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6.

0 RESULT

6.1 TABULATION DATA

TEST 1, 𝑉 = 10 𝑚/𝑠

Manometer height (tube 20), ℎ0 = 203 𝑚𝑚

ℎ − ℎ0 𝑃 − 𝑃0
Location Angle, 𝜃(°) ℎ (𝑚𝑚) 𝑃 (𝑘𝑃𝑎) 𝐶𝑝 𝐶𝑝 cos 𝜃
(𝑚𝑚) (𝑃𝑎)
101.302 -23.073 −0.3767 −0.3767
1 0 200 -3
101.317 -7.691 −0.1256 −0.1237
2 10 202 -1
101.332 7.691 0.1256 0.1180
3 20 204 1
101.348 23.073 0.3767 0.3262
4 30 206 3
101.379 53.837 0.8790 0.6734
5 40 210 7
101.410 84.601 1.3812 0.8878
6 50 214 11
101.440 115.366 1.8835 0.9418
7 60 218 15
101.456 130.748 2.1347 0.7301
8 70 220 17
101.448 123.057 2.0091 0.3489
9 80 219 16
101.440 115.366 1.8835 0.0000
10 90 218 15
101.448 123.057 2.0091 −0.3489
11 100 219 16
101.456 130.748 2.1347 −0.7301
12 110 220 17
101.456 130.748 2.1347 −1.0674
13 120 220 17
101.456 130.748 2.1347 −1.3722
14 130 220 17
101.456 130.748 2.1347 −1.6353
15 140 220 17
101.463 138.439 2.2602 −1.9574
16 150 221 18
101.463 138.439 2.2602 −2.1239
17 160 221 18
101.471 146.130 2.3858 −2.3500
18 170 222 19
101.471 146.130 2.3858 −2.3858
19 180 222 19

Table 6.1.1
TEST 2, 𝑉 = 20 𝑚/𝑠

Manometer height (tube 20), ℎ0 = 159 𝑚𝑚

ℎ − ℎ0 𝑃 − 𝑃0
Location Angle, 𝜃(°) ℎ (𝑚𝑚) 𝑃 (𝑘𝑃𝑎) 𝐶𝑝 𝐶𝑝 cos 𝜃
(𝑚𝑚) (𝑃𝑎)

1 0 159 0 101.325 0.000 0.0000 0.0000

2 10 162 3 101.348 23.073 0.0939 0.0925

3 20 172 13 101.424 99.984 0.4081 0.3835

4 30 186 27 101.532 207.658 0.8476 0.7340

5 40 202 43 101.656 330.715 1.3499 1.0341

6 50 219 60 101.786 461.462 1.8835 1.1795

7 60 232 73 101.886 561.446 2.2916 1.1458

8 70 232 73 101.886 561.446 2.2916 0.7838

9 80 232 73 101.886 561.446 2.2916 0.3979

10 90 231 72 101.879 553.755 2.2602 0.0000

11 100 231 72 101.879 553.755 2.2602 −0.3925

12 110 232 73 101.871 561.446 2.2916 −0.7838

13 120 232 73 101.879 561.446 2.2916 −1.1458

14 130 233 74 101.894 569.137 2.3230 −1.4932

15 140 234 75 101.902 576.828 2.3544 −1.8036

16 150 235 76 101.910 584.519 2.3857 −2.0661

17 160 236 77 101.917 592.210 2.4172 −2.2714

18 170 236 77 101.917 592.210 2.4172 −2.3805

19 180 237 78 101.924 599.901 2.4486 −2.4486

Table 6.1.2
6.2 SAMPLE CALCULATION

1. Test 1 ( refer on Table 1 no 4)


Velocity, 𝑣 = 10 𝑚/𝑠

Initial height, ℎ0 = 204 𝑚𝑚

Atmospheric pressure, 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101325 𝑃𝑎 = 101.325 𝑘𝑃𝑎

Gravitational Force = 9.81 𝑚/𝑠

SG of ethyl alcohol = 0.784

Calculation of density of ethyl alcohol:


𝜌
𝑆𝐺 = 𝜌 = 0.784
ℎ2 𝑜

𝜌 = 0.784 × 1000 = 784 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

Calculation of Pressure, P and Pressure Difference, 𝑃 − 𝑃0 :

𝑃 = 𝜌𝑔∆ℎ

= 784 × 9.81 × 0.003

𝑃 = 23.073 𝑃𝑎 = 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒

𝑃 = 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒 + 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚

= 23.073 + 101325

= 101348073 𝑃𝑎 = 101.348 𝑘𝑃𝑎

𝑃 − 𝑃0 = 101.355 − 101.325 = 23.073 𝑃𝑎


Calculation of Pressure Coefficient, 𝐶𝑝 and 𝐶𝑝 cos 𝜃 :

𝑃 − 𝑃0
𝐶𝑝 =
1⁄ 𝜌𝑉 2
2

−23.073
𝐶𝑝 =
1⁄ (1.225)(10)2
2
𝐶𝑝 = 0.3767

𝐶𝑝 cos 𝜃 = 0.3767 cos 30 = 0.3262

2. Test 2 ( refer on Table 2 no 4)


Velocity, 𝑣 = 20 𝑚/𝑠

Initial height, ℎ0 = 159 𝑚𝑚

Atmospheric pressure, 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101325 𝑃𝑎 = 101.325 𝑘𝑃𝑎

Gravitational Force = 9.81 𝑚/𝑠

SG of ethyl alcohol = 0.784

Calculation of density of ethyl alcohol:


𝜌
𝑆𝐺 = 𝜌 = 0.784
ℎ2 𝑜

𝜌 = 0.784 × 1000 = 784 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3


Calculation of Pressure, P and Pressure Difference, 𝑃 − 𝑃0 :

𝑃 = 𝜌𝑔∆ℎ

= 784 × 9.81 × 0.027

𝑃 = 207.658 𝑃𝑎 = 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒

𝑃 = 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒 + 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚

= 207.658 + 101325

= 101532.6 𝑃𝑎 = 101.533 𝑘𝑃𝑎

𝑃 − 𝑃0 = 101.355 − 101.325 = 207.658 𝑃𝑎

Calculation of Pressure Coefficient, 𝐶𝑝 and 𝐶𝑝 cos 𝜃 :

𝑃 − 𝑃0
𝐶𝑝 =
1⁄ 𝜌𝑉 2
2

207.658
𝐶𝑝 =
1⁄ (1.225)(20)2
2
𝐶𝑝 = 0.8476

𝐶𝑝 cos 𝜃 = 0.8476 cos 30 = 0.7340


6.3 GRAPH

Pressure coefficient VS Location on the


circumference of the cylinder
3
2.5
Pressure coefficient

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
-0.5
-1
Location on the circumference of the cylinder
coefficient

Figure 6.3.1 : Graph of Pressure Coefficient against Location on the circumference of the
cylinder (Test 1)

Pressure coefficient VS Location on the


circumference of the cylinder
3
Pressure coefficient

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 5 10 15 20

Location on the circumference of the cylinder


Cp

Figure 6.3.2 : Graph of Pressure Coefficient against Location on the circumference of the
cylinder (Test 2)