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Ocean Engineering

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

with wave-frequency random line top end motion

Yong Yang n, Jia-xin Chen, Shan Huang

Department of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 100 Montrose Street, Glasgow G4 0LZ, UK

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The slow drift motions would lead to a serious inﬂuence on moored ﬂoating structures and cause the

Received 26 July 2015 failure of mooring and riser systems. Mooring line damping which represents the transfer of energy is

Accepted 14 December 2015 important for moored ﬂoating structures. In this paper, time domain ﬁnite element method was applied

Available online 29 December 2015

by using OrcaFlex. A series of mooring line top end motions was simulated to investigate the relationship

Keywords: between mooring line damping and low-frequency superimposed with wave-frequency random motion.

Mooring line damping A transformation method was introduced that wave-frequency random motion was transferred to an

Low-frequency motion equivalent sinusoidal motion based on the spectral density of vessel motion. Then, the inﬂuence of

Wave-frequency random motion equivalent sinusoidal motion and random motion on mooring line damping was compared. It can be

Transformation method

found that mooring line damping could be reduced slightly if considering random motion. Finally, the

Parametric study

inﬂuence of individual parameter which includes current speed, drag coefﬁcient, added mass coefﬁcient

Time domain

and pre-tension on mooring line damping was studied. The results showed that the signiﬁcant status of

drag coefﬁcient and pre-tension on the predication of mooring line damping. But for current speed, the

effect on mooring line damping cannot be overstated for considering random motion but the reverse is

true for considering sinusoidal motion.

& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction was also proved that the mooring line damping was the key

component of the total damping through the comparison with

The motion of moored offshore structure is mainly resulted other sources of damping (Matsumoto, 1991). For some ship-like

from and dependent on the static and dynamic environmental structures such as FPSOs, the mooring line damping plays the key

loads. The ﬁrst-order motion and second-order motion which are role in determining the maximum excursion and peak line tension

excited by different components of environmental loads are taking since the inherent damping in surge motion is very low for those

place at wave-frequency range and well below the wave- kinds of vessels (Webster, 1995). Through the coupled analysis of

frequency range respectively. Normally, the natural frequency of dynamics for moored ﬂoating structures, the prediction for the

the ﬂoating structure’s surge motion or sway motion is close to the amount of damping from mooring line is important to predict the

frequency of second-order wave loads. As a result, the low- low-frequency motion of the vessels as it accounts for a large

frequency slow drift motions at resonant frequencies are one of contribution to the total damping (Ormberg and Larsen, 1998).

the characteristic features of moored ﬂoating structures causing Therefore, the effect of mooring line damping should be taken into

large horizontal excursions. The amount of the low-frequency consideration in order to predict the motion response of moored

ﬂoating structures. It was known that the mooring line damping

surge or sway damping plays an important role in determining

has limited inﬂuence on the wave-frequency motion, but the

the maximum horizontal excursions. Generally, the main sources

inﬂuence on low-frequency motion cannot be overstated (Huse,

of the total damping which includes viscous hull damping,

1986). But, the combination of wave-frequency motion and low-

mooring line damping, wave drift damping, etc. are coming from

frequency motion would lead to an obvious increase of the low-

the structure itself and mooring system.

frequency mooring line damping (Huse and Matsumoto, 1988,

It was presented that that the mooring line damping might be a

1989; Dercksen et al., 1992). The explanation for this phenomenon

main contribution to the total low-frequency damping of the

was that the drag coefﬁcient is enlarged owning to the variation of

system in certain circumstances (Huse and Matsumoto, 1989). It the drag force acting on the mooring line with relative velocity

between the ﬂuid and line itself (Huse,1991).

n

Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 86 13918796513. Brown and Mavrakos (1999) found that the superimposed

E-mail address: yycjx19881030@126.com (Y. Yang). wave-frequency sinusoidal motion had a signiﬁcant effect on the

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.12.026

0029-8018/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

244 Y. Yang et al. / Ocean Engineering 112 (2016) 243–252

low-frequency mooring line damping that it would show a dra- 2. Methodology and modeling

matic upward trend compared with those under low-frequency

motion only. The results showed that a wave-frequency motion of 2.1. Time domain ﬁnite element method for calculating mooring line

