specialty.
The first step was made by the researcher Chintăuan Ioan, Doctor in Geology
for Bistriţa-Năsăud County in 2002, and it was continued by the authors of this
study, in the first volume dedicated to the Air & Water conference from 2010, for
Sibiu County.
Therefore, Cluj County will be analysed this time, a county to which certain
researches have been done before. Field research could be also added to these,
representing the only possibility to update the data regarding the existent salt springs.
The first examples already known are the clorosodium mineral waters billeted in
lakes situated in Turda, Cojocna, Sic and Ocna Dejului. As locations with
chlorosodium mineral waters which appear at the surface under the form of salt
springs with a salinity exceeding 1 g/l, as compared to the 4 ones specified, firstly
the old, abandoned resorts from Someşeni are to be remembered and the lake with
salt water formed in the place of a spring from Pata that is found near the garbage
pit of Cluj-Napoca Municipality and many other spots with salt springs found on
the map of Cluj County, such as those located from north towards south: Mica,
Gherla, Gădălin, Geaca, Miceşti, Valea Florilor, etc.
As far as the protection of these resources is concerned, the main debated
problems are related to phenomena such as their clogging and sweetening, which
determines many springs of chlorosodium mineral waters to become ephemeral.
As regards the touristic exploitation of these touristic localtions, the only
arranged are the one situated in Turda, which is declared to be a touristic balneal
resort, Cojocna, Ocna Dejului, and with an incipient character Gherla-Silivaş and
Sic. The other locations are simply appearances of salt waters, some used in the
households of the natives.

Keywords: spring of salt waters, salt lakes, clogging, sweetening.

1. THE TERITORIAL REPARTITION OF THE CHLOROSODIUM


MINERAL WATERS IN CLUJ COUNTY

As a direct consequence of the anterior resource of bibliographical, from


some anterior articles of salt waters resources from Cluj county, but also of the
realization of some field research in order to analyze on spot, it result that in this

1
"Babeş-Bolyai" University, Faculty of Geography, 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, e-mail:
cianga@geografie.ubbcluj.ro

185
county the salt waters sources are quite numerous and concentrated especially in
the east part of the Transylvanian Basin.
According to the geographical literature it has been insisted, only on those
famous touristical arrangements, of a touristical importance as Ocna Dejului, Sic,
Someşeni, Cojocna and Turda.
The rest of the location with salt waters will be analyzed to evaluated the
current situation, even if they aren’t t as such a great interest, being less famous.

Table 1. The current situation of chlorosodic mineral spring in Cluj County


Nr. location administrative-teritory no of springs current situation
1. Ocna Dejului DEJ 1 existed
2. Sic SIC 4 arranged
3. Someşeni CLUJ-NAPOCA 16 abandoned
4. Cojocna COJOCNA 5 arranged
5. Turda TURDA - only lakes
6. Sânmarghita MICA 1 abandoned
7. Nireş MICA 1 arranged
8. Unguraş UNGURAŞ 1 salt massive
9. Buneşti MINTIU GHERLII 1 abandoned
10. Silivaş GHERLA 1 existed
11. Sărata PĂNTICEU - disappeared
12. Sântejude ŢAGA 1 abandoned
13. Lacu GEACA 1 abandoned
14. Gădălin JUCU 1 arranged
15. Pata APAHIDA 4 arranged
16. Valea Florilor PLOSCOŞ 2 existed
17. Lobodaş PLOSCOŞ 1 existed
18. Miceşti TURENI 1 arranged

1.1. Ocna Dejului


The area with chlorosodium mineral waters is situated on 2 sectors, first in
Codorului Valley in the north, where were the first roman’s exploitation, now gather
and the second in the south east where there is a current salt mine exploitation.
The latter sector is called Sărata Valley, the transformation connected to the
antrophical influence which let disappearance of the former lakes Ştefan and Iosif,
but also the transformation connected to the Codor sector have let to the disappe-
arance to the many lakes, and the number of the lake from 14 in 1969 to only 2 in the
present: Cabdic lake in Codor sector and Minei Mari lake in Sărate Valley sector.
If the first called ,,La Toroc” is arranged for balneation, due to the therape-
utically quality of the water and it is geographical position far away from the mine
exploitation and to with access to the road with Dej. The second could be declared
nation reservation and including for the area visit together with the salt mine and the
surrounding area where other exploitation in belt system have been made.

186
1.2. Sic
The chlorosodical mineral water resources are to be found in the east of the
area in Sărata Valley, in the form of the waterside, wide and swampy surrounded
which make up of typical salt relief, the complex contains 3 antroposalin lakes 2 on
the right of Sărata Valley Băilor lake and Nirţului lake, and one of the left side of
Cipan hill (Albastru lake).
All the 3 lakes are formed from on the top of former mines type bell, if the
first 2 once remain salty the blue lakes is in a continues sweetening process
because of the lack of water connect with the salt wall.
Due to the current situation of the lakes in Sic only one the lakes has
touristic potential namely Băilor lake which has already function as a pool in the
past. After some changes have been made and can be including the balnear touristic
circuit, especially due to it s access being located in the village, but more for it s
therapeutically qualities. The salt spring are arranged in the form of four wells
located in the south part of the village within the reservation.
1.3. Someşeni
Here we can find the most numerous spring with chlorosodical mineral
waters of hyposalt type. Someseni is situated the outskirts of Cluj-Napoca, which
increases its value.
Although the former balnear arrangement is totally abandoned, we can
distinguish a number of 16 hypo salt spring, unfortunately more than half of the
spring are silting only the springs no 1 and no2 have the greatest debit of 300 liter
per day, the same situation we can at spring 13,14,15, and 16.
The springs have the following characteristic , the value of the salt is
between 2,3 and 10 g|l, with high radioactivity, mineralization and other properties
in case of some treatments, also in these area near the springs a series of basins
have been arranged of series of polls, some of the were use for balneation in the
past. According to the reality on the field only 7 out of 10 can be distinguished.

1.4. Cojocna
In the past the number of exploitation summed 6, and after their
abandoning, it resulted an area with more lakes, placed in the east of the village.
Cojocna is crossed by Sarat river which formed a basin with, steep slopes and an
inferior flat wide part. Where the salt lakes can be found a part of the village.
The only salt lakes left are Băilor and Durgău extensively use for
balneation, even for the beginning of the last century, especially in the present.
Except these lakes there a series of former smaller lakes, like some swamps.
The salt springs waters are numerous and are spread around the village in
four different areas. The first would be Murătoarea Mare in the east of the former salt
lakes, where 2 unarranged spring can be found, the second in the south of the former
salt lakes, in the area called La Cadardeau , where an arranged well with the salt
waters can be found , third in the direction of Cara village in the area of the railways
and fourth on the DC76, which leads to Boju village. In the last 2 areas the sources of
salt waters are arranged are expose to the risk of silting and sweetening.

187
1.5. Turda
The analyze territory is situated in the north east of the most important
town with salt waters, from the Transilvanian Basin. Here in 2 different areas 2 salt
missives in the form of some bows have been formed, lately spoiled by some
external agents.In the north of the Sarata Valley and in the south the Microbasin
Turda Băi formed by the erosion of Arieş river.
In the north, the eroded salt massive from Sărata Valley has a surface of
approximately 25.000 mp in which existed seven exploitation in bell type, from
which we have only 5 lakes today, because Caroline lake has been covered, by
gound sliding, and the former lake, has been completed silted.
Now there are only 5 lakes left: Durgău, Ocnei Mici, Sulfuros, Ocnei şi
Rotund, from which only the letter can be use in a balneary purpose, being already.
In the south area which is the wider and flatter area, we can find the micro
basin Turda Bai formed by gradual erosion, due the elimination of the sedimentary
strata by Arieşul river leading of a erosion surface 94.000 mp (T. Pânzaru,1986).
The salt lakes are important from a touristical point of view are situated in
the easth of the micro basin and totalize 4. All of them are antroposalin the 3 lakes
area carstosalin, of some dimension being silted.The antroposalin lakes: Roman,
Tarzan, Cichi and Privighetorii have been formed in medieval times in an area
where salt was closer to the surface.
1.6. The Areas with Salt Springs
We talk in consideration with chlorosodical mineral springs which have
different salt degrees and which have a punctiform character.
Starting from the north side on the territory of Mica village 2 spring with
chlorosodical near the villages Sânmarghita and Nireş. If in the first location the
spring si arranged and exploited by its inhabitants in the second area is not exploited
at all and is in danger of silted. In the near by is a small salt massive, which appear to
the surface at the limed with Unguraş with small spring can be formed.
Near Gherla in the south part small , have been discovered in the past near
the village Silivaş, where a small pool was arranged. Now this small waters is
used to carry water to some covered pools arranged in Gherla.
Another area in the north of Gherla is Buneşti village, to administrative
territory of Mintiu Gherlii.
In Sărata from the administrative territory of Panticeu, the current
resources have reveal the fact that although, these taxonomy related to salt exist in
this location there is no clue that here had been a salt spring, although in been
motion in some bibliographical sources.
In the area of hydrographical basin of Fizeş river there are 2 location with
chlorosodium mineral water, the first at Sântejude which appear after an
excavation and a another one in the center of Lacu village from Geaca adminis-
trative territory an arranged but use by the inhabitants.
On the territory of the Jucu Comune in the near by Gădălin village was a
spring with the chlorosodium mineral water which has recently, use by the
inhabitants and arranged like a pool for balneary purpose in the summer.

188
There are many spring with chlorododium mineral waters on the territory
of the commune Ploscoş due to the existence of salt closed to the surface. The
spring can be found in the nearby the villages Valea Florilor and Lobodaş.
The last location with chlorosodium mineral waters springs is in the south
of village Miceşti. Where the inhabitants succeeded in arranging the existing
springs and this was to become a good salt water supply source.

Fig.1. The Cluj County. The map of the chlorosodium


mineral waters resources

189
2. POSIBILITIES OF TURISTIC EXPLOITATION OF THE
CHLOROSODIUM MINEREL WATERS IN CLUJ COUNTY.
CASE OF STUDY: OCNA DEJULUI AND COJOCNA

The touristic potential of the chlorosodium mineral water resources is very


high in the main location in Cluj County and now the two touristic arranging with
salt waters are a great importance. This haven t declared balnear resort yet.
Ocna Dejului and Cojocna where recently investments with the greater pro-
ject, which has been recently finalized. The project started in 2008 and finished 2010.
Once this project has been made for location with salt waters Ocna Dejului
and Cojocna from Cluj county and Figa from Bistriţa-Năsăud already finalized.
The chlorosodium mineral waters resources from the existent lakes have a
great touristic potential, due to the quality arrangement which have been made
lately at Ocna Dejului. Investments have been around Cabdic lake and two 2,1 mil.
euro have been spent, through this lake has been arranged and ecologies and the
surrounding area an exterior pool was built, an interior pool with warm water, a
modern beach, access alley and more sport grounds.
At Cojocna the investments was done around the lakes Bailor and Durgau,
both lake has been arranged with wooden platforms around, sandy beaches, access
alley, sports ground a small interior spa with warm water pool and sauna, used
more in oversezon.
After the finalization of the project from Cojocna and Ocna Dejului. It has
been realized that they can be resorts of local interest if in the next period
investments will also be made in the accommodations.

3. PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE PROTECTION OF THE EXIS-


TANT CHLOROSODIUM MINERAL WATER RESOURCES.
CASE STUDY THE SALT LAKES FROM TURDA AND THE
EXTINCT SALT SPRING
Related to the quality of the salt waters the current physical phenomena
with a negative impact are which can cause important changes in a very short
period of time such as: silting, the sweetening of the salt lakes and the disappearing
of the spring with chlorosodical mineral water.
The first example could be analyzed in the area the lakes from Sărata
Valley from Turda administrative area. If we analyze each of the 5 lakes we can
observe differences both in their evolution and in the degree of arranging and
anthropic intervention.
Here the evolution is extremely fast if until now a lake disappear because
of the ground silting and the another sweetened because of the silting process due
to the sandy flows from the slopes
Although to of these, Minei Mare lake and Rotund lake have been recently
arranged this was something superficial and the terrace slopes are in continues
evolution, phenomena like sandy flows and ground silting being present, because
these haven t been planted with vegetation.

190
The high number of the salt springs from Cluj county is in a continues
process of sweetening, silting ad disappearance, This is one of the main problems
of the study, which can not been solve with the intervention of local authorities of
the gropes of local initiative such as GAL or NGO and even of the inhabitants who
use these sources of salt waters.
There sources of clorosodical mineral water can be arranged in the form of
some spring with concrete on the edge, in the form of some covert wooden wells,
of some drilling and in the near by small pools can be built.
The situation of Cluj County regarding the high risk of these sources of
clorosodium mineral waters can be found in all the Transylvanian Basin for the
moment the research and storage in a former faze. Plus the fact that up to present
there is no general project for protection and the arranging of this including their
salvation.

REFERENCES

1. Alexe M., (2010), Studiul lacurilor sărate din Depresiunea Transilvaniei.


Editura Presa Universitară Clujeană. Cluj-Napoca.
2. Ciangă N., (1984), Economia turismului în Depresiunea Transilvaniei, Studia
Univ. Babeş-Bolyai, Seria Geologie-Geografie, Cluj-Napoca.
3. Chintăuan I., (2002), Apele minerale şi staţiunile din judeţul Bistriţa-Năsăud,
Editura Supergraph. Cluj-Napoca.
4. Costea D., (2008), The Evolution of the Touristic Spa Value Enhancement of
Salt Water Resources in the Transylvania Depression, Babeş-Bolyai,
Geographia, 1, Cluj Napoca.
5. Pânzaru, T. (1974), Complexul lacustru „Valea Sărată” (Turda). Aspecte
morfohidrografice, Lucrări Ştiinţifice, seria A, Geografie, Institutul
Pedagogic, Oradea.
6. Pişota I., (1972), Lacurile Sărate din România, Editura Terra, Bucureşti.
7. Pop Gr., (2007), Judeţul Cluj, Editura Academiei Române, Bucureşti.
8. Sorocovschi, V. (2005), Câmpia Transilvaniei – studiu hidrogeografic, Edit.
Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-Napoca.
9. *** Revista Sării (2004 – 2009), Edit. Asociaţia Salinară ,,Carol Crăciun”.
Slănic Prahova.

191
THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED
TO HYDROLOGICAL PHENOMENA OF RISK
IN THE ALMAŞ-AGRIJ DEPRESSION AND CLUJ AND DEJ
HILLS. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FFECTS

ALINA-DACIANA DUMITRA1

ABSTRACT. – The negative effects associated to hydrological phenomena of


risk in the Almaş-Agrij Depression and in the Cluj and Dej Hills. Social and
economic effects. Following activation of run-off slopes, the torrents and rivers
floods in some areas both in Cluj and Dej Hills and in the Depression Almaş-Agrij,
were affected: houses, annexes, socio-economic objectives, communication
networks, bridges / culverts, agricultural land, and technical works; it have been
recorded losses of animals, birds and even human lives.
It also mentions the affecting of the S.G.A.Cluj defence works; were reactivated
erosion of banks, were clogged riverbed of water courses, etc.
Excessive humidity or the opposite phenomenon – hydrological drought affected
in some years considerable areas, with significant socioeconomic implications.
Also, inadequate maintenance of some hydraulic works, or ignoring environmental
protection rules have generated many crisis situations, sometimes overlapping
more risk, and causing substantial damage.

Keywords: hydrological phenomena of risk, social effects, economic effects.

1. INTRODUCTION

The network of settlements in Cluj and Dej Hills comprises 26 basic


administrative territorial units (24 municipalities and 2 cities), which belong to 115
locations, with a density of 17.5 locations / km2 and a population density of 50.3
inhabitants per km2 (excluding the city of Cluj-Napoca and Dej). Of the 26 territorial
administrative units included in Cluj and Dej Hills, only 14 communes spread across
the hills throughout the rest of the relief units occupying contiguous space.
In Depression-Agrij Almas there are 16 administrative units (15
municipalities and one city) with a total of 78 localities, Hida village being
awarded to the highest number of inhabitants of the valley (3148 inhabitants,
according to population and housing census 2002). A number of three communes
and the town of Jibou have only part of the territory extended across Depression-
Agrij Almas, the remaining communes being in entirely therein.
The negative effects associated with hydrological risk phenomena are
manifested in several spheres: social, economic and environmental.

_____________________
1
Romanian Academy, Institute of Geography, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, e-mail:
alina_daciana@yahoo.com

192
2. THE EFFECTS GENERATED BY THE HYDROLOGICAL PHE-
NOMENA OF RISK

2.1. Social effects


In the social effects stand out as important dead people. Victims are
determined directly by physical action of water, by drowning or fatal injuries, or
more commonly, indirectly, by acquiring certain diseases. In general, slow flash
floods give a lower number of victims directly, but the risk of disease is high, with
effects that can be spread over a longer period of time, sometimes even weeks.
The number of deceased victims of sudden floods may be large.
The causes which led to the death of the victims are:
- slip or fall on culverts, bridges or banks in troubled waters;
- unable to travel due to damage health;
- trying through various means of transportation crossing the waters rising
- shelter destruction from the violent action of waters, etc..
In the areas studied, the number of human victims is not high, most
famous being that of a young man of 36 years in the village of Căpuşu
Mare,victim of a flood caused by Căpuş River flood in 1999.
Hydrological risk phenomena can cause disease among the affected
population, may lead to recurrence of disease, or worsening of general health,
which in some cases can be fatal.
Thus, in some cases (floods, excessive humidity, especially in winter) there
is an increased incidence of respiratory or gastro-intestinal diseases, especially for
those with a lower resistance to pathogens and viruses (zoung children, elderly, etc.).
Hydrological drought by reducing the considerable volumes of natural
water courses or ground water, impaired the proper use of wells may in turn
aggravate the health of the population, especially the inability to ensure necessary
hygiene or dehydration.
Everything falls into the category of social effects: loss and stress
associated with evacuation of the population shares, disruption of educational
activities, cultural and sporting activities (educational process, festivals, contests
etc.). And property damage socio-cultural value by destroying or damaging them
(museums, schools, medical and health, cultural centers, cemeteries, stadiums,
town hall and police buildings, etc.).
Damage to the family farms are produced in large numbers throughout the
flood, followed by leakage of slopes and torrents, by affecting the construction or
agricultural crops. Hydrological drought or excess humidity may seriously affect
their crops decreasing productivity.
An example of serious damage to family farms is that of flooding of the
river Agrij and of the river Almaş in the range 07/08 to 07/11/1999 which caused
the following damage:
- 101 houses (631 mil. lei);
- 1124 ha of agricultural land (6150 mil.lei);
- roads, bridges, culverts, streets (1850 mil.lei);

193
- dead birds and animals (140 mil.lei);
- affected hydraulic works (3000 mil.lei);
- total damage 11,771 mil. lei.
A simple calculation leads to a value of 6921 mil. lei of damage caused by
these phenomena of risk to family households, in this reported case.
The amount of such damage is even greater as the affected households and
agricultural crops are not insured, which is unfortunately widespread in the areas
studied, and residents are low income, resulting in them a far greater impact than
the actual amount of damage.

2.2. Economic impacts


It refers to damage caused to economic objectives. Among the economic
objectives, the most susceptible to the harmful action of hydrological phenomena is
the roads infrastructure, which is represented in Cluj and Dej Hills and in
Depression Almaş –Agrij by: national roads, county roads, municipal and forestry
roads and railways. They accompany the rivers, sometimes in close proximity
exposing them to the flood. Also rain and runoff from the slopes can sometimes
seriously affect the roads or railways.
Bridges and culverts that cross rivers are very numerous, and thus highly
exposed or destruction or damage by floods. Also the streets are often exposed to
flooding or leakage slopes.
Retaining walls, road and railway embankments, ditches and other specific
works may be degraded or destroyed by erosion and silting, especially where the
energy of phenomena is high, driven by higher slopes of the hilly region (such as
damage to the railway embankment of the Valea Mărului river, village Iclod).
In many situations, especially in major floods, were affected municipal
works including: water supply, sewerage, wastewater treatment plants, telephone,
electricity and natural gas networks and also hydro-technical works (the example
of year 2008 in the villages of Vad and Sânpaul).
In 2005, according to the Somes-Tisa Water Directorate, the hydraulic
works (owned by local councils or DAST) in Cluj and Dej Hills were recorded
losses amounting to 202.000 Ron. (table 1). They accounted for 18.61% of the
amount of 1.085.000 Ron, the total damage caused by floods in the county of Cluj
in 2005.

Table 1. Damage recorded in 2005 to hydrotechnical works in the Cluj and Dej Hills
River Estimated value
Nr. crt. Event Work type Village Effect
(mii Ron)
Local work to
Erosion
1. 23-29.08.2005 defend the water's Aghireş Nadăş 2
L =30m
edge
Local work to
2. 23-29.08.2005 defend the water's Borşa Borşa Local work 200
edge L =4,5 km

194
Damage caused to the agricultural sector in recent years in the two areas
are not neglected. The main risk factor in that sector of activity still remain floods,
that affected thousands of hectares of cultivated land, both in Cluj and Dej Hills
and in the Depression Almaş-Agrij (Fig. 1.). Also the excess of humidity or
drought are factors of risk in the studied area.
350
300
250
200
(ha)

150 Teren Agrcol (ha)


100
50
0
Bălan

Gâlgău

Sânmihaiu

Hida
Buciumi

Românaşi

Agrij

Almaşului
Cuzaplac

Agrij Almaş

Fig. 1. Distribution of damage to agricultural land during 2000-2005


in the Depression Almaş-Agrij

The total losses of the floods in Cluj and Dej Hills and Depression Almaş-
Agrij values totaled just over 100,000 mil. lei during 1996-2002. Table 2. shows
the total value, in $, of physical damage to the main flood of Cluj and Dej Hills.
The flood that have taken place in 1999 caused major damage to economic
objectives in Cluj and Dej Hills. They have been affected 55 km of roads and 23
economic objectives (Fig. 2).

Table 2. Victims and material damages from major flooding


in Cluj and Dej Hills and their value in $

Attach
Agric. Road Road county Econ.
Victims Animals Houses House Duct Total value
Year land Network communal Objective
(nr.) (nr.) (nr.) hold (nr.) ($)
(ha.) (km.) (km.) (nr.)
(nr.)

1981 - 20 202 9 437 1,5 - 3 - 220422


1989 - - 7 5 1109 - - - - 88806
1999 1 52 55 61 1386 2 55 23 5 441857
2000 - - 1 1 1115 - - - - 194910
Total 1 72 265 76 4047 3,5 55 26 5 945995

195
450000
400000
350000
300000
250000
($)
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
1981 1989 1999 2000

Fig. 2. The total amounts of flood damage in Cluj and Dej Hills
(years: 1981, 1989,1999,2000)

3. CONCLUSIONS

Derived from other events (example: floods from heavy rains),


hydrological phenomena are obeying to some natural rules, they shows some
regularities, and the size of the characteristic parameters is strongly influenced by
how the combination of the factors involved in their genesis.
The effects (the impact) of hydrological risk phenomena are generally
adverse on the environment, generating a lot of damage. There is absolutely
necessary the management activity of these phenomena and a planned activity to
prevent and combat their negative effects. The negative effects associated with
hydrological phenomena of risk can be classified as social, economic and
environmental.
In the Cluj and Dej Hills and in the Almaş-Agrij Depression the usage of
land and the changes in land structure can create real problems in the management
activity of hydrological phenomena of risk, especially in populated areas, with high
density.

REFERENCES

1. Mustăţea, A., (2005), Viituri Excepţionale pe Teritoriul României. Editura Onesta


Bucureşti.
2. Pandi, G., (2002), Riscul în activitatea de apărare împotriva inundaţiilor, Riscuri
şi catastrofe, Volum I, Editura Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-Napoca p.131-142.
3. Pandi, G., Moldovan, F. (2003), Importanţa prognozelor în diminuarea riscurilor
meteorologice şi hidrologice, în volumul Riscuri şi catastrofe, Volum II, Editura
Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-Napoca p.303-312.

