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Numerical Models in Fluid-Structure Interaction

Chapter 10

Coupled analysis of offshore floating systems

H. Ormberg, H. Lie & C.T. Stansberg


MARINTEK
Trondheim, Norway.

10.1 Introduction

Traditionally, quite different numerical approaches have been required in the


dynamic analysis of complete offshore floating systems, including the motions
of a floater as well as dynamic responses in moorings and risers. Thus, while the
hydrodynamic forces on the floater are usually modelled by a large-volume
diffraction-radiation analysis based on potential theory with a rigid body, the
responses on lines and risers are obtained from slender-body analysis with
elastic elements. Also, the actual time scales needed in the numerical
implementations may be quite different. Therefore, the total (or global) analysis
has traditionally been carried out in two steps, by the so-called de-coupled
approach where the forces from the lines/riser on the floater are first modelled as
simplified spring elements and empirical damping coefficients. Then the slender-
body responses are analysed using the predicted floater motions as input.
This approach is widely in use and is often a valuable tool if properly
calibrated and validated. However, dynamic coupling effects between the
slender line/riser system and the rigid hull are not directly modelled and must be
approximated in one way or another, depending on the type of floater system. A
more direct modelling, called coupled analysis, has been developed during the
last decade, where the coupling effects are accounted for by including the

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floater-force model as an integrated part in the slender-body analysis. This yields


a simultaneous analysis of all motions and response dynamics in the system. One
challenge encountered with this approach has been the considerable computing
time required, due to, for example, simultaneous finite-element models of each
line and riser. But with the fast development of computing speed and efficiency,
the potential application area of coupled analysis seems to increase significantly.
A basic methodology for the coupled analysis, with examples from a
numerical implementation, was presented by Ormberg et al. [1], and further
discussed by Ormberg and Larsen [2]. Other developments following the same
principles include, e.g., those by Kim et al. [3] and Ma et al. [4]. Similar tools
have also been described by Wichers and Huijsmans [5], and Luo and Baudic
[6]. General aspects on the use of coupled analysis in a wide area of offshore
applications were presented by Løken et al. [7]. The use of coupled analysis to
illustrate particular effects has been demonstrated by Astrup et al. [8].
In this chapter, the basic principles and some practical applications of
coupled analysis are reviewed. A brief introduction into offshore floating
systems and global analysis is given first, followed by an overview of coupled
analysis with definitions and main characteristics. Basic principles of numerical
methods are then described. Finally, some examples on implementation,
validation and practical use are shown.

10.2 Introduction to offshore floating-system behaviour

In this section, an overview of some typical offshore floating systems and their
key components is presented in general terms, as a practical background for the
global system analysis in the later sections. Key response characteristics of the
systems are also described, which are crucial to take into account when
performing coupled analysis on the different systems. The following is based
partly on descriptions in [7, 9, 10].
The main components of an offshore floating system normally include one
or several floaters, a positioning system, and risers (and possibly other flow
lines). Together, they comprise an integrated dynamic system responding to
environmental loading due to wind, waves and current in a complex way. The
station-keeping system consists of a mooring system, often combined with
thrusters, or it consists of pre-tensioned tendons for tension-leg platforms
(TLPs).
Both mooring lines and risers are commonly termed slender marine
structures, to emphasise similarities in their system topology and global
behaviour. Their main difference in mechanical properties, which affects the
global analysis, is normally that the riser responses are influenced by bending
stiffness, while mooring lines are not.

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The floater motions are most often described by separating them into the
following components:
• Mean response due to steady current, mean wave drift and mean wind load
st
• Wave-frequency (WF) response due to 1 -order wave excitations
• Low-frequency (LF) response due to wave drift, wind gusts and viscous drift
• High-frequency (HF) response (e.g., TLP)
• Hull VIV (e.g., SPAR, TLP, SEMI)
These response components will consequently also be reflected in the slender-
structure response.
The overall purpose of global analysis of floating offshore installations is
the accurate prediction of floater motions as well as responses in the station-
keeping system and the risers. Input waves and wind are usually modelled as
stochastic processes. Consistent treatment of the coupling (interaction) effects
between the floater and the slender structures is decisive for adequate prediction
of floater motions, as well as riser- and station-keeping-system responses.

10.2.1 Floaters
A common feature of all types of floaters is that they utilise excess buoyancy to
support deck payload and provide tensions to mooring and riser system. They
are, therefore, weight sensitive to some extent.
Typical floater concepts for application are floating mono-hull vessels
(FPSO), semisubmersibles (SEMI), spar buoys (SPAR) and tension-leg
platforms (TLP).
Depending on the location of the field and the sea state, ocean waves contain
energy for (1st-order) wave periods in the range 5−25 s. For a floating unit, the
eigenperiods of the 6 different modes of rigid motions are, therefore, of primary
interest, and in many cases reflected in the design philosophy. Typical motion
eigenperiods of different floaters are presented in Table 10.1.

Table 10.1 Typical eigenperiods of floaters.


Unit FPSO SEMI SPAR TLP
Surge > 100 > 100 > 100 > 100
Sway > 100 > 100 > 100 > 100
Heave 5−12 20−50 19−35 <5
Roll 5−30 30−60 50−90 <5
Pitch 5−12 30−60 50−90 <5
Yaw >100 > 100 > 100 > 100

Another common characteristic of all floater types is that they are “soft” in
the horizontal plane, implying that the surge, sway and yaw periods are generally

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longer than 100 s. The fundamental differences among the floaters are related to
their motions in the vertical plane, i.e. heave, roll and pitch.
The heave motion of the units is decisive for the choice of riser (and
mooring) system. As indicated in Table 10.1 FPSO will be excited in resonance
for heave motions, which means that this unit will have relatively large vertical
motions. Both SEMI and SPAR have larger eigenperiods in heave than typical
1st-order wave periods and will have less vertical motions compared to the
FPSO. TLP will have small motions due to waves because of the stiff vertical
mooring (tender system).

10.2.1.1 FPSO A ship-shaped floating production, storage and offloading unit


(FPSO) consists of a ship-shaped hull with production equipment on deck. The
unit is normally designed for oil storage and offloading. Figure 10.1 illustrates
an FPSO system.
In hostile waters (e.g., Norwegian Sea, Offshore Canada) the unit will
normally be installed with a turret. This is a device that allows the unit to rotate
around the turret without twisting the risers and the mooring lines. The crucial
benefit with using a turret is that it allows the ship to rotate with the prevailing
weather and thus reduce the environmental loads on the unit and its responses.
The turret also provides the medium for the connection between the riser and
mooring system and the unit. The fluid transfer from the riser to the hull can
either be via a swivel system or by a drag-chain system. A turret can either be
located inside the hull (internal turret) or in front of its bow (external turret).
In more benign waters (e.g., West of Africa, Offshore Brazil) a simpler riser
and mooring systems can be applied. Here, a spread mooring system can be used
together with a riser system that is terminated directly to the unit. Alternatively,
one may apply a CALM buoy to moor an FPSO.
Because of the large superstructures of the FPSO the wind forces will often
be dominant relative to the current forces, at least for ship-shaped floaters.
Since the eigenperiods of all vertical modes of motion are in the wave period
range (see Table 10.1) an FPSO will experience significant wave-frequency
motions. It is therefore necessary to use flexible riser systems, at least for harsh
environments.

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Figure 10.1: Example of a FPSO system with internal turret.