5.4 m amplitude at 10 s period will increase the low-frequency damping

damping by a factor of 7.1 and 2.0 for two different systems

respectively. And the increasing factors were 8.8 and 2.4 respec- The top end motion of the mooring line is illustrated in a time

tively when amplitude of wave-frequency motion increases from history ﬁle to input or directly pre-deﬁned in the program. The top

5.4 m to 8 m. Experimental model test was carried out by Kitney end motion can be low-frequency motion, wave-frequency motion

and Brown (2001). The tensions of the mooring line measured in or a combination of them. The horizontal component of tension at

the experiment were acceptable agreed with the results from mooring line top end will be calculated and outputted as a func-

dynamic analysis. According to the results described as enclosed tion of the time during one low-frequency period cycle of vessel

area in indicator diagram, it was found that the combination of surge motion. Then integrate the product of the horizontal com-

low-frequency and wave-frequency motions leaded to a signiﬁcant ponent of tension multiplying with the low-frequency component

increase of the low-frequency mooring line damping. Johanning of the velocity over a low-frequency period (Huse, 1991). Typically,

et al. (2007) predicted the motion of WEC devices by using the the dissipated energy caused by the mooring line during one low-

time domain ﬁnite element method. The effect of wave-frequency frequency period cycle can be obtained by using the indicator

top end motion was considered in a different approach that the diagram. The horizontal displacement is plotted on the horizontal

frequency ratio (top end motion frequency over natural frequency axis and the corresponding horizontal component of tension is

of the mooring line) was introduced. The results suggested that plotted on the vertical axis. The ﬁgure obtained will be a curve that

the dissipated energy caused by mooring line showed an upward the area of it represents the dissipated energy caused by the

trend with the increase of the frequency ratio. Besides, this trend mooring line as shown in Fig. 1.

would be more obvious and signiﬁcant with the increase of the According to Webster (1995), Brown and Mavrakos (1999), the

mooring line pre-tension. dissipated energy caused by the mooring line during one period

A fully dynamic ﬁnite element method was performed to cal- cycle of vessel surge motion can be deﬁned as:

culate the tensions of mooring line and mooring line damping Z τ

with the indicator diagram plotting according to the relevant non- dX

E¼ T h dt ð1Þ

dimensional parameters by Webster (1995). The parametric study 0 dt

showed that the pre-tension of the mooring line had a signiﬁcant where T h is the horizontal component of tension at mooring line

inﬂuence on the mooring line damping. It indicated that the top end; X is the low-frequency component of horizontal dis-

mooring line damping will ﬁrstly show an upward trend with the placement; τ is period of the low-frequency surge motion.

increase of the drag coefﬁcient and motion frequency at low pre- The equivalent linear damping coefﬁcient B is introduced to

tensions, but the reverse was true if the pre-tensions are high. That express the mooring line damping. It can be assumed that:

is to say the elastic stretch of mooring line has a signiﬁcant effect

on the damping values since it will become domain at high pre- dX

Th ¼ B ð2Þ

tensions while its effect can be neglected if the pre-tensions are dt

low. Besides, the results showed that the current effect on the After combination of the (Eqs. (1) and 2), the dissipated energy

damping is very slight. It might be true if the velocity of the

caused by the mooring line can be represented as:

mooring line motion is fast. If just consider a low-frequency

Z τ 2

motion the effect might be quite different. Qiao and Ou (2010) dX

proposed a parametric study on mooring line damping due to low- E¼ B dt ð3Þ

0 dt

frequency motion only by using time domain ﬁnite element

method. The damping resulted from friction force at seabed and

drag force along mooring were both taken into consideration. It

was found that the damping due to drag force constitutes the vast

majority of the total damping and different seabed friction coef-

ﬁcient had a limited inﬂuence on the mooring line damping. Qiao

and Ou (2011) also investigated the effect of current speed on

mooring line damping due to low-frequency motion. The results

showed that the mooring line damping had an upward trend with

the increases of the current speed.