196
4. Romanescu, Gh., (2003), Inundaţiile între natural şi accidental, în volumul
Riscuri şi catastrofe, II, Editura Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-Napoca p.130-138.
5. Sorocovschi, V., (2003), Complexitatea teritorială a riscurilor şi catastrofelor, în
volumul Riscuri şi catastrofe, II, Editura Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-Napoca,
p.39-48.
6. Sorocovschi, V., (2004), Analiza riscurilor induse de inundaţiile de pe râurile
autohtone din nordul Podişului Transilvaniei, în vol. Fenomene şi procese cu risc
major la scară naţională, Ed. Academiei Române.
7. *** (1990-2002), Pagube inundaţii, date Administraţia Naţională "Apele
Române", Direcţia Apelor Someş-Tisa, Departamentul Apărare.
8. *** (2007), Raport de sinteză privind apărarea împotriva inundaţiilor,
fenomenelor meteorologice periculoase, gheţurilor, accidentelor la construcţiie
hidrotehnice şi poluărilor accidentale din judeţul Cluj, Comitetul Judeţean pentru
Situaţii de Urgenţă Cluj, Sistemul de Gospodărire a Apelor Cluj.
9. *** (2002), Recensământul Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor, judeţele Cluj şi Sălaj;
10. *** (2002), Situaţia pagubelor produse de inundaţii şi fenomene meteorologice
periculoase în perioada 2000-2002, Sistemul de Gospodărire a Apelor Cluj;
11. *** (1976-2004), Studii Hidrologice Anuale, Arhiva Direcţiei Apelor Someş-Tisa,
Cluj-Napoca.

197
RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING SOILS CULTIVATION
IN AREA RĂDUCĂNENI, IAŞI

IULIAN PRICOP1
FLORIAN STĂTESCU

ABSTRACT. - Risk factors influencing soils culivation in area Răducăneni,


Iaşi. Răducăneni land area composed of villages Răducăneni, Isaiia, Bazga,
Bohotin and Roşu, which is 7958.00 ha, agricultural 6539.00 (3863.00 ha of arable
land, pastures 956.00 ha, 298.00 ha of orchards, vii 582.00 ha), forest 1060.00
hectares, the remainder being unproductive land (196.00 ha) and 163.00 ha built.
Răducăneni area is located in the Central Moldavian Plateau Continental
temperate climate. It is dominated by cold winters and hot summers, with irregular
winds, most common in north and north - west and east in winter and south - east,
especially in spring, early summer with enough rain. The index of aridity (Iar),
Martonne is 26.8 and the formula after Koppen climate - Dfbx. The hydrographic
network of the area is dendritic type, with a strong asymmetry, being more
numerous tributaries on the right. Always network density is reduced as a result of
precipitation amount. Fluctuations in temperature, rainfall and other climatic
factors over the years are very different in intensity and duration produces climate
anomalies and risks. Soils in this area has the following limiting factors:
salinization, soil level of load bearing, slope, surface and deep erosion, landslides,
unevenness of land, excess moisture and phreatic surface inundability by
outpouring coarse and fine texture. The interaction of climate risks and limiting
factors of agricultural land requires a specific practice for this area.

Keywords: climatic anomaly, fluctuation, limiting factors, microregions

1. INTRODUCTION

Risk is considered a ”phenomen” that the action of outside normal limits


is a way to get into danger, to have to face trouble or suffered a loss. He is a social
class, economic, political or natural, whose origin is in the uncertainty that may or
may not generate a loss because of hesitations and unconsciousness in the decision.
Study of climate risk analysis is small scale climatic characteristics of a
natural region of limited size in correlation with the likelihood that these features
may cause damage.
This is where local and geomorphological features, able to alter energy
balance and air circulation such as topography, vegetation cover and the nature of
the underlying surface.

1
“Gheorghe Asachi” Tehnical University of Iasi, Faculty of Hydrotechnics, Geodesic and Environ-
mental Engineering, Romania

198
A climatic anomaly corresponds to the occurrence of deviations from the
average values of air temperature deviations to persist for at least three weeks of
record rainfall and nature of risk (Mihăilescu C).
Climate risk is considered the “phenomenon” that the action of outside
normal limits, according to the bioclimatic requirements of crops, forest species or
farm animal in a certain stage of life, causing violent destruction or progressive,
resulting in final loss “partial or total biological capacity” (Murărescu O).
The study noted his plan to move the probability of climatic risk factor
(floods, torrential rains, early or late frosts, hail and drought) in the Science and
setting Răducăneni-limiting factor in crop production.
That is ultimately to have it conclusions relating to the development of
specific and agriculture by reducing negative effects of these phenomena according
to the laws in force (Order 638/MAI and 420/MMGA) .

2. TEMPORAL ANALYSIS

Climate is the most dynamic of all the components directly involved in the
emergence of risks in the river Răducăneni.
Răducăneni area is located in temperate climates of Central Moldavian
Plateau Continental, cold winters and hot summers, with irregular winds, most
common in north and north - west and east in winter and south - east, especially in
spring, with rain early enough summer (Pricop Iulian).
The index of aridity „Martonne” is 26.8 and the formula after Koppen
climate - Dfbx.
Average annual air temperature decreases with increasing altitude is 9.5°C
in the area with altitudes below 200 m and about 9.0°C at altitudes above 200 m,
particularly in the west and north of the territory.
Depending on the phase during which vegetation acts these risks are
specific to each culture: for trees, vines, perennials and crops sown in autumn - all
year round, annual plants sown in spring - around the period from sowing to
harvesting.

Table 1. Absolute maximum and minimum temperatures (Husi, 1896-2008)


Month I II III X X XII Annual
Absolute maximum 16.0 18.7 27.9 33.5 29.0 18.8 40.2
Absolute minimum -28.4 -29.1 -19.3 -17.6 -26.1 -29.1 -29.1
Amplitude 44.1 47.8 47.2 51.1 55.1 47.9 69.3

Tabelul 2. Temperaturi maxime şi minime absolute ( Huşi, 1896-2008)


Month IV V VI VII VIII IX Annual
Absolute maximum 31.5 35.6 39.2 40.2 39.0 35.5 40.2
Absolute minimum -7.8 -3.4 4.0 6.7 -1.6 -14.5 -29.1
Amplitude 39.3 39.0 35.2 33.5 40.6 50.0 69.3

199
Absolute average temperatures over the period 1896-1988 is between 16.0°C
(January) and 40.2°C (July), and lows average absolute values of -29.1°C (De-
cember) to 6.7°C (July). Monthly average amplitude varies within 33.5°C (July) -
55.1°C (September) and the annual average of this indicator being 69.3°C (Table 1, 2).
Temperatures below 0°C recorded in September and extends until the last
decade of May. Days of frost, the subsistence minimum temperature less than or
equal to 0°C are the number of 115.4. The days of summer daytime maximum air
temperature greater than or equal to 25°C are on average 70.
Thermal thresholds of sensitivity to vegetation varies so for very large fruit
trees in temperate regions - continental buds can withstand winter temperatures of -
20°C or -30°C when most annual crops temperatures below - 1°C can be
significant losses.
The average annual precipitation is 510.9 mm at Station Huşi (Table 3, 4),
but high land area, with altitudes above 300 m and covered by heavy forest, mean
annual precipitation may exceed 600 mm.

Table 3. Rainfall during the rest of the plant (Huşi resort, 1896-2008)

I II III X XI XII Annual


29.6 30.4 28.2 41.5 38.3 33.4 510.9
Precipitation maximum in 24 hours
30.0 35.4 39.9 69.4 38.9 50.6 97.8
The number of days with precipitation > 1 mm
8.2 8.5 7.9 6.9 8.2 8.6 96.3

Table 3. Rainfall plant during the vegetation period (Huşi resort, 1896-2008)
Monthly mean precipitation
IV V VI VII VIII IX Annual
42.7 54.0 74.7 64.1 47.6 38.5 510.9
Precipitation maximum in 24 hours
53.7 67.4 60.6 97.8 88.2 67.0 97.8
The number of days with precipitation > 1 mm
8.0 9.5 9.8 7.8 7.2 5.7 96.3

During the year, rainfall distribution is highly varied and unevenly


distributed in quantity time, alternating dry and rainy periods.
Meteorological drought is frequent and characteristic area in the lower
altitudes 175-200 m, where average annual rainfall not exceeding 500 mm and
annual average temperature rises above 9°C.
In contrast to this situation, there are days with precipitation and very high
so that one third and half of the amount of monthly rainfall can be recorded in a
single day. The amount of rainfall in 24 hours was 123.6 mm in Huşi.
The hydrographic network of the area is dendritic type, with a strong
asymmetry, being more numerous tributaries on the right. Permanent network
density is reduced as a result of prevailing power pluvio - nival.

200
Fluctuations in temperature, rainfall and other climatic factors over the
years are very different in intensity and duration produces climate anomalies and
risks.
3. SPATIAL ANALYSIS

Răducăneni Territory is located in temperate climates - the Continental


Central Moldavian Plateau. The village is made up of villages Răducăneni, Isaiia,
Bazga, Bohotin and Roşu, with a land fund for 7958.00 ha, 6539.00 ha of which
agriculture (arable 3863.00 ha, 956.00 ha of pastures, orchards 298.00 ha , vine
582.00 ha), forest 1060.00 hectares, the remainder being unproductive land (196.00
ha) and built - 163.00 ha (Fig. 1).

Fig.1. The land and forestry Răducăneni

From the climatic point of view, the territory belongs to three micro-
regions: soil micro brown and gray clay, cool moist climates, in areas with
moderate relief terrain (high area includes 300 - 400 m absolute altitude from the
west, north and north - eastern territory ); chernozem soil micro drafts, moderately
warm climates, semi-humid, hilly areas with low relief (relief occupies the second
stage located between 250-300 m and the plains of Prut and Jijia) micro alluvial
soils, moderately warm climates, semi-humid in floodplain regions, represented
mainly by broad plains of the river and Jijia.
Răducăneni in 1962 have a total surface area (St) 5211.20 40 ha, to
2133.00 of arable hectares and consisted of the following villages: Răducăneni,
Bazga, Roşu and Trestiana.

201
Table 5. The evolution of surfaces by use in Răducăneni - Science (OSPA)
Code S [ha] P% +/-
Use Nr. code
CF
categories categorie 1962 1990 1962 1990 ha %
A1 907,90 3896,00 - - - -
A Arable A2+ A3+ A4 1225,50 -
Total A 2133,40 3863,00 40,9 48,5 +1729,6 +7,6
F1 612,80 840,00
F Grassland
Total F 612,80 840,00 11,8 10,6 +227,2 -1,2
p1 699,40 956,00
p Pasture
Total p 699,40 956,00 13,4 12,0 +256,6 -1,4
L1 196,18 298,00 - - - -
L Orchard L2 plantation 28,90 - - - - -
Total L 225,08 298,00 4,3 3,8 +72,92 -0,5
V Vineyard V1 383,22 582,00
Agricultural area Total Sag 4053,90 6539,00 77,8 82,2 +2485,1 +4,4
(Sag)
Sff1 710,96 1060,00 - - - -
Sff Forests Sff2 plantation 105,40 - - - - -
Total plantation 816,36 1060,00 15,7 13,3 +243,64 -2,4
Np1 50,80 85,00 - - - -
Unproductiv
Np water s.a. 6.23 111,00 - - - -
e
Total Np 57,03 196,00 1,1 2,5 +138,97 +1,4
sc1 166,92 62,00 - - - -
I Town sd 117,00 101,00 - - - -
Total I 283,92 163,00 5,4 2,0 -120,09 -3,4
Non-agricultural area
Total Sng 1157,31 1419,00 22,2 17,8 +261,7 -4,4
(Sng)
The area mapped
Total SC 4159,30 6962,00 79,8 87,5 +2802,7 +7,7
(SC)
Total area (St) Total St 5211,21 7958,00 100,0 100,0 +2746,7 +52,7

Increasing land of Răducăneni about 2747 ha (27%) in 1990 compared to


1962 due to administrative territorial policies that occurred during this period
(Table 5).
From the land agricultural area (Sag) of 6539.00 ha is a 82.2% share to
77.8% as it had in 1962, non-agricultural area (NGA) during this period decreased
by 4.4%.
Arable land increased by 7.6% in 1990 to 3863.00 hectares in comparison
with 1962 when it was 2133.40 ha.
Following operations in the field mapping and interpretation of soil physical
and chemical analysis phase of the office, 57 units were determined by soil, soil 6
complex and a form of deep erosion (ravines).

4. THE ANALYSIS OF THE PHENOMENA AND ITS INTENSITY


Approximately 70% of the agricultural area of the village is affected by
one or more factors degenerative soil.
Terrain with high relief energy, especially in the west, determined to
conduct a high intensity slope geomorphic processes, plus a number of other
contributing factors such as: surface lithology, consisting of easily eroded rocks ;
slopes with gradients exceeding 10%, irregular distribution of rainfall, with

202
alternating rainy and dry with a greater frequency of heavy rains, high frequency of
winds from the north and east, carrying moisture, along with the geological
structure and gradient (slope), explains greater intensity of land degradation on the
slopes oriented towards these areas, human intervention through deforestation,
grubbing, agricultural technique.
Table 6. Action on the soil of the risk - Science Răducăneni
Nr. Risk Action Soil Unit S (ha) % din
crt. Category St
Surface erosion poor 5,9, 56,57 371.5 5.34
1. 2562ha (36.82%) moderate 2,3, 10, 14, 18,22, 1498.0 21.53
strong 4, 15, 23, 24, 51 52, 53 692.7 9.95
2. Erosion depth strong on the right side of the 51.0 0.74
valley Bohotin
Landslides stabilized 59, 60, 562.0 8.08
3. 1188 ha(17.06 %) less stabilized 62,61,63 468.0 8.08
active raven and ogaşe 157.0 2.26
4. Compactness moderate 1,6,7, 12,19,20 1937.0 27.84
excess moisture 33,36, 45, 54,59 699.0 10.00
Excess moisture mixed (moisture + 39, 40, 42, 43, 48, 49 1544.0 21.19
2661 ha (37.25%) salty)
5. flood 30, 31, 34, 35 418.0 6.00
alkalinization and 37,38, 29, 26,44, 41, 46, ,50 1170,36 14,71
salinization

The evaluation of characteristics of the soil, and relief and drainage


elements, resulting a number of limiting factors (deficiencies) of land, which
creates a series of restrictions on their agricultural use (Table 6).
Surface erosion occurs on slopes that exceed 5% slope on the
predominantly southern and western slopes. Largest area is occupied by low and
moderate erosion, while strong and excessive erosion associated with landslides.
Deep erosion has the highest density on the right side of the valley
Bohotin, where practically all the tributaries of the ravines are home to hundreds of
feet lengths and depths that can exceed 15 to 20 m (Fig. 3).

Fig.3. Erosion area Răducăneni (Pricop Iulian)

203
Landslides, slumps and soil flowes affects the right side of the valley
Bohotin with lengths of 1.5 - 2.5 km and different levels of 200-300 m. Slips are of
disructiv - insecvent, the product from the top of the slope and gradually moving
rendering materials located at the bottom.
Compactness and fine texture as the limiting factor is present on about
1937 ha (27.84% of land area).
Excess moisture is due to clay-loamy soil texture (50-56% clay) in the first
30 - 40 cm and clay-clay (less than 45% clay) deep.
Excess surface moisture occupies 2661 hectares, representing 37.25% of
the area studied. The permanent exhibit, extended or temporary, such as
groundwater, stagnant or flood. In that area, 699 ha - 10% with excess moisture,
1544 acres - 21.19% are mixed character (excess moisture plus salty), and 418
hectares - 6% are flooded.
Main source of lead to soil salinization and sodization river is Jijia. Jijia
ions dissolved in water from existing salts Sarmatian sedimentary rocks and soil
washing salt from upstream.
The analysis of deep water that they have a slightly alkaline reaction, and
after the content of soluble salts are weakly to strongly brackish to salty water.
The analysis of the limiting factors resulting need for land reclamation
works and modern agro-technical methods.Land improvement: regularization of
rivers and dams, draining the wetlands, drainage areas with high groundwater level,
anti-erosion facilities, amenities and facilities of ravines by landslides.
Work agropedoameliorative: amendment to phosphogyps (lands with high
content of exchangeable sodium and soluble salts); raising the soil tamped deep
(tamping the soil, compact or potential subsidence due to intensive mechanical
ironing fine texture); subsoiling; surface drainage (by unsystematic drainage
ditches and culverts and leveling operation); reed depression destruction (in
areas removed from the influence of excess moisture); agrotechnics erosion
works (plowing the contours, strip crops, cover crops, crop rotation protection);
crops tolerant to excess humidity or salty; cultures protection against soil erosion;
soil structure ameliorative crops; protective afforestation (inaccessible areas or
heavily degraded areas with active landslides stabilized half); grassland.
By applying these measures and seeking work, on the one hand, avoiding
the danger of exploitation of occurrence of damage, and on the other hand, the shift
in the higher classes of suitability and land suitability.

5. CONCLUSIONS

Climate is the most dynamic of all the components directly involved in the
emergence of risks in the river Răducăneni.

204
In terms of soil conditions, the territory belongs to three small areas: the
area of brown and gray forest soil, chernozem soils and micro area with alluvial
and colluvium soils.
The evaluation of characteristics of the soil, and relief and drainage
elements, resulting a number of limiting factors (deficiencies) of land, which
creates a series of restrictions on their agricultural use.
Climate risk, the network of hydrological and geological deposits
Răducăneni-Iaşi territory phenomena may produce damaging agricultural crops.
The analysis of the limiting factors, the resulting need to improve their
effects facilities and land reclamation works, using modern technological methods
of cultivation of the land.

REFERENCES

1. Mihăilescu C. - Clima şi hazardurile Moldovei. Evoluţia, starea, predicţia. Ed.


“Licorn” SRL., Chişinău, 2004
2. Murărescu O. - Riscuri climatice extreme Curs: Universitatea „Valahia”, Facul-
tatea de ştiinţe umaniste, Târgovişte. Mihăilescu C. - Clima şi hazardurile
Moldovei. Evoluţia, starea, predicţia. Ed. “Licorn” SRL., Chişinău, 2004.
3. Pricop Iulian - Evoluţia solurilor din bazinele hidrografice mici sub influenţa
factorilor antropici şi natural. Referat Univ. Teh. "Ghe Asachi "Iasi, 2010
4. *** - Bonitarea şi caracterizarea tehnologică a terenurilor agricole, scara
1:10.000, de la teritoriul Răducăneni, jud. Iaşi O.S.P.A. 1984
5. *** - Regulamentul privind gestionarea situaţiilor de urgenţă generate de
inundaţii, fenomene meteorologice periculoase, accidente la construcţii
hidrotehnice şi poluări accidentale, Ordin 638/2005 al Ministerului Administraţiei
şi Internelor, respectiv 420/2005 al Ministerului Mediului şi Gospodăririi Apelor,
Monitorul Oficial 455 din 30 mai 2005.

205
MONITORING OF PHOSPHORUS CONTENT
IN “WATER-PARTICULATE MATERIALS-BOTTOM SEDIMENTS
SYSTEM” FOR RIVER PRUT

VASILE RUSU*, LARISA POSTOLACHI**

ABSTRACT. – Monitoring of phosphorus content in “water-particulate


materials-bottom sediments system” for river Prut. Seasonal and spatial
dynamics of phosphorus forms in water, particulate materials and bottom
sediments of river Prut was elucidated. The scheme for determination of
phosphorus forms in water and particulate materials according to World Health
Organization classification was evaluated. Additionally, this scheme was tested for
estimation of phosphorus content in bottom sediments. The supplemented scheme
allows the analysis of the phosphorus forms for the entirely system “water –
particulate materials – bottom sediments”, extending possibilities for interpretation
of phosphorus dynamics in natural waters.

Keywords: phosphorus forms, particulate materials, bottom sediments.

1. INTRODUCTION

Phosphorus is one of key factor responsible for the eutrophication of


freshwaters. Its concentration in rivers results from both external inputs and
internal loading from the bottom sediments [1]. Phosphorus is introduced into the
aquatic environment in a number of different chemical forms, and has been
described in general as being in the aqueous phase as a small fraction of the total
phosphorus and in the solid phase as a large fraction of the total phosphorus [2].
Each fraction is constituted of a large number of different components, most of
which may change between their dissolved or particulate state. Phosphorus in
bottom sediments as a result of abiotic and biotic processes is released into its
interstitial water, and under certain conditions is mobilized in overlying water
horizons [3]. According to World Health Organization (WHO), phosphorus
compounds occurred in natural waters are classified into 12 phosphorus forms, by
chemical type and by physical state [4]. The objectives of this paper were (i) to
evaluate the scheme for determination of phosphorus forms in water and particulate
materials according to WHO classification, (ii) to test this scheme for estimation of
phosphorus content in bottom sediments, and (iii) to determinate level of quality
and trophicity of water from river Prut.

*
Ecological Chemistry Lab, Institute of Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of Moldova.
**
The author to whom the correspondence should be sent: larisapostolachi@gmail.com

206
2. CASE STUDY

Samples of water, particulate materials and bottom sediments were


collected during the spring and summer of 2004 and 2009 years along river Prut
(sites Costesti, Cobani, Sculeni, Ungheni, Valea Mare, Stoianovca, Cahul, Caslita-
Prut, Giurgiulesti, Fig. 1).

Figure 1. Geographical map of Republic of Moldova. Sampling sites (Costesti, Cobani,


Sculeni, Ungheni, Valea Mare, Stoianovca, Cahul, Caslita-Prut, Giurgiulesti)
where water, particulate materials and sediments were collected.

Contents of phosphorus forms in water and particulate materials were


determined using methods according to WHO classification [4]. Thus, it was
determinate the total forms of phosphorus forms in filtered and unfiltered samples,
e.g. the total content in water (P1, Fig. 2), the total dissolved (P5) and the total in
particulate materials (P9). In each category the content of orthophosphates (P6 in
filtered water, P10 in particulate materials and P2 in unfiltered water), poly- and
pyrophosphates (P7 in filtered water, P11 in particulate materials and P3 in
unfiltered water) and organic-phosphorus (P8 in filtered water, P12 in particulate
materials and P4 in unfiltered water) were established. Analysis of phosphorus
involves 2 steps: (i) digestion or conversion of the phosphorus to dissolved
orthophosphate; (ii) colorimetric determination of dissolved orthophosphate [5].

207
Additionally, the scheme was tested for estimation of phosphorus content in
sediments being determined (i) inorganic phosphorus, (ii) organic-phosphorus and
(iii) the total amount of phosphorus [6]. In order to determine the total phosphorus
in sediments (P13, Fig. 2) fresh (wet) samples were used, subjected to persulfate
oxidation. Inorganic phosphorus (P14) was determined by acidic hydrolysis in
moderate severely conditions. The amount of organic phosphorus (P15) was
obtained by subtracting inorganic phosphorus (P14) from the amount of total
phosphorus (P13).

TOTAL IN P1 P13 TOTAL IN


WATER SEDIMENTS

P5 P9
P-PO43-,
Organic-
Poly-, Piro-
Total, Total, in phosphorus
phosphates
dissolved particulate
materials P14 P15
P8 P12
P6 P7 P10 P11

Poly-, Piro- Organic- Poly-, Piro- Organic-


P-PO43- phosphates phosphorus P-PO43- phosphates phosphorus

P-PO43-, Poly-, Piro-, Organic-


dissolved dissolved and phosphorus
and in in particulate dissolved and
particulate materials in particulate
materials materials

P2 P3 P4

Figure 2. Phosphorus forms in natural waters for the entirely system “water-particulate
materials-bottom sediments”. Supplemented scheme for analysis of the phosphorus forms
in water and particulate materials according to World Health Organization classification
(forms 1-12) and in sediments (forms 13-15).

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The spatial dynamics of researched phosphorus forms during spring of
2009 year recorded a slight decrease for the most forms of phosphorus, namely the
total phosphorus in water (P1), the total in filtered water (P5) and total in
particulate materials (P9), the organic-phosphorus in water (P8) and in particulate
materials (P12), registered the highest values of their content in the middle sector

208
Prut River (station Sculeni) (Fig. 3). Only for condensed dissolved form of
phosphorus (P7) an increase was founded along the river, its content being greater
in the lower sector of the river (station Caslita-Prut).
The spatial dynamics established in the summer of 2009, in general, has the
same trend, maximal for the content of the total phosphorus in water (P1), of all
forms in filtered water (P6, P7, P8, P5), of particulate orthophosphates-phosphorus
(P10) and those organic in particulate materials (P12), being recorded in the middle
sector (stations Ungheni - Valea Mare). Content of total particulate phosphorus
(P9) didn’t change along river.

 g/l
200
150 P12
100 P11
50
P10
0
150

100 P7
P8
50 P6
0

450 P1
300 P9
P5
150

Figure 3. Spatial dynamics of phosphorus forms for river Prut during spring of 2009.
Dissolved forms P6, P7, P8 –orthophosphate, condensed forms (poly- and
pyrophosphates) and organic-phosphorus, respectively. Phosphorus forms in particulate
materials P10, P11, P12 -orthophosphates, condensed forms and organic-phosphorus,
respectively. Total phosphorus forms P1, P9, and P5 – total phosphorus, total in
particulate materials and total dissolved, respectively.