Mono-hulls normally experience significant low-frequency (LF) responses


in the horizontal plane. The LF forces act in the same frequency range as the
unit's horizontal eigenperiods, i.e. giving a resonance-dominated dynamic
system. For such systems, the damping becomes a crucial limiting factor for the
magnitude of response. Ship-shaped units will normally have relatively large
damping in sway and yaw because of drag forces acting on the hull. However,
the hull damping in surge can often be small and one may find significant surge-
induced response. The damping forces from the mooring and riser system can be
important contributions for the LF surge motion.
Fishtailing is an unstable coupled yaw and sway motion excited by mean
forces/moments from wind, waves and current. It is associated with the
horizontal stiffness of the mooring system and the location of the turret.
The responses of an FPSO are sensitive to the direction of the environment
(i.e. waves, wind and current) versus vessel heading. Non-aligned environmental
conditions may often cause larger responses than a corresponding aligned
environmental condition. Also, a combination of wind-generated waves and
swell with different headings can cause large vessel responses and should be
considered in an analysis of the unit's behaviour.

10.2.1.2 Semisubmersible A semisubmersible is usually a column-stabilized


unit, which consists of a deck structure with large-diameter support columns
attached between the deck and the submerged pontoons, see example in Figure

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10.2. The pontoons may be ring pontoons, twin pontoons or multi-footing


arrangement.
A SEMI will normally not have storage capacity for oil. Since this unit has
small water-plane areas, it is sensitive to deck-weight changes and one must use
active ballasting in order to achieve acceptable hydrostatic stability.
Since the semisubmersibles have the small water-plane areas, the natural
periods (in vertical modes) become relative high, i.e. slightly above 20 s. This is
usually outside the range of wave period except for extreme sea states. This
implies small vertical motions compared to the mono-hull. However, the
behaviour in extreme weather requires flexible, compliant metallic riser systems
or a hybrid arrangement for this concept.
A semisubmersible may be quipped with a variety of spread mooring
systems similar to a FPSO.
Compared to the ship-shaped floaters, current forces will be larger on semi-
submersibles due to bluff shapes of the underwater columns and pontoons. Wind
loads still dominate the mean forces, except in calm areas with strong currents.
A SEMI is less sensitive for environmental direction versus vessel heading,
compared to a ship-shaped floater.

Figure 10.2: Example of semisubmersible system.

As shown in Table 10.1 the eigenperiods of the motion modes are all above
the range of natural wave periods. However, the wave-frequency motions are not
insignificant, especially in extreme conditions.

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Large semisubmersibles with displacements of 100,000 tons or more are


generally less sensitive to WF responses. Static and LF responses can be server
and LF response may be more dominating in the roll and pitch motions.
For SEMIs, wave impact underneath the deck due to insufficient airgap may
influence the global motions and local structural responses. These loads are
normally difficult to calculate and model testing is often recommended.
Catenary-moored SEMIs may experience significant dynamic mooring
forces due to WF responses.

10.2.1.3 SPAR A SPAR unit, see Figure 10.3, is categorized as a deep-draft


floater with small heave motions. The deck/topside may be modular or
integrated type. The hull has a central moonpool for a riser system in tension.
The hard-tank area provides buoyancy and part below may constitute a shell
structure (Classic SPAR) or a truss structure (Truss SPAR). The Classic SPAR
may also provide a large oil-storage capacity.
With a typical draft of 150−200 m (450−650 feet) and a diameter of 30−40
m (90−120 feet), the SPAR has a large area exposed to current forces, which is
usually the dominant mean force on SPAR. Low-frequency vortex-induced
oscillations may increase the effective drag leading to even higher mean current
forces.
By applying strakes on the SPAR hull, the vortex-induced cross-flow
oscillation can be reduced by 50 to 80 per cent compared to the oscillation of a
bared SPAR. However, the strakes will increase the cross-section the hull.
Consequently, the reduction in drag coefficient obtained by strakes may more or
less be cancelled by the increased exposed area, resulting in the same amount of
drag forces as for a bared SPAR. The strakes will also increase the added mass.
The SPAR normally uses rigid top-tensioned vertical risers, where the risers
are supported inside the moonpool by either air cans or by a heave-compensator
system. The latter system will introduce a higher coupling between the riser
system and the unit's heave motion, as the heave restoring as well as eigenperiod
will be influenced by the riser system. This also means that heave-damping
assessment will be crucial for prediction of the SPAR heave response.
The WF part of the surge motion of a SPAR will have a rotation centre close
to the keel. This is because the wave-particle accelerations are the main
excitation force, which decrease from the water surface and because the SPAR
reacts as an inertia-dominated dynamic system.

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Figure 10.3: Example of a deep-draft platform, Genesis Classic SPAR (by


permission of ChevronTexaco Corporation).

The LF excitation forces are mainly wave-drift forces and wind-gust forces.
These forces act near the water surface and consequently the platform will
basically be excited by the pitch mode with a rotation centre close to COG near
the fairlead. This means that the participant from LF and WF motion varies
along the hull, where a significant contribution from WF excitation is found in
the upper part, while the keel motion is entirely dominated by the LF motion.
Current fluctuation may induce significant excitation forces on a SPAR. The
amount of fluctuation and the correlation along the water depth are central issues
when determining the level of this excitation.
Due to low WF motions, the SPAR is generally not subject to large dynamic
mooring line forces. This has to be evaluated in relation to the selected location
of fairlead and the increase of WF motion towards the waterline. As an example,

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by moving the fairlead from a typical position at mid-draft against the surface,
the dynamic force will increase because of the increased WF motion and also the
mooring-line damping relevant for the LF pitch motion will increase.
Consequently, the mooring-line tension will increase and the LF pitch motion
will decrease by this change.

10.2.1.4 Tension-leg platform A tension-leg platform is a buoyant


installation connected to fixed foundations by pre-tensioned tendons. The hull
may be composed of buoyant columns, pontoons and bracings, see Figure 10.4.
The TLP is restrained from oscillating vertically by the tendons, which are
tensioned by the hull buoyancy being larger than the hull weight. Because the
tendons system will give a high stiffness in the vertical plane, no hydrostatic
(water-plane) stiffness from columns is needed for TLPs, despotised from the
other floaters where this is a crucial property. As for the SEMI, TLP is
considered to be relatively weight sensitive. Mini-TLPs with multiple or single
columns have been designed and installed. Conceptual designs on heave
restricted (free to roll/pitch) TLPs have been performed, but so far no such
concept has been built.

Figure 10.4: Illustration of a tension-leg platform.

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The riser system may typically consist of top-tensioned risers, flexible or


compliant metallic risers as steel catenary risers.
The TLP is basically free to move in the horizontal plane (surge, sway and
pitch), but restrained in motion in the vertical plane (heave, roll and pitch). This
means that a TLP will have about the same motions in the horizontal plane as a
SEMI with comparable size. In the vertical plane, however, the TLP will behave
like a fixed platform with hardly any wave-frequency motions, because the stiff
tendons counteract the WF forces.
Higher-order wave forces at different sum frequencies may introduce
resonant, stationary (springing) or transient (ringing) responses in the vertical
plane. These force components may give significant contributions to both
extreme and fatigue tether loads.
Because the tendons are axially stiff, the TLP will move along a spherical
surface (like an up-down pendulum system). This results in a vertical set-down
when the TLP is moving (both statically and dynamically) in the horizontal
plane. The set-down is important to the wave air-gap, tether forces and riser-
system response. Top-tensioned risers will normally have heave compensators in
order to account for the vertical set-down.