Most researches focus on the mooring line damping corre-

sponding to pure low-frequency motion or pure wave-frequency

motion. And also the parametric study was carried out in this

background. In this paper, the effect of the superimposed wave-

frequency random motion on the low-frequency mooring line

damping will be investigated. Meanwhile, the wave-frequency

random motion will be transferred to an equivalent sinusoidal

motion by using an energy based method. Then, the comparison

between the effects of those two kinds superimposed wave-

frequency motion on low-frequency mooring line damping will

be carried out. Finally, parametric study is performed to investi-

gate the inﬂuence of each individual parameter on mooring line

damping due to low-frequency superimposed with wave-

frequency random motion as well as with wave-frequency sinu-

soidal motion respectively. Fig. 1. Indicator diagram.

Y. Yang et al. / Ocean Engineering 112 (2016) 243–252 245

Table 2

Parameters of the mooring line.

chain strand wire chain

Weight in water (N/m) 4180 876 3918

Length (m) 10 390 1480

Axial stiffness (MN) 2105 1893 1973

Outer diameter (m) 0.283 0.144 0.274

Normal drag 1.1 1.2 1.1

coefﬁcient

Normal added mass 1.0 1.0 1.0

Coefﬁcient

Table 3

Damping due to low-frequency superimposed with wave-frequency random

Table 1 motion.

Environmental condition.

Case No. Signiﬁcant Zero cross- Dissipated Damping

Name Value wave height ing period energy (kJ) (kN s/m)

(m) (s)

Water depth (m) 400

Water density (t/m3) 1.025 1: Amp. 1.0 0 0 4762 40.21

Current velocity (m/s) 0 (current speed will be set for parametric study) 30 m 1.1 8 8 4814 40.65

Period 1.2 8 10 4844 40.90

150 s 1.3 12.5 10 4962 41.89

Assume the mooring line top end motion is a low-frequency 1.4 12.5 15 6271 52.95

sinusoidal motion which the period is τ and the amplitude is a. 1.5 23 15 8936 75.45

1.6 23 20 9353 78.98

Solve the equation, the equivalent linear damping B is expressed

2: Amp. 2.0 0 0 1198 20.23

as: 30 m 2.1 8 8 1260 21.27

Eτ Period 2.2 8 10 1294 21.85

B¼ ð4Þ 300 s 2.3 12.5 10 1425 24.07

2a2 π 2 2.4 12.5 15 2380 40.19

2.5 23 15 3975 67.12

2.6 23 20 4353 73.51

2.2. Model description

in this paper. The mooring line with a direction which close to the

motion direction of the vessel will contribute more damping effect

compared with other lines (Huse and Matsumoto, 1989). There-

fore, only one single mooring line is considered in the studies

which deploys in the surge direction.

The mooring line which consists of mooring chain and wire

rope is the most common mooring system (Yuan et al., 2014). The

chain segments are deployed at top end (Segment 1) and seabed

end (Segment 3), wire rope (Segment 2) is in the middle. This is

the most popular form of the metallic mooring line. The initial

catenary conﬁguration of mooring line used in dynamic analysis

for calculating damping is depicted in Fig. 2. The key parameters of

the environment condition and the mooring line are listed in

Tables 1 and 2 respectively.

frequency random motion

Fig. 3. Spectrum model in the analysis.

motion on the low-frequency mooring line damping is a quite new motion on the low-frequency mooring line damping. The cases for

research area without plentiful and systematic answers and con- this study and the corresponding results were designed and

clusions, especially for the comparative study by means of time

recorded as listed in Table 3. The selection of signiﬁcant wave

domain ﬁnite element method. In this section, the investigation on

heights and zero crossing periods made the JONSWAP spectrum a

this question was carried out in detail. In practice, the motion of

reasonable model. The case 1.5, 1.6, 2.5 and 2.6 are with the sig-

the moored ﬂoating structures will not be simple sinusoidal

motion but random motion since the waves in the real seas are niﬁcant wave height of 23 m which is quite high compared with

random and unpredictable. the real sea state. But in order to get a longer zero crossing period,

The JONSWAP spectrum was selected for the purpose of those cases are also considered in the study. The six JONSWAP

investigating the effect of superimposed wave-frequency random spectrum models used in the case study were plotted as shown in

246 Y. Yang et al. / Ocean Engineering 112 (2016) 243–252

Fig. 3. Meanwhile, the surge R.A.O. of the vessel is presented in Amplitude Operator (R.A.O.) of the vessel used in the analysis. It is