Dynamics of the content of phosphorus forms is different during the year.


Thus, the content of dissolved orthophosphate-phosphorus (P6, Fig. 2) increases
from spring to summer (mostly in Valea Mare station). For other stations, the
content of this form practically isn’t changed during the research period. Content of
poly- and pyrophosphates dissolved (P7) increases from spring to summer, while
the content of dissolved organic phosphorus decreases during this period (Fig. 3,
4). During the studied period it was established a decrease of phosphorus-
orthophosphate content in particulate materials (P10), as well as content of other

209
phosphorus forms in particulate materials (poly- and pyrophosphates (P11) and
ones organic (P12). In general, this seasonal dynamics during of 2009 is similar
with the dynamics of phosphorus forms established during 2004 [6].
Distribution of phosphorus forms in water was different during 2004 year
(Fig. 5). On the spring the content of total phosphorus in particulate materials (P9)
was higher. During the summer, however, dissolved phosphorus prevails, varying
within limits of 75-80%. The same trend was recorded during of 2009. Thus,
during the spring dissolved phosphorus (P5) percentage varied within 25-45%,
while during the summer being in the limits of 55-75%.

P10
 g /l
15
P12
10

5 P11

P6
30
P7
20
P8
10

0
P1
90
P5
60
P9
30

Figure 4. Spatial dynamics of phosphorus forms for river Prut during summer of 2009.
2004 2009
Spring Summer Spring Summer
100% 100% 100%
100%
P9 P9
50% 50%
50% P5 50%
P5
0% 0% 0%
0%

ca ti
les
e
e

sti
i

i
ul
i

en
st
ti

st

ca v
en

ar
ar

es
ah

no
te

le

ov ule giu
M
ul
M
ul

ul

iu
os

ian iurgi
C

Sc

oia
Sc

ur
a
a

gi

rg
C

le
le

o
St Gi
iu

t
iu
Va
Va

S G
G

Figure 5. Distribution of phosphorus forms in water during 2004 and 2009 years.
The total dissolved (P5) phosphorus and total phosphorus in particulate materials (P9).

Distribution of dissolved organic (P8) and inorganic (P6+P7) phosphorus


forms in water (filtered samples) was similar during 2004 and 2009 years (Fig. 6),
being registered the tendency of increasing of the percentage of inorganic
phosphorus from spring to summer.

210
Ratio of inorganic: organic phosphorus in particulate materials was not
homogeneous along the Prut River during 2004 and 2009 years (Fig. 7), although
more frequently the percentage of inorganic phosphorus (P10+P11) prevailed over
organic (P12) phosphorus.
The dynamics of phosphorus forms in bottom sediments differs from that
reported for the forms in particulate materials. The content of inorganic phosphorus
(P14, Fig. 2) in sediments decreased and organic phosphorus (P15) increased from
spring to summer during 2009 (Fig. 8). Higher amounts of these forms of
phosphorus were recorded on the Valea Mare - Cahul sector. Both during of 2004
and during of 2009, the inorganic phosphorus (P14) prevailed in sediments and
constituted 65-95% (Fig. 9).

Spring 2004 Summer Spring 2009 Summer


100% 100% 100% 100%

Porg
50% Panorg 50% 50% Porg50%
Panorg

0% 0% 0%
0%

re
ul
ca
ni

ti
sti ti

re
ni

sti
ov a

iules

sti
ule
C ah
les
Scule

a Ma
ian vc

ule

Ma
rgi

ule
ste
Sto i u ano giu

Sc
G i r
Giug

rgi
Co

lea
o u
St Gi
Vale

Gi u
Va
Figure 6. Distribution of dissolved (filtered samples) inorganic (P6+P7) and organic (P8)
phosphorus in water during 2004 and 2009 years.
Spring 2004 Summer Spring 2009 Summer
100% 100% 100% 100%

P o rg Porg
50%
50% 50% 50%
P ano rg Panorg

0%
0% 0% 0%
e

sti
ni

sti
sti
re

ca
l
ni

ti

r
Cahu

ule

Ma
iules

ule
ste

ule
ti
ca

ov
Scule
a Ma
es

i
Sc
ov

n
rgi
Co

lea

g
ul

a
oi iur
Giug
an

Giu
i
rg

St
Va
Vale

G
oi

iu
St

Figure 7. Distribution of inorganic (P10+P11) and organic (P12) phosphorus


in particulate materials during 2004 and 2009 years.
Currently, as quality standards, in Republic of Moldova there are applied
maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants used since the former Soviet
Union period and have not yet been adjusted according to European Union
Directives [7]. The quality of surface waters in Romania is regulated by Order
1146/2002 - The Standard for surface water quality classification, which includes
five-quality classes [8]. Limit values specified for each class in table correspond to
the maximum allowable for respective quality class. On the basis of presented data
in this work, water of Prut River should be attributed to the class I of quality
according to orthophosphate-phosphorus content (P6), and to classes I-II of quality
according to the content of total dissolved phosphorus (P5).

211
Summer
Spring

450
mg/kg
450 300

300 150

150 0
P13 P14 P15
0
P13 P14 P15

Figure 8. Spatial dynamics of phosphorus forms in the bottom sediments along river Prut
(2009). P13, P14, P15 –total phosphorus in sediments, inorganic phosphorus in sediments
(orthophosphate plus condensed forms) and organic-phosphorus in sediments, respectively.
Spring Summer
100% 100%

80% 80%

60% Po r g 60% Po r g
40% Pan o r g 40% Pan o r g

20% 20%

0% 0%
2004 2009 2004 2009

Figure 9. Distribution of inorganic (P14) and organic (P15) phosphorus in bottom


sediments during 2004 and 2009 years.
Quality grade of phosphorus forms in bottom sediments there isn’t yet
established, consequently at present is questionable to discuss its influence onto
eutrophication level of water bodies.
Table [8]. Quality classification of surface waters by phosphorus content
Limit value for classes Class of quality, mgP/l
I II III IV V
Orthophosphates (P6) 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,5 >0,5
Total phosphorus (P5) 0,1 0,2 0,4 1 >1

The large amounts of phosphorus compounds in aquatic ecosystems have the


fertilizing effect that affects eutrophication degree. The European Community
Directive 91/676/EEC recommends that the level of eutrophication in rivers should
be determined on the basis of quality parameters, such as nitrate, phosphorus
compounds, chlorophyll, oxygen, etc. In accordance with the recommendations [9]
eutrophication level is estimated according to the total phosphorus content (P1),
while according to further recommendations [10] the level of eutrophication in
rivers is estimated on the basis of soluble reactive phosphorus (P6, Fig. 2).
As whole, according to the classification mentioned in [9] and presented data
in this work for total phosphorus content (form P1), the eutrophication level of Prut
River should be attributed to class II-III, namely the oligotrophic-mesotrophic level

212
(P1 0,2 – 0,5 mgP/l). On the basis of the content of soluble reactive phosphorus
(P6), the eutrophication level of Prut River should be attributed to oligotrophic-
mesotrophic level of eutrophication (0,02 – 0,1 mgP/l).

CONCLUSIONS
The scheme for determination of phosphorus forms in water and particulate
materials according to World Health Organization classification was evaluated.
Additionally, this scheme was tested for estimation of phosphorus content in
bottom sediments. The supplemented scheme allows the analysis of the phosphorus
forms for the entirely system “water – particulate materials – bottom sediments”,
and considerably extends possibilities for interpretation of phosphorus dynamics in
natural waters. On the basis of obtained data, water of Prut River should be
attributed to classes I-II of quality according to Romanian standards. The
eutrophication level of Prut River should be attributed to oligotrophic-mesotrophic
level of eutrophication according to UE directives.

REFERENCES

1. Ruban V., Lopez-Sanchez J. F., Pardo P. et al. (1999) /J. Environ. Monit., 1, 51-56.
2. Spivakov B., Maryutina T., Muntau H. (1999) /Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 71, no. 11.
2161-2176.
3. Kowalczewska-Madura K., Dondajewska R., Gołdyn R. /Limnological Review 7,
4: 205-211.
4. Madera V., Allen H.E., Minear R.A., (1982), Non-metallic Constituents, in:
Examination of Water for Pollution Control, A Reference Handbook, M. J. Sues,
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark
(Eds.), 1st Ed., vol. 2, Pergamon Press, Oxford-New York-Toronto-Sydney-Paris-
Frankfurt, 310-319.
5. Techniques for water analysis Prepared by Elaine Bergmann /Secondary-Tertiary
Interface, 22 August 2009.
6. Rusu V., Postolachi L., Lupascu T. (2006) /Environmental Engineering and
Management Journal, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 591-596.
7. Study of environmental performance - the Republic of Moldova, Study II,
Economic Commission for Europe, Committee on Environmental Policy, United
Nations, New York and Geneva, 2005. -182p. (Rom)
8. Order 1146/2002 of 10 December 2002 on the approval of the Standard for surface
water quality classification (Rom)
9. “Nitrates” Directive 91/676/EEC (2000). Status and trends of aquatic environment
and agricultural practice. Development guide for Member States’ reports, ISBN
92-828-9379-0.
10. Review of 2007-2010 (2009) Action Programme for the Nitrates Directive.
Northern Ireland. Recommendations from the Scientific Working Group 21
December 2009 -89p.

213
SOME ISSUES RELATED TO DRYNESS AND DROUGHT
PHENOMENA IN THE BUCHAREST METROPOLITAN AREA

INES GRIGORESCU1, CARMEN-SOFIA DRAGOTĂ1

ABSTRACT. – Some issues related to dryness and drought phenomena in the


Bucharest Metropolitan Area. Dryness and drought phenomena are the most
complex climatic hazards occurred in southern Romania. Assessing these
restrictive climatic phenomena is fundamental in explaining their role in
landscape dynamics and vulnerabilities. The paper is willing to point out some
aspects related to climatic conditions of dryness and drought in the Bucharest
Metropolitan Area based on annual, monthly and daily extreme climatic values
from all the meteorological stations of concern (1961…2007).
The authors aim at assessing dryness and drought phenomena by means of the
main related parameters: the frequency of summer days with characteristic
temperatures, heat waves (case-studies: 2000 and 2007) and positive thermal
singularities, relevant climatic indexes (Palfy Aridity Index).

Keywords: dryness and drought, Bucharest Metropolitan Area, heat waves,


thermal singularities.

1. INTRODUCTION

According to the World Meteorological Organization, dryness and drought


are generally described by two main groups of climatic indicators, the pluvial (the
lack of precipitation or deficient amounts) and thermal ones (high values of
temperature), which condition the increase in evapotranspitration, inducing a
reduced air and soil humidity. Since they are complex meteorological phenomena,
genetically conditioned by multiple factors, they define the dryness or draughtiness
of weather characteristic for a certain time frame, usually related to environment’s
exposure to this climatic hazard. According to the UN Convention, drought is
defined as a natural phenomenon that occurs when the fallen rainfall amounts are
less than the multi-annual average, coupled with high temperatures, which leads to
intense ground level evaporation and reduced crop productivity. It is important to
distinguish between aridity and drought, although both are characterized by the
lack of water. Thus, aridity is a permanent feature of climate, while drought is an
extreme feature of a temporaly/spacialy process Maheras et al., (1999), quoted by
Ghioca (2008).
Plafai, Petrasovits and Vermes (1995) make the difference between dryness
and drought phenomena pointing out that dryness represents a certain hydro-
meteorological water deficit while drought is an extended and continuous water

1
Institute of Geography, Romanian Academy, Physical Geography Department, 12 Dimitrie
Racoviţă street, 023993 Sector 2, Bucharest, Romania, e-mail: igar@geoinst.ro

214
shortage which affects specific plant species and crops Ghioca (2008). Therefore,
drought is a more complex phenomenon, characterized by insufficient moisture in
the atmosphere and soil (especially affecting the water table and the root system)
resulting in the increase of potential evapotranspiration Păltineanu et al. (2007a).
According to Topor (1964), after 17 to 20 days without rain drought, the thermal
conditions of the May - September timeframe in Romania could provoke
irreversible damages on all crops.
Dryness and drought phenomena must be taken into consideration together
with the complementary genetic climatic factors such as: the frequency of the days
with different characteristic temperatures which are related to heat waves and
positive thermal singularities.
Due to its position in the central part of the Romanian Plain, also known as
Lower Danube Plain Bălteanu et al. (2006), Bucharest Metropolitan Area mirrors
the environmental peculiarities of this relief unit. The study area is situated in a
temperate-continental area, which is specific to the South-East of Romanian Plain,
characterized by a continentalization tendency, from the West to the East, as a
result of the climatic influences of transition in the West and excessive in the East.
The wide range of local climatic factors, typical for the metropolitan area of
Bucharest municipality, overlapping the general climatic features of the Romanian
Plain, renders specific dynamic to dryness and drought phenomena in the study-
area Dragotă and Grigorescu (2010).

2. GENETIC CAUSES OF DRYNESS AND DROUGHT

The causes of dryness and drought phenomena are of a dynamic nature


(the general circulation features of the atmosphere) and thermal nature (which
overlap with the active surface characteristics, those of a dynamic nature). Thus,
lack of rain is determined by the persistence of the anticyclone regime
characterized by high atmospheric pressure, high frequency of clear and stable
time, sunlight and high temperatures especially during the warm season. Increased
dryness and drought phenomena occur because of the predominance of
anticyclonic stationary baric configurations extending largely over Europe covering
Romania: the anticyclones formed over Central Europe, Northeast and Southeast
Europe and the anticyclonic dorsal over the Northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. In
certain circumstances one might add, the baric cyclonic formations consisting of
dry air masses or of uniform pressure fields close to the normal value and without
displaying a cyclonic or anti-cyclonic circulation at ground level. The duration of
the dry regime is directly related to the intensity of the anticyclone, its height, to
the volume of hot air from the column located above its central part and to the
origin of the hot air supply in the upper parts of the troposphere.
To the dynamic factor of the atmosphere and to the parameters of the
meteorological elements - rainfall, air temperature, evapotranspiration – other
factors which define the active surface (terrain, soil, groundwater depth, vegetation
coverage etc.) are added as well as, the physiological features of plants

215
(phenological phase, the degree of resistance to drought, crop type), the water
sources, the agricultural techniques used etc. During the period without
precipitation, the soil absorbs about 44% of direct solar energy that becomes heat
and participates in the overheating of the air in the lower atmosphere. In turn, soil
and air warming increases the evapotranspiration leading to a gradual reduction of
water reserves available for the plants Donciu (1965).
During the growing season, crops and plant associations have different
requirements in terms of water supply, so that a period of drought does not affect
the entire cultivated or natural vegetation cover simultaneously. In addition, the
dryness and drought phenomena display differentiated issues in the context of soil
mosaics, the varied landscape, the numerous crops and plants etc. Lack of rainfall,
inducing dryness and drought phenomena, can occur all throughout the year, with
repercussions mainly on agriculture, but also on population’s health and on the
water supply both for the population and for irrigation, mainly affecting the
southern and eastern part of Romania (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Drought-affected areas in Romania (processed after the Ministry of Waters


and Environmental Protection)

Dryness and drought consist of two distinct stages: the first is a stage prior
to the drought that usually occurs in the air, and plants don’t yet suffer from the
lack of moisture (which is provided by the soil water reserves), and when it
persists, drought comes to be. The dry period is characterized by the absence of
rainfall in five consecutive days, or the totalled rainfall amounts have not exceeded
the daily average. The drought period is characterized by the absence of rainfall in
at least 14 consecutive days during the cold semester of the year (October-March)

216
and in at least 10 consecutive days during the warm semester of the year (April to
September) or when there is no precipitation at all (<0.1 mm) Dragotă and
Grigorescu (2010).
Droughts have different degrees of severity depending on their genetic
factors and area of occurrence: atmospheric drought, soil drought or mixed and
agricultural drought. Like dryness, drought occurs first in the air - atmospheric
drought in periods without rain or reduced rainfall amounts on a background of
high air temperatures and a relative humidity of below 30%. The dryness and
drought phenomena may last from several days to several months, one year or
more consecutive years as defined in relation to the intensity of genetic factors,
while excessively dry years occur in every 5-6 consecutive years.

3. SOME ISSUES RELATED TO DRYNESS AND DROUGHT PHE-


NOMENA
According to the hierarchy of natural hazards conducted by Bryant, 1991 at
global scale and yet adapted by Croitoru and Moldovan, 2005 for the Romanian
territory, dryness and drought phenomena are ranked first, based on their spatial
distribution and extent, the evolution trend as well as human victims and material
losses they cause.
Certain circumstances related to drought genesis and occurrence may
worsen them up to the extreme Bogdan and Niculescu (1999), such as: their
prolongation over several months and the climatic water deficit; the association of
several meteorological factors during drought: high isolation, high temperatures,
high evapotranspiration, low air humidity, strong and dry winds, lack of rain; the
correlation between the soil and atmospheric drought; the lack of the productive
moisture reserve during winter, which delays the vegetative cycle; the beginning of
drought during the hot season and important phenological stages of crops
(sprouting, flowering, binding); droughts occurrence after winter frost or other
winter phenomena that have damaged the plants; inadequate agro-technical
measures (lack of irrigation) etc.
One of the best way to highlight the
drought phenomenon is by means of Palfay
aridity index (1995), which considers an
initial complex of factors (air temperature
and precipitation) corrected by some
meteorological parameters such as the
number of extremely hot days, the number
of days with precipitation amounts ≤ 0.5
Fig. 2. Drought-affected area in the mm and the groundwater contribution
Mostiştea Plain (June, 2007) Ghioca (2008). In the Bucharest Metropo-
litan Area the Palfay aridity index features
indicate three different degrees of vulnerability to drought: strong with annual
Palfay index values ranging between 6-8, for which the frequency of dry years is of
40 - 63% in the south (the floodplain and terraces of the Danube River), southeast

217
(Mostiştea Plain) of the metropolitan area (Fig. 2); moderate with annual Palfay
index values ranging between 4-6, with the frequency of dry years from 5% - 34%
in the South-West, North, North-East of Bucharest Municipality (Bucharest Plain)
and weak with annual Palfay index values between 2-4 in the northwest and east of
the Capital-city (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Areas affected by aridity and drought according to Palfy Aridity Index
Days with different characteristic temperatures come to complete the
summer thermal regime inducing aridity and drought phenomena. Therefore, the
prevalence of maximum temperatures exceeding the critical thresholds of summer
days (T max. ≥ 25 0C), tropical days (T max. ≥ 30 0C), tropical nights (T max. ≥ 20
0
C) as well as extremely hot days (T max. ≥ 35 0C) stresses the conditions of a
temperate climate featuring
Olteniţa excessive continental influen-
Fundulea
ces, much more significant
after 1983 – a landmark year
Bucharest-Afumaţi
when it comes to the
Bucharest-Filaret
highlighting the climate
changes (Fig. 4).
Bucharest-Baneasa
The higher frequency of ma-
no. days 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 ximum temperatures over the
summer days tropical days tropical nights above-mentioned thresholds
Fig. 4. The annual average of summer days with (characteristic summer days)
different characteristic temperatures in the has underlined the excessive
Bucharest Metropolitan Area (1961...2007) climatic aspects of Bucharest
Metropolitan Area.

218
An important feature when dealing with the extreme daily temperatures in
the Bucharest Metropolitan Area is indicated by the distribution of the mean
monthly and annual values registered during the meteorological observation period
1961...2007. Their variability ecart and spatial-temporal differences points out the
dimension and the influence of the heat island of the Bucharest Municipality on
one hand and the moderator role of the Danube River on the other.
Heat waves and positive thermal singularities are generated by the
advections of warm, usually topical air, and the criteria of their classification entail
(Bogdan and Niculescu, 1999): the monthly medium temperatures of the hottest
months (July, August) ≥ 35 0C; the maximum daily temperatures that exceed 35 0C
(tropical days); the minimum nocturnal temperatures ≥ 20 0C (tropical nights).
Regarding the impact that maximum daily temperatures have on the human
body, the exceeding of the 35 0C thermal threshold is acutely felt and it has a
negative effect people’s health and comfort as well as on the normal development
of the phenophases of different vegetation types. In the Bucharest Metropolitan
Area, absolute maximum values of the air temperature have exceeded 40°C,
reaching even 44°C, which emphasis a maximum vulnerability to this thermal
hazard triggering different environmental effects related to dryness and drought
phenomena (tab. 1).

Table 1. Absolute maximum temperature on value classes


within Bucharest Metropolitan Area (1895…2007)
Value classes
40.0 – 40.9 0C 41.0 – 41.9 0C 42.0 – 42.9 0C 43.0 – 43.9 0C ≥ 44 0C
Bucharest-Afumaţi Valea Argovei
Bucharest-Afumaţi Bucharest-Băneasa
41.1/5.VII.2000; - (Argova Valley)
40.0/5.VIII.1998 42.2/5.VII.2000
24.VII.2007 44.0/10.VIII.1951
Bucharest-Băneasa Fundulea Bucharest-Filaret
- -
40.0/16.VIII.1963 41.3/16.08.1963 42.4/5.VII.2000
Bucharest-Filaret Budeşti Fundulea
- -
40.4/5.VIII.1998 41.4/16.VIII.1963 42.4/5.VII.2000
Bucharest-Filaret Bucharest-Filaret Olteniţa
- -
40.8/7.VIII.1896 41.1/20.VIII.1945 42.7/5.VII.2000
Snagov Bucharest-Băneasa
- - -
40.0/10.VII.1945 41.1/20.VIII.1945
Gurbaneşti Budeşti
- - -
40.5/3.VII.1938 41.5/20.VIII.1945
Dragotă and Grigorescu, 2010

Most of the absolute maximum values have been registered in the month of
July, highlighting as particular situation the massive warming of the summers
2000 (July, 4-5th) and 2007 (July 15-25th), which can be considered as the hottest
in Europe over the last century. In both cases the intensity of the heat coincided
with the year of maximum solar activity for the entire period of meteorological
instrumental observation in Romania whose synoptic configuration highlights two
extreme situations July 5th 2000 and July 24th 2007 (Fig. 5 and 6).
In southern Romania, during the summer of 2007 several thermal records
were registered: the absolute daily maximum temperatures, the days with maximum

219
temperatures equal or higher than 40°C and particularly the consecutive days with
maximum temperatures equal or exceeding 35°C (ex: 10 consecutive days
registered at Bucharest-Filaret meteorological station).

Fig. 5 and 6. The baric configuration in Europe on July 5th 2000 and July 24th 2007,
respectively (www.wetterzentrale.de)

These thermal records overlapped the consecutive days without precipi-


tation, which, in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area have reached in July 2007 a
record number of 19 days at Bucharest-Filaret as compared to only 11 in 2000,
during the same month. During the two heat waves, at all the meteorological
stations within the study area absolute maximum temperatures exceeded 40° C
(tab. 2) were recorded. Subsequently, in both cases, during several consecutive
sequences spreading over the month of August, tropical heat waves came one after
another, completing the massive heating situation. These temperatures associated
with minimum precipitation amounts resulted in droughty weather which made
even worse the extreme heat.

Table 2. Absolute maximum temperatures recorded in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area


in July 2000 and 2007
Absolute maximum temperatures (0 C)
Meteorological Station 2000 2007
Value Data Value Data
Bucharest Afumaţi 41.1 5. VII 41.1 24. VII
Bucharest Băneasa 42.2 5. VII 40.7 22. VII
Bucharest Filaret 42.4 5. VII 41.8 23. VII
Fundulea 42.4 5. VII 40. 7 23. VII
Olteniţa 42.7 5. VII 41.5 23. VII
processed after Dragotă and Grigorescu, 2010

Following the heat wave in the Summer of 2000, the Romanian Govern-
ment has issued the 99/2000 Government Ordinance regarding protection measures
for the population in the case of extreme climatic phenomena. By their duration
and frequency, the heat waves could be framed into the extreme climatic
phenomena through the perturbation of economic activities and the human

220
causalities they produce. Heat waves have a great impact on plants in general and
especially on crops, leading to physiological and phenological changes. On the
human body it leads to an increase in the risk of illness and even to the death of
people exposed.