10.2.2 General characteristics of positioning and riser systems


Positioning system: The primary function of a station-keeping system is to keep
the floater within position tolerances. The station-keeping system is governed by
a passive mooring system, sometimes combined with a dynamic-positioning
(DP) system using thrusters. Hence, a mooring system acts basically as a
"spring" system, where the restoring-force characteristics are given by the
number of mooring lines, line-layout pattern, pre-tension and restoring-force
characteristics for each individual line. Conventionally, mooring lines consist of
a steel-rope segment, a chain segment or a combination of these segments.
Sometimes one also includes buoys and/or clump weights to a mooring line in
order to achieve the required restoring characteristics and line performance.
For deep-water systems, the cost and weight of traditional mooring will
increase. Hence one has been looking for alternative materials, such as synthetic
fibre ropes and alternative configurations, e.g., taut or semi-taut mooring
systems. These systems may give vertical lift forces on the anchor, which must
be accounted for in the anchor design.

Riser system: The main functional requirements for marine risers are to provide
for transfer of fluids and gas between seafloor and a floater. It is convenient to
distinguish between top-tensioned rigid risers and compliant risers. The first
riser type basically consists of vertical steel pipes that are sensitive to floater
motions and hence will require floater types with small heave motions, such as

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TLP and SPAR floaters. The benefit of using top-tensioned risers is that one
may use dry wells (located on the unit's deck), which gives easy access to the
well. One critical response on these riser systems is bending moments introduced
by wave-loading and floater motions. In order to reduce high local bending
moments, taper joints, bell-mouth, flex-joints or ball joints are introduced at the
bottom and at support point(s) on the floater.
Compliant riser systems consist of either conventional flexible (unbounded)
risers or metallic catenary risers. The flexible risers are characterized by its large
capacity regarding tensile loading and external/internal pressure combined with
low bending stiffness and low critical radius of curvature. The desired cross-
sectional properties are normally obtained by introduction of a flexible layered
pipe where each layer has a dedicated function. They accept more floater
motions than the top-tensioned riser systems and all type of floaters can
normally be used to support them. A metallic catenary riser system consists
normally of a steel or titanium pipe, which has been given a compliant
configuration, such as a free-hanging or a lazy wave. These riser systems also
accept some floater motions, but are more sensitive to floater motions than the
flexible risers systems.
Compliant riser systems are normally used with wet wells located at the
seafloor.

10.3 Overview of coupled analysis

The following is basically taken from the original descriptions in [1, 2].

10.3.1 De-coupled analysis


The response analysis of a moored floating structure and the load effects in
mooring lines and risers, has traditionally been carried out as a sequence of de-
coupled analysis with the two main steps as illustrated in Figure 10.5:
1) The floater motions are first calculated with the stiffness from moorings and
risers modelled by springs, and with their load and damping effects included
as additional “vessel coefficients”. Motion responses of the floater are often
also separated into wave-frequency (WF) and low-frequency (LF) responses.
2) Dynamic-response analysis of individual mooring elements and risers, using
the previously calculated vessel-motion responses from step 1 as top-end
excitations.

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Two main simplifications are usually made:


- The velocity-dependent (damping) forces, which for most concepts are very
important for accurate estimates of LF-motions, are either neglected or
implemented in a rough manner by (linear) damping forces acting on the
floater itself.
- The effect on the floater from mooring and riser current forces are either
neglected or incorporated simplified as an additional current force on the
floater.
In the present context, a de-coupled analysis will normally still include
coupling effects between different degrees of freedom of the vessel motions.
With the latter included, this approach is sometimes also called “semi-coupled”.

10.3.2 Coupled analysis


In a coupled analysis approach, the floater-force model is introduced in a
detailed model of the complete slender-structure system, such as mooring lines,
tendons and risers. Normally non-linear time-domain analysis considering
irregular (WF, HF and LF) loading, is used to give an adequate representation of
the coupled floater/slender-structure response at every time instant. It should be
noted that this approach yields dynamic equilibrium between the forces acting
on the floater, moorings and risers and structural response at every time instant.
In this way, the full interaction is taken into account and accurate floater motions
and dynamic loads in mooring lines and risers are obtained simultaneously. The
output from such analysis will be floater motions as well as the slender-structure
response description. In this context, the term coupled analysis, illustrated by the
example in Figure 10.6, means:
Simultaneous dynamic analysis of floater motions and mooring lines
(tendons) and riser responses.
The analysis described here is sometimes also denoted as “fully coupled
analysis”. A synonymous definition of coupling effects is used in [8]: “Influence
on floater mean position and dynamic response due to slender structure
restoring, damping and inertia forces”.
A variety of coupled analysis developments are found in the literature.
Descriptions of approaches following basically the above definitions or similar
are given in [3, 4, 11, 12] in addition to the present reference works [1,2].

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Large volume body Slender structures

z Z(t)
X(t)
x

Step 1: Step 2:
Vessel motion analysis Dynamic mooring and riser analysis

Figure 10.5: De-coupled analysis approach.

Large volume body

Slender structures

Simultaneous analysis of vessel motions and mooring line and riser dynamics

Figure 10.6: Example of coupled analysis approach.

A coupled analysis development for a turret-moored ship was reported in [5],


and also described in [6]. The approach is based on a lumped-mass model for the
mooring lines and a combined wave-frequency and second-order wave-force
model for the ship. The lump-mass model has also been described as an option
in [11].
For TLP, a coupled analysis approach was reported in [13]. This, however,
did not include LF responses.

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10.3.3 Note on the floater modelling


Hydrodynamic forces on the floater are usually modelled through a 6-dof large-
volume (diffraction) analysis, often in combination with a viscous strip force
model. Purely hydrodynamic coupling effects should also be taken care of in
this model. For SPAR buoys, simple Morison-formulation types of description
have also been applied, and it has been reported that it may give reasonable
results in some cases. Notice that with the present definitions, there may be no
difference between the vessel model of a coupled and a de-coupled analysis,
except in the representation of slender-body forces.

10.3.4 Motivation/objective
The main shortcomings of the de-coupled (separated) approach are:
- The mean current loads on moorings and risers are normally not accounted
for. Particularly in deep water, with strong current and many risers attached,
the interactions between current forces on the underwater elements and the
mean offset and LF-motions of the floater are pronounced.
- The important damping effect from moorings and risers on LF-motions has
to be included in a simplified way, usually as linear damping forces on the
floater. Establishing simplified models of this phenomenon is not
straightforward because several parameters are involved. An important
parameter is the WF-motion dynamics of the moorings, which also requires
comprehensive computer modelling.
- Incomplete modelling of non-linear coupling between different modes and
frequency ranges (damping, added mass, etc.).
These problems are, in principle, solved by use of coupled analysis.
Furthermore, the coupled approach provides a more direct and straightforward,
and physically correct, modelling of the whole system.

10.3.5 State-of-the-art; application areas


The scenario for practical applications of coupled analysis in offshore
engineering has grown significantly from the initial developments in the 1990s.
Still, there is some potential for even more improvement and more efficient and
robust use. The computer power and time consumption has been one limiting
factor, although today’s implementations are far more speedy than the early
versions, due to faster computers as well as more efficient use of them. In many
cases, the time consumption of a full global analysis of a total floater system
with moorings and risers is today comparable to real full-scale time.
For design analyses, the coupled analysis has been proven to reproduce
responses from experiments, as well as from standard well-checked and

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calibrated analysis tools, quite well, but there are still weak points. Since the
modelling involves direct implementation of elements in the model, in a
“transparent” way, there is less room for empirical or phenomenological
adjustments as is sometimes done in standard de-coupled tools. Thus
adjustments of a coupled tool will be different, and sometimes more complex,
than for other tools.
Another application is within verification of global floater-system design,
especially for deep-water structures. Traditionally, verification is carried out by
model testing of the total system, including full-depth models of the floater,
mooring lines, and riser system. With increasing water depths, limited sizes of
available model basins require either ultra-small scales (far beyond the
traditional 1:50 scale range) and/or alternative solutions such as the “hybrid
verification” approach [14]. Here, model tests with truncated set-ups are
combined with numerical extrapolations to full depth. Coupled analysis is
generally recommended for the numerical part.
Future applications are also being developed within the simulation of marine
operations, combining the mutual interaction between several bodies including
their positioning systems.