Fig. 4 for the purpose of discussion on the results. clear from Fig. 4 that the curve shows an abrupt increase between

Considering the random process of the mooring line top end 10 s and 15 s, but the curve is ﬂatter for the interval 15–20 s.

motion, 25 cycles of low-frequency motions (for the low- Besides, the mooring line damping values corresponding to two

frequency motion of 30 m amplitude at 150 s period, the time different pure low-frequency motion are 40.21 kN s/m and

for calculation is 4500 s which equals sum of 30 cycles period of 20.23 kN s/m respectively, those two damping values getting clo-

the low-frequency motion, and in which the last 25 cycles are used ser with the extreme environmental condition provided by the sea

due to the instability of the ﬁrst several cycles) are taken into spectrum. That is to say, the wave-frequency random motion plays

account to calculate the average dissipated energy and average

a key role in determining the mooring line damping.

equivalent linear damping value.

The values of the mooring line damping due to the effect of the

combined low-frequency motion and wave-frequency random

motion in low-frequency motions of 30 m amplitude at 150 s 4. Comparison on effects of two kinds superimposed wave-

period and of 30 m amplitude at 300 s period conditions are frequency top end motion

shown in Fig. 5 respectively.

As shown in Fig. 5, the effect on the mooing line damping is 4.1. Transfer to the equivalent sinusoidal motion

very slight if the zero crossing period is at 8 s and 10 s. But once

the period reaches to 15 s, the effect will be signiﬁcant. In Fig. 5(a), The random motion of the vessel will be transformed and

the damping shows an increase from 41.89 kN s/m to 52.95 kN s/m represented by an equivalent sinusoidal motion in order to com-

by a factor of approximately 1.3 with the period increases from pare the effect of the superimposed sinusoidal motion and random

10 s to 15 s (same signiﬁcant wave height 12.5 m). In Fig. 5(b), the motion on the low-frequency mooring line damping. The energy

damping shows an increase from 24.07 kN s/m to 40.19 kN s/m by equals to the area under the energy density spectrum. The

a factor of approximately 1.7 with the period increases from 10 s to Response Amplitude Operator (R.A.O.) of the vessel surge motion

15 s (same signiﬁcant wave height 12.5 m). But it should be is used as the transfer function to get the density of vessel surge

pointed out that the mooring line damping values are getting spectrum. From the density of vessel surge spectrum, the sig-

closer for period of 15 s and 20 s (same signiﬁcant wave height

niﬁcant response amplitude, the average response amplitude and

23 m). This feature might be resulted from the Response

the root mean square response amplitude can be obtained.

In practice, the process to transform the vessel random motion

to single sinusoidal motion by using OracFlex is illustrated in

Fig. 6. Record surge motion of the vessel due to the wave effect

with speciﬁed sea spectrum, and get the density of vessel surge

spectrum. Then calculate the area under the density of the vessel

surge spectrum (which equals to A1). The root mean square

response

p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ amplitude (arms1 ) can be determined which equals to

A1 . Besides, for a single sinusoidal surge motion of the vessel,

the relationship between the area under the response spectrum

(which equals to A2)

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ and the amplitude of the sinusoidal motion is

ﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ

that Amp ¼ 2A2 ¼ 2arms2 . Assume the areas under the density

of vessel surge spectrum and the response spectrum of a single

sinusoidal motion are the same (A1 ¼ A2 ¼ A; arms1 ¼ arms2 ). Thus,

thepamplitude

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ of the equivalent sinusoidal motion (Amp.) equals

to 2A. Mean zero crossing period is reasonable to be regarded as

the period of an equivalent sinusoidal motion since average the

times between each zero down (or up) crossing gives the mean

Fig. 4. Surge R.A.O. of the vessel.

zero crossing period.

Fig. 5. Effect of superimposed wave frequency random motion on damping. (a) 150 s–30 m and (b) 300 s–30 m.

Y. Yang et al. / Ocean Engineering 112 (2016) 243–252 247

Table 4

Comparison of superimposed equivalent sinusoidal motion and random motion.

