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UAS Ganjil 2016

D3 Pajak Tingkat 1

Bahasa Inggris
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Adjectives derive from verbs or verbsfunction as adjectives

Main Points

• Many adjectives ending in ‘- ing’ describe the effect that something has on someone’s

• Some adjectives ending in ‘- ing’ describe a process or state that continues over a
period of time.

• Many adjectives ending in ‘- ed’describepeople’sfeelings

1. ing-form (Present Participle)

A. To describe the effect that something has on someone’s feeling.
If you talk about ‘a surprising gift’, it means that the gift surprises you.

alarming, amazing, annoying,astonishing, boring

charming,confusing, convincing, depressing,

disappointing, embarrassing, exciting, frightening, interesting, shocking,

surprising, terrifying, tiring, welcoming, worrying


• He lives in a ‘charming house’ just outside the town.

It means that the house charms him.

• She always has a warm ‘welcoming smile’.

It means that her smile welcomes people.

B. To describe a process or state that continues over a period of time.

ageing, booming, decreasing, dying, existing,increasing, living, remaining

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• Britain is an ageing society.

• Increasing prices are making food very expensive.

2. ed-form (Past Participle)

To describe people’s feelings.
They have the same form as the past participle of a transitive verb and have a passive

alarmed, amused, astonished, bored, delighted, depressed, disappointed,

excited,frightened, interested, satisfied, shocked, surprised, tired, troubled, worried


• She looks alarmed about something.

• A bored student complained to his teacher.

• She had bigbluefrightenedeyes.

*Participial Adjectives can be :

 Used in front of a noun

 They still show amazing loyalty to their parents.
 This is the most terrifying tale ever written.
 I was thanked by the satisfied customer.
 The worriedauthoritiescancelledthematch.
 Used after link verbs
 It’s amazing what they can do.
 The present situation is terrifying.
 He felt satisfied with all the work he has done.
 My husbandwasworried.

 Modified by adverbial: quite, really, and very

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 The film was quite boring.
 There is nothing very surprising.
 She was quite astonished at his behavior.
 He was a verydisappointedyoungman.

 Used in thecomparative and superlative

 His argument was more convincing than mine.
 He became even more depressed after she died.
 This is one of the most boring books I’ve ever read.
 She was the most interested in going to the cinema.


 What is a clause?
A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.
 An independent clause is a complete sentence.It contains the main subject and a verb
of a sentence.
 A dependent clause is not a complete sentence.It must be connected to an
independent clause.
 A noun clause is used as a subject or an object.
In other words, a noun clause is used in the same ways as a noun.

 Words used to introduce noun clauses:

• When whether that

• Where if
• Why
• How
• Who
• Whom
• What
• Which
• Whose

A noun A noun clause

 His story is interesting.  What he said was interesting.

 I heard his story.  I heard what he said.

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 Noun Clause beginning with question words
Question: Noun Clause:

• Where does he live? • I don’t know where he lives.

• What did he say? • I couldn’t hear what he said.

• When did they arrive? • Do you know when they arrived?
• Who lives there? • I don’t know who lives there.
• What happened?
• Please tell me what happened.
• Who is at the door?
• I wonder who at the door is.
• Who is she?
• I don’t know who she is.
• Who are those men?
• Whose house it that? • I don’t know who those men are.
• What did he say? • I wonder whose house that is.
• What should they do? • What he said surprised me.
• What they should do is obvious.

 Noun Clausebeginning with whether/if

Yes / No Question: Noun Clause
• Will she come? • I don’t know whether she will come.
• Does she need help? • I wonder if she needs help.
• I wonder whether or not she will
• I wonder whether she will come or
• I wonder if she will come or not
• Whether she will come or not

 Question words followed by infinitives

Examples: • Pam can’t decide whether she should

go or stay home.
• I don’t know what I should do.

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• Please tell me how I can get to the • Pam can’t decide whether to go or
bus station. (to) stay home.

• Jim told us where we could find it. • Please tell me how to get to the bus
• I don’t know what to do.
• Jim told us where to find it.

 Noun Clause which begin with ‘that’

Statement: Noun Clause:

• He is a good actor. • I think (that) he is a good actor.

• The world is round. • We know (that) the world is round.

• She doesn’t understand spoken • That she doesn’t understand spoken

English. English is obvious.

• It is obvious (that) she doesn’t

understand spoken English.
• The sun rises from the east.
• That the sun rises from the east is a

• It is a fact (that) the sun rises from

the east


 Adverb clauses are dependent clauses. They cannot stand alone.

 Words that introduce adverb clauses  SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: when,
because, as soon as, while, after, before, although, whenever, since, if, once, etc.

1. Expressing Contrast (Unexpected Result):

o Becauseis used toexpress expected result.
o Even though is used to express unexpected result.


 Becausethe weather was cold, I didn’t go swimming.

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 Even though the weather was cold, I went swimming.
 Because I wasn’t tired, I didn’t go to bed.
 Even though I wasn’t tired, I went to bed.

2. Showing Cause and Effect: using adverb clauses

 He went to bed becausehe was sleepy.
 Now that the semester is over, I’m going to take a trip.
 Sinceyou’re a good cook and I’m not, you should cook the dinner.

3. Showing Direct Contrast: ‘WHILE’ and ‘WHEREAS’

Mary is rich, whereas / while John is poor.

4. Adverb Clauses of Condition:

o Whether or not expresses the idea that neither this condition nor that condition
matters; the result will be the same.
o Sentences with even if are close in meaning to those with whether or not.


 I’m going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not it is cold.

 I have decided to go swimming tomorrow. Even if the weather is cold , I’m going
to go swimming.


o In case and in the event that express the idea that something probably won’t happen,
but it might.
o In the event that is more formal than in case.
o The use of should in the adverb clause emphasizes the speaker’s uncertainty that
something will happen.


 In the event that you (should) need to reach me, I’ll be at my uncle’s house.
 I’ll be at my uncle’s house in case you (should) need to reach me.

o Unless = if ….not


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 I’ll go swimming tomorrow unless it is cold.
 I’ll go swimming tomorrow if it is not cold.

o Only if expresses the idea that there is only one condition that will cause a particular


 The picnic will be canceled only if it rains.

 Only if it rainswill the picnic be canceled.
 Only when the teacher dismisses us can we stand and leave the room.
 Only after the phone rang did I realize that I had fallen asleep in my chair.
 Only in my hometown do I feel at ease


Overview Conditional Sentence

 Conditional I (True in the Present or Future)

 If-clause  uses simple present to express true, factual ideas in the present/future.
 The result clause has various possible verb forms. A result clause verb can be:
- Simple Present
If I don’t eat breakfast, I always get hungry during class.
- Simple Future
If I don’t eat breakfast tomorrow morning, I will get hungry during class.
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- Modals and phrasal modals
If it rains, we shouldstay at home.
If it rains, I might decide to stay home.

 Conditional II (Untrue in the Present or Future)


 If I were you, I would accept their invitation.

(In fact, I am not you)

*Notes: ‘Were’ is used for both singular and plural subjects

 If I had enough money, I would buy a car.

(In fact, the speaker wants a car, but doesn’t have enough money)

 Would expresses desired or predictable results.

 If I had enough money, I could buy a car.

 Could expresses possible options

 Conditional III (Untrue in the Past)


 If you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you.
(In fact, you didn’t tell me about it.
 If I hadn’t slipped on the stairs, I wouldn’t have broken my arm.
(In fact, I slipped on the stairs, so I broke my arm.)

*Notes: The auxiliary verbs are almost always contracted in speech.

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