10.4 Numerical methods

10.4.1 Basic principles in numerical modelling


For practical analysis of a continuous system, one normally has to simplify it by
a discretization to a finite number of degrees of freedom and the solution is
established related to these. With increases in computer technology, the more
popular used, are the finite-element method (FEM) and the boundary-element
method (BEM). Both methods are applied within hydrodynamics and structural
engineering, but are also commonly used within other branches of knowledge.
The basic concepts of these methods are described in numerous textbooks, see,
e.g., Zienkiewics and Taylor [15], Banerjee and Butterfield [16] and Banerjee
[17].
For coupled analysis, as described herein, the floater is considered as a rigid
body. That is, the strength analysis of the hull itself is not considered. The floater
hydrodynamics are normally solved by use of BEM (panel methods), but the so-
called strip methods are also used. Both are based on the potential-flow
conditions, solving the Laplace equation. Basic descriptions on these topics are
found in, e.g., the textbooks by Newman [18] and Faltinsen [19].
It is, in principle, possible to solve the entire fluid and structural problem as
one system, termed the hydro-elastic approach. However, in this chapter it is

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assumed that the floater-force models are found separately and are represented
by force coefficients that serve as input to the coupled analysis.
The floater-load model due to environmental loads has to include load
effects due to wind, waves and current. The low-frequency, wave-frequency and,
depending on type of floater, high-frequency wave forces and the concurrent
effects of these have to be reflected. Viscous loads acting on slender parts
(columns) of a floater (TLP, SEMI, SPAR) might be important and the load
model used should integrate the viscous load effects to instantaneous surface
elevation.
An adequate structural-response model is required for the mooring and riser
system. The overall behaviour of these types of structures basically involves
large displacements, nonlinear constraints and nonlinear interaction between the
environmental loads and the structural system. Thus, the nature of the slender
systems is inherently nonlinear and three-dimensional, owing to the compliant
response during random directional seas, current and floater motions. The finite-
element (FE) approach is normally considered for global slender structure
analysis. But also the lumped mass procedure described, e.g., in [11] is applied
as a basic theoretical formulation for computer programs used by the industry.
Another approach that might be used is the finite-difference method.
For coupled analysis the most important nonlinearities to be reflected by the
structural response model are the lateral stiffness contribution from axial forces
(geometric stiffness), viscous forces acting on the slender system and the
instantaneous angle between the floater and the slender system.
It is, in principle, straightforward to obtain a coupled dynamic model of the
floater system by a proper combination of a rigid-body floater model together
with a dynamic model of the complete mooring and riser system. Solution of this
coupled system of equations in the time domain using a non-linear integration
scheme will ensure consistent treatment of floater and slender-structure coupling
effects. (i.e. these coupling effects will automatically be included in the solution)
and give an adequate description of all nonlinear effects.
It should be noted that response analysis of the coupled system might also be
solved in the frequency domain by non-linear frequency analysis introducing
higher-order moments, covariances and spectra. However, this implies a
linearization of the problem, which is considered as a challenge. The solution in
the frequency domain will not be discussed further.
The dynamic loadings from wind and waves are, in coupled analyses,
modelled as stationary stochastic processes. In the time domain rather long
simulations (typically 6−9 h and even longer) will be required to obtain extreme
response estimates with sufficient statistical confidence. This is of particular
importance for non-Gaussian responses and for quantities with significant LF
components.

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10.4.2 A nonlinear time-domain FE model


The method described here follows the methodology established in [1]. The
applied FE formulation is established based on the virtual-work principle and is
a displacement method. A more detailed description on the FE-formulation,
method and procedure for static and dynamic analyses is given in RIFLEX [20].
Details on floater force and motion models are described in SIMO [21].

10.4.2.1 Floater model Generally written, the 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF)


equation for the non-linear time evolution of the floater motion can be
schematically written:

M x&& + Cx& + Kx = FE + FR + FM , (10.1)

where:
M : 6×6 system mass matrix, including mechanical and hydrodynamic added
mass. It includes effects from the hull as well as from the slender parts
C : 6×6 hull damping matrix, including all linear (hydrodynamic and
structural)
K : 6×6 stiffness matrix including hydrostatic stiffness
FE : 6×1 total force vector from wave, current and wind loads on the hull
FR : 6×1 total radiation force vector (frequency-dependent added mass and
damping)
FM : 6×1 total force vector from mooring/tendons/risers
x : 6×1 vessel-displacement vector
x& : 6×1 vessel-velocity vector
&x& : 6×1 vessel-acceleration vector

Equation (10.1) will later be reformulated for implementation to the coupled


model, i.e. eqn (10.13).
In the present floater model the interaction effects between waves and vessel
are described by a set of frequency-dependent coefficients for inertia, damping
and exciting forces. These coefficients have to be obtained from a hydrodynamic
response analysis program, such as a 3D diffraction-analysis program. A linear
analysis is normally carried out, but in many cases a second-order model is
required. An example of the use of a second-order diffraction model in a coupled
analysis is given in [22].

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A detailed description of the hydrodynamic force modelling for the floater is


outside the scope of the present text, and we refer to standard textbooks [18, 19]
as well as to the recent developments in the literature.
The radiation forces (frequency-dependent added mass and damping
coefficients) are converted to a time-domain retardation function, and the
frequency-dependent forces are included in the form of a convolution integral,
introducing a memory effect in the time domain. The retardation function is
obtained by
t
1
∫ [b(ω ) + iω a(ω )]e
iωt
h(t ) = dω . (10.2)

0

Equation (10.2) expresses the Fourier transform of the frequency-dependent


added-mass, a (ω ) , and damping, b(ω ) . Thus the radiation force vector, FR ,
in eqn (10.1) is written:
t


FR = − h(t − τ ) ⋅ r&(τ )dτ . (10.3)
0

The wave forces (LF, WF and HF contributions) are calculated for the mean
(initial) heading and for a range of other headings to allow for large yawing
motions of the vessel. Wind and current forces are each calculated by a set of
direction-dependent coefficients specifying linear and quadratic forces as
functions of wind and current directions relative to the vessel.
Additional hydrodynamic forces can be included by attaching a rigid,
slender-body strip model to the different structure elements, and thus providing a
distributed drag-force model according to the generalized Morison formula
presented in the next section.

10.4.2.2 Slender-structure model The slender-structural model is based on


non-linear FE modelling using beam and bar types of elements. The formulation
allows for unlimited displacements and rotations in 3-D space, while the strains
are assumed to be moderately small. Ball joints, hinges and swivels may be
modelled by link or connector type of elements.
To obtain efficient analysis, the resulting (non-linear) cross-sectional
properties of the elements are modelled rather than material properties, i.e. axial
load versus elongation, bending moment versus curvature and torsion moment
versus twist angle rather than the stress−strain relation. This is done to avoid
integration over the cross section for computation of resulting forces.