4. CONCLUSIONS

Over the last period, at international level the preoccupations for assessing
dryness and drought phenomena become of great interest to the global scientific
community. The significance of these complex approaches points at knowing better
their genetic causes, spreading areas, frequency and intensity in order to diminish
their negative impact on the environment. Therefore, the dryness and drought
phenomena occurred in southern Romania, displays an increasing evolution trend
supported by extended periods with consecutive days without precipitations
overlying the highest temperatures registered during the heat waves with long-term
durations and intensities. In urban areas, these climatic features overlapping the
local conditions of built-up ecosystems are even more noticeable. The importance
of evaluating dryness and drought phenomena through forecasting and analysing
their key components would help the improvement of local environmental
conditions (human health, agricultural practices etc.) both in urban and rural areas.

REFERENCES

1. Bălteanu D., Badea L., Buza M., Niculescu Gh., Popescu C., Dumitraşcu M.,
(eds.) (2006), Romania. Space, Society, Environment. The Publishing House of the
Romanian Academy, Bucharest, 384.
2. Bryant E. A., (1991), Natural Hazards, Cambridge University Press, 294.
3. Croitoru Adina-Eliza, Moldovan F., (2005), Vulnerability of Romanian territory
to climatic hazards, Analele Universităţii de Vest din Timişoara, Seria Geografia,
XV/2005, 55-64.
4. Dragotă Carmen-Sofia, Grigorescu Ines (2010), Climatic hazards in the
Bucharest Metropolitan Area. The assessment of the main extreme climatic
phenomena in the Bucharest municipality and its surroundings, LAP Lambert
Academic Publishing, ISBN 978-3-8433-6911-4, paperback, 108 Pages.
5. Donciu C. (1965), Contribuţie la studiul evapotranspirţtiei potenţiale în
R.S.România, Meteorologia, hidrologia si gospodarirea apelor, vol. X, nr.9,
Bucureşti.
6. Ghioca Monica, (2008), Evaluarea fizică a impactului climatic asupra extremelor
hidrologice, Teza de doctorat, Facultatea de Fizică, Universitatea din Bucureşti.
7. Păltineanu Cr., Mihălescu I.F., Seceleanu I., Dragotă Carmen-Sofia,
Vasenciuc Felicia (2007a), Ariditatea, seceta, evapotranspiraţia şi cerinţele de
apă ale culturilor agricole în România, Editura Ovidius University Press, 319 p.,
Constanţa.
8. Topor N., (1964), Anii ploioşi şi sectetoşi, C.S.A., IM, Bucureşti, 304
9. www.wetterzentrale.de

221
ASPECTS CONCERNING NITRATE AND NITRITE
POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATERS

A. UNGUREANU1, A. UNGURAŞU2

ABSTRACT. – Aspects concerning nitrate and nitrite pollution of ground


waters. Water is a basic natural resource for the good functioning of all the
biological processes in nature. It is very important for life and for the development
of human activities. The quality of the ground water has begun to degrade more
and more, as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological changes.
Nitrogen compounds pollution of the underground has increased lately. This has
been caused by the excessive and irrational use of nitrogen derived fertilizers, by
the wrong storage of the dejections resulted from zootechnical processes and by
other chemical substances discharged into water. Samples were collected from
different wells in order to check whether the well water was drinkable. The result
of the test revealed the existence of high concentrations of nitrates as well as
values exceeding normal microbiological parameters. The value recorded in the
town of Segarcea, the county of Dolj, showed extremely high concentrations of
nitrates of the drinking water in the wells. Thus, Segarcea is the town with the
greatest number of contaminated wells in the country.

Keywords: nitrates, pollution with nitrates, groundwaters, methaemoglobinaemie.

1. INTRODUCTION

Drinking water is an essential component of the environment, and it has a


major impact on the quality of life and on the population’s health.
Water pollution consists in the alteration of the natural properties of water,
as a result of external substances interferences, so that it can no longer serve the
purposes it used to. This alteration process can be the consequence of natural
phenomena, but it is generally caused by the industrial, agricultural and urban
activities.
More than 6 milion tons of pollutants are discharged both into water and
on the soil yearly. Among these, the most common are: chlorides, nitrates,
ammonia, phenol, detergents and pesticides. Irrational and excessive use of
chemical fertilizers on the soil leads to its health deterioration. A negative
consequence of the process of abusive chemicalization is that mineral substances
such as nitrates accumulate both in the soil and in the ground waters, reaching
harmful concentrations.

1,2
"Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University, Faculty of Hydrotechnical Engineering, Geodesy and
Environmental Engineering, 700050, Iaşi, România,
e-mail: ana_25_is@yahoo.com, adryanaa_luv@yahoo.com

222
The most frequent causes of the nitrate contamination of the underground
environment are numerous. Some of the major polluting causes are: the nitrous-
oxide-impregnated soil is continuously washed by rainfalls, by the irrigation water,
as well as by the surface water (rivers, lakes) where nitrate containing water has
been discharged. Apart from these quasi permanent sources, there are also the
random sources, consisting in the use of the fertilizers that are derived from
nitrogen [17].
Nitrates (NO3-) are very harmful when they reach high concentrations, but
such concentrations are rarely met in water. Nevertheless, the maximum limit of
nitrate concentration is often exceeded in the drinking water in Romania.
A higher toxicity is met especially in nitrites (NO2-), which are derived
from nitrates in certain conditions. Once they are absorbed into the body, they
combine with the hemoglobin and result in methaemoglobinaemia, (unable to fix
and transport oxygen), which leads to anoxia manifested by cyanosis, anoxia,
asphyxia, gastric cancer due to the nitrosamines resulted in certain conditions. In
case of concentrations between 3% and 15%, there are changes in the tegument
coloration: pallor, grayish or bluish hues. In case of concentrations between 25%
and 50%, the symptoms are the fallowing: headache, photophobia, weakness,
confusion, dyspnea, palpitations and chest pain. If the concentration is between
50% and 70%, delirium or mental alteration may occur.
Many patients suffering from chronic methaemoglobinaemia show no
symptoms. The patients who are exposed to different medications or toxins that
rapidly produce the same values that metHM has in chronic patients, can show a
severe symptomatology [13].
The consumption of nitrite-contaminated water is harmful especially for
infants because of the low blood volume, but also because of their alkaline pH
which enables the nitrates to turn into nitrites.

2. TEMPORAL ANALYSIS

In our country, there were 2346 cases of methaemoglobinaemia in infants


(less than 1 year old) and 80 deaths; mortality reaching hight values between 1984
and 1995. It is believed that this figure is much underestimated because of the
difficulty to diagnose this condition. The morbidity rate increases mainly because
of the drinking water contaminated by faeces, but also because of the widespread
use of fertilizers in agriculture [12].
In 1994, The Institute of Public Health (Institutul de Sanatate Publica)
initiated a program concerning methaemoglobinaemia caused by well waters.
About 715 cases were recorded in Romania between 1996 and 2000, with a 0.28%
mortality rate.
In 2000, there were 453 cases of acute juvenile methaemoglobinaemia
recorded in children agred between 0-1 years old. The mortality rate was 0.9%. The
average occurred was 0.033% (the number of cases/1000 new-born babies in the
village). The nitrate concentration was between 46-560 mg NO2/l [15].

223
The following data originate from The Annual Report of the Institute of
Public Health - Bucharest.

Table 1. Water quality between 1997-2000 in the rural settlements


where severe cases of methaemoglobinaemia were recorded
No. of wells No. of wells
No. of wells
No.of where the total where the total
with NO2
County Year tested no. of no. of fecal
concentration
wells coliforms was coliforms was
>100 (mg/l)
exceeded exceeded
1997 39 36 26 22
Botoşani 1998 59 44 27 38
1999 48 33 20 39
Dolj 1997 282 72 226 172
1996 3 1 3 0
Gorj
1997 5 5 5 3
1997 87 45 56 77
Iaşi
1998 81 23 27 49
Ilfov 1997 2 - 0 0
Galaţi 1999 26 15 6 13
Teleorman 1998 5 2 4 2
Vaslui 1999 4 0 4 1
1997 2 2 0 0
Covasna
1998 3 3 2 2
TOTAL 646 213 406 417

The quality of ground water in our country has reached an inappropriate


level, and more than half of Romania’s surface is exposed to nitrate pollution.

3. SPATIAL ANALYSIS

In order to test the quality of the ground water, many samples have been
collected from the wells in the town of Segarcea, county of Dolj, as well as from
the wells in the villages and towns neighbouring the Nicoresti-Tecuci irrigation
system: Podoleni, Salcia and Tecuci.
The samples for the microbiological analyses were collected by pouring.
The techniques of pumping, streaming, inserting the probe into the bucket, or
collecting the samples straight from the bucket of the well were avoided.
The prelevation and the transportation of the samples met the standards SE
EN ISO 19458/2007 – Water Quality. Prelevation for Microbiological Analysis.
There are many wells with contaminated water (substances such as
nitrates, nitrites, chlorides and faeces) not only in the villages, but also in the towns
of the county of Dolj. The physico-chemical analyses conducted in The Water
Microbiology and Chemistry Laboratory within ASP Dolj, as presented in the table
below, showed that the nitrate levels were much over the admitted threshold.

224
Table 2. Values exceeding water quality thresholds in the wells
of the town wells Segarcea, the county of Dolj
Recorded Thresholds - Law 458/2002;
Units for testing U.M.
values Law 311/2004
Well of D. Viilor Street mg/l 323 50
Well of Rozelor Street mg/l 378 50
Well of Hărniciei Street mg/l 395 50

The pollution of the ground water in Segarcea is much over the admitted
threshold. The water is not suitable for drinking, and it can only be used for
household purposes. The results of the bacteriological analysis also showed the
presence of faeces in water: 20 mg/l in the water of the well of Harniciei Street and
40 mg/l in the water of the well of Transilvania Street.
In the town of Tecuci as well as in communes of Podoleni and Salcia, the
concentration of nitrates and nitrites in the ground water reached a higher value
than during the previous years. The use of nitrogen derivated fertilizers in the
neighbouring agricultural fields may be a possible cause for this. Denitrifying
bacteria reduce the nitrates and the nitrites into ammonia, azotites and sometimes
into molecular nitrogen. The process of denitrification can take place both into
water and on the soil level of the organic substance is high.
The data concerning the level of the azotates and azotites in the wells of
the town of Tecuci and of the communes of Salcia and Podoleni were collected
from the Annual Report of the Environmental Monitoring - stage 2008; this was
accomplished during the project “Reform and Rehabilitation of the Irrigation
Systems”, contract no. 4212/6135/2008, between the Ministery of Agriculture and
Rural Development as a beneficiary and S.C. AQUAPROIECT S.A. as
consultative party in matters regarding the rehabilitation areas within the irrigation
system Terasa Nicoresti – Tecuci and Sadova Corabia. They are shown in table 3.

Table 3. Data concerning the level of the azotates and azotites


in the wells of Tecuci, Salcia and Podoleni
Units for testing U.M. NO3 NO2
Well of Tecuci mg/l 27.52 0.1166
Well of Salcia mg/l 99.20 0.0408
Well of Podoleni mg/l 79.60 0.0550

High levels of azotates were recorded in the well of Salcia: 99.20 mg/l and
in the well of Podoleni: 79.20 mg/l, whereas the maximum admitted limit is 0.50
mg/l. Nitrite indicator, of wells analyzed, remains within acceptable limits with
values less than 0.50 mg/l.

225
Fig. 1. Variation of the azotite concentration for the tested wells

Fig. 2. Variation of the azotate concentration for the tested wells

226
4. MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

The wells that were tested also showed dense microbiological flora, such as:
Escherichia Coli, enterococci, coliform bacteria and colonies (germs at 370C),
which are potentially dangerous for people’s health because they can alter the
quality of drinking water.
The results fallowing the analysis regarding the physico-chemical and
bacteriological indicators were collected from the Annual Report of the
Environmental Monitoring – stage 2008, conducted by S.C. AQUAPROIECT S.A.,
within the project “Reform and Rehabilitation of the Irrigation System”; they are
presented in table 4.

Table 4. Values exceeding water quality thresholds - microbiological parameters –


in the wells used locally for drinking
Recorded values
Section Total no.of
Escherichia Coliform
Enterococci colonies at
coli bacteria
370C
Tecuci, the well on 122
24 6 33 >300
Ana Ipatescu Street
Salcia, the well on 288
9 4 14 128
Main Street
Podoleni, the well on
400 53 600 >300
103 Main Street
Thresholds - Law
0 0 0 0
311/2004

The highest values of microbiological parameters were found in the well of


Podoleni, where the value for Escherichia Coli was 400/100 ml, for enterococci
was 53/100 ml, for coliform bacteria was 600/100 ml, and more than 300 for
colonies developing at 370C. C ompared to these results, the well of Salcia showed
only 9 escherichia Coli/100 ml, 4 enterococci/100 ml, 14 coliform bacteria/100 ml
and 128 colonies developing at 370C; nevertheless, the water in this well is not
drinkable, either.
Other dangerous microorganisms were also found in the contaminated
water: Giardia, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella and the hepatitis virus which causes
the disease called leptosirosis.

5. CONCLUSION
The analyzed data show that ground water pollution, especially due to the
discharge both on the soil and into water of various pollutants such as pesticides,
chemical fertilizers derived from nitrogen, detergents, ammonia and chloride, has a

227
negative impact on the quality of the drinking water, on the neighbouring ecosystems
and on people’s lives quality.
If nitrate-contaminated water is consumed, it affects people, especially
infants, because it combines with the hemoglobin and it causes methaemoglobi-
naemia, which, most frequently, leads to death.
According to the results of the analyses regarding the physic-chemical
indicators of the water samples collected from the tested wells, the concentration of
azotates in the drinking water exceeded the maximum admitted limits (the highest
concentrations were found in the wells of the town of Segarcea, county of Dolj); in
additional, the microbiological flora was very dense, indicating the presence of
different types of bacteria, enterococci and other microorganisms which make the
water in the tested wells undrinkable, and which are a great danger for the
population.
In order to reduce the high levels of nitrates in the water, a possible
solution can be finding an alternative to supply the population with water, or
treating the water within a plant where the water quality indices are continually
being monitored; for agricultural activities, it is recommendable that the farmers
should be checked on whether they use the appropriate quantity of fertilizers.

REFERENCES

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de comunicări a USAMV, Bucureşti, 2006.
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terenurile agricole asupra calităţii apelor de suprafaţă, Ovidius Annals of
Constructions, Volume 1, Number 3, May 2000.
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contaminarea mediului în Europa Centrală şi de Est, Ungaria, 1993.
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7. Rusescu D., Cazuri de methemoglobinemie în unele zone rurale, Pediatria 6, p.21-25,
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8. *** Legea nr. 458/2002 privind calitatea apei potabile modificată şi completată prin
Legea 311/2004.
9. *** Legea nr. 107/1996 a apelor modificată şi completată prin Legea nr. 310/2004.

228
10. *** OUG nr. 195/2005 privind protecţia mediului, publicată în Monitorul Oficial nr.
1196/30.12.2005.
11. *** Ordinul MAPPM nr. 756 din 03/11/1997 pentru aprobarea Reglementării privind
Evaluarea poluării mediului, publicat în Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 303 bis din
06/11/1997.
12. *** http://www.greenagenda.org/eco-aqua/potabil.html, Apa potabila
13. *** http://www.forumdesprecopii.com - Intoxicaţia acută cu nitriţi, Dr. Paul Şerban,
medic primar MG/MF, comuna Nicşeni, judetul Botoşani.
14. ***http://www.stopco2.ro/2009/10/14/anar-calitatea-apelor-subterane-din-romania-
este-inca-necorespunzatoare/ ANAR - Calitatea apelor subterane din România
15. *** http://www.ara.ro/documentare/RWSSS/Romana/SituatieActuala/Anexa%205.pdf
Studiu privind Alimentarea cu Apă şi Igienizare în Mediul Rural (RFP
4654RO/B.1/3.5/017) - Evaluarea situaţiei actuale. Anexa 5.4
16. ***http://www.umprrsi.ro/Mediu/Faza1/RapMediu08.pdf.Raport Monitorizare Mediu,
2008 Sadova Corabia si Nicoresti - BORDEROU
17. ***www.mmediu.ro/vechi/departament_ape/...apelor/.../Ape_subterane.doc - Starea
calitatii apelor subterane.

229
DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES
IN DRINKING WATERS SAMPLED
FROM CLUJ AND HUNEDOARA COUNTIES

MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ1, IRINA DUMITRAŞCU1,


OVIDIU TRAIAN POPA1, ANCA ELENA GURZĂU1

Abstract. – Determination of organochlorine pesticides in drinking waters


sampled from Cluj and Hunedoara counties. Pesticides are found scattered in
different environmental factors (water, air, soil) wherefrom they are drawn off by
vegetal and animal organisms. Water pollution by pesticides results from the plant
protection products industry and also from massive application of these resources
in agriculture and other branches of economy. Pesticides can reach surface water
along with dripping waters and by infiltration may reach the groundwater layers,
organochlorine pesticides are most often found in the water sources (dieldrin,
endrin, DDT, aldrin, lindane, heptachlor, etc.) due to their increased persistence in
the external environment. This study followed up the determination of
organochlorine pesticides in 14 drinking water samples collected from the output
of water treatment plants in Cluj and Hunedoara counties that process surface
water and deep-water sources. For identification of organochlorine pesticides, the
gas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction was used, by a gas
cromatograph Shimadzu GC 2010 with detector ECD (Electron Capture
Detection). There were not detected higher values than the method detection limit
(0.01 µg/l) in the drinking water samples collected and analyzed for both total
organochlorine pesticides and components, which were well below the maximum
concentration admitted by Law 452/2002 regarding drinking water quality. Results
are correlated with the sanitary protection areas for water sources and with the use
of agricultural lands in the area. The solution to reduce risk of pesticides use is
ecological agriculture , which gains increasingly more ground in Romania too.

Keywords: organochlorine pesticides, dinking water, gas cromatograph

1. INTRODUCTION

Pesticide is defined as a substance or mixture of substances, natural or


synthetic, aimed to control and remove any pest that competes with man for food,
destroys property and carries diseases. [13] Most POPs (persistent organic
pollutants) are organochlorine pesticides, namely, aldrin, endrin, clordane, DDT,
heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene and hexachlorobenzene. They have been banned for
agricultural or domestic uses in Europe, North America and many countries of
South America in accordance with the Stockholm Convention (ratified in 2004).
However, some organochlorine pesticides are still used – e.g. DDT is used to

1
Environmental Health Center Cluj Napoca, Romania, www.ehc.ro, tel.+40 264 432979,
(e-mail: maria.lovasz@ehc.ro)

230
control malaria in some developing countries. Monitoring pesticides in surface
waters, drinking water and deep-water is very important in the current period. [8]
Dispersed in the environment, pesticides are found in various factors (air, water,
soil - propagation vectors), wherefrom they are drawn off by vegetal and animal
organisms. Through ingestion of food, water, breathing and other processes,
pollutants (pesticides) reach the human body, where can cause severe disorders. [3]
Exposure to pesticides as a result of their extensive use in agriculture is the most
important route of exposure for the rural population. Among the most serious
diseases caused by pesticide poisoning, the following distinguish: neurological
disorders, internal organs disorders, skin disorders and cancer. [1,2,10] The
ecological effect of any pesticide is intended to protect the population against
certain pests, by reducing their abundance. Pesticides are included in a wide range
of organic micropollutants having ecological impact. Although the terrestrial
impact of pesticides exists, water contaminated by pesticide runoff is the main
route which determines the ecological impact. [4] The chemicals used by farmers
for pest removal are drawn off by precipitation and thus the infested water flows
into the streams and rivers. Some of these chemicals are biodegradable and
decompose quickly in harmless or less harmful substances, but the non-degradable
are the most common ones that persist for a long period of time. The rate of
pesticides removal from the water during processing processes for drinking
purpose varies within extremely wide limits, depending on the type of pesticide
and treatment methods. Coagulation with aluminum sulfate and rapid filtration lead
to a decrease of 96-98% of a 10-25 ppb DDT content, while dieldrin is reduced by
55%, eldrin by 33%, parathion by 20% and lindane by less than 10%. Water
treatment with ozone is more active than chlorination for a number of pesticides
such as lindane, dieldrin, DDT and parathion. By oxidation, however, some
pesticides such as parathion generate more toxic compounds. [9]
The purpose of this paper is the drinking water quality assessment, in terms
of contamination with organochlorine pesticides in Cluj and Hunedoara counties at
water treatment plants using different water sources.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Sampling

The drinking water treatment plants monitored in Cluj county are managed
by Compania de apa Somes (Somes Water Company) and in Hunedoara county by
the company SC APA PROD SA Deva. The water treatment plant is designed to
supply drinking water to residents, economic agencies and public institutions in
neighbouring localities. Water treatment for surface water sources consists in
coagulation/settling  filtration  disinfection with chlorine, while in case of
deep-water sources only chlorine disinfection is used for the water treatment.
Table 1 shows the water treatment plants in study and the type of water
source that is processed. Out of the 14 water treatment plants, 4 use surface water

231
and one uses a mixed source. In their case, the treatment system is the conventional
one (coagulation, settling, rapid filtration and disinfection with chlorine) while the
deep-water sources are treated only by chlorination.

Table 1. Water sources used in the 14 drinking water treatment plants

No. Sampling location Water source


(water treatment plants) deep-water surface mixed
1. Aghireşu 
county

2. Bologa 
Cluj

3. Dej 
4. Muntele Băişorii 
5. Bocşa 
6. Certej 

Hunedoara county

7. Cinciş-Cerna
8. Crişcior 
9. Densuş 
10. Folorât-Geoagiu 
11. Hondol 
12. Roşcani 
13. Sânpetru-Hunedoara 
14. Săntămărie Orlea 

Drinking water samples from the water treatment plants in Cluj county
were collected in 2009 and in Hunedoara county in 2010. Figures 1 and 2 show the
sampling locations.

Fig. 1. Sampling locations of drinking waters in Cluj county

232
Fig. 2. Sampling locations of drinking waters in Hunedoara county

Water sampling is a very important step in the process of pesticides


determination, because collected samples must be representative and must not
cause changes in the water composition and quality due to defective techniques or
improper conditions of material preparation.
Before sampling, the polyethylene recipients are prepared to be clean,
rinsed with distilled water, dried, rinsed with dichloromethane, then dried again.
Drinking water samples were collected from the output pipe of the water treatment
plants, according to SR ISO 5667-5 from June 1998 and transported in insulated
packages at 6ºC-10ºC to protect them against changes of their chemical properties
and deterioration. [11]

2.2. Analysis of collected samples


The analysis method derives from SR EN ISO 6468/2000 - Water Quality.
Determination of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and
chlorobenzenes. Gas chromatography method after liquid-liquid extraction [12] and
Method 8081B - Determination of organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography.
Organochlorine pesticides in drinking water are extracted with dichloro-
methane in a separating funnel and concentrated to a volume of 5 ml. During
concentration the solvent is changed with hexane. The extract is measured by the
gas chromatograph with electron capture detector Shimadzu GC 2010 – with
detector ECD (Electron Capture Detection). Preparation and bringing to working
conditions of the gas chromatograph and column are performed according to the
instructions manual for the device.

233
For drawing the calibration curve, two sets of standard solution with the
solvent used for extraction are prepared with the following concentrations: 20 μg/l,
40 μg/l, 60 μg/l, 80 μg/l, 100 μg/l in a series of five measuring bottles of 5 ml. The
chromatogram for each standard solution is recorded. The calibration curves are
drawn by the device’s software inserting concentrations on abscissa, in
organochlorine pesticides micrograms per liter solvent, and on ordinate the
corresponding areas. Linear curves are thus obtained. Calibration curve should be
verified at least each 12 months and always when new reagents are used.
For reading the pesticides concentrations in the sample, 1 liter of sample is
transferred quantitatively in a separating funnel. It is extracted in two series of 15
ml each by stirring for 10 minutes. The organic phase is concentrated to 5 ml, the
solvent is changed with hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography. The amount
of organochlorine pesticides corresponding to the respective area is read on the
calibration curve. Results are reported in μg/l sample, with two decimals.

3. RESULTS

Before sampling, the source site and surroundings were inspected. It was
observed that all water sources framed within sanitary protection areas with strict
regime in compliance with the legislation. All sources are located in relatively
isolated areas, surrounded by pasture-type lands, except orchard-type farms.
Sanitary protection area with strict regime secure each water treatment
plant, but not all have also constituted the sanitary protection perimeter with
restriction regime. In neither perimeter of the water treatment plants,
organochlorine pesticides or other biocides have not been used for over 10 years.
Table 2 includes results for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in the
treated water from water treatment plants in study. Results show that drinking
water at the output of the water treatment plants in the two counties (Cluj and
Hunedoara) have an appropriate quality for the indicator of total organochlorine
pesticides, well below the maximum admitted concentration according to Law
458/2002 regarding drinking water quality. [6] Law no.458/2002, which regulates
drinking water quality in Romania transposes Directive 98/83/EC on drinking
water. The following organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in the water
samples: HCH, DDE, TDE, DDT, Methoxychlor, Dieldrin, Heptachlor,
Heptachlor-epoxide, Endosulfan.

