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Ocean Engineering

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

system of FPSO with soft yoke mooring system

Wenhua Wu a,n, Yanlin Wang b, Da Tang c, Qianjin Yue b, Yu Du a, Zheliang Fan b, Yang Lin d,

Yantao Zhang d

a

Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis of Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology,

Dalian 116024, China

b

School of Ocean Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124000, China

c

Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China

d

CNOOC, Tianjin Branch, Tianjin 022000, China

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Due to the complexity of the marine environment loading and motions of vessels, many uncertainties are

Received 11 July 2014 involved in the design of mooring systems. This paper designs a fully monitoring system, including

Accepted 17 December 2015 meteorological–environmental and mechanical aspects. The environmental monitoring system is composed

of current, wave and wind equipments. Fiber Bragg Gauges/FBG, incline sensors and GPS/INS form the

Keywords: mechanical monitoring system. On the basis of dynamic characteristic of the soft yoke system, a restore force

Monitoring measurement method has been proposed according to the response of the angular information of the soft

FPSO yoke. The monitoring system has been installed on one FPSO in Bohai Bay, and comprehensive monitoring

Soft yoke mooring system information has been obtained from 2011. The calculation of the restoration force of the mooring system by

Data processing

the present dynamic method shows high agreements with that of the FBG. The vessel motions in the fre-

RAO

quency domain calculated by the measured wave spectrum multiplied by the designed RAO (Response

Amplitude Operator) are compared with the in-site monitoring motions. The results of comparisons show

the feasibility of the present monitoring system in safety assessments of FPSO and SYMs.

& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction In most cases, the conceptual design of SYMs in certain sea states

is performed with the aid of commercial software. The meteor-

In recent years, the safety and reliability of offshore structural ological–oceanographical environmental loading and hydrodynamic

systems subjected to hurricanes has increasingly attracted greater parameters of the FPSO are the most fundamental and important

attention. In deep waters, such as the Gulf of Mexico and South indexes. Static and dynamic analyses are conducted with concurrent

China Sea, many platforms have been damaged by hurricane and environmental forces applied in certain directions in which it has

uncorrected operations (Veritas, 2005); while in shallow waters, been decided the FPSO will restore force. The results of these ana-

such as the Bohai Bay, some FPSOs which were ﬁxed by single lyses are then checked against API 2SK (American Petroleum Insti-

point mooring systems (SPMs) have also been damaged during in tute, 2005) or other similar guidelines. The ﬁnal design was dictated

storm or even under ordinary operation (Liu and Yang, 2012). In by meeting all the mooring objectives and pertinent regulations in

view of these accidents, the lack of offshore standards in the API 2SK, as well as minimizing price. However, due to the non-

design phase and model testing are major factors in offshore linearity of the soft yoke system, thorough model testing with certain

engineering. Soft yoke mooring systems (SYMs) (Luo and Baudic, scale rate should be performed to investigate the hydrodynamic

2003; ABS, 1996), as one of the best types of single point mooring abilities. Typically, static testing is performed to verify the excursion

systems, are widely used in the Bohai Bay for connecting FPSOs characteristics and decay behavior of the FPSO with SYMs. Next, a

and ﬁxed platforms. Typically, SYMs are composed of a counter series of dynamic tests is performed within the deﬁned wind, current

weight, mooring legs, an “A”-frame structure, a yoke nose etc. (as and irregular wave state (Yang et al., 2008). Due to the complexity of

shown in Fig. 1.) oceanographical conditions and the limitation of reduced scaling

effect in laboratory conditions, in model testing it is difﬁcult to obtain

n

Corresponding author. all of design parameters with a high degree of accuracy. Therefore,

E-mail address: lxyuhua@dlut.edu.cn (W. Wu). the traditional numerical analysis and model testing cannot meet all