Case no. Hs-Tz (m-s) ER. (kJ) BR.(kN*s/m) Amp.-Period (m-s) EE.S. (kJ) BE.S. (kN s/m)

Period 150 s 2 8-10 4844 40.90 0.43-10 4984 42.08

3 12.5-10 4962 41.91 0.67-10 5296 44.71

4 12.5-15 6271 53.37 2.45-15 7402 62.50

5 23-15 8936 77.13 4.50-15 11,651 98.37

6 23-20 9353 80.96 5.99-20 11,670 98.53

2: Amp. 30 m 1 8-8 1260 21.28 0.22-8 1331 22.47

Period 300 s 2 8-10 1294 21.86 0.43-10 1443 24.37

3 12.5-10 1425 24.09 0.66-10 1767 29.85

4 12.5-15 2380 40.70 2.45-15 3224 54.44

5 23-15 3975 68.40 4.50-15 5570 94.01

6 23-20 4353 75.00 6.19-20 5820 98.28

4.2. Comparison of the results The results of the dissipated energy and the equivalent linear

damping with the effect of the superimposed wave-frequency

The equivalent linear mooring line damping due to the effect of random motion are listed in Table 4. Meanwhile, the random

the low-frequency superimposed with random top end motion motion is transformed to the equivalent sinusoidal motion. The

equals to the average value of the individual damping values in the results with the effect of the equivalent sinusoidal motion are also

last 25 low-frequency motion cycles. The equivalent linear moor- given in Table 4. After comparison of the two series of the results,

ing line damping can be determined by the following equation:

it is clear that the dissipated energy and the corresponding

v"ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

#2 ﬃ

u equivalent linear damping values due to random motion are both

u 1X n

1X n

B¼ t ðB1 þB2 þ … þ Bi 1 þBi Þ þ ðB Baverage Þ 2

ð5Þ smaller than those with the effect of the equivalent sinusoidal

ni¼1 ni¼1 i

motion.

248 Y. Yang et al. / Ocean Engineering 112 (2016) 243–252

Fig. 7. Comparison of the damping results. (a) 150 s–30 m and (b) 300 s–30 m.

Table 5

Inﬂuence of current.

Case no. Current (m/s) Dissipated energy (kJ) Damping (kN s/m)

1.2 0.5 5521 46.62

1.3 1.0 6968 58.83

1.4 1.5 9063 76.52

2: Amp. 30 m Period 150 s (12.5 m 15 s) 2.1 0 6271 52.95

2.2 0.5 6786 57.29

2.3 1.0 8085 68.09

2.4 1.5 9940 83.93

3: Amp. 30 m Period 300 s (12.5 m 10 s) 3.1 0 1425 24.07

3.2 0.5 1856 31.34

3.3 1.0 2865 48.38

3.4 1.5 4146 70.00

4: Amp. 30 m Period 300 s (12.5 m 15 s) 4.1 0 2380 40.19

4.2 0.5 2743 46.32

4.3 1.0 3560 60.12

4.4 1.5 4671 78.88

5: Amp. 30 m Period 150 s (5 m 10 s) 5.1 0 17,335 146.37

5.2 0.5 17,675 149.24

5.3 1.0 18,081 152.67

5.4 1.5 18,436 155.67

6: Amp. 30 m Period 300 s (5 m 10 s) 6.1 0 8602 145.26

6.2 0.5 8810 148.77

6.3 1.0 9087 153.45

6.4 1.5 9410 158.91

The results of the equivalent linear damping are shown in 5. Parametric study

Fig. 7. The dispersion of results from two approaches is becoming

obvious with the increase of the zero crossing period and the 5.1. Inﬂuence of current

signiﬁcant wave height. Both two ﬁgures show that case 4, case

5 and case 6 have obvious gaps between damping values. Because The current inﬂuence on mooring line damping due to low-

after transferring to equivalent sinusoidal motion, the amplitudes frequency superimposed with wave-frequency motion is per-

formed as described in Table 5. The low-frequency motions which

of those three cases are in different order of magnitude compared

selected are of 30 m amplitude at 150 s period and 30 m ampli-

with the amplitudes of ﬁrst three cases. Though the periods are

tude at 200 s period. The signiﬁcant wave height is 12.5 m at 10 s

increasing from case 1 to case 6, the difference is much smaller

and 15 s zero crossing period in the selected sea spectrum. The

compared with the amplitude. Thus the equivalent sinusoidal

superimposed wave frequency top end motion which selected

motion in case 4, case 5 and case 6 will lead to high mooring line here is of 5 m amplitude at 10 s period. The current speed is in the

damping values, but at the same time, the random motion has a range from 0 to 1.5 m/s.