234
Table 2. Results of drinking water analysis at the output of the water treatment plants
Maximum admitted
Analyzed
concentration according to
parameters Sampling location Analysis results
Law 458/2002 - regarding
(Measuring unit)
drinking water quality
Aghireşu <0,01

county
Bologa <0,01
Cluj
Dej <0,01
Organochlorine Muntele Băişorii <0,01
pesticides Bocşa <0,01
(HCH, DDE, TDE, Certej <0,01
Hunedoara county

DDT, Methoxychlor, Cinciş-Cernă <0,01 0,10 µg/l


Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Crişcior <0,01
Heptachlor-epoxide, Densuş <0,01
Endosulfan) Folorât-Geoagiu <0,01
(µg/l) Hondol <0,01
Roşcani <0,01
Sânpetru-Hunedoara <0,01
Săntămărie Orlea <0,01

Figure 3 shows a chromatogram model in which the only peak is that of


the solvent, unlike the chromatogram of a pesticide mixture of concentration
60μg/l/compound shown in Figure 4, where clearly differentiated peaks
corresponding to each pesticide are observed.

Fig. 3. Chromatogram of drinking water samples with no organochlorine pesticides

235
Fig. 4: Chromatogram Standard 60 µg

Studies conducted in Mures county detected pesticides in 16 water


samples. Diazinon (20 ng/l), dichlorvos (20 ng/l) and α-HCH (an average of 5.8
ng/l) were measured in Mures, Niraj, Lechinta, Tarnava Mare and Tarnava Mica
rivers. Drinking water samples from fountains and tap-water also contained α-HCH
(6 ng/L) and γ-HCH (4 ng/L). The half-life of HCH isomers is relatively high,
while 2,4-D and atrazine (with concentration of 110 ng/L) have shorter half-life
period, higher water solubility and low adherence to soil particles. In one water
sample, the concentration of 2,4-D was 100% above for the standard criteria for
EU (70 ng/L). [5]
Some pesticides are characterized by being very persistent in the
environment. They may represent long-term dangers as they biomagnify up the
food-chain. Humans, and particularly breastfed babies, are at the top of the food-
chain. There is concern about potential endocrine and developmental effects of the
pesticides, especially in children. [14]

4. CONCLUSIONS

Rural population may be exposed to pesticides in several ways: by


spraying into the air and ingestion of pesticide residues via food and drinking
water. Grazing lands can be dangerous if the animals are washed and disinfested
externally (such as sheep) in the area. It is therefore important to determine
precisely not only the restricted sanitary protection areas but also the activities
permitted within.

236
Monitoring the drinking water quality at water treatment plants shows
compliance with Law 458/2002, for the parameter organochlorine pesticide, but
they must continue to be monitored as required by legislation. According to the
results obtained in this study, the drinking water quality at the outputs of the water
treatment plants in Cluj and Hunedoara counties does not represent a risk factor for
the population health in terms of exposure to organochlorine pesticides.

REFERENCES

1. Alavanja, M. C., Sandler, D. P., McDonnell, C. J., Lynch, C. F., Pennybacker, M.,
Zahm, S. H., Mage, D. T., Steen, W. C., Wintersteen, W., Blair, A. (1999),
Characteristics of pesticide use in a pesticide applicator cohort: the Agricultural
Health Study, Environ Res, 80(2 Pt 1), 172-179.
2. Alavanja, M. C., Sandler, D. P., McMaster, S. B., Zahm, S. H., McDonnell, C. J.,
Lynch, C. F., Pennybacker, M., Rothman, N., Dosemeci, M., Bond, A. E., Blair,
A. (1996), The Agricultural Health Study, Environ Health Perspect, 104(4), 362-
369.
3. Gurzău, A. E., et al, Pesticides Use in Rural Settings in Romania, PWASET, Vol.
34, octombrie 2008
4. Jose L. Tadeo, Analysis of pesticides in food and environmental samples / editor
5. Kutz FW et al. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human
adipose tissue. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol , 1991, 120:1.
6. László F., Adalbert B. (2010) A PESTICIDE SURVEY IN SOIL, WATER AND
FOODSTUFFS FROM CENTRAL ROMANIA, Carpathian Journal of Earth and
Environmental Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 1, 111 - 118
7. M. Isabel Pinto, Gerhard Sontag, R.J. Bernardino, J.P. Noronha, Pesticides in
water and the performance of the liquid-phase microextraction based techniques.
A review
8. M.P. Ormad, N. Miguel, A. Claver, J.M. Matesanz and J.L. Ovelleiro, Pesticides
removal in the process of drinking water production
9. Method 8081B – Determinarea pesticidelor organoclorurate prin gazcromatografie
10. Samanic C, Hoppin JA, Lubin JH, Blair A, Alavanja MCR. (2005), Factor
Analysis of pesticide use patterns among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural
Health Study. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology: 15
(3), 225-233.
11. http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/about/#what_pesticide accesed on January, 10,
2011.
12. ***(1998), SR ISO 5667-5 din iunie 1998 – Calitatea apei. Prelevare. Partea 5:
Ghid pentru prelevarea apei potabile si a apei utilizate în industria alimentară şi
de băuturi.
13. ***(2000), SR EN ISO 6468/2000 – Calitatea apei Determinarea unor insecticide
organolcorurate, bifenili policlorurati si clorbenzeniş.
14. ***(2002), Legea nr. 458/2002, care transpune Directiva 98/83/CEE privind apa
potabilă.

237
HYDROMETEOROLGICAL ANALISIS OF DOJRAN LAKE

VIOLETA GJESOVSKA 1

ABSTRACT. – Dojran Lake with its hydrological basin is a closed hydrological


system with natural inflow of water to the lake, but no natural outflow. Recharge
of the lake is from direct surface and underground inflow. Within the period 1950-
1960 the lake faced with extremely high water level that was not favorable for the
development of fishing. It was built an artificial channel to regulate the water level
in the lake and control the water use at Greek side of the lake. In the period 1988-
2000, the water level in the lake continuously was declining. Water level
declination caused ecological catastrophe for the flora and fauna in the lake and
lake’s basin that was inconvenience for the basic economy in the region, tourism
and fishing. The reasons for declining the water level in the lake are not clearly
identified, and they are located in unfavorable hydrological conditions expressed
through longer dried period or uncontrolled usage the water from the lake.
In 2002, the Republic of Macedonia finished a project to build a system for
bringing water from Gjavato wells near Vardar River with capacity of 1 m3/s. The
water level in the lake has recently increased. In order to define the causes of
changes in the lake requires detailed hydrological and meteorological analysis.
This paper will present the results of hydrological and meteorological analysis on
the basis of historical data of measured water level, precipitation, and air
temperature from hydrometeorological station New Dojran for the period 1961-
2008. Some comments on impact factors will be presented as well.
Keywords: “hydrometeorology”, “Dojran Lake”, “precipitation”, “temperature”,
“water level”
1. INTRODUCTION

Dojran Lake is the smallest natural lake in Macedonia, but is very


important water resource for population in the region. Main economy in the region
is turism and fishery.
It is located in southeast Europe between 41o9'30" and 41o20'10" north
latitude and between 22o40'30" and 22o47'00" eastern longitude, in the Balkan
Peninsula, in the southeastern part of Macedonia. The lake and its hydrological
basin are located on the border between Republic of Macedonia and Greece.
During the 1950’s the lake has extremely high water level that was not
favorable for the development of fishing. In order to regulate the water level in the
lake and control the water use at Greek side of the lake, it was built an artificial
channel. The controlled outflow of water from the lake imposed regime of
oscillations of the water level in lake in limited level (max. 147.34 m a.s.l. and
min.146.14 m a.s.l.)

1
University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 1000, Skopje, Macedonia,
e-mail: violetag@gf.ukim.edu.mk

238
In 1988 the lake has water level on the altitude 145.82 m a.s.l.,(0.32 cm
under min.) the water surface area was 37.87 km2, and water volume was 220 mil.
m3. The next period water level in the lake was rapid decreasing. In 2002 year
water level was on altitude 141.33 m a.s.l.(4.51 m under min. altitude), water
surface area was only 26.01 km2, and water volume drooped to only 54 mil. m3.
Water level declination caused ecological catastrophe for the flora and fauna in the
lake and lake’s basin that was inconvenience for the basic economy in the region,
tourism and fishing. The reasons for decreasing the water level in the lake are not
clearly identified, and they are located in unfavorable hydrological conditions
expressed through longer dried period or uncontrolled usage the water from the
lake.
In 2002, the Republic of Macedonia finished a project to build a system for
bringing water from Gjavato wells near Vardar River with capacity of 1 m3/s. The
water level in the lake has recently increased. Because the system for bringing
water to the lake works with 30-40% of its capacity, the resons for increasing is not
clear.
To define the causes of changes in the lake, it is need detailed hydrological
and meteorological analysis. Based on the data collected, analysis of the
hydrometerological data was conduted to undestand the reson for fluctuations the
water level in the lake.
In this paper will be present the results of hydrological and meteorological
analysis on the basis of historical data of measured water level, precipitation, and
air temperature from hydrometeorological station New Dojran for the period 1961-
2008.

2. DATASETS USED IN THE STUDY

Hydrometeorological analysis require various types of data from different


sources. Topography data (digital elevation model-DTM), meterological
(precipitation, air temperature, radiation, wind speed, relatic humidity),
hydrological (lake stage) and GIS layers (soils and watershed boundary) were used
to conduct the analysis and study the effect of these variables on fluctuations of
water levels in the lake. Table 1 summarizes description of the types of data used
in the study.
A 30-m DEM was processed using grid GIS tools to determines the
hydrologic parameters (watershed, flow accumulation and stream network),
nessesary for computing upstream runoff inflow.
Meteorological data (precipitation, air temperature, radiation, wind speed,
relative humidity) are observing at few meterological stations in Greece (Muries,
Ahmatovo, Evzoni, Policastro, Kukush, Sterna) and at one meterological station in
Macedonia (Nov Dojran). Because there are no available data from stations in
Greece, are used only data from meteorological station at Nov Dojran.

239
Table 1. Summery of Data Used in the Study
Type Data Year Format Resolution Station
Topographic Digital elevation model, DEM Raster 30 m
Meteorogical Precipitation 1951-2008 Point data 1 station Nov Dojran
Air temperature 1961-2008 Point data 1 station Nov Dojran
Wind Speed 1961-1990 Point data 1 station Nov Dojran
Relative humidity 1961-1990 Point data 1 station Nov Dojran
Duration 1961-1990 Point data 1 stations Nov Dojran
Hydrological Lake stage 1951-2008 Point data 1 station Nov Dojran

Precipitation and air temperature data observed at the meteorological


station Nov Dojran, were used to analyse the effect of precipitation and air
temperature on fluctuations of water levels in Lake. The precipitation has been
analyzed with data for average monthly sums of rainfall and average annual long-
term rainfall sums. The temperature regime has been analyzed with data for
average monthly and average annual long-term temperature. Wind speed, relative
humidity and radiation data were used to computed the evaporation from water
lake surface.

2. DOJRAN LAKE CHARACTERISTICS

Dojran Lake is smallest natural lake in Macedonia, which was formed in a


karstified basin created by tectonic activity. Dojran Lake with its hydrological
basin is a closed hydrological system with natural inflow of water to the lake, but
no natural outflow. Recharge of the lake is from direct surface and underground
inflow.

Fig. 1. Watershed of the Dojran Lake

240
By using DTM-Digital Terrain Model, Model of Geographic Information
System-GIS, is given shape and size of the hydrological basin, Figure 1.
Total watershed area of Dojran is 265.59 km2, which belongs to both
countries, 66% of Greece (175.28 km2), and 34% of the Republic of Macedonia
(90.30 km2).
The average altitude on the watershed is 365 m a.s.l. The maximum altitude
of the watershed of Lake Dojran is 1820 m.a.s.l. at the mountain Belasica, and mini-
mum altitude is 148 m.a.s.l., at the water level of the lake (maximum water level).
About 212.23 km2 (80%) of watershed is located between altitude 148 m.a.s.l. and
500 m.a.s.l.. The lower part, 53.36 km2 (20%) is located at altitude greater than 500
m. By morphological analysis can be concluded that most of the watershed is flat.
Lake bottom of Dojran on Macedonian side using ehosonder was recorded
by the official institution of Macedonia (Vodostopanstvo na Makedonija).
Recorded data from Macedonian side together with measured data from the
topographic map (1:5000) of bottom of the lake on Greek side, were digitally
processed and formed curve of lake surface area and curve of volume, (Figure 2).

149,0

148,0

147,0

146,0
Altitude - Z in m a.s.l.

145,0

144,0

143,0

142,0

141,0
1988

140,0
2002

139,0

138,0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Volume -V in mil. m3

Fig. 2. Curve of volume

Water surface of the lake at normal elevation (147.34 m a.s.l.) is 41.66 km2
out of which 35% (14.63 km2) and belongs to Greece, and 65% (27.03 km2) of the
Republic of Macedonia. In 1988 the lake water level was on the altitude 145.82 m
a.s.l.,(0.32 cm under min.) the water surface area was 37.87 km2, and water volume
was 220 mil. m3. In 2002 year water level was on altitude 141.33 m a.s.l.(4.51 m
under min. altitude), water surface area was only 26.01 km2, and water volume
drooped to only 54 mil. m3.

3. HYDROMETEROLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

Precipitation. The average annual precipitation sums for the period from
1951 to 2008 (missing data for 1997, 1998 and 2001) are presented in Figure 3.
Minimal average annual precipitation sum for this period is 392 mm in 2000,

241
maximum average annual precipitation sum is 1041 mm in 2002 year. The average
annual precipitation sum for the observed period is 648.6 mm. The minimum
precipitation is in the summer months (July, August), and maximum precipitation
is in the cold months (November, December).
1100

1000

900

800
Pav. annual=648,66 mm
Precipitation - P in mm

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Time-T in year

Fig. 3. Average annual precipitation sums (1951-2008)

Temperature. The average annual air temperatures for the period from
1961 to 2008 are presented in Figure 4. Minimum air temperature is 12.16 oC in
1997, maximum air temperature is 17.06 oC in 2001 year. The trend line indicates
that air temperature has increased by the all period of observed, with the larger
oscillations in the second part of period. The minimum air temperatures are in
December and January and maximum air temperatures appear usually in July and
August, when the precipitation is minimum.

18

17

16
Air temperature-T in C
o

15
trend line:T = 0,0285t - 42,208

14

13

12

11

10
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

Time-t in year

Fig. 4. Average annual air temperature (1961-2008)

Evaporation. Evaporation from the lake surface is very important


component of water balance of the watershed of Dojran Lake. Because it is not
measured in the past, the evaporation from lake water surface has been computed
by the empirical equation (Penman), using the data of air temperature, wind speed,
relative humidity and radiation.

242
The average annual evaporation sums are 768.29 mm (18% bigger than
average annual precipitation for same period). The trend line indicates that
evaporation has increased by the all period of observed. The maximum evaporation
appear usually in July and August, when the temperature is maximum.
The annual evaporation sums for all periods have bigger values than
annual precipitation, (Figure 5).The trend line of the annual precipitation sums
during all period is slowly decreasing and the oscillations for some periods are
more remarcable. The trend line of the average annual evaporation is increasing for
all period of time.

1100
Precipitation
Evaporation
1000

900

trend line Е = 2,4639t - 4121,2


Precipation -P in mm;
Evaporation-E in mm

800

700

600

trend line P = -0,2886t + 1219,7


500

400

300
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Time-t in year

Fig. 5. Annual evaporation sums, annual precipitation sums

Water level analysis. The analysis of water level in Dojran Lake were
made with the observed data at water gage station at Nov Dojran. In this analysis
were used the average monthly and average annual data for the maximum, average
and minimum water levels for the period 1951-2008.

300

200

trend line for 1951-1984


100 H = -1,8477t + 3789,2
Elevation-H in cm

trend line for 1984-2002


0 H = -29,509t + 58703

-100

-200

trend line for 2002-2008


-300
H = 40,798t - 81995

-400
1950

1952

1954

1956

1958

1960

1962

1964

1966

1968

1970

1972

1974

1976

1978

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

Time-t in year

Fig. 6. Average annual water level of lake

The average annual levels of the lake from 1951 to 2008 (Figure 6) showed
a great variation. This variation can be shown by dividing time of record into three
periods. The first period is from 1951 to 1984, when it can be noted that the water

243
level oscillations is regular, and trend line is slowly downward. During 1984 to
2002 a strong downward trend of water level appears in the lake. After 1984 water
level continuously decrease and the level reached the lowest elevation measured in
2002 (-360 cm or 141,05 m a.s.l.)
Since 2002 there is a growing trend of water level. However, it should be
noted that in 2002, the Republic of Macedonia finished a project to build a system
for bringing water from Gjavato wells near Vardar River with capacity of 1 m3/s.
Therefore we can say that natural mode of Dojran Lake has been disturbed. To
understand the oscillations of water level need to be analyzed the condition of the
lake for 1988-2002 with the average monthly levels oscillations (Figure 7).
From the period 1988 to 1995 there were downwards of the level for 395
cm, the period from 1995 to 2002, downwards for 217 cm. From 1988 when the
level has been decreasing until 2002, the total observed decreasing of the level of
lake is 512 cm.
If we analyze the amplitude of average water level oscillations within one
year, we can say that the level of lake increasing in spring and fall, and decreasing
in summer time. During the critical period (1988-2002) when the water level
continuously was decreasing, the level in summer time was decreasing, but in
spring and fall the level was rising little or the level had no changes.

200

100

0
Elevation-H in cm

-100

∆H=395 cm

-200

∆H=217 cm

-300

-400
1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Time-t in year

Fig. 7. Average monthly water level in lake (1988-2002)


1200 300
PRECIPITATION
WATER LAVEL

200
1000
Precipitation-P in mm .

100
800
Elevation-H in cm

600

-100

400
-200

200
-300

0 -400
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

Time-T in year

Fig. 8. Average monthly water level in lake and annual sums of precipiation

244
300 18
WATER LAVEL
TEMPERATURE
16
200

14
100
12

Elevation-H in cm .

Temperature T in oC
0
10

-100 8

6
-200

-300
2

-400 0
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Time-t in year

Fig. 9. Average monthly water level in lake and average annual temperature

Correlation between annual sums of precipitation and water level can be


analysed if compare the changes of precipitation and its trend line for all period and
water level changes (Figure 8). It can be noted that generally the level of the lake is
responding to changes in precipitation, before 1988. The reactions of water level of
the lake are mostly late reactions. The period after 1988, it can be noted the
conecton is disturbed.
Correlation between average annual air temperature and water level is
shown in Figure 9. The analysis of long term air temperature date indicates that the
temperature in Nov Dojran increases by all period, but decreasing of water level for
period 1988-2002, is not responding to changes on air temperature.

5. CONCLUSIONS

The main objective of this paper is to present the results of hydrological


and meteorological analysis and give hydrological explanation for conditions of
Dojran Lake in past.
Hydrometeorological analysis of the available historical data of the study
area shows season variability in the hydrological response.
Dojran Lake is closed hydrological basin with natural inflow of water to
the lake mainly driven by rainfall on its watershed and directly to the lake. The
natural outflow is not existed, and the loss of water from the lake is expressed with
evaporation from water surface and the water which used for melioration at Greece
side. The average annual sum of evaporation from water surface of the lake during
all period is bigger than precipitation.
We can conclude that the reasons for decreasing the water level of the lake
are not only unfavorable hydrological conditions. The manly reason for decreasing
can be located in uncontrolled usage of the water from the lake. To define the total
loss of water from the lake it is necesary to make the water balance of Dojran Lake
with its hydrological basin.

245
REFERENCES

1. (1999), Clamate and Hydrology of the Republic of Macedonia, Annual Reports,


Hydrometeorogical Institut, Skopje, Macedonia,
2. Popovska, C., Gesovska, V., Donevska, K., (2004), Hydrology, Publisher Faculty
of Civil Engineering, University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia
3. Popovska, C., Gesovska, V., Ivanoski, D., (2005), Ecological and Hydrological
State of Dojran Lake, Journal Vodoprivreda , No.216-218, pp.175-180, Belgrade,
Serbia and MonteNegro .
4. Assefa M.M., Vijay N., Xixi W, (2006), Hydrology and Water Balance of Devil
Lake Basin: Part 1, Hydrometerological Analysis anad Lake Surface Area
Mapping, Journal of Spatial Hydrology, Vol.6, No.1, pp.120-132
RADAR CLIMATOLOGY OF HAIL
IN THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS

N. MAIER1 , I. HAIDU2

ABSTRACT. - Radar Climatology of hail in the Apuseni Mountains A new


method for the assessment of large areas with frequent occurrence of hail in a fine
spatial resolution and its application for the Apuseni Mountains and their adjacent
areas is presented. Due to the fine tempo-spatial resolution of the radar detection,
the creation of radar climatology of the areas where the hail production conditions
are determined is imposed. With the help of two Doppler radars at Oradea and
Bobohalma, the area of interest is examined and spatial maps of the relative
frequency of hail contained in the clouds are made. Composite maps are made (by
superimposing the two Doppler radar images from Oradea and Bobohalma) of the
areas in which clouds with hail of different sizes occur.

Keywords: hail, Doppler radar.

1. INTRODUCTION

The creating of radar climatology of the areas where the hail production
conditions are detected is imposed due to the fine tempo-spatial resolution. Local
influences on convective circulations are due to the topographical issues, the
effects of the mountain-plain dynamics, the upwelling effects on the wind exposed
slopes, the convergence areas on the sheltered side of the mountain and the sources
of heat on sunny slopes. The analysis highlights the known outcome that the
dynamic effects of the mountains have a significant impact on the local air flow,
affecting the climate of the adjacent regions.
The diversity and complexity of the Apuseni Mountains is reflected in the
great number of climate processes generated and influenced mainly by the relief,
which determines the size of these changes, namely the orientation of the peaks
towards the general circulation, the exposure of the slopes against the solar
radiation (with the largest contrasts between the northern and southern
respectively, with different shading and sunlight).
Kunz and Puskeiler (2010) a implements new method for the assessment of
the hail hazard in high spatial resolution and its application for Southwest Germany
are presented. Besides the detection of hailstorm tracks between 1997 and 2007,
maximum reflectivity is projected on a 10 km × 10 km grid and analyzed by

1
National Meteorological Administration, Regional Meteorological Center Transilvania Nord, Cluj-
Napoca, Romania, e-mail: mcis73@yahoo.com
2
Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Geography, 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, e-mail:
ionel_haidu@geografie.ubbcluj.ro

247
extreme value statistics. The results confirm a high spatial variability of both track
density and hail hazard. Severe hailstorms occur most frequently, and consequently
also with highest intensities, in the region south of Stuttgart, whereas hail activity
is lowest over the Rhine valley and the low mountain ranges of the Black Forest
and Swabian Jura.
The relief also acts through altitude and configuration - convex shapes are
continuously exposed to movement, and the concave one by the frequent presence
of calm and thermal contrasts between day and night, winter and summer - thermal
inversions and valley corridors or the depressions are characterized by turbulent
ventilation and increased turbulent mix.
Hail is one of dangerous weather phenomenon that is difficult to predict in
time and space. This study complements the climate data.

2. ANALYZED DATA

Maps of relative frequency with distribution of hail in the area of the


Apuseni Mountains, with grid up to 5 km were made. Thus a network of 190 x 125
km2 = 23,750 km2, consisting of 950 pixels, each of 25 km2 covering the whole
area of the Apuseni Mountains and the adjacent areas is obtained. The data based
that was analyzed includes the summer months (June, July and August) between
the years 2004 and 2009, data supplied by the WSR-98D Doppler radars at Oradea
and Bobohalma. The analysis is similar to the obtained by Maier (2009), for which
the grid step was of 25 km.
Images with the relative frequency of the areas where storm cores are
detected by both radars are made. At the next step, a filtering of the nuclei
according to the degree of severity is done, choosing as a threshold value of
separation of 70% for both severe hail as well as normal.
The study focused mainly on a comparison analysis between areas with
relative high frequency of occurrence of hail, determined by the composite
reflectivity data (Figure 1a and b) supplied by the two radars and the territorial
distribution of the hail image extracted from the Climate of Romania (2008) Figure
3. Thus, common areas where the relative frequencies of the occurrence of storm
cores, which are close as values to the areas with major differences in the
distribution of nuclei, are identified.
Taking into account the place that the Apuseni Mountains occupy, an
"orographic barrier” in the way of dominant atmospheric circulation and
positioning of the two Doppler radars at Oradea and Bobohalma (occultation -
resolution drop behind the mountain massifs), the analysis finally led to the
realization of composite maps. Thus, two composite maps of relative frequency
formed by the maximum values of common pixels are made. A map showing the
general distribution of the hail, the other one showing the distribution of large hail
(> 1.9 cm).