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.12.035

0029-8018/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

256 W. Wu et al. / Ocean Engineering 113 (2016) 255–263

φ1 ; φ2 Angles of yoke and mooring leg, as shown in Fig. 4

M; C; K Mass, damping and stiffness matrix uv ; uh Vertical and horizontal movement velocities

x Displacement vector Xv; Xh Vertical and horizontal displacement shown in Fig. 4

F Environmental force vector mi ; ði ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ Mass of yoke counter weight and mooring leg

σ σ ðzÞ ¼ 0:15VðzÞðz=zs Þ 0:125 Li ; ði ¼ 1; 2; :::; 5Þ Characteristic lengths of mooring system

F F ¼ f =f p F 0h ; F 0v Nodal force of vertical and horizontal directions of

sAPI ðf Þ API wind spectral energy density at frequency f upper mooring leg

f Frequency (Hz) Fh; Fv Nodal force in vertical and horizontal directions of

z Height above waterline yoke nose

,

zs Thickness of the surface layer at 20 m v i ; ði ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ Centroid velocities of rigid bodies of SYMs

,

fp f p ¼ 0:025V ðzÞ=z ω i ; ði ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ Angular velocities of rigid bodies of SYMs

ð1Þ ð2Þ

F xc ; F yc ; M xyc Tangential, lateral current force and yawing , ,

v i ; v i ði ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ Partial velocities

moment of current loading ð1Þ ð2Þ

, ,

ω i ;ω ði ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ Partial angular velocities

ρc Density of sea water ,

i

φCR Mean drift parameter ,

M i ; ði ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ Global moments of SYMs

d Mean drift parameter

J i ; ði ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ Moments of inertia of yoke, counter weight and

B Width of vessel

mooring leg

V CR Current velocity with speciﬁc proﬁle

F~ 1 ; F~ 2 Generalized driving force

Sy Spectral density of vessel motions

F~ 1 ; F~ 2 Generalized inertia force

Sξ Spectral density of wave

α; β Coefﬁcients for mooring restoring force

F rest Global restoring force of SYMs

LPP Length parameter related to current force

requirements of the design of offshore structure. Furthermore, there including wave, wind and current gauges; motions of an FPSO mon-

are more than ten hinges in the soft yoke mooring system. The multi- itoring system mainly composed of GPS/INS; and a motions and restore

body dynamic system, composed of a multi-hinge-connection mode, force monitoring system composed of FBG and incline sensors. Cur-

causes difﬁculties when making the numerical simulation in the rently, the present monitoring system has been installed in one FPSO in

commercial hydrodynamic analysis, and the determination of the the Bohai Bay. Massive data have been gained and recorded in storage

failure mode of SYMs remains a challenge. Recently, some accidents for the deep analysis of the design veriﬁcation and safety assessment.

involving SYMs have still occurred in the Bohai Bay. The motions of the vessel are illustrated by the measured wave

Monitoring technology, as an advantage tool, is widely used in spectrum multiplied by the designed RAO of FPSO in the frequency

civil engineering (Ko et al., 2009). Proto-type measurements based domain. The spectral analysis of the monitoring motion data of the

on monitoring systems for offshore structures may collect useful vessel are also performed and compared to those of the calculated

information through advanced monitoring technology. The data ones. Strong agreements can be observed to verify the correctness of

obtained by the in-site measurement strategy can then be used to the present ﬂoating motions monitoring system. Restorative forces

study mechanical properties and design indexes of offshore of SYMs have been compared between the present dynamic method

structures, and propose the improvement to the calculation of and direct measurement by FBG, and the consistency of the com-

hydrodynamic analysis and model testing. parison shows the feasibility and reliability of the present mon-

Different from proto-type monitoring of civil structure, there have itoring system for SYMs.