relatively small effect on the mooring line damping due to the Fig. 8 illustrates the effect of the current and it indicates that

offset of each wave component. Thus a conclusion might be the mooring line damping shows a non-linear increase with the

obtained that the difference between mooring line damping rise of the current speed. It indicates that the current effect cannot

values according to random motion and equivalent sinusoidal be overstated if the top end motion is low-frequency motion

motion will be increased for the severe wave conditions. superimposed with wave-frequency random motion. But the effect

Y. Yang et al. / Ocean Engineering 112 (2016) 243–252 249

Table 6

Inﬂuence of normal drag coefﬁcient.

Case no. Normal drag coefﬁcient Dissipated energy (kJ) Damping (kN s/m)

Period 150 s 1.2 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-1.6 6804 57.45

(12.5 m 10 s) 1.3 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-2.4 9730 82.15

1.4 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-3.2 12,628 106.63

2: Amp. 30 m 2.1 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-1.1 6271 52.95

Period 150 s 2.2 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-1.6 8570 72.36

(12.5 m 15 s) 2.3 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-2.4 12,145 102.54

2.4 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-3.2 15,574 131.50

3: Amp. 30 m 3.1 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-1.1 1425 24.07

Period 300 s 3.2 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-1.6 1949 32.92

(12.5 m 10 s) 3.3 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-2.4 2780 46.95

3.4 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-3.2 3601 60.82

4: Amp. 30 m 4.1 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-1.1 2380 40.19

Period 300 s 4.2 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-1.6 3249 54.86

(12.5 m 15 s) 4.3 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-2.4 4596 77.61

4.4 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-3.2 5893 99.52

5: Amp. 30 m 5.1 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-1.1 17,335 146.37

Period 150 s 5.2 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-1.6 21,970 185.50

(5 m 10 s) 5.3 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-2.4 27,793 234.67

5.4 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-3.2 32,539 274.74

6: Amp. 30 m 6.1 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-1.1 8602 145.26

Period 300 s 6.2 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-1.6 10,985 185.50

(5 m 10 s) 6.3 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-2.4 14,229 240.28

6.4 S1-1.1S2-1.2 S3-3.2 16,793 283.58

of current can be neglected when the superimposed wave- 5.2. Inﬂuence of normal drag coefﬁcient

frequency motion is sinusoidal motion. According to the plentiful

of case study provided in this paper, the mooring line damping is The inﬂuence of normal drag coefﬁcient on mooring line

just increasing by a maximum factor of 1.1 for sinusoidal motion damping due to low-frequency superimposed with wave-

while this factor is 2.9 for random motion. It seems that the dif- frequency motion is performed as described in Table 6. The

ferent components of sinusoidal motions within random motion motions are the same with the previous section. The variations of

have a mutual inﬂuence that the effect was reduced. S1 and S2 drag coefﬁcient are neglected in the study and only the

According to the ﬁndings presented in this paragraph, it indi- variation of S3 drag coefﬁcient is carried out.

cates that the current effect can be neglected if the wave- The effect of the variation of the drag coefﬁcient on mooring

frequency sinusoidal motion is included. The similar phenom- line damping due to combined low-frequency and wave-frequency

enon that the current effect is very slight was also shown in the motion is shown in Fig. 9. The upward trend is almost linear. The

research by Webster (1995). But the difference is that the damping mooring line damping was increased by a factor of approximately

was only due to the wave-frequency sinusoidal motion in Web- 2.5 with the increase of S3 drag coefﬁcient from 1.1 to 3.2 from

ster’s research. It indicates that the current inﬂuence can be case 1 to case 4. The low-frequency damping was increased by a

neglected if the wave-frequency sinusoidal motion is taken into factor of approximately 2.0 with the increase of S3 drag coefﬁcient

consideration. from 1.1 to 3.2 for Case 5 and Case 6.

250 Y. Yang et al. / Ocean Engineering 112 (2016) 243–252

Table 7

Inﬂuence of normal added mass coefﬁcient.