248
3. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF HAIL
The analysis of cloud formations containing hail, detected by radar echoes
highlights within the Apuseni Mountains area, various zones of expansion in the
number of cases according to a number of factors such as distance from the radar
location, the altitude of mountain units and the altitude of various cloud formations
as well as their thickness.
Classification was realized on three classes of values: low values (0.03 to
0.09%), average values (0.09 to 0.21%) and high values (above 0.21%). Figure 1 a) and b)
Low values have the largest expansion in the eastern region of the Apuseni
Mountains and the western hills. The same values describe two other areas with
extensions in the Almaş-Agrij-Someşean Plateau to penetrating the Basin of the
Crişul Repede river (eastern side of Vlădeasa peak) and south-eastern part of the
Apuseni mountains and Mureş Valey and the Vinţului Mountains. Low values
outline areas that overlap some depression areas or depression basins such as
Câmpeni-Abrud, Moneasa, Răchiţele, Ciucea, Vârfurile.
The average values were grouped two subclasses: between 0.09% and
between 0.15% and 0.15% and 0.21%. These classes of values are representative as
extension for the whole of the mountains. The first class (0.09 to 0.15%) dominates
in Zărand, Codru Moma, Pădurea Craiului and Plopiş Mountains and the second
subclass (0.15 to 0.21%) has highest extension in the Metaliferi, Trascău, Gilău-
Mare Mountains.
High values (0.21-0,24%) and very high values (above 0.24%) outlines
several small zones in the Codru Moma Mountains (in the Pleşu-Izoiu area), Bihor-
Vlădeasa (Magura Vânăta-Cârligaţi area and the Beiuşele-Poieni peak) and
Muntele Mare Mountain (Belioara - Scărişoara area).

a) WSR-98D Oradea b) WSR-98D Bobohalma


Figure 1. Apuseni Mountains area - map of relative frequency with
the genera distribution of hail using the WSR-98D radar

249
Figure 2. Apuseni Mountain Area – Figure 3. Territorial distribution of the
composite map of relative frequency with average annual number of days with hail
general repartition of hail (1961-2000) (Romania’s Climate 2008)

4. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF LARGE HAIL

A separate analysis for the areas with large hail is realized. Figure 4 a) and
b). Cloud formations develope in high mountain areas and a trend towards the
depression, both intra-mountains and adjacent to the Western Mountain.

250
a) WSR-98D Oradea b) WSR-98D Bobohalma
Figure 4. Apuseni Mountains area - map of relative frequency
the distribution of large hail (> 1.9 cm) using the WSR-98D radar

Figura 5. Apuseni Mountains area – composite map of the relative frequency


of the distribution of large hail (> 1.9 cm)

251
Making composite map obtain figure 5. The Meseş is distinguish in this
map and the Almaş-Agrij depression, the eastern sector of the Gilău - Muntele
Mare Mountains and depression space Iara-Hăjdate-Săvădisla-Feleac Massif, the
Trascău Mountain and the central-northern sector of the Alba Iulia-Turda
depression corridor; the Vinţului Mountains - the Geoagiu area. Compact areas
were detected in the Ciucea-Troops, Codru Moma - Beiuş Depression zone, areas
in the Metaliferi Mountains such as Strâmbu-Pluton and Detunata-Geamăna.

5. CONCLUSIONS

The results confirm a large spatial variability of both density and frequency
of hail. Consequently, severe hail occurs most frequently in depression regions and
at the contact of the Apuseni Mountains at the west with the Plain of Crişana and at
the east with the Transylvanian Depression, while cloud formations containing hail,
generally of small dimension, are more common in the mountain area on the
western slopes of the mountains, namely the Bihor, Vlădeasa and Zarand
Mountains.
The estimation of hail occurrence is an innovative new task and the
obtained data can be used for many purposes. The information could be used to
identify regions with high frequencies of producing hail, and in these cases the
most effective measures to prevent and diminish can be taken, given the increased
damage created by hail on a large number of buildings, cars or agricultural areas. In
terms of weather forecasts, warnings can be adapted to present the danger of hail
and the regions can be easily identified.

REFERENCES

1. Kunz M. and Puskeiler M. (2010) High-resolution assessment of the hail hazard


over complex terrain from radar and insurance dat Meteorologische Zeitschrift,
Vol. 19, No. 5, 427-439.
2. Maier N., Tataiana M and Denisa L. (2010) Utilizarea statistică a datelor obţinute
de laradarul WSR-98D de la Bobohalma în prognoza grindinei. Romanian Journal
of Meteorology nr.1-2010, ANM, Bucuresti.
3. Maier N., Tataiana M and Denisa L. (2010) Distribuţia grindinei în arealul
acoperit de radarul WSR-98D de la Bobohalma. Rev. Riscuri şi Catastrofe, Edit.
Casa Cărţii de Ştiintă, Cluj-Napoca.

252
SOME ASPECTS REGARING CHLORINE DECAY IN WATER
DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

LIANA IOANA VUŢĂ1, GABRIELA ELENA DUMITRAN2

ABSTRACT. – A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide


microbiologically safe drinking water. The combination of conventional drinking
water treatment and disinfection has proved to be one of the major public health
advances in modern times. The quality of drinking water delivered to the
customer’s tap is influenced by a number of processes; namely water treatment,
disinfection and changes during transport of treated water via the distribution
system. All natural waters and even treated drinking water exerts disinfectant
demand due to the reactions with NOM and other constituents in water. Therefore,
the applied disinfectant dose must be sufficient to meet the inherent demand in the
treated water, to provide sufficient protection against microbial infection. Thus,
controlling free residual chlorine properly is definitely important to ensure meeting
regulatory requirements and satisfying customer needs.
This paper presents the main aspects regarding chlorine decay in drinking-water
distribution networks and, also a free chlorine decay simulation with EPANET2
on Ramnicu Valcea water distribution system.

Keywords: drinking water quality, chlorine decay, distribution system, Epanet.

1. INTRODUCTION

Water distribution system makes water available to the consumer in proper


quantity and pressure. Tap water should not contain microorganisms, parasites or
substances that might represent a potential hazard for human health and it must
meet the minimal requirements stipulated in regulations concerning the quality
parameters of potable water (microbiological and chemical indicators).
The quality of water delivered to the customers depends on its initial
chemical and physical composition, the proper choice of purification technology,
technical condition of water storage tanks and the pipe network as well as
hydraulic conditions and exploitation manner of the water distribution system.
Thus, water distribution systems act as large-scale chemical and biological reactors
and sometimes, due to improper design or operation, can greatly modify the quality
of water (e.g. long retention times which lead to water aging, reduced disinfectant
residual and formation of disinfection by-products, bacterial growth, appearance of
cooper and lead, taste and odor problems and so on).

1
University "Politehnica" of Bucharest, Power Engineering Faculty, 060042 Bucharest, Romania, e-
mail: l_vuta@yahoo.com, tel: 0744535933
2
University "Politehnica" of Bucharest, Power Engineering Faculty, 060042 Bucharest, Romania, e-
mail: dumitran@hydrop.pub.ro, tel: 0741146060

253
Preserving the water quality throughout the distribution system is, therefore,
one of the most challenging technological issues for suppliers.
Many water utilities use chlorine residual to inactivate potential pathogenic
organisms and preserve water quality during distribution. In 1976, it was
discovered that disinfections by-products (DBPs) were produced during the
disinfection process (Marhaba and Washington 1998). Chlorine reacts with natural
organic compounds found in water (humic and fulvic acids) and form a wide range
of undesired halogenated organic compounds, including trihalomethanes (THMs),
haloacetic acids (HAA), chlorophenols, chloral hydrate and haloacetonitriles
(Gallard and von Gunten 2002). The concern of DBPs formed during disinfection
processes is based on the evidence that they have some adverse health effects:
cancer, reproductive disorders, liver and kidney damage, birth defects and possibly
miscarriage (Arora et al. 1997).
Thus, controlling the residual chlorine concentration in drinking water is a
very important aspect, since the decrease of chlorine concentration below the
minimal level may cause secondary development of microorganisms and excessive
chlorine concentration may cause formation of dangerous disinfection by-products.

2. MECHANISM OF CHLORINE DECAY

Chlorine decay in distribution system is generally considered to consist of


two components. One component is associated with decay in the bulk phase of the
water, and the other with the wall demand.
Chlorine demand and DBPs formation are influenced by treatment
conditions and by the constituents in the raw and treated water. The demand due to
inorganic compounds is smaller than the one associated with the reaction between
chlorine and natural organic matter (NOM).
Among the factors that influence the demand of chlorine and the formation
of DBPs can be mentioned:
- Chlorine dose: high chlorine concentration lead to increased DBPs
leves;
- Reaction time: long reaction times results in high chlorine demand and
increased DBPs leves;
- pH: an increase in the pH lead to increase in THMs formation but to
decrease in HAA; pH modification has a neglijable effects on chlorine
demand;
- Temperature: high temperature lead to greater chlorine demand and
higher levels of DBPs.
In order to be able to estimate correctly the residual concentration in water
distribution systems, all the factors that influence the chlorine demand must be
identified.

254
3. MODELLING APPROACH

Chlorine propagation inside the water distribution system may be studied


with the use of mathematical models comprehensively describing the variable
hydraulic conditions and reflecting individual factors influencing the disinfectant
decay. Simulation of residual chlorine concentration in selected water supply
network nodes makes gathering the knowledge about transported water quality
possible and helps in considering the network segments/parts in which water
quality deterioration occurs.
One of the available software for water distribution network modelling is
Epanet. Epanet allow the hydraulic studies of water distribution systems and also
the movement and fate of drinking water constituents within distribution systems.
Decay simulation conducted within EPANET takes into consideration the phe-
nomena of chlorine reaction with chemical species at bulk fluid and with pipe walls.
The reactions occurring in the bulk flow can be modelled with n-th order
kinetics, where the instantaneous rate of reaction (R in mass/volume/time) is
assumed to be concentration-dependent according to:
R=Kb·Cn (1)
Where Kb = bulk reaction rate coefficient, C = reactant concentration
(mass/volume), and n = reaction order.
The decay of free residual chlorine because of reaction occurring in the
bulk water is generally assumed in the literature (Munvalli and Kumar, 2006;
Haestad, et al., 2001) to be a first order reaction.
In practice, bulk decay coefficients can be determined by running a bottle
test on the water entering the distribution system.
The contribution of wall reactions is introduced into the software through
another constant Kw , whose meaning is more complex. The rate of water quality
reactions occurring at or near the pipe wall can be considered to be dependent on
the concentration in the bulk flow by using an expression of the form:
R=(A/V)Kw·Cn (2)
Where Kw = wall reaction rate coefficient and (A/V) = the surface area per unit
volume within a pipe (equal to 4 divided by the pipe diameter).
There is currently no established method for directly determining the kinetics of
chlorine decay due to pipe wall reactions and calibration against field data must be
used instead. Still, the literature indicate that pipe diameter and pipe material are
the categories most likely to impact wall coefficient values in a calibration process
(Munvalli and Kumar, 2006; Haestad, et al., 2001; Michael Hudkins, et al., 2010).
To assure the correct use of the water quality simulator, incorporated in the
EPANET, a model calibration process must be done, determining the correct
values to Kb and Kw coefficients. In most cases, model calibration is conducted a
posteriori, altering parameter values in order to obtain, in the model, values that
match real ones. Still, values reported in the literature, for similar condition
regarding the distribution system structure can be used in order to determine the
residual chlorine concentration at the consumers.

255
4. CASE STUDY: RAMNICU VALCEA WATER DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
The Ramnicu Valcea network is a gravity fed system from 4 reservoirs,
and the distribution to consumers (about 120,000 inhabitants) is provided through
metal pipes network, with sizes ranging from 80 to 600 mm. The network layout is
presented in figure 1, and figure 2 presents the base demands at consumers.
For the daily flow variation, three different regimes are considered:
domestic, commercial and industrial consumers. The flow patterns are presented in
Figures 3. For all pipes, the equivalent pipe roughness is set to 0.2 mm and Darcy
– Weisbach formula is used as a headloss equation.
Under these assumptions, the hydraulic behaviour of the network was
investigated, using Epanet v2. From the hydraulic point of view, the network does
not present any problems: water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure is
delivered to all consumers. The minimum available pressure is recorded in junction
5 and is above 9 m.

Figure 1. Ramnicu Valcea water distribution system layout

Regarding the residual chlorine concentration in Ramnicu Valcea network


nodes, previous investigations considered only the bulk flow reaction (Rotaru
2006; Vuta 2008).
In this paper, two hypotheses are considered for modelling chlorine decay:
the first one considering only the chlorine reaction in the bulk flow and the second,
considering also the pipe wall reaction. The values for kb and kw used (-0.1 h-1 and -
0.17 h-1 respectively) have been chosen around the ones reported in the literature
(according with the pipe material, diameters and age/roughness) (Castro et al.
2003; Nagatani et al. 2008; Hudkins et al. 2010).

256
Figure 2. Base demands for Ramnicu Valcea water distribution system

Figures 3. Flow patterns for domestic, commercial and industrial consumers

When considering only the bulk flow reaction and a first-order decay
reaction, few nodes experienced low levels of residual chlorine concentration
during low period consumption (between 2.00 and 7.00 am ): 18, 29, 31, 75, 76. 75
and 76 are industrial consumers, 31 is commercial and 18 and 29 are domestic. The
low residual chlorine concentration find in those nodes is related with high travel
time of water from reservoirs, as it can be seen in figure 4 and figure 5.

Figure 4. Chlorine concentration in networks


Figure 5. Water age in networks nodes
nodes, kb = -0.1 h-1, kw = 0

257
Differences in residual chlorine concentration are expected to appear when
considering also pipe wall reaction. In this case, beside the bulk reaction described
by a first-order decay reaction, a zero-order reaction at the pipes wall is considered.
As a result, large area of the network presents very low residual chlorine
concentration, presented in figure 6. The correlation between high water age and
low chlorine concentration is still evident.

Figure 6. Chlorine concentration


in networks nodes, kb = -0.1 h-1, kw = -0.17 h-1

In this case, the residual chlorine concentration drops below 0.1mg/l in some
nodes in the network. Figure 7 presents the values obtained for node 18 in the two
hypotheses. As it was expected, introduction of the pipe wall reaction lead to high
chlorine demand, making the system unsecure if the residual chlorine concentration
is very low (for some nodes in the network, during the low demand period, residual
chlorine concentration drop below 0.1 mg/l). In the theoretical case presented in this
article, the chlorine demand increased only by 30%, but, according to the literature,
the wall demand can represent up to 80% from the total disinfectant.

Figure 7. Differences between residual chlorine concentrations for node 18

6. CONCLUSION
Controlling the residual chlorine concentration in drinking water is a very
important aspect, since the decrease of chlorine concentration below the minimal
level may cause secondary development of microorganisms and excessive chlorine
concentration may cause formation of dangerous disinfection by-products.
Mathematical modelling of chlorine decay along the water supply system is a
problem whose solution is not yet absolutely mastered.

258
Still, hydraulic/water quality models can be used by drinking water utilities
in order to efficiently plan, operate, and expand their potable water systems. But, in
applying water quality models to actual water distribution system it is critical that a
well-calibrated hydraulic model to be used along with site-specific reaction rate
data.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The work has been co-funded by the Sectoral Operational Programme


Human Resources Development 2007-2013 of the Romanian Ministry of Labor,
Family and Social Protection through the Financial Agreement POSDRU/89/1.5/
S/62557.

REFERENCES

1. Arora, H., LeChevallier, M. W., Dixon, K.L. DBP occurrence survey. Journal of
American Water Works Association, 89, (6), 60 –68, 1997
2. Pedro Castro, Mário Neves. Chlorine decay in water distribution systems. Case
study – Lousada network. Electron. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem., ISSN 1579-
4377, 2003
3. Gallard, H. and von Gunten, U. Chlorination of Natural Organic Matter: Kinetics
of chlorination and of THM Formation. Water Research, 36, 65-74, 2002
4. Haestad, et al. Water Distribution Modeling. 2001
5. Lewis A. Rossman. Epanet User Manual. 2000
6. Marhaba, T. F., and Washington, M. B. Drinking water protection and
byproducts: history and current practice. Advances in Environmental Research, 2,
103–115, 1998
7. Michael Hudkins, et al. FieldVerification ofWater QualityModels: Process,
Results & Benefits. FLORIDAWATER RESOURCES JOURNAL, Aprilie, 2010
8. Munavalli GR, Kumar MSM. Autocalibration of a water distribution model for
water quality parameters using GA. Journal American Water Works Association
98 (9): 109-123 SEP 2006
9. F. Rotaru. „Contributii in probleme de dimensionare si de exploatare a statiilor de
pompare si a retelelor de distributie a apei”. PhD Thesis, Bucharest, 2006
10. Toru Nagatani et al. Residual chlorine decay simulation in water distribution
system. The 7th International Symposium on Water Supply Technology,
Yokohama 2006, November 22-24, 2008, Yokohama, Japan
11. L.I.Vuta. Modelarea calitatii apei potabile din retelele de distributie. PhD Thesis,
Bucharest, 2008

259
THE EVALUATION OF THE HYDROLOGICAL RISKS
ASSOCIATED WITH THE MAXIMUM DISCHARGE
IN THE UPPER WATER CATCHMENT OF THE RIVER BÂRLAD

I. MINEA, D. BUTELCĂ, M. NICULIŢĂ1

ABSTRACT. – The evaluation of the hydrological risks associated with the


maximum discharge in the upper water catchment of the river Bârlad was
realized based on the data respecting the maximum flows realized at two
hydrometric stations Baceşti si Negreşti, between 1954-2006. The analysis had in
mind both the evaluation of the maximum flows and the associated parameters
and the implications of some extreme hydrological events as floods. An important
component consists in the appreciation of the river safety levels based on the
maximum debit obtained with different calcul formulas (rational or reductional)
for the anticipation of the future hydrological events.

Keywords: hydrological riscks, maximum discharge, floods, river safety levels.

1. INTRODUCTION

An important characteristic in the regime of the river flows from Romania


is the presence of some periods,during the year,with high debits induced, either by
the atmospheric precipitations in impressive quantities, or by melting the snow or
often by the overlap of these two phenomena. The intensity and the duration of the
high debit periods is mainly influenced by the physical geographical conditions of
an hydrographic basin. Of all these,the main element is the climatic one, being
represented by the atmospheric precipitations in the forms described above. The
other physical geographical factors which contribute to the formation of the
maximum debits are: the geomorfometry of the draining basins,the type of the
ground and its humidity level, the geological structure and the composition of the
plant coating. An important role, especially in the case of the hydrographic basins
arranged by hydrotehnical purposes (like in the case of the superior basin of the
river Barlad), has the anthropic factor, by executions of the storage lakes, the
evacuation areas of the maximum debits (polders), dams etc.
The hydrographic array developed in the central-southern part of the
Moldavian Plateau, in the space Siret-Prut is represented, mainly, by the
hydrographical basin Bârlad and then by a series of branches of the river Prut with
a low hydrological importance (Elan, Chineja, etc.).
With the largest surface of all the branches of the river Siret, in which it
blazes (over 7220 km2), the hydrographic basin Bârlad represents over 45% of the

1
"Al.I.Cuza" University, Faculty of Geography and Geology, 700505 Iaşi, Romania, e-mail:
ionutminea1979@yahoo.com

260
surface of the Moldavian Plateau(between the rivers Siret and Prut). Although the
hydrotehnical arrangement of this basin is quite extended, there are a series of
hydrological situations which involve the production of some riscks events (floods)
with destructive effects over the social and economical belongings and the
geographical landscape.
Before realizing an thorough analysis of the processes and phoenomena
related to the maximum leakage and risk phenomena related to this it, is necessary
a theoretical approach of the difference between big waters and floods, thanks to
the various definitions, many of them overlapped, appeared in specialized
literature. High waters represent the leaking which is realized on the rivers of the
Moldavian Plateau at the beginning of spring, determinated, generally by the
melting of the snow due to the increased termperatures ,intensified by the falling of
liquid precipitations in quite important quantities. The floods represent another
characteristic form of producing the liquid leaking,mainly determined by the
falling of the torrential rains(associated with the melting of the snow), with an
effect in the increase in a short amount of time of the levels and debits of the
waters. Sometimes,the increasing of the levels and debits is so significant,that it
can cause floods in the major chanel, with negative effects on some social and
economical objectives.
The statistic analysis of the maximum leaking was realized based on the
data recorded between 1954-2006, on hydrometrical stations Baceşti and Negreşti.
This analysis permitted us to extract some information of practical matters ,which
will lead us to the adoption of measures which will be checked and consulted in the
projecting, execution and exploitation phase of the hydrotehnical constructions in
view of minimizing the effects produced by the hydrological hazards, especially in
the areas which are vulnerable to this type of phoenomena.
In the maximum leaking, the most representative parameters analysed
refer to the maximum levels and volumes associated to this, as well as to the
floods.

Fig. 1. The position of the upper basin of the river Barlad in Romania

261
2. THE ANALYSIS OF THE MAXIMUM LEAKING: MAXIMUM
DEBITS AND VOLUMES

The multiannual variation of the maximum debits knocks out that at the
level of the upper basin of the river Bârlad, were registered a series of years in
which were produced the biggest maximum debits (1969, 1970, 1971, 1979, 1985),
and a series of years when this debits were more reduced(1991,1995)(table nr.1)
The highest debit registered between 1954-2006 (the maximum
maximorum debit) was of 164,0 m3/s, at the hydrometrical station Baceşti,
registered on 17.VII.1970 and of 390 m3/s, at the hydrometrical station Negreşti,
registered on 19.VI.1985. These debits were produced based on the manifestations
of downpours ,which had overdued at the meteorological stations and rainfall posts
from the northern part of the basin Bârlad 120-150 l/m2.

Tabel no. 1. The statistic of the monthly maximum debits in the hydrographical basin
Bârlad
Hydrometrical station Băceşti Negreşti
The maximum flow m3/s 164,0 390,0
(the maximum value)
Year 1970 1985
The maximum flow 0,274 4,64
(the minimum value)
Year 1995 1959
The maximum flow m3/s 48,0 74,4
(the average value)
Cv* 0,96 1,64
Cs** 2,56 3,12
Cs/Cv 2,64 1,89
σ*** 0.28 0,27
* values obtained by processing the hydrological data offered by the Basinal Association of water Prut-Bârlad
Cv – the coefficient of varriation of the data series of the minimal anual debits
Cs – the coefficient of assimetry of the data series of the minimal anual debits
σ – the medium square deviation

Fig. 2. Maximum monthly and instant debits in the upper basin of the river Bârlad

An important aspect of the analysis of the maximum debits is the


conditioning of the production of these by the achievement of some hydrotehnical
262
constructions of the type of the dams and the storage lakes.those print a general
tendance of reduction of the values of the maximum debits registered trough the
regularisation of the leaking (Fig. 2).

Fig. 3. The multianual variation of the maximum debits at the hydrometrical


stations of the upper basin of river Bârlad

During the year,the maximum debits present higher or lower variations,


from a month to another,deppending on the rainfall features of every month.On the
level of the upper basin of the river Barlad,the maximum debits produced more
often in the perion june-july (over 55% from the cases), followed by period march
–april (35% from the cases) and september (10% from the cases).
The lowest values of the maximum debits were registered in winter
(december-february), and in the end of the summer and the beginning of autumn
(august-october).
In order to project and realise the hydrotehnical construction as well as for
an efficient management of the water resources from a hydrographical basin,is
necesarry to calculate the maximum debits, with certain probabilities of
overfloading.So,at the level of the upper basin of the Bârlad river were determined
the maximum debits with different possibilities (0,01%, 0,1%, 0,5%, 1%, 5%,
10%) as well as the maximum debits speciffic and the maximum volumes
corresponding to this debits for the natural regime of leaking ,using the curves of
probability of the type Pearson III.

Table no. 2 The maximum anual debits (m3/s) and speciffic maximum debits
2)
(l/s/km with different possibilities calculated at hydrometrical stations from the upper
basin of the river Barlad
Nr. Hydro. Q.max (m3/s) for the probabilities q.max (l/skm2) for the probabilities
crt. station 0,01% 0,1% 0,5% 1% 5% 10% 0,01% 0,1% 0,5% 1% 5% 10%
1 Băceşti 329,0 254,2 178,1 123,2 99,0 74,1 2384.0 1842.0 1290.5 892.7 717.3 536.9
2 Negreşti 588,7 445,6 301,8 202,3 158,7 115,7 720.5 545.4 369.4 247.6 194.2 141.6

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The maximum debits registered at the hydrometrical stations,between 1954-
2006, do fit in in the probabilities of production 5% and 10% in the case of both
hydrometrical stations.
Also in practical purposes, for the design of hydrotechnical objectives, the
maximum volumes with probability of exceeding have also been determinated
(0,01%, 0,1%, 0,5%, 1%, 5% and 10%). In general, these fit between 23,0 mil. m3,
at the hydrometric station Baceşti, for the probability of production of 1% and 36,9
mil. m3, at the hydrometric station Negreşti, for the same probability (table nr.3).
Reporting the maximum volume of water corresponding to each
probability of exceeding at the surface of the sewn basin, in the right of each
hydrometrical station the maximum layers of water equivalent drained to the
volumes are obtained (hmax p%, mm).

Table no. 3. Maximum volumes and maximum layers of water equivalent to the
maximum volumes (mm), with different probabilities of exceeding, determinated for
hydrometrical station from the superior basin of Bârlad river
Nr. Hydro. W.max (106m3) for probabilities hmax (mm) for probabilities
crt. station 0,01% 0,1% 0,5% 1% 5% 10% 0,01% 0,1% 0,5% 1% 5% 10%
1 Băceşti 23.0 17.3 12.3 10.1 7.4 3.5 382 269 206 178 95 61
2 Negreşti 36.9 28.2 19.8 16.3 10.5 5.6 207 148 113 92 53 35

3 . THE EVALUATION OF THE HYDROLOGICAL RISKS


INDUCED BY FLOODS

The genesis of floods is directly connected with the climatic conditions


existent at a certain time in the analyzed basin and can be determinated by the
superficial drainage from rains (pluvial floods), from the sudden melting of snows
(nival floods), from the superposition of these two phenomenas (pluvial-nival
floods) or as a result of accidents in the area of hydrotechnical constructions
(Zăvoianu, 1999).
For the upper basin of Bârlad river, from the 26 hydrological events
associated with flood waves, 14 have occured in the summer months, 10 in spring
months and 2 in autumn months.
In hydrologic practice, of great importance is the knowledge of the flood
waves characteristic features. These elements are determinated with the help of
singular floods, registred at the hydrometrical stations and on the base of analysis
of the most representative floods can be calculated, later, the average elements
characteristics of the flood waves, which stay at the basis of building type
hydrographers of singular floods, with different probabilities. For Bârlad river, for
the probability of exceeding 1%, the medium time of manifestation of a flood is at
Baceşti hydrometrical station of 38 hours, for increasing in the downstream at 95
hours, at hydrometrical station Negreşti. All the characteristic elements of the flood
waves are influenced largely of the morphometric characteristics of basins ( the
lenght of water courses, the basins` medium altitude, the average slope of the
courses and of the basins, the catchments` surface).

264
Another important aspect occurs from the random distributions of the
hydrological phenomenas which are obtained from a limited set of datas, result of
observations and recordings. The lack of monitoring stations of the hydroclimatic
elements with a relatively high density (at least one such station at 25 km2) thus
leads to the impossibility of validating the obtained results. Given these elements, it
is resorted at the division of the basins of large dimensions in a series of subbasins
and interbasinal areas, each characterized by specific values of the used
hydrological parameters. So can be realised an evaluation of the hydrological risks
from certain portions of the basin through type-models rainfall-runnoff , in large
basins; implies several steps :
- system decomposition (hydrographic basin) in a series of subsystems
(subbasins and interbasinal areas)l
- the evaluation of the hydrological leakages within each system;
- the evaluation of the hydrological risks within each system;
- the realization of graphics and risk maps at the level of the hole basin.
Because at the level of each subsystem there are no measurements and con-
tinuous observations over the necessary hydrological parameters for the evaluation
of the hydrological risk we used the genetic hydrological model input-output type
for the small river basins, using the rational formula (STAS 4068/1-82):
p %  16,7    I p % ( m / s / km )
q max 3 2

where: q max
p % - the maximum specific flow with probability of exceeding;

I p % - the intensity of rain calculated based on standard STAS 940-73;


16,7 - size conversion factor.
 - is the coefficient of superficial leakage on homogeneous areas regarding the
leakage (whose surface is noted with f), calculated with the formula:
n

 i  fi
 i 1 ,
F
where:  i - the partially coefficients of superficial leakage which characterizes the
homogeneous surfaces;
fi - a surface considered homogenous if for a series of fields` elements (type of use,
slope, texture etc) are homogeneous.
The partially coefficients of leakage α1 are presented in the specialized
literature (Hâncu et al., 1971, Mustaţă et.al, 1981), depending on using, slope,
texture and permeability of the field
Regarding the intensity of the rain concretion Ip% is established for the
lenght of the rain equal with the concentration time of the superficial leakage. An
important aspect to be retained in the calculation method of the concretion rain is
the fact that, in general, the concretion rain is considered to be uniformly
distributed on the whole surface of the catchment afferent to the control section, so
the lenght of the maximum intensity rain which is used in order to determine the
maximum flow is equal with the time of concentration (tc) of the superficial
leakage (and it is called concretion rain).

265
The time of concentration represents the time where the water coming
from rainfall and which is leaking, gets from the farthest point of the basin to the
concretion section of the maximum flow).
The reduction formula used in determination of the maximum flow with
the probability of exceeding of 1%:
K    I 60 , 1%  F
Q 1% 
( F  1) m
where: K -0,28 transformation coefficient of rain`s intensity from mm/hour into m/s and
surface from km2 to square meters;
 - global coefficient of leakage;
I60,1% - the maximum hourly intensity of rain with probability of exceeding of 1%;
Starting from the recorded values, a series of tipical values (characteristic)
of the variable sections are calculated, such as : the average value, the dispersion,
the deviation etc. Then is considered that these typical values or parameters of the
empirical distribution are at the same time parameters of the theoretical
distribution, used to adjust and extrapolate the empirical distribution (in other
words, the parameters of the statistical population are estimated based on the
selection which is decided by measurements), obviously, this habit is an
approximation, which is a source of errors of the static concretion (Giurma, 2003).
For the Bârlad basin, the value of the concretion rain intensity based on the dataset
regarding intensity and average and maximum lenght of rains at some
meteorological station and rainfall stations (Bârnova, Negreşti, Vaslui).
For using the rational formula, first were determinated the average amd
maximum intensity of torrential rains from this basin. In this way, there were
determinated the maximum quantities of rainfall in 24 hours, with different
probabilities (Table no. 4).

Table no. 4. Maximum quantities of rainfall (mm) in 24 hours with different


probabilities (%) at meteorological station and the rainfall stations from Barlad basin
and from adjacent area
Nr. Meteo. station/ Pp max. abs. Max. quantities of pp (mm) in 24 hours
crt. Pluvio. station in 24 hours (mm) with different probabilities (%)
(value/date) 0,1 1 5 10 20 50
1 Bârnova 167,9/7.08,1989 194,3 158,9 136,9 127,9 118,7 104,6
2 Negreşti 91,4/20.08.1972 144,3 107,5 87,0 79,4 72,0 62,6
3 Vaslui 91,9/22.07.1980 112,3 93,9 82,4 77,8 72,9 66,4

In the next stage there were calculated the absolute maximum flows and
the specific maximum with different probabilities at the main hydrometrical station
within the basin,also identifying the relations from the maximum specific leakage
with the 1% insurance and the average altitude of the basins (see table no. 2 , fig.
no. 3).
Then, based on the dates from the rainfall stations ,regarding the share of
attention of flood and danger, and considering the limnimetric keys specific to each
station, the leakage coefficients were calculated and overcome situations of these
shares at the two rainfall station were identified.

266
Table no. 5 The values of the maximum flows corespondent to the main shares
at the rainfall stations from Bârlad basin
Hydro. Râul Supr. C.A. Q (m3/s) C.I. Q (m3/s) C.P. Q (m3/s)
Station (km2) (cm) coresp. (cm) coresp. coresp.
Băceşti Bârlad 142,31 340 33.1 440 62.7 600 125.0
Negreşti Bârlad 812,21 330 34,2 410 66,3 575 135,9
 

Fig. 5. The overcome situations of the main shares at some stations and hydrometric
stations from the superior basion of Bârlad river (Baceşti on the left, Negreşti
at the right) (remaking after Rusu C., 2009)

CONCLUSIONS

The evaluation of the hydrological risks asociated to the maximum leakage


in the superior basin of Barlad river highlighted a series of characteristics of these
hydrological parameters. So, the maximum flows registred al the hydrometric
stations from this area of the basin (Baceşti and Negreşti, in 1954-2006), fit
between production probabilities 5% and 10%, which imparts to the leakage a
strong torrential character. For the identification of the extreme values, it has
resorted to the use of different formulas proposed by the specialised Romanian
literature (rational and reduction), indicating a high risk of floods occurence in case
of rainfall that exceeds 100-150 l/m2, relatively frequently in the analyzed space.

REFERENCES

1. Giurmă I (2003), Viituri şi măsuri de apărare, Edit. “Gh.Asachi”, Iaşi.


2. Hâncu S., ş.a. (1971), Hidrologie agricolă, Edit. Ceres, Bucureşti.
3. Mustaţă L, ş.a. (1981), Elaborarea metodologiilor pentru calculul scurgerii pe
râurile mici, I.N.M.H., Bucureşti.
4. Rusu C. (coord.) (2008), Impactul riscurilor hidro-climatice şi pedo-
geomorfologice asupra mediului în bazinul Bârladului, Edit. Performantica, Iaşi.
5. Zăvoianu I. (1999), Hidrologie, Edit. Fundaţiei “România de Mâine”, Bucureşti.
6. www.ape-prut.ro

267
IDENTIFICATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF CENTRAL
WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS – CASE STUDY

ANCA ELENA GURZAU1, CRISTIAN POP1,


OVIDIU TRAIAN POPA1, IRINA DUMITRASCU1

ABSTRACT. - Risk assessment of central water supply systems - a case study.


This paper presents methods for identification and risk assessment of central water
supply systems, exemplified by a case study of the central water supply system in
Luna locality, Cluj county during 2009-2010. System assessment was performed
by means of previous data on water quality monitoring and water samples analysis
for the parameters imposed by Law 458/2002 (audit monitoring) in the
laboratories of the Environmental Health Center. The main risk identified at
source was the significant water contamination with nitrates, in this regard results
did not show significant change of the raw water quality (drain) over time.
Occurence of nitrates in excess is of mixed origin in Luna water source,
predominantly telluric net and accentuated anthropogenic due to agricultural
practices in the area. In this respect, evolution of bacterial load was significantly
related to the drain positioning in an intensively exploited agricultural area, the
important increase of contamination being due to manure application on upstream
lands. Two kinds of hazards were identified at the water treatment plant output and
in the distribution network, as well as at the water source: contamination with
nitrates and bacteriological contamination of faecal origin, the latter as a
consequence of a completely inadequate chlorination. Water in the distribution
network of Luna locality represents low health risks for small population groups
(risk score 8), as characterized qualitatively on the basis of monitoring. The
compliance plan for preventing effects targets the water source, treatment process,
distribution network and health status indicators.

Keywords: drinking water, risk identification, risk assessment

1. INTRODUCTION

Central water supply of localities represents an activity accompanied by


risks, and maintaining them within the limits of acceptability requires sustained
efforts and additional costs justified by the prevention of diseases and avoiding
environmental damage. Any definition of risk includes the idea of exposure to a
potential loss, of "probability of an undesirable result" of minor importance up to a
catastrophic one. The safe water expresses the accordance to the maximum
admissible limits of the relevant water parameters for human health.
In accordance with the Bonn Objective for obtaining "sanogenic drinking
water, in which consumers trust" the water safety plans (PSA) have major
requirements represented by the risk identification in each stage of the water

1
Environmental Health Center Cluj Napoca, Romania, www.ehc.ro, tel.+40 264 432979,
(e-mail: ancagurzau@ehc.ro)

268
production process from the water catchment to consumer tap and by the risk
assessment, that is the probability that a hazard causes health effects or determines
an unacceptable water quality. (WHO 2005, Ritter et al.2002, Summerhill ey
al.2010, Schmoll et al. 2006).
A water safety plan combines elements of a “hazard analysis and critical
control point” (HACCP) approach, quality management and the “multiple barriers”
principle, to provide a preventive management approach specifically developed for
drinking-water supply. It can provide a framework for evaluating microbial control
measures by helping to focus attention on process steps such as coagulation,
filtration and disinfection, which are important for ensuring the microbial safety of
water. (LeChevallier MW and Au K-K 2004).
Rules of good practice state that sanitary surveillance is organized when a
water source does not meet a requirement of the law that regulates it. This refers
mainly to microbiological contaminants and prevention of possible water-related
diseases, but also to certain chemicals (arsenic, fluorine or nitrates) when present in
high concentrations.
This paper presents methods for identification and risk assessment of
central water supply systems, exemplified by a case study of the central water
supply system in Luna locality, Cluj county.

2. MATERIAL AND METHOD


The study was conducted in 2010. The raw water source for Luna water
treatment plant is groundwater collected by a drain from 6 drillings. Luna water
treatment plant processes water by chlorination. The assessment of the central
water supply system in Luna locality, Cluj county was based on type HACCP
inspection (Hazard Analysis and Control in Critical Points). Previous data of water
quality monitoring were also considered in the study (laboratory of the water
supplier) as well as water samples analysis for the parameters imposed by Law
458/2002 regarding drinking water quality (audit monitoring) in the laboratories of
the Environmental Health Center. Risk assessment was performed by risk scores
determination based on a specific matrix.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


3.1. Water source location
The drillings are located in the western part of Luna locality, upstream the
stables of the former cooperative farm, between the road linking the military base
with the airport and the group of houses “Bazil”.
The catchment front area is slightly sloping from V to E and from S to N,
drillings being surrounded by agricultural lands exploited only for cereal crops.
These lands belong to an agricultural association and they are treated with
herbicides. Due to the small depth of the drillings and soil structure, but especially
due to its location in the area of agricultural holdings, the collected water layer is
highly vulnerable to pollution.

269
Sanitary protection areas are limited to the area with strict sanitary
protection regime, established on an area of 610 m in length (slightly larger than
the drain length) and 63 m in width. Under these conditions, water quality in the
aquifer is influenced by the external factors from the soil surface, the collected
water quality varies and depends mainly on the chemical and physical structure of
the soil.
3.2. Water quality exiting Luna water treatment plant and in the
distribution network – control monitoring
In order to assess the water treatment plant efficiency and the supplied
water quality, the analysis results were interpreted (color, odor, pH, conductivity,
turbidity, free residual chlorine and bound chlorine, ammonia, nitrites, nitrates,
oxidability, total hardness, iron, E.Coli, enterococci, coliform bacteria, faecal
coliforms) as part of the control monitoring during June 2009 - September 2010.
Among the analysis provided by the laboratory from Luna water treatment plant,
find below the parameters considered relevant for the water quality
characterization.
During 2009, the oxidability average values framed within the normal
limits, being very low. Instead, the nitrates average value in the three types of
monitored water (source-drainage basin, reservoir and Luna village network)
recorded average values above the maximum admitted by legislation (50 mg/l),
ranging between 52-59 mg/l. Chlorination was performed at extremely low levels,
well below the standard ones for microbiological safety, and the free residual
chlorine averaged between 0.04-0.07 mg/l.
During 2010, nitrates, the major contaminant of Luna water supply
system, kept at elevated levels above the admitted standard, the highest value of
71.4 mg/l being measured in the reservoir.
The average values for nitrates were higher in 2010 than in 2009 both at
the level of the collector tank and the reservoir (Table 1).

Table 1. Comparative levels of nitrates in Luna water supply system

Nitrates 2009 2010


Collector basin 52.71 58.22
Reservoir 55.87 65.29

During 2009 a constantly increasing bacteriological contamination has


been observed at the level of the collector tank starting in August (16
Enterococci/L and 16 Coliforms/L) with a maximum in November (149
Enterococci/L, 415 Coliforms/L and 346 E.coli/L). Evolution of the bacterial load
is significant in relation to the drain positioning in an intensively exploited
agricultural area, the important increase of contamination being probably due to the
application of natural fertilizers (manure) on upstream lands. Bacteriological
contamination is severe even more because chlorination is practiced in the drainage

270
basin. It is to be noted that during November 2009 the highest concentration of
nitrates in water was recorded in the collector tank. Insufficient chlorination is
reflected by the bacteriological contamination in the reservoir, enterococci being
known as germs with a higher resistance to chlorine.
During 2010, the bacteriological contamination of water in the drainage
basin was more reduced although chlorination followed the same procedure, the
free residual chlorine level being very low. During this period the nitrates level was
increased and higher than in 2009. Regarding the bacteriological examination of
water in the distribution network, it was performed only once in 2009 and it was
negative. Other two bacteriological examinations of water at school show
contamination with total coliforms in a sample, the other one being negative.
During 2010, also a single water sample was analyzed in the distribution network,
and it was contaminated with total coliforms.
According to the control monitoring, during the period January 2009 -
August 2010, on the whole, water in Luna supply system was 100% undrinkable in
terms of the free residual chlorine, 81% in terms of nitrates and 51%
bacteriological.
3.3. Water quality at the output of Luna water treatment plant and in
the distribution network – audit monitoring
In order to assess the water quality at the source and in the distribution
network we collected water samples on 13.09.2010. We mention that starting on
07.09.2010 at Luna water treatment plant an automatic chlorination station with
sodium hypochlorite solution and a denitrification station (filters) were put into
operation next to the reservoir near the school, thus the manual chlorination at
source being interrupted (collector drainage tank). The following samples were
collected: raw water at collector drainage tank (treatment station input), drinking
water at Luna water treatment station output - Luna network.
Raw water is characterized by a higher concentration of nitrates and
bacteriological contamination of faecal origin. Water contamination with
Salmonella, a dangerous pathogenic intestinal germ common to man and warm-
blooded animals, in the collector tank represents a special situation. In this case,
given the drain location, the faecal contamination of human origin is unlikely, but
possible due to application of manure, especially of poultry origin.
Like in the previously analyzed period, i.e. January 2009 - August 2010,
concentration of nitrates, very low levels of free residual chlorine and
bacteriological contamination of faecal origin remain as major problems of water
quality at the output of the water treatment plant. Subsequently, water quality in the
distribution network has the same deviations from the quality standards, with the
mention that the level of nitrates in the network records a significantly higher value
(78.25 mg/l). Hazardous substances (toxic) were not identified in the collected
water, other than nitrates, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene,
pesticides, heavy metals, etc. The results allow us to appreciate that at the time of
sampling, water was chemically and bacteriologically undrinkable and the

271
efficiency of the denitrification station was null (unchanged value of nitrates
exiting the water treatment plant compared to the raw water), as well as that of
chlorination. Reproducing the water analysis for nitrates after regeneration of the
denitrification filters shows that the level of nitrates decreases by 15.1% after the
denitrification process, the value at the output of the water treatment plant framing
within normal limits.

3.4. Risk assessment


A. Water source – drain
Risk identification
The following parametric risks were identified at Luna catchment front:
nitrates and bacteriological contamination.
Health risk assessment
Characterization of the source and catchment – The drain location in an
exploited agricultural area long before drilling is a major hazard. In the given
situation, the hydrogeological survey shows that soil is not a protective barrier for
the drain that captures the raw water. The sanitary protection areas are not formed
properly, on the basis of professional studies, as the perimeter with restriction
regime is lacking.
Data resulting from water monitoring
The risk generated by the chemical and bacteriological contaminants at
Luna catchment front is determined by different risks for each contaminant: risk of
nitrate poisoning and epidemiological risk regarding occurrence of waterborne
infectious diseases.
On the basis of the risk assessment matrix, a risk score 20 (major
consequences) was set for the water source, which implies an urgent operational
action and a probable capital investment necessary at the water treatment plant.

B. Treatment process
Risk identification depending on the treatment steps
Denitrification and chlorination are the water treatment methods at Luna
water treatment plant. Denitrification has a variable efficiency. Chlorination is too
low related to the water bacteriological quality and standards in force that provide
0.5 mg/l free residual chlorine at the output of the water treatment plant. There
have not been identified high levels of THM. Bacteriological contamination is
present inconstantly.
Health risk assessment
High levels of nitrates were found inconstantly, having the possibility of
generating acute and chronic poisoning. Periodical bacteriological contamination
can cause the occurrence of waterborne infectious diseases.
On the basis of the risk assessment matrix, a risk score 8 (minor
consequences) was set for the water treatment plant, which implies an operational
action and a probable capital investment necessary at the water treatment plant.

272
C. Distribution network
Risk identification
The following parametric risks were identified: nitrates si bacteriological
contamination, both inconstant.
Health risk assessment
The risk score is 8 (minor consequences), which implies an operational
action and a probable capital investment necessary at the water treatment plant.
In individual or social context, homeostasis requirements impose risk
management, that implies adoption of measures either for reducing or accepting an
undesirable outcome (Jardine et all 2003).
Thus, by means of modern risk management, they are transferred from the
"minimum area" in the "optimal acceptability area”, where risks are slightly higher
and the overall social costs are kept to more acceptable levels. In a growing extent,
however, public training and participation are necessary for the compliance with
the legislation process, prevention of diseases and avoiding environmental damage.

3.5. Aspects of noninfectious and infectious water-related pathology


Among the chemicals possible present in the drinking water, some represent
special interest, such as those having toxic or carcinogenic effects.
Nitrates are inorganic compounds characterized by high solubility in water.
Major sources of nitrates in drinking water are fertilizers, sewage and animal
manure. Nitrates also occur naturally in the environment, mineral deposits, soil, sea
water, fresh water systems and in the atmosphere (Shuval et al. 1992). Sufficient
high concentrations of nitrates in drinking water can cause methemoglobinemia in
infants, also called "blue baby syndrome". Healthy adults do not develop
methemoglobinemia at levels of nitrates in drinking water that place infants at risk.
The only non-carcinogenic effect known determined by nitrates is
methemoglobinemia. No other non-carcinogenic effect following chronic exposure
has not been demonstrated and there is no valid evidence that nitrates and nitrites
can cause cancer in the absence of amine-containing substances (ATSDR 2010,
Ritter et al. 2002, Mesinga et al. 2003).
In 2004-2007, considering the requirements of the EC Directive,
delimitation of vulnerable areas imposed the extension of areas declared as
vulnerable, including potentially vulnerable areas, to 58% of the country’s surface
(European Commission 2010). Studies performed in Transylvania showed that
nitrates pollution of the groundwater in Niraj River Basin is a major concern and an
important issue, in 43% of the sampled wells nitrate concentrations exceeded EU
standards (50 mg/l), the main cause of groundwater pollution with nitrates being
due to agricultural practices and untreated household water (Hajdu 2007).
The vast majority of water-related diseases are transmissible (LeChevallier
and Au K-K 2004, Craun et al. 2006). Diarrheal disease alone amounts to an
estimated 4.1% of the total disability-adjusted life years of the global burden of
disease and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year (WHO
2004, Havelaar et al. 2003). It was estimated that 88% of that burden is attributable

273
to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene and is mostly concentrated in
children in developing countries (WHO, 2004). In Romania also, the major risk
deriving from the drinking water quality is the microbiological one, and consists
essentially in causing water-related diseases - epidemics, endemics or isolated
diseases of causes associated with ingestion of water contaminated with human and
animal excrements.

3.6. Compliance plan for preventing effects


Subsequent to hazard identification and risk assessment the compliance
plan for preventing effects targets the source, treatment process, distribution
network and health status indicators:
 Organizing the sanitary protection perimeter with restriction regime.
 Technical maintenance of drain manholes in perfect condition in order to
avoid the aquifer contamination
 Reconsidering the water treatment process. With reference to the
chlorination station that does not operate/is not properly exploited.
Maintainance of denitrification filters in proper operation (washing for
regeneration) so that the filter efficiency is at least 40%
 Monitoring of health indicators related to water quality as the incidence
and spatial distribution of acute diarrheal disease

4. CONCLUSIONS

The main risk identified at source was the significant water contamination
with nitrates, the results did not show temporally changes of the raw water quality
(drain) in terms of nitrates. Presence of nitrates in excess in Luna water source is of
mixed origin, predominantly telluric net and accentuated anthropogenic due to
agricultural practices in the area. In this sense, evolution of bacterial load was
significantly related to the drain positioning in an intensively exploited agricultural
area, the important increase of contamination being due to manure application on
upstream lands.
Similar to the source, two hazards were identified at the output of the water
treatment plant and in the distribution network: contamination with nitrates and
bacteriological contamination of fecal origin, the latter as a consequence of a
completely inadequate chlorination.
As qualitatively characterized on the basis of monitoring, water in the
distribution network of Luna locality represents low health risks for small
population groups (risk score 8).
The risk assessment and management cannot be based on epidemiological
data, which are not sufficiently conclusive, following intervention through special
actions, provided by law, in case of source quality deterioration or contamination
incidents in the network sectors.

274
The compliance plan for preventing effects targets the source, treatment
process, distribution network and health status indicators. Changing the water
source is not required but adjustment of the water treatment process is.
Also, actions are required in terms of public relations (social marketing
activities) and risk communication.

REFERENCES

1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2010) Case Studies in
Environmental Medicine Nitrate/Nitrite Toxicity, available at
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/nitrate/
2. Craun GF, Calderon RL, and J. Wade TJ. (2006). Assessing waterborne risks: an
introduction, Journal of Water and Health, 04.Suppl.2.2006.
3. European Commission (2010) Commission staff working document on
implementation of Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of
waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources based on
Member State reports for the period 2004-2007. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/
water/water-nitrates/pdf/swd.pdf
4. Hajdu Z, Füleky G, (2007) Distribution of nitrate pollution in the Niraj (Nyarad)
River Basin, Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2, 2, 57 - 72
5. Havelaar AH,Melse JM (2003) Quantifying public health risks in the WHO
Guidelines for drinking-water quality: A burden of disease approach. Bilthoven.
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM Report
734301022/2003).
6. Jardine C, Hrudley S, Shortreed J, Craig L, Krewski D, Furgal C, McColl S,
(2003)- Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev, 6, 569-720.
7. LeChevallier MW, Au K-K (2004) Water treatment and pathogen control:
Process efficiency in achieving safe drinking-water. Geneva, World Health
Organization and IWA.
8. Mensinga TT, Speijers GJA, Meulenbelt J. (2003) Health implications of
exposure to environmental nitrogenous compounds. Toxicol Rev; 22(1):41-51.
9. Ritter L, Solomon K, Sibley P, Hall K, Kenn P, Mattu G, Lindon B, (2002)
Sources, pathways, and relative risks of contaminants in surface water and
groundwater: a perspective prepared for the Walkerton inquiry. J. Toxicol.
Environ. Health. A, 11, 65, 1-142
10. Schmoll O et al. (2006) Protecting groundwater for health: Managing the quality
of drinking-water sources. London, IWA Publishing, on behalf of the World
Health Organization.
11. Shuval HI, Gruener N. (1992) Epidemiological and toxicological aspects of
nitrates and nitrites in the environment. Am J Public Health; 62(8):1045-52
12. Summerhill C, Smith J, Webster J and Pollard S, (2010) An international review
of the challenges associated with securing buy-in for water safety plans within
providers of drinking water supplies, Journal of Water and Health, 8, 387–390.
13. WHO (2004) Water Sanitation and Health (WSH). Burden of diseases and cost-
effectiveness estimates. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/
diseases/burden/en
14. WHO (2005) Water Safety Plans Managing drinking-water quality from
catchment to consumer.

275
DEPOSITION OF SULPHUR AND NITROGEN VIA RAINWATER
(CASE STUDY - the administrative territory of the Hincesti district)
1
RAISA LOZAN , ANATOL TĂRÎŢĂ1, RAISA ZACASOVSCHI1

ABSTRACT - Deposition of Sulphur and Nitrogen from rainwater (case


study – the administrative territory of the Hincesti district)*. The quantitative
estimation of rainfall and determination of their chemical composition (samples
collected in open area and under the canopy) lead to periodic assessment of the
annual flow of ions and mineral deposits of sulfur and nitrogen oxide in the
atmosphere. In accordance with agreed European Scale for assessing levels of
atmospheric deposition it can be appreciated that the study area (Hincesti, central
part of Moldova) in 2006-2010 corresponds to the class of large sulfur deposits,
varying from 14.9 kg/ha/year (2009) to 24.8 kg/ha/year (2010). Quantities
referring to study area recorded intermediate values – 16.8 kg/ha/year and 22.4
kg/ha/year respectively for the years 2007 and 2008.
A comparison between annual average values of sulfur deposition recorded in
open area at European level in the period 2006-2010 lies in the study area
comparable to the central-eastern Europe region, exceeding 60% of the average. In
relation to this scale deposition of total nitrogen (from nitrate ion and ammonium
ion) are small-sized deposits in the area, with averages ranging from 2.2 to 4.3
kg/ha/year N-NO3- and 7.2-9.3 kg/ha/year for N-NH4+. There are slight oscillations
of annual averages from year to year that do not exceed 0.6 kg/ha/year.

Keywords: air pollution, rainfall, sulfur and nitrogen deposition, heavy metals,
mineral ion flows and hydrogen ion.

1. INTRODUCTION
During the 2006-2010 study period 522 samples of wet deposition were
collected and analyzed, including 429 in the form of rain, 55 - sleet and snow for
determination of 14 indicators (pH, alkalinity, acidity, PO43-, NO2-, NO3-, NH4+, Cl-,
HCO3-, SO42-, fixed residue, Ca2+, Mg2+), including organic component and load
with pollutants (Lasse (1989); Patroiescu (1980); Stum and Morgan (1981)).
Checkpoints throughout the years were as follows: –Ecological Stationary -
Hîncesti (permanent); Leova Environmental Inspection (temporary); Ecological
Stationary – Recea (in the northen part of the republic) and Chisinau Weather
Station (temporary).

2. EVALUATION METHODS, WORK METHODOLOGY


Analysis methods of physical-chemical parameters of water from rainfall,
and research methodology, as well as models of calculation are recommended by

1
Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, email: rmlozan@yahoo.com

276
the European Environment Agency (EAA) and the Convention on Long Range
Tran boundary Pollution (CLRTP).
Ionic balance method, calculated by comparing the measured conductivity,
analysis of at least two synthetic samples in each series of 30 samples to verify the
accuracy of measurement were used to check validity of the obtained results.
Samples of dust, wet deposition (rain, snow and sleet) were collected
according to the methods described in EMEP EEA Guidebook 2009 revision.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Comparing the evolution of quantitative rainfall in the study area a rather


large fluctuation has been noticed, from 4 mm (minimum quantity, April 2009) to
193 mm (maximum, June 2009, 2010). 70-85% of rainfall fell during warm period
(April-November) remaining quantity is refer to cold period (December-March).
The average annual rainfall ranged from 353 mm (2007) to 747 mm (2010). The
average annual rainfall between 400-700 mm (24-41%) is the most common
amount (Fig. 1,2).

Fig.1. Quantitative characteristics Fig. 2. Evolution of the monthly amount of


of rainfall during 2007 - 2010, (Hîncesti) rainfall and mineralization of rainwater,
(Leova, 2007)

The dynamics of air masses determines the maximum annual variation of


rainfall in the warm season (193 mm in June) and a minimum in the cold season (20
mm in January). Annual maximum occurred almost always in hot months (Fig. 3).
The concentration of hydrogen ions (pH) has values ranging from 4.3 to
8.0. pH values indicate how much substances that cause acidity or alkalinity of
water from rainfall are contained and can characterize the aggressive properties of
water and the impact on the environment factors (natural waters, soil, vegetation)
(Fig. 4).
The annual flux of hydrogen ions in this period was between 45-52g
H+/ha/year (Fig.5). Maximum monthly amount of hydrogen ions reached 54 g
H+/ha, and the minimum 3g H+/ha under the canopy, while in open area this
quantity was 17.0 and 1.3 g H+/ha. Hydrogen ion flux ranging from 0.07 to 1.17
g/ha under the canopy and 0.03 to 0.37 g/ha in open area, which leads to
intensification of soil acidification, increasing of ion exchange capacity and as a

277
result to soil degradation. Evaluation of annual and periodic flux of mineral ions in
the atmosphere is based on quantitative rainfall estimation and determination of its
chemical composition. Obtained comparative results are given in fig.6

Fig.3. Evolution of the monthly amount of Fig.4. Distribution (%) of water samples
rainfall, (Hîncesti, 2010) according pH index

Total annual flux of mineral ions with rainfall in open area ranged from
132 kg/ha/year (2008) to 212 kg/ha/year (2010), being a function of the quantity of
rainfall and concentration of mineral ions, which in turn depends on the
accumulation of solid deposits, the origin and chemical parameters of deposition
(Cojocaru (1995); Gavrilescu (2004); Logan (1999).
Following from obtained results an experimental model for interpreting
flow of ions in forest ecosystem, capturing rainfall under canopy was proposed.

Fig. 5. Hydrogen ions flux with rainfall Fig. 6. Mineral ion flux from rainfall
* - were selected 2-3 days with rainfall in (open area)
these months

Obtained results show the following:


- Loading in mineral ions (expressed in mineralization) of the rainwater
collected under canopy is much higher than that of rainwater in the open area,
which indicates the high degree of accumulation of dry deposition of the canopy in
the interval between two drops of rain;
- Retention degree of rainfall by the canopy has values between 2-33%,
being a function of the rainfall character (heavy, quiet). In periods of low rainfall,
maximum retention by the canopy has exceeded 30%;

278
- Nitrogen compounds (ammonium ion, nitrate, nitrite) are found in
rainwater in amounts that vary widely: for ammonium ions (N-NH4+ ) - from 1.35
to 4.30 mg/dm3 (open area) and 2.1 – 7.8 mg/dm3 (canopy); for nitrogen (N-NO3- )
- from 1.35 to 6.7 mg/dm3 (open area) and 2.9 to 13.6 mg/dm3 (canopy); for
nitrogen (N-NO2- ) – 0.02 – 0.25 mg/dm3 (open area) and canopy 0.043 to 0.38
mg/dm3.
Under the canopy all these parameters recorded higher values, which is
explained by the active pursuit of the processes of decomposition of organic
substances (ammonium appearance) and its microbial oxidation (occurrence of
nitrates) in the natural nitrogen cycle: organic matter (protein complex) - amino
acid - ammonia - nitrogen. Active response from rainwater reaches pH values
ranging from 4.5 to 8.2.
Analyzing data on sulfur and nitrogen deposition compared with the scale
for different regions of Europe it can be noticed that the study area (Hincesti) in
2006-2010 corresponds to the class of large sulfur deposits, varying from 14.9
kg/ha/year (2009) to 24.8 kg/ha/year (2010). For the years 2007-2008 sulfur and
nitrogen deposition recorded intermediate values – 16.8 kg/ha/year and 22.4
kg/ha/year respectively (Fig.7).
A comparison between annual average values of sulfur deposition recorded
in open area at European level in the period 2006-2010 lies in the study area
comparable to the central-eastern Europe region, exceeding 60% of the average. In
relation to this scale deposition of total nitrogen (from nitrate ion and ammonium
ion) are small-sized deposits in the area, with average values ranging from 2.2 to
4.3 kg/ha/year N-NO3- and 7.2 to 9.3 kg/ha/year for N-NH4+. There are slight
oscillations of annual averages from year to year that do not exceed 0.6 kg/ha/year.

Fig.7. Sulfur and mineral nitrogen flux Fig. 8. The contribution of lead in soil
(Hîncesti) from rainfall
Besides the main constituents (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-) some
more constituents of the secondary and minor were determined (Cr, Cd, Zn, Pb,
Cu, Fe, Al), which indicated small amounts (0.0001 to 0.1 mg/dm3), but may have
a point of considerable importance of atmospheric pollution (Schmidt and Andern
(1980); Kondratiev (2004). The results of the heavy metal content (minor
constituents) have values that fall within acceptable limits, except Pb, which
exceeds the contents of the health index (30 mg/kg) (Fig.8).

279
The main source of air pollution is the combustion processes in order to
obtain electricity, heating or different industrial processes.
Acidifying greenhouse gases in the atmosphere result from different
activities and may persist for several hours to several days in the atmosphere, and
can be transported hundreds of miles away from the place of production. To
determine the air emissions, four basic methods are used, each with advantages,
disadvantages and limitations of use.
These are: measurement of emissions, emissions balances determination by
determining correlations and emission factors based on emission characteristics.
During the field research we used a single method - systematic measurement of
emissions is measured using a chain of appropriate measurements of the
concentration of various substances in harmful emissions. The most widespread
application of this method is monitoring of gas emitting sources from a fixed point
(ecological stationary Hincesti)
In particular, concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen (NO2) are
continuously measured. Measurements of the sulfur dioxide concentration and
nitrogen emissions have been made continuously and give the possibility to
estimate annual average values of these gases in the emissions (Fig. 9, 10).

Fig.9. Evolution of monthly average Fig.10. Evolution of monthly average


concentrations of sulfur dioxide, concentrations of nitrogen dioxide,
(Hincesti, 2010) (Hincesti, 2010)

It can be seen that values for gaseous pollutants track were well below the
limits set by current standards. There were no exceedances of the limit value (60
µg/m³ for SO2 and 40 µg/m³ for NO2) in comparison with the limit value for SO2
and NO2 in the years 2007 - 2010. Annual averages are ranging from 2 µg/m³ and 7
µg/m³ for SO2 and between 3 µg/m³ and 9 µg/m³ for NO2.
Air pollution study involves description and explanation of the origin of
pollutants and predicts the behavior of substances emitted into the atmosphere.
These substances are transported by wind and mixed into the atmosphere by the
phenomena of turbulence and sometimes land area involved and deposited by
rainfall. Turbulence is actually responsible for the dispersion of pollutants in the
area. The diffusion of atmospheric meteorological factors that have a direct
influence is wind, vertical structure of temperature and humidity and rainfall.

280
Processes to reduce the pollutant content are: 1. washing by rain - wet
deposition; 2. uptake by soil particles - solid deposits; 3. chemical transformations
of pollutants (Atkinson (1980); Logan (1999).
It was established that dispersion of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere
is weak due to: low wind speed (2.2 m/s) and high frequency of calm (51%).
Wind direction in the study area is influenced by the general appearance of
the landscape. Prevailing winds show western component SW, W, NW, 25%, 13%
and 27%. General circulation of the atmosphere requires a moderate frequency of
winds from the N (13%), NE (9%) and E (4%). The lowest annual frequencies
were S and SE winds (2.2 to 6.7%). Comparative analysis between different years
shows permanent dominance of the western component, which reached 61-65%
(Fig. 11, 12).

Fig.11. Distribution (%) on the direction Fig.12. Distribution (%) on the direction
of frontal air masses (2006) of frontal air masses (2010).

4. CONCLUSIONS

1. Ion charge in rainfall is very different, being based on various factors,


such as: the origin of air masses, the degree of purity and the crossed area in which
rainfall occurs. Total annual flux of mineral ions with rainfall in open area ranged
from 132 kg/ha/year (2008) to 212 kg/ha/year (2010), being a function of the
rainfall quantity and concentration of mineral ions, which in turn depends on the
accumulation of solid deposits, the origin and chemical parameters of deposition;
2. The degree of retention of rainfall in the canopy has values ranging
between 2-33%, depending on the rainfalls character (heavy, quiet). In periods of
low rainfall, maximum retention in the canopy has exceeded 30%;
3. Sulfur and nitrogen deposition compared with the scale for different
regions of Europe in 2006-2010 corresponds to the class of large sulfur deposits,
varying from 14.9 kg/ha/year (2009) to 24.8 kg/ha/year (2010). Quantities referring
to study area recorded intermediate values – 16.8 kg/ha/year and 22.4 kg/ha/year
respectively for the years 2007 and 2008. Total nitrogen deposition (N-NO3- and
N-NH4+) is in the reduced-sized deposits with average values ranging from 2.2 to
4.3 kg/ha/year N-NO3-and 7.2 to 9.3 kg/ha/year for N-NH4+ ;

281
4. Dispersion of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere is poor, due to low
wind speeds and high frequency of calm. Comparative analysis between different
years shows that western dominance is frequently, reaching 61-65%;
5. Correlation between the direction of air masses and the evolution of the
ions content in rain waters has been emphasized. It was established, where the
predominance of western component of rainfall, pH is between 5.6 to 6.7, to the
south - between 6.65 to 6.85, to the north-north-east – 5.8 to 5.9. Mineral ion
content is also higher when air masses “comes” from western and eastern
directions. These results indicate on transboundary pollution, which plays a
significant role in the pollution of the atmospheric air both in studied area and the
republic as a whole;
6. The content of heavy metals (minor constituents) has values that fall
within acceptable limits except Pb, which exceeds the contents of the health index
(30 mg/kg).

REFERENCES

1. Atkinson B. (1981), Mesoscale atmospheric circulations. N-J, , 496 p.


2. Cojocaru I. (1995), Surse, procese şi produse de poluare. Iaşi, Junimea, 190 p.
3. Gavrilescu M., ş.a. (2004), Reducerea poluanţilor la sursă şi minimizarea
deşeurilor. Iaşi, ed. Ecozone, 220 p.
4. Коndratiev L..М. (2004), Ecological risk of water ecosystems pollution. Vladivostok,
5. Lассе Г.Ф. (1989), Clima Moldovei. Л., 372 с.
6. Logan B.E. (1999), Environmental Transport Processes. New York, 240 p
7. R.Lozan, A. Tărîţă, M. Sandu. (2008), Fluxurile de ioni minerali şi metale grele
pe sol cu apele din precipitaţii. Buletinul AŞM, seria Ştiinţele vieţii, nr. 3, p.153-
158.
8. Pătroescu, I. Gănescu. (1980), Analiza apelor. Craiova, 345 p.
9. Stum, W., Morgan, J.J., (1981), Aquatic chemistry, an introduction Emphasizing
Chemical Equilibrium in Natural Water, 2-nd edition, John Wiley and sons, inc.
10. Schmidt J., Andren A. The atmospheric chemistry of nickel. In: Nickel in the
environment (L.O. Nriagu, ed) pp 94-

282
SPATIAL VARIATION OF STREAM POWER IN
THE BUZĂU AND IALOMIŢA RIVER CATCHMENTS (ROMANIA)

G. MINEA1, G. IOANA-TOROIMAC1, L. ZAHARIA1,


R. ZAREA2, M. BORCAN3

ABSTRACT. - Spatial variation of stream power in the Buzău and Ialomiţa


River Catchments (Romania). Stream power is a parameter that quantifies river
energy, respectively its work ability. The aim of this paper is to estimate the
stream power of rivers from the Buzău and Ialomiţa catchments and to present the
difficulties in calculating and interpreting its variation. Cross-sections
accomplished by the National Administration "Romanian Waters" were used in
fulfilling this objective, at hydrometric stations on the Ialomiţa, Prahova, Buzău,
Bâsca Chiojdului and Bâsca Rivers. Based on these profiles, and using hydraulic
methods, parameters like flow velocity, discharge and stream power were
calculated. Analysis results indicate that the rivers draining the Carpathian and
Subcarpathian regions are dynamic. They have a specific stream power of more
than 150 W/m² and are susceptible to rapid evolution. In the Romanian Plain rivers
are less energetic (a specific stream power below 40 W/m², excluding river sectors
with braided trends and incised channels). Also they are characterized by a less
intensive dynamic.

Keywords: stream power, bankfull discharge, river channel, Buzău River


catchment, Ialomiţa River catchment.

1. INTRODUCTION

Stream power is a parameter that quantifies river energy, respectively its


work ability (Bagnold, 1960).
Previous research show the usefulness of this parameter for the analysis of
sediment transport capacity (Bagnold, 1960; Allen, 1977) and processes regarding
the river channel morphology (Ferguson, 1981, 1987), especially its instability and
bank erosion (Brookes, 1987), to characterise the floods (Baker and Costa, 1987)
and for hydromorphological classifications (Schmitt, 2000).
In this context, this paper intends to be an exercise for estimating the
stream power of some Romanian rivers, to show the spatial variation of this

1
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, no 1. N. Balcescu Blvd., District 1, RO‐010041
Bucharest, Romania, e-mail: gabriel.minea@gmail.com, gabriela_toroimac@yahoo.com,
zaharialil@yahoo.com
2
“Romanian Waters” National Administration, Buzău – Ialomiţa Water Catchment Administration,
no. 20 bis Bucegi St., RO‐120208, Buzău, Romania, e-mail: razvan_zarea@yahoo.com
3
National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management, no. 97 Bucuresti – Ploiesti Road, District
1, RO‐013686, Bucharest, Romania, e-mail: bmihaela1978@yahoo.com

283
parameter on one hand, and the difficulties related to its estimation and its
interpretation on the other hand.
After a brief presentation of the study area, data and used methods are
shown, insisting on explaining the choices made in order to apply the formula for
stream power. The obtained results first refer to stream power variations, and
second to its hydrogeomorphological significance.

2. FIELD STUDY

This example of stream power calculation is applied on the Ialomiţa and


Buzău River catchments, on the homonymous rivers and their tributaries: Prahova
for Ialomiţa; Bâsca and Bâsca Chiojdului for Buzău (Table 1).
Two reasons underlie the choice of the study area. Firstly the two river
catchments extend over several relief units with different characteristics (the
Curvature Carpathians, the Curvature Subcarpathians and the Romanian Plain),
which highlights a stream power variation, depending on the morphological
characteristics of these relief units. Secondly, the analysis gets more interesting
because of the neotectonic movements affecting the active region of the external
Curvature of the Carpathians (Polonic, 2006), that could complicate the river
processes on a long-term scale.

Table 1. Morphometrical features of the studied rivers and their catchments


(according to data from Atlasul cadastrului apelor din România, 1992)
Data about
river catchment
River
L H (m) Ir A Hm
Cs
(km) source confluence (‰) (km2) (m)
Ialomiţa 417 2310 6 15 1.88 10350 327
Prahova 193 1100 56 5 1.24 3738 541
Buzău 302 1250 8 4 2.27 5264 505
Bâsca Chiojdului 42 1340 239 26 1.28 340 668
Bâsca 76 1510 395 15 1.65 783 110
L = length, H = altitude, Ir = river slope, Cs = sinuosity coefficient, A = area, H m = mean altitude.

3. DATA AND METHODOLOGY


Bagnold (1960) deduces that the stream power (Ω) corresponds to the
transformation of flow potential energy into kinetic energy, and proposes the next
formula (1):

(1)
where:
Ω represents the stream power (W/m);
ρ is the water density that is equal to 1000 g/cm3;
g is the gravitational acceleration equal to 9.8 m/s²;
Q (m3/s) is the liquid discharge and
I (m/km) is the water slope.

284
Specific stream power (ω), shown in formula (2), represents the
distribution of the stream power per unit of width of the river bed (Bagnold, 1977),
and is used for comparisons between river beds with different sizes (Ferguson,
1981):

(2)

where:
ω (W/m²) is the specific stream power;
Ω (W/m) is the stream power and
b (m) is the width of the river bed.

The intermediate parameters of these formulas were calculated based on


the cross-sections made by the "Romanian Waters" National Administration (2010)
at hydrometric stations (Figure 1), and on individual field observations. The choice
of the hydrometric stations (h.s.) and of the analyzed transverse profiles depends on
their availability from the database of the mentioned institution.

Data are obtained from processed GIS after topographic maps (scale 1:25,000)

Figure 1. Location of the studied hydrometrical station:


1 = Ialomiţa at Târgovişte h.s., 2 = Ialomiţa at Băleni-Români h.s., 3 = Ialomiţa at Siliştea Snagov h.s., 4 =
Ialomiţa at Coşereni h.s., 5 = Ialomiţa at Slobozia h.s., 6 = Prahova at Buşteni h.s., 7 = Prahova at Câmpina
h.s., 8 = Prahova at Halta Prahova h.s., 9 = Prahova at Adâncata h.s., 10 = Buzău at Nehoiu h.s., 11 = Buzău
at Măgura h.s., 12 = Buzău at Baniţa h.s., 13 = Bâsca Chiojdului at Chiojdu h.s., 14 = Bâsca at Comandău h.s.,
15 = Bâsca at Varlaam I h.s., 16 = Bâsca at Bâsca Roziliei h.s. and 17 = Bâsca Mică at Varlaam II h.s.

Depending on the use of stream power in various types of analysis, the


discharge used in this formula may have certain significations. It can be a
maximum discharge with recurrences probability or