been few in-site monitoring projects developed with an international

scope. Masuda et al. (2002) performed the early-warning research of

vessel planar motions of single point mooring system. The hydro- 2. Soft yoke mooring system of FPSO

dynamic force subject to small angle current is estimated via from

the slender body theory. Simoes et al. (2002) discussed the dynamic The soft yoke mooring system is designed and constructed to

characteristic of internal turret single point system with tandem moor the FPSO to the jacket platform in shallow water. The

ofﬂoading operation by neural network algorithm. Sun and Sun

(2012) analyzed the safety behavior of FPSO by FTA (Fault Tree

X1

Analysis) and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) during crude

transfer and ﬁre events. Moan et al. (2002) reviewed the safety

design method of FPSO via limit state function. Failure mode of FPSO

are analyzed by risk assessment method and accident index. Lotsberg

and Kristian (2001) performed the monitoring JIP to address the X3

fatigue design standards on FPSO. van den Boom et al. (2005)

established another JIP with a 22-month period to obtain fatigue load

information through long period measurements. Hu et al. (2010) X4

measured the six degrees of freedom for “Fenjin” FPSO, to analyze

special motion behavior subject to wind and current.

In the present paper, a proto-type monitoring system is developed X2

and implemented for FPSO with SYMs in the Bohai Bay, based on the

analysis of mechanical properties and characteristic of structure of

SYMs. The full-scale monitoring system is composed of three sub-

systems, i.e. a meteorological–oceanographical monitoring system Fig. 1. Structural conﬁguration of soft yoke mooring system.

W. Wu et al. / Ocean Engineering 113 (2016) 255–263 257

Joint connection modes in SYM system. itoring system of SYMs.

Joints Motion release states

3.1. Meteorological–oceanographical environmental loading mon-

X Y Z R1 R2 R3 itoring system

X1 √ √ √

Similar to most offshore structures, oceanographical environmental

X2 √ √

X3 √

loading which is caused by marine meteorology and hydrology con-

X4 √ √ sists of the main external loading conditions of FPSO and SYMs.

The guidance on actual values to be used in design refer to API

guidance (American Petroleum Institute, 2005) and meteorological

and oceanographic numerical models. In general the design response

should be based on the jointly distributed environmental phenomena.

Environmental data, such as wind, wave, current and tide have site-

speciﬁc relationships governing their interactions. So the hydrology

factor is composed of wind parameters (speed and direction), air

temperature, relative wet, gas pressure, current parameters, wave,

water temperature, salinity etc. Among these, the loading parameters

Fig. 2. Simpliﬁed mechanical model of soft yoke mooring system with FPSO. of wind, current and wave are the major factors inﬂuencing the design

and mechanical characteristics of the mooring system. Of particular

standard SYMs are traditionally composed of two mooring legs, importance are the wind speed/direction, wave height/period, and

two counterweight ballasts, an “A”-frame structure (YOKE), a ﬁxed wave/current relationships and their relative directions. The present

jacket, and a frame connected with the FPSO, as shown in Fig. 1. oceanographical environmental monitoring system includes wind load

Two universal joints (respectively marked as X1 and X2) are factor, current load factor and wave load factor.

installed at the upper and lower ends of the mooring leg, to release

the relative roll and pitch motions. There are two thrust bearings 3.1.1. Wind monitoring

assembled at each of the mooring legs near the upper articulation As indicated in API 2SK (American Petroleum Institute, 2005),

to release the torsional degree of freedom. The “A”-frame structure, maximum operating condition is deﬁned as the combination of

together with the counterweight ballasts, is suspended between the maximum wind,waves and current. Wind load is one of the most

mooring legs and ﬁxed jacket. The antifreeze inside the large important load cases for the section above the waterline of a

counterweight ballast provides the restoring force to limit the FPSO platform structure. The wind loads for the design of the platform

to a certain position. There is a roller bearing (marked as X4) con- should be determined using one of the following procedures

necting the “A”-frame structure to the ﬁxed jacket, which allows the (American Petroleum Institute, 2005; Oil Companies International

pitch and roll motions of the “A”-frame structure to the ﬁxed jacket. Marines Forum, 1994).

Finally, a swivel stack (marked as X3) is arranged in the ﬁxed jacket Method 1: Wind is treated as