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Furthermore, external and internal hydrostatic pressure effects are described by


the effective-tension concept [23] and thus treated as conservative forces.
The hydrodynamic forces on slender elements are modelled by means of the
generalized Morison’s equation, specifying added mass and drag coefficients for
each element. The generalized Morison equation for a circular cross section is
expressed as:
1 πD 2 n
f n = ρC Dn Dh u n − x& n (u n − x& n ) + ρ b CM
2 4
πD 2 n
u& n − ρ b C M
4
− 1 &x&n ( )
(10.4)
1
f t = ρC D Dh ut − xt (ut − xt ) + ρ
2
t
& &
πDb2 t
4
C M ut − ρ
&
πDb2 t
4
C M − 1 xt ,
&& ( )
where:
fn : Force per unit length in normal direction
ft : Force per unit length in tangential direction
ρ : Water density
Db : Buoyancy diameter
Dh : Hydrodynamic diameter
u n , u& n : Fluid velocity and acceleration in normal direction
x& n , &x&n : Structural velocity and acceleration in normal direction
C Dn , CM n
: Drag and mass coefficients in normal direction
ut , u&t : Fluid velocity and acceleration in tangential direction
x&t , &x&t : Structural velocity and acceleration in tangential direction
C Dt , C M
t
: Drag and mass coefficients in tangential direction

All components of the slender-structure system are described in the finite-


element model. The governing dynamic equilibrium equation of the spatially
discrete finite-element system can, in general, be expressed by
R I (r , &r&, t ) + R D (r , r&, t ) + R S (r , t ) = R E (r,r&, t ) , (10.5)
where
RI : Nodal inertia-force vector
RD : Nodal damping-force vector
RS : Nodal internal-reaction force vector
RE : Nodal external-load vector
r , r&, &r& : Nodal displacement, velocity and acceleration vector

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Equation (10.5) represents the assembled FE system established based on


element- and nodal-component contributions. This is a nonlinear system of
differential equations due to displacement dependencies in the inertia, the
damping and the internal reaction forces and the coupling between the external
load vector and structural displacement and velocity. The inertia force vector and
the damping force vector are given in eqns (10.6) and (10.7) respectively:

R I (r , &r&, t ) = M (r ) &r& (10.6)

R D (r , r&, t ) = C (r )r& . (10.7)

M is the system mass matrix, which includes structural mass, mass


accounting for internal fluid flow and hydrodynamic mass. C is the system-
damping matrix that includes contributions from internal structural damping and
discrete dashpot dampers.
The internal reaction force vector, R S , is calculated based on the
instantaneous state of stress in the elements. The external load vector accounts
for weight and buoyancy, forced displacements, environmental forces and
specified forces.
The numerical solution of eqn (10.5) is based on a step-by-step numerical
integration of the incremental dynamic equilibrium equations, eqn (10.8), with
equilibrium iteration at each time step. The incremental form of the dynamic
equilibrium equation is obtained by considering dynamic equilibrium at two
configurations a short time interval ∆t apart:

( RtI+ ∆t − RtI ) + ( RtD+ ∆t − RtD ) + ( RtS+ Λt − RtS ) = ( RtE+ ∆t − RtE ) . (10.8)

Equation (10.8) states that the increment in external loading is balanced by


increments in inertia-, damping- and structural-reaction forces over the time
interval ∆t. For numerical solution, the nonlinear incremental equation of motion
is linearized by introducing the tangential mass, damping and stiffness matrices
at the start of the increment. Furthermore, due to nonlinearities the dynamic
equilibrium equation is not satisfied at the end of the time step. To prevent error
accumulation, the residual-load vector is added to the incremental equilibrium
equation at the next time step. Thus, the linearized incremental equation of
motion is given by

M t ∆&r&t + C t ∆r&t + K t ∆rt = RtE+ ∆t + ( RtI + RtD + RtS ) , (10.9)

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where ∆ rt , ∆r&t and ∆&r&t are incremental nodal displacement, velocity and
acceleration vectors, respectively. The tangential stiffness matrix K t accounts for
material stiffness and geometric stiffness, i.e. the contribution from the axial
force to transverse stiffness. In addition, the contribution from non-conservative
(i.e. position-dependent) loads may be included, e.g., forces based on the
Morison equation, depth-dependent buoyancy forces (water-plane stiffness), etc.
It should be noted that the implementation of the stiffness matrix due to non-
conservative loading only has consequences for the rate of convergence.
Provided there is uniqueness of the solution it is the dynamic equilibrium alone
that govern the final solution, and the equilibrium equations are only influenced
by the loads.
The linearized incremental equation of motion, eqn (10.9), is the basis for
the applied step-by-step numerical integration process adopting the Newmark
integration method [24]. Thus, the increments in acceleration and velocities are
expressed as linear functions of the increment in displacement. The first estimate
of the unknown incremental displacement vector is therefore found as the
solution of the following system of linear equations

Kˆ t ∆rt1 = ∆Rˆ t , (10.10)

where K̂ t is the effective tangential stiffness matrix, which is a linear


combination of tangential mass, damping, and stiffness matrix and ∆R̂t is the
effective incremental load vector.
Due to the non-linearities, the dynamic equilibrium equation is not satisfied
at the end of an increment. An iterative approach according to the following
Newton−Raphson iteration procedure is applied to obtain dynamic equilibrium
at the end of an increment:

Kˆ tJ −1δrt J = ∆Rˆ tJ −1 (10.11)

∆rt J = ∆rt J −1 + δrt J . (10.12)

The tangential mass, damping and stiffness matrices and the external and
internal load vectors are recalculated at each iteration cycle, which will give a
so-called true Newton−Raphson iteration procedure. The iteration is terminated
by use of a Euclidian displacement norm.

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10.4.2.3 Coupled model In the coupled analysis approach the floater is


introduced as a one-node rigid element with 6 degrees of freedom (three
translational and three rotational) in the FE model of the complete system. A
“master-slave” approach is the effective technique used for connecting relevant
mooring lines/tethers/risers to the floater.
The dynamic equilibrium equation for the rigid element is written:

S I (v , v&&, t ) + S D (v&, t ) = S E (v, v&, t ) + S R (v&, t ) , (10.13)


where
S I (v , v&&, t ) : Inertia force vector, S I (v , v&&, t ) = m (v ) v&& , where m is the floater-
mass matrix that includes the structural mass and frequency-
independent part of added mass.
S D (v&, t ) : Damping force vector, S D (v&, t ) = cv& where c is the floater linear
damping matrix
E
S (v , v , t ) : External force vector from wave, current and wind loads including
&
gravity and buoyancy forces
R
S (v , t ) : Radiation-force vector (frequency-dependent added mass and
&
damping)
v, v&, v&& : Nodal displacement, velocity and acceleration vector

The linearized incremental form of the dynamic equilibrium equation, eqn


(10.13), is written:

mt ∆v&& + ct ∆rv& + kt ∆v = StE+ ∆t + StR+ ∆t − ( StI + StD ) , (10.14)

where kt is the stiffness matrix due to non-conservative floater loads, e.g.,


hydrostatic stiffness, direction-dependent environmental forces, etc. This
contribution is very important to obtain a numerically stable solution, especially
during static analysis and for turret-moored vessels.
The rigid-floater-element contributions to the system matrices and load
vectors are assembled into the total system matrices, eqn (10.9). Thus, the
solution for the total system will ensure consistent treatment of floater and
slender-structure coupling effects.