In this section, the low-frequency motion of 30 m amplitude at

Case no. Normal added mass Dissipated Damping (kN s/ 150 s period is selected to carry out the research on the inﬂuence

coefﬁcient energy (kJ) m) of pre-tension on the damping due to combined low-frequency

and wave-frequency motions. The cases are given in Table 8.

1: Amp. 30 m 1.1 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.0 4962 41.89

Period 150 s 1.2 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.3 4963 41.91 It is clear that the increase of the pre-tension leads to a sig-

(12.5 m 10 s) 1.3 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.6 4965 41.92 niﬁcant increase of mooring line damping according to Fig. 11.

1.4 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.9 4966 41.93 According to the studies in this project, the mooring line damping

2: Amp. 30 m 2.1 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.0 6271 52.95 were increased by a factor in the range from 7 to 8 in the extreme

Period 150 s 2.2 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.3 6275 52.98 conditions. Besides, the motion type of the line top end was not so

(12.5 m 15 s) 2.3 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.6 6279 53.02 important compared with the mooring line pre-tension.

2.4 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.9 6284 53.06

In the work presented by Webster (1995), it was found that the

3: Amp. 30 m 3.1 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.0 17,335 146.37 mooring line damping will show an upward trend with the

Period 150 s 3.2 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.3 17,367 146.64

increase of pre-tension and then show a downward trend due to

(5 m 15 s) 3.3 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.6 17,398 146.90

3.4 S1-1.0S2-1.0 S3-1.9 17,429 147.16 the further increase. This changing point was not found in this

study. The main factor might be that a portion of mooring line is

lying at the seabed for each case and the mooring line did not

In previous research, the drag coefﬁcient has a signiﬁcant effect reach a taut condition. But the mooring line was in a taut condi-

on the damping values for top end motion is in the range of wave tion with the increase of the pre-tension in Webster’s work. The

frequency. The damping values showed an upward trend with the restoring force is mainly come from the stretching of the mooring

increase of the drag coefﬁcient (Webster, 1995). Besides, the work line when in a taut condition will lead a decrease of the damping

of Sarkar and Taylor also showed that the drag coefﬁcient played values.

an important role to enlarge the damping (Sarkar and Taylor,

2002). The results of this project showed that the normal drag

coefﬁcient is also very important in determining the mooring line 6. Conclusion

damping due to the combination of low-frequency motion and

wave-frequency sinusoidal or random motions. From the point of Time domain ﬁnite element method is applied by using Orca-

view of the quasi-static method which introduce by Huse (1986), Flex to investigate the relationship between low-frequency

mooring line damping and the superimposed wave-frequency

the drag coefﬁcient is proportional to the dissipated energy caused

random motion. The wave-frequency random motion is then

by mooring line since the magnitude of the drag force is based on

transferred to the equivalent sinusoidal motion for the purpose of

the selection of it.

comparing the effects of different motion types. The parametric

study is carried out in the background which the wave-frequency

motion is included. The following conclusions can be reached:

5.3. Inﬂuence of normal added mass coefﬁcient

(1) The results showed that the effects on mooring line damping

The research on the inﬂuence of normal added mass coefﬁcient

considering different random motions are irregular. It might

of the mooring line on the mooring line damping due to combined

be resulted from the inherent property of the vessel itself such

low-frequency and wave-frequency motion is performed. The as Response Amplitude Operator. According to the cases stu-

cases and results are described in Table 7. died in this project, the random waves with small signiﬁcant

According to Fig. 10, the inﬂuence of normal added mass wave height and low zero crossing period has a slight effect on

coefﬁcient can be ignored that the mooring line damping shows a the mooring line damping. The ampliﬁcation factor will be

very limited change with different normal added mass coefﬁcient increased with the increase of the signiﬁcant wave height and

values. zero crossing period. But the R.A.O. really plays a domain role

Y. Yang et al. / Ocean Engineering 112 (2016) 243–252 251

Table 8

Inﬂuence of pe-tension.

