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Functions of the Cell Membrane:

ACTIVE TRANSPORT
Group 4

Golla, Nathaniel - De Guzman, Andresito - Chiang, Justin -Juano, Kimberly

Group 5

Tolentino, Nalesca - Tonga, Justin - Valenzela, Harlene - Malabanan, Ara Jean –


Romasanta, Aradhell
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
FROM HIGH TO LOW
CONCENTRATION
USES ATP TO PUMP
SUBSTANCES INTO THE NO ENERGY NEEDED
CELLS BOTH
INVOLVED INCLUDES OSMOSIS AND
INVOLVES CHEMICAL ENERGY THE SIMPLE DIFFUSION
TRANSPORT
OF A
AGAINST A SUBSTANCE DOWN A
CONCENTRATION ACROSS A CONCENTRATION
GRADIENT MEMBRANE GRADIENT
INCLUDES ENDOCYTOSIS

NO ATP REQUIRED
FROM LOW TO HIGH
CONCENTRATION
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
RESULTS AND
INTERPRETATION
TABLE 4.1. DIFFERENT WEIGHTS PER
10-MIN INTERVAL IN DIFFERENT
CONCENTRATIONS
Time (min) A B C

0 2.9 7.5 3.8

10 3.4 8.1 11.8

20 3.5 8.2 12.0

30 3.8 8.4 12.0

40 3.7 8.6 12.2

50 3.9 8.6 12.1

60 4.1 8.8 11.9

LOWER HALF RESULTS


Time (min) A B C

0 2.9 8.8 8.6

10 3.4 8.9 8.9

20 3.7 9.0 9.0

30 3.8 9.1 9.1

40 3.9 9.2 9.3

50 4.0 9.3 9.5

60 4.1 9.4 9.7

UPPER HALF RESULTS


COMPUTATION OF AREA AND RATE

or
Time (min) RATE A RATE B RATE C

10 0.00208 cm/min 0.00214 cm/min 0.04 cm/min

20 0.00125 cm/min 0.00125 cm/min 0.0205 cm/min

30 0.00125 cm/min 0.00107 cm/min 0.01367 cm/min

40 0.00083 cm/min 0.00098 cm/min 0.0105 cm/min

50 0.00083 cm/min 0.00079 cm/min 0.0083 cm/min

60 0.00083 cm/min 0. 00077 cm/min 0.0675 cm/min

LOWER HALF RESULTS


RATE OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT
WITH CYANIDE
9.8
9.6
9.4
9.2
9
8.8
8.6
8.4
8.2
8
B C
RATE OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT IN
ALL SETUP
0.0014

0.0012

0.001

0.0008

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

0
A B C
Series1 0.00089 0.00036 0.00124
ANSWER TO GUIDE
QUESTIONS
EXPLAIN WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE
TOAD SKIN WAS IMMERSED IN
RINGER'S SOLUTION.

• In the first setup, there was an increase in the final


weight of the toad's skin. This can be attributed to
the fact that the external environment which is
the Ringer's solution has salts on it and toad's skin
contains lesser concentration of the salt in
comparison, allowing both passive and active
transport to set in.
EXPLAIN WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE TOAD
SKIN WITH 1:1 RATIO OF RINGER'S:NACN
SOLUTION WAS IMMERSED IN THE BEAKER
WITH 1:1 RATIO RINGER'S:NACN SOLUTION.

• In comparison to the setup A, cyanide now


inhibits albeit slowly, the active transport which
in turn reduces the rate of transport which can
be seen in the results.
EXPLAIN WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE TOAD
SKIN WITH 1:1 RATIO OF RINGER’S:NACN
SOLUTION WAS IMMERSED IN THE BEAKER
WITH 1:2 RATIO RINGER'S:NACN SOLUTION.

• Since the amount of NaCN is increased compared to


setup B, the rate of reaction theoretically will even
be more significantly slower.
EXPLAIN THE EFFECTS OF NACN
IN ACTIVE TRANSPORT

• The Cyanide in NaCN inhibits Cytochrome oxidase


therefore preventing the production of the ATP which
would prevent the active transport mechanism to push
through due to the lack of an energy source.
DISCUSS THE
PRINCIPLE OF
ACTIVE
TRANSPORT
• LOWER TO HIGHER
• Active transport uses energy to move
substances against (up) a
concentration gradient or across a
partially permeable membrane. In
active transport, a special transport
protein in the cell membrane picks up
the useful particle on one side of the
membrane. The transport protein then
rotates through the membrane and
releases the particle on the other side of
the membrane. This uses energy from
cellular respiration.
• Active transport is used to move substances into the
cells and out of cells. Cells which carry out a lot of
active transport often have lots of mitochondria to give
them the energy that they need. Active transport is
important in the kidney for hanging on to the
substances needed by the body such as glucose and
some sodium ions.
EXPLAIN WHY TOAD SKIN WAS
USED IN THIS ACTIVITY

• The toad skin was chosen


because it is thinner
compared to a mammalian
skin and it is openly absorbing
from the external environment
because of the nature of
amphibians that can both live
in an aquatic and terrestrial
environment.
REFERENCE
Retrieved on <https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/cells/transport-
across-a-cell-membrane/a/passive-transport-and-active-transport-across-a-cell-
membrane-article>

Retrived on <https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/1865/smpc>

Retrieved on <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1249438/>