10.4.3 Efficient analysis strategy


Floater response as well as detailed mooring line/riser response can be computed
by coupled analysis using a detailed model of the total system. The output from

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such analyses will be floater motions as well as a detailed slender-structure


response description (e.g., tension in mooring lines as well as tension, moment,
shear, curvature and displacement in risers). However, coupled analyses
normally demand substantial computational efforts. Coupled analyses of the
detailed numerical model are normally used in the final verification process.
In design analyses of floating offshore installations global analysis need to
be conducted for numerous stationary design conditions to cover extreme
conditions, fatigue-load cases, accidental conditions as well as temporary
conditions. Furthermore, analysis of several modifications of the design should
be foreseen as a part of the design process. Hence, computational efficiency and
numerical stability is an additional key issue in practical design analyses of
floating offshore installations. More efficient computation schemes are therefore
needed for use in practical design analyses.
To achieve computational efficiency, a coupled analysis with a simplified
model of the slender structure in combination with subsequent slender-structure
analysis, can be attractive. The first step in this approach is denoted as coupled
floater-motion analysis. The primary purpose of the coupled vessel-motion
analysis is to give a good description of vessel motions, while some local
responses in the slender structure become secondary.
The principle applied to establish an adequate simplified slender-structure
model depends on the actual system layout as well as the required output from
the analyses. The primary requirement is to give adequate representations of
coupling effects (restoring, damping, and mass). However, it is also often
desirable to establish some key results for the mooring and riser system directly
as output from the coupled floater motion analyses. Such information can be
used to identify critically loaded slender structures to be analysed in detail.
In most situations, it is convenient to include all mooring lines, tethers and
risers in the FE slender structure model. The FE model of each slender-structure
component is simplified to the extent possible using a rather rough mesh and
omission of bending and torsional stiffness of most parts of the riser system.
This will allow for output of key slender-structure responses (e.g., mooring-line
tensions at fairlead, riser-top tensions, tensioner stroke, etc.) directly from the
coupled floater-motion analysis. This approach gives a significant reduction in
computation time due to a reduced number of degrees of freedom in the coupled
analyses.
More detailed riser responses requiring a refined FE model of the riser
system is carried out separately in dedicated riser analysis to save computation
time and increase the analysis flexibility. Examples are modelling of special
components such as taper joints as well as refined mesh for adequate calculation
of moment, shear and curvature in critical areas (e.g., touch-down area for steel
catenary risers).

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Descriptions of the approach with FPSO and SPAR system examples are
found in [8, 25].

10.5 Examples of application and validation

Some results and experiences from specific computer implementations and


selected case studies are reviewed in the following, with the purpose of
illustrating coupling effects and coupled numerical analysis in practical
applications. The numerical modelling and analysis is addressed first. Although
the basic principles are general, practical details will differ between different
floater types. Therefore, the examples cover the range from FPSO through
SEMI, TLP and SPAR. Validation against model tests is finally shown for some
of the cases.
The examples are chosen from applications with the time-domain coupled
analysis software system RIFLEX-C, which is based upon the programs
RIFLEX [20] and SIMO [21]. This is an implementation of the description in [1]
(basically the same as the DeepC [26] software).
The coupling effects normally increase in deep water and can become larger
than the direct hydrodynamic loads on the vessel, especially if catenary or semi-
taut mooring is applied and/or if the number of risers is high (with polyester taut
mooring, line dynamics may in very deep water be partly transferred into axial
line loads, leading to less lateral dynamics and resulting drag loads). Bottom
friction on catenary lines and effects on the vessel motion are also included in
the coupled analysis.
For large-volume floaters, the dynamics of lines and risers are dominated by
the WF vessel motions, while the WF vessel motions themselves are more or
less unaffected by them (perhaps except for roll in some cases). Thus the WF
part of the problem can most often also be considered to be determined by de-
coupled analysis. But one should recall that horizontal floater motions, which
may be critical to mooring loads, are often totally dominated by the LF
components.
For smaller floaters like buoys, WF hydrodynamic loads on the floater are
comparable to those on the lines/risers, and WF coupling effects on the buoy
motions may become important.
Particular effects connected with the different floater types are discussed in
connection with the examples below.

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10.5.1 Numerical modelling of actual systems

10.5.1.1 FPSO Coupling effects are seen mainly between the LF horizontal
motions and mooring and riser systems, as described in the general introduction
above.
FPSO example 1: Case studies on the investigation of coupling effects were
presented in [2] including three different water depths: 150 m, 330 m, and 2000
m. Fully time-domain coupled analysis with RIFLEX-C, with finite-element
modelling of slender elements, was compared against un-coupled analysis using
SIMO [21]. Model tests were also run for the 330 m case. The cases were all
based on the same turret-moored ship, with length 215 m, breadth 42 m, draught
15 m, and displacement 120 000 tonnes. Eight-line symmetrical steel chain/wire
anchor systems were modelled. One riser and one umbilical were included in the
330 m case, while 4 flexible risers were included in the 2000 m case. A sea state
similar to a steep 100-year condition in the Norwegian Sea was simulated,
including collinear waves, current and wind.
The results showed that the contributions from the lines/risers to the surge
damping and mean surge force are significant, and cannot be disregarded. This is
seen especially in 2000 m depth where the relative damping contribution was
62%, i.e. much higher than all the others, and the mean offset contribution
represented 45% of the total. In order to take this into account in the un-coupled
analysis, these forces were added as external forces acting directly on the hull. It
was then seen that resulting turret forces and line tensions were under-predicted
by the un-coupled quasi-static analysis, especially the vertical turret forces.

FPSO example 2: Another coupled analysis study of a turret-moored FPSO in


3000 m water depth was presented in [27] using the same computer program
system as in example 1 above (RIFLEX-C). The main purpose of the study was
to apply coupled analysis, together with available model test data, in the
verification of a mooring design obtained by use of the quasi-static, frequency-
domain computer tool MOOROPT [28]. This is an optimisation program based
upon the mooring analysis program MIMOSA [29]. In the following, some
details from the RIFLEX-C modelling and the analysis are highlighted, with
particular emphasis on the coupling effects. The total system is illustrated in
Figure 10.7, viewed from the side, with finite-element (FE) details in Figure
10.8.
The FPSO length (Lpp) was 233 m, the breadth 42 m, draught 13 m and
displacement 95 000 tonnes. The mooring consisted of a 9-line taut steel wire
system, in groups of 3 and 3 with 120 deg between each group and 5 deg within
a group. No risers were included. A 100-year storm as well as an operation sea
state for the Norwegian Sea were modelled, including waves, wind and current.

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Hydrodynamic vessel coefficients for WF excitation and wave-drift coefficients


were initially estimated by linear diffraction analysis (WAMIT). Finally in the
analysis, the surge wave-drift coefficients were empirically adjusted by use of
available model test results for the same vessel, showing significant additional
contributions − about 100% − due to steep waves and current. The mooring lines
were modelled by bar elements and connected to the bow turret, as indicated in
Figure 10.8.

Figure 10.7: FPSO system side view [27].

ZG

ZV

master node

Vessel node XG
XV
15.28 m
beam element slave node

bar elements

Figure 10.8: Main features of the applied FE-model [27].