(kN) energy (kJ) (kN s/m)

Period 150 s 1.2 1722 1574 4962 41.89

(12.5 m 10 s) 1.3 1737 1974 8636 72.91

1.4 1749 2374 13283 112.15

1.5 1758 2774 18,784 158.60

Period 150 s 2.2 1722 1574 6271 52.95

(12.5 m 15 s) 2.3 1737 1974 10,896 92.00

2.4 1749 2374 16,704 141.04

2.5 1758 2774 23,498 198.40

Period 150 s

(5 m 10 s) 3.2 1722 1574 17,335 146.37

3.3 1737 1974 28,467 240.36

3.4 1749 2374 41,121 347.20

3.5 1758 2774 54,661 461.52

in determining the ampliﬁcation factor of the mooring line reasonable comparison, the random motion was transformed

damping. to the equivalent sinusoidal motion. The results indicated that

(2) The comparison of the effects due to sinusoidal motion and the effect of superimposed random motion is more slight

random motion was carried out. In order to get a more compared with the superimposed equivalent sinusoidal

252 Y. Yang et al. / Ocean Engineering 112 (2016) 243–252

motion. It is reasonable that the random motion can be regard motions. In: Proceedings of the 24th Offshore Technology Conference. Houston,

as a combination of many single sinusoidal motions with Teaxs, pp. 209–218.

Huse, E. 1986. Inﬂuence of mooring line damping upon rig motions. In: Proceedings

different amplitude, period and phase. The difference in the of the 18th Offshore Technology Conference. Houston, Texas, pp. 433–438.

phases will lead to a reduction in the low-frequency mooring Huse, E. 1991. New developments in prediction of mooring system damping. In:

line damping. Proceedings of the 23rd Offshore Technology Conference. Houston, Texas,

pp. 291–298.

(3) The current has a very slight effect if the superimposed wave- Huse, E., & Matsumoto, K. 1988. Practical estimation of mooring line damping. In:

frequency motion is sinusoidal motion, but on the contrary, Proceedings of the 20th Offshore Technology Conference. Houston, Texas,

the effect is very signiﬁcant if the superimposed wave- pp. 543–552.

Huse, E., & Matsumoto, K. 1989. Mooring line damping due to ﬁrst- and second-

frequency motion is random motion. The results showed that order vessel motion. In: Proceedings of the 21st Offshore Technology Con-

the selection of normal drag coefﬁcient of the mooring line is ference. Houston, Texas, pp. 135–148.

very important for predicting the mooring line damping. But Johanning, L., Smith, G.H., Wolfram, J., 2007. Measurements of static and dynamic

mooring line damping and their importance for ﬂoating WEC devices. Ocean

the effect of the normal added mass coefﬁcient can be

Eng. 34, 1918–1934.

neglected that the damping values are similar with different Kitney, N., Brown, D.T., 2001. Experimental investigation of mooring line loading

normal added mass coefﬁcient. The pre-tension has a very using large and small-scale models February. J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 123,

signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the mooring line damping. The pre- 1–9.

Matsumoto, K. 1991. The inﬂuence of mooring line damping on the predition of

tension has a similar effect with the current since the low-frequency vessel motions at sea. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Offshore

existence of the current will also change the mooring line Technology Conference. Houston, Texas.

pre-tension. It indicates that the mooring line pre-tension will Ormberg, H., Larsen, K., 1998. Coupled analysis of ﬂoater motion and mooring

dynamics for a turret-moored ship. Appl. Ocean Res. 20, 55–67.

plays a key role in determining the damping of mooring Qiao, D., & Ou, J. 2010. Time domain simulation of the mooring induced damping in

system. low frequency excitation. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on

Computer Application and System Modeling. 5, pp. 327–332.

Qiao, D., Ou, J., 2011. Damping calculation of a deepwater catenary mooring line. J.

Vib. Shock. 30 (2), 24–31.

References Sarkar, A., Taylor, R.E., 2002. Dynamics of mooring cables in random seas. J. Fluids

Struct. 16 (2), 193–212.

Webster, W.C., 1995. Mooring-induced damping. Ocean Eng. 22 (6), 571–591.

Brown, D.T., Mavrakos, S., 1999. Comparative study on mooring line dynamic

Yuan, Z.M., Incecik, A., Ji, C.Y., 2014. Numerical study on a hybrid mooring system

loading. Mar. Struct. 12, 131–151.

with clump weights and buoys. Ocean Eng. 88, 1–11.

Dercksen, A., Huijsmans, R., & Wichers, J. 1992. An improved method for calculating

the contribution of hydrodynamic chain damping on low-frequency vessel

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