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Resulting damping levels (i.e. linearized equivalent coefficients estimated


from the simulations) are shown in Figure 10.9. Qualitatively, we recognise the
observations from example 1 above. In the 100-year design condition, the
contribution from the 9 lines account for 56% of critical, compared to 36% for
the hull part. The presence of current is seen to increase the damping. One
should recall that no risers were included in the analysis, which would have
increased the damping, but at the same time the current profile was chosen to be
conservative (uniform).
Special comments − FPSO: A particular challenge in the numerical modelling of
FPSOs is the complex coupling between LF yaw and sway, and the proper
estimation of current, wind and wave-drift coefficients. FPSO roll excitation and
damping is another topic of concern.

5000

4500
hull
4000 mooring
3500
36% 36%
3000
(kNs/m)

2500

2000 21% 46%


1500

1000
59% 42% 56% 56%
500

0
Operation
Oper 100-yr. 100-yr. 100-yr.
no cur oblique

Figure 10.9: Estimated linear surge damping coefficients from hull and mooring
[27]. Absolute values and damping relative to critical level. Heights
of dashed columns indicate critical damping.

10.5.1.2 Semisubmersible For multi-column-based floating platform


systems, there are additional coupling effects, since the vertical motions are also
sensitive to moorings/risers due to their lower natural frequencies. Thus, in
addition to the general effects described earlier, we also have:
1) Increased damping in LF heave, roll and pitch, due to line and riser drag.
2) A quasi-static LF coupling between motion components surge-pitch-
heave, and sway-roll-heave, due to stiffness from the mooring system.

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SEMI example 1: A coupled-analysis numerical study of a moored


semisubmersible in 335 m water depth was carried out as a part of the
VERIDEEP project [30, 31]. The RIFLEX-C software was used. The platform
had four columns and a square ring pontoon, and was moored with twelve
catenary lines, composed of segments of chains and steel ropes, grouped with
three in each corner. See Figures 10.2 and 10.10. Eight risers were also included.
The natural periods in surge, pitch and heave were 124 s, 47 s and 23 s,
respectively, which means that horizontal as well as vertical vessel motions are
strongly influenced by slowdrift-wave excitation.
The purpose of the study was to compare and calibrate a coupled-analysis
numerical model against experiments, as a check on the possibility to use this
software to numerically reconstruct model test data (“model the model”). This
was used in the development of a hybrid verification technique, where model
testing of deepwater systems with truncated moorings and risers is combined
with computer simulations to obtain full-depth verification results. The model
test comparisons are described later in Section 10.5.2, while the numerical
modelling is presented in the following.
The hybrid technique in itself is not addressed further here, but is described
in more detail in [30] and in [14].
Finite-element models of each mooring line and riser are made with a single
line made up of 65 elements. The total number of degrees of freedom in the
model is 3500. The static mooring system calibration from the model tests is
reconstructed by a careful numerical tuning. Drag coefficients used for the lines
are 1.2 for steel rope segments, and 2.4 for chain segments. The single-line
pretension was 2000 kN.
3-hour North Sea storm simulations with waves only were run with zero
degree heading (waves go in the negative X-direction), with two and two
columns parallel with the waves.
Vessel motions were modelled by 3D linear diffraction analysis (WAMIT),
also including LF (slow-drift) excitation by use of Newman’s approximation.
The slow-drift coefficients were eventually empirically adjusted after
calibration against experiments (discussed in a later section).
It was found that the moorings and risers contributed 30−50% to the total LF
surge and heave damping. For LF pitch it was 70% or more (note that these
were waves-only conditions – with current present the ratios might change).
Further results are discussed later in Section 10.5.2 on model-test validation.
Compared to initial quasi-static simulations, significant dynamic
magnification effects were observed in the WF line tensions from the final
analysis.

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2 3
W AVES
1
4
X

12 5

11 6

10

Y
7

8
9
Figure 10.10: Moorings and risers of semisubmersible system [30].

SEMI example 2: The same semisubmersible hull formed part of another study of
systems on 1100 m and 3000 m water depths [32]. Sixteen semi-taut steel-rope
catenary mooring lines were modelled, grouped four and four, with single-line
pretensions at 1811 kN and 5000 kN, respectively. Since this was an
introductory study for ultra-deep water simulation, no risers were modelled for
simplicity. Also in this case, the simulations were combined with model tests for
the investigation of a hybrid verification procedure.
Storm-sea states in the Norwegian Sea were modelled, including waves-only
cases as well as collinear waves, current and wind.
Due to the deep water, the drag forces on the mooring lines introduced over-
critical surge damping on the vessel, even in waves-only (for the 3000 m case).
With current present, the damping was further increased, due to effects on the
semisubmersible hull as well as on the lines, and the static loads on the lines
dominated the total offset force. It was also found that in heavy seas with long
waves, direct loads from the wave-particle kinematics contributed to the line
loads.

10.5.1.3 TLP In addition to the LF surge/sway damping effects from drag


forces on tethers and risers, additional coupling effects arise between the
tethers/risers and the hull for a tension-leg platform:
1) The high axial stiffness in the pre-tensioned tethers determines the high
natural frequencies in vessel heave and roll/pitch, leading to
springing/ringing tether loads.

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2) In deep water, material damping from the tethers/risers contribute


significantly to the total HF heave/pitch damping.
3) The real effective mass for hull motions is different for LF and WF
motions, since the LF part will include more of the riser/tether mass as a
result of drag resistance in the WF case (see Figure 10.11).

TLP example: A deepwater TLP case study for 1830 m water depth was carried
out in [22] using the RIFLEX-C coupled analysis software. Comparisons were
made to a parallel study with decoupled analysis (SIMO). In the SIMO analysis,
no additional damping was included to simulate the tether/riser-induced
damping, thus these effects could be directly observed from the comparison.
Twelve tendons, grouped three and three, and twelve risers, were modelled by
FEM through a number of bar elements only, i.e. bending and torsional stiffness
was neglected. The single-tether pretension was 11 000 kN.
Linear and second-order wave loads on the hull were modelled by a second-
order 3D diffraction analysis (WAMIT [33]), including full quadratic transfer
function (QTFs) for the HF heave, roll and pitch loads. Slow-drift coefficients
were estimated by Newman’s approximation [34]. 9080 panels were utilised to
describe the hull, while 7392 panels were used for the free surface. Viscous-
wave forces on the hull were added through a Morison formulation, integrating
column forces up to the linear free surface.
Hurricane irregular sea states from the Gulf of Mexico were simulated, with
waves-only as well as with non-collinear waves, wind and current.
In the results, it was found that the effect of distributed tether mass (typically
10% of the total mass) was significant. Thus, in the de-coupled analysis, the
tethers were modelled with lump masses and spring elements, which failed to
reproduce these inertia effects properly, while the coupled analysis models them
directly. This gives, e.g., different behaviour for LF and WF motions, such as
illustrated in Figure 10.11.

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WF LF

Figure 10.11: TLP: Tendon/riser inertia contribution for WF-surge vs. LF-surge
(illustration only – not properly scaled) [22].

It was also found that the LF surge/sway damping in the coupled analysis
was over-critical and totally dominated by tether/riser drag due to the deep
water. This qualitatively confirms findings in [35] and in [4]. Thus LF tensions
are over-estimated by the de-coupled analysis. The damping from the hull
represented 20% of critical damping in waves only, and 40% in waves and
current. For the HF heave/pitch/roll damping, the major contribution came from
Rayleigh damping in the tethers/risers.

10.5.1.4 SPAR As for semisubmersibles, additional coupling effects occur for


SPAR platforms as compared to the FPSO case, since vertical LF-motions are
sensitive to lines/riser effects:
1) Increased damping in LF heave, roll and pitch, due to line and riser drag.
2) A quasi-static LF coupling between motion components surge-pitch-
heave, and sway-roll-heave, due to stiffness from the mooring system.
3) For SPARs with riser buoyancy-cans, additional WF and LF heave
damping comes from friction in the moonpools.
Resonant pitch/roll damping of SPARs is often insensitive to moorings, since the
axes of rotation for the LF angular motions is often close to fairlead (while for
the WF motions the axes are located at a deeper level), ref., e.g., SPAR example
1 below. This particular pitch behaviour is directly modelled by the coupled
analysis. Riser-induced pitch damping, however, can be more important due to
riser interaction with the keel motion.

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SPAR example 1: Results from a coupled analysis study on a deep-water classical


SPAR for Gulf of Mexico extreme-storm conditions, by use of the RIFLEX-C
code, were presented in [36]. Three different water depths were considered:
3000, 6000 and 10 000 ft. For the 3000 ft case, semi-taut steel-wire mooring
was applied, while polyester mooring was chosen for 6000 ft and 10 000 ft. A
riser system with 23 top-tensioned risers was also modelled. Waves, current and
wind were modelled in a non-collinear condition. The results were compared to
de-coupled simulations of the same systems.
Three items were particularly considered when discussing coupling effects:
1) Restoring force (static characteristics; current loading; sea-floor
friction)
2) SPAR motion damping (from moorings and risers; hull/riser contact
3) Inertia (additional inertia forces due to the moorings and risers)

It was addressed that a coupled analysis can include a consistent treatment


of all these effects. A de-coupled analysis may include some of the effects in
approximate ways, while others may be difficult to account for, such as bottom
friction and hull/riser contact. It was observed that the SPAR motion shows a
complex behaviour, including a particular coupling of LF and WF surge, heave
and pitch motions, which may be difficult to approximate. While the WF pitch
rotation centre is close to the keel, the LF rotation centre is at fairlead.
It was also observed that the largest reduction effects from coupled analysis
occur in the keel surge motion and the heave response. This reduction generally
increases with the water depth, although the comparison in this case was difficult
to scale since different mooring systems were applied.
Damping effects similar to those reported above were also observed in [12]
and in [37].

SPAR example 2: Influences from coupling on the surge damping and line
dynamics of a truss SPAR with taut polyester mooring in 2000 m water depth
are illustrated in Figure 10.12 (from previously unpublished MARINTEK
internal research). Coupled analysis with RIFLEX-C is compared to de-coupled
analysis (SIMO). In the latter, all hydrodynamic damping forces acting directly
on the hull is included, while no effect from the mooring line damping was
added, i.e. quasi-static mooring line model, with the purpose to highlight this
effect.

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Figure 10.12: Power spectrum of tension in polyester line of truss SPAR in 2000
m water depth: Coupled (----) vs. quasi-static () analysis. (No
artificial mooring/riser damping added in quasi-static case.)

The coupling effects are anticipated to be less pronounced than for a steel-
rope mooring with catenary effects, due to less relative motions between lines
and water, and less resulting line dynamics. The line dynamics with polyester
mooring appear to be less pronounced in ultra-deep water compared to
conventional depths, since much of the tensions are transferred into axial strains.
But we still observe considerable effects, both in the increased LF surge
damping and in dynamic magnification effects in the WF line force.

10.5.2 Validation against model test results

10.5.2.1 Semisubmersible case study


Case description: As a part of the VERIDEEP semisubmersible study [31],
which was addressed earlier in Section 10.5.1.2, RIFLEX-C numerical
simulations were compared to and empirically calibrated against model test
records obtained with the same system. Vessel motions, catenary mooring-line
tensions and riser tensions were considered, both LF and WF components. The
measured, pre-calibrated wave record was applied as input to the simulations.

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The model test runs reported here, which formed parts of a larger set of
tests, were carried out in scale 1:55 in 50 m × 80 m Ocean Basin at
MARINTEK, Norway, with twelve realistic, individually modelled catenary
mooring lines and eight risers in 335 m full-scale water depth (i.e. not
truncated). North Sea storm-sea states were simulated, including waves-only as
well as waves and current conditions. Here we focus on waves-only.
Selected results: Some previously unpublished time series plots from the study,
comparing measured and simulated motion and line-tension responses for a sea
state with significant wave height HS=8 m and spectral peak period TP=12 s, are
shown in Figures 10.13 and 10.14. The total signals are shown, including both
LF and WF contributions. A good agreement is observed. For the simulated
results shown here, some calibration was carried out on slow-drift motion
parameters (surge and pitch): Using potential-flow drift coefficients alone,
applying Newman’s approximation [34], gave too low excitation, especially in
the highest sea state (HS=14.7 m, TP=14.5 m) where the initially estimated drift
force was several times too low [38]. The reason is considered to be viscous
forces on the columns in the wave zone, and, for pitch motion also, off-diagonal
terms in the full quadratic transfer function (QTF). Empirical drift coefficients
were obtained through cross-bispectral analysis [39]. It was also observed that
by integrating distributed viscous forces on the columns up to the time-varying
free surface, using a drag coefficient of 1.5, a better comparison was obtained
without calibration of the QTF model.
The initially simulated LF surge damping, including mooring and riser drag
effects, was only slightly adjusted to match the measurements, by use of an
additional linear damping coefficient. For all WF vessel motions, the
comparisons showed very good agreement without any need for calibration, in
both sea states. Thus the 3D diffraction analysis works well in the linear mass-
dominated frequency range. No adjustments were made on the initially chosen
line drag coefficients Cd (1.2 for steel wire, 2.4 for chain).

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Figure 10.13: Coupled analysis vs. measured records, semisubmersible. From


above: Surge motion (measured and simulated) and pitch motion
(measured and simulated).

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Figure 10.14: Coupled analysis vs. measurements, semisubmersible: Line


tension (upper: measured; lower: simulated).

10.5.2.2 TLP case study


Case description: The TLP analysis in Section 10.5.1.3 was compared to
experimental data from 1:87 scaled model tests carried out in the 30 m×40 m
Ocean Basin at MARIN, the Netherlands [40]. Tests in waves only, as well as in
waves, wind and current conditions were run. As for the VERIDEEP study
above, the purpose of the numerical simulations was to reproduce measured
irregular time series for the vessel motions and tether and riser tensions, using
measured wave records as input.
For further details on the actual work we refer to [22]. A few results are
presented below. A comparison to results from use of a different coupled
analysis tool in the same study is given in [41].
Selected results: The spectral plots in Figs. 10.15 & 10.16 show the coupled
analysis (RIFLEX-C) compared against measurements and a de-coupled
approach (SIMO) for TLP pitch motion and an upstream tether tension, where
the LF, WF as well as the HF (springing) ranges are included. Material damping
in the tethers was not included in the SIMO analysis, in order to highlight and
identify this effect from the comparison. An overall reasonable comparison is
observed between the coupled analysis spectra and those of the measurements, in
the whole frequency range.

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Figure 10.15: Measured and computed TLP pitch spectra (hurricane waves,
current and wind) [22].

Figure 10.16: Measured and computed tether tension spectra (hurricane waves,
current and wind) [22].

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The discrepancy observed in the WF tension is considered to be a result of a


difference in the actual load distribution between the upstream and downstream
tethers, since the downstream tethers showed the opposite discrepancy (this then
also explains why there is no such discrepancy in pitch). For particularly low
frequencies, a discrepancy is observed that is due to experimental current
fluctuations not included in the simulations.

Acknowledgement

Results from a semisubmersible case study were obtained from the VERIDEEP
project, financed by Norsk Hydro and The Norwegian Research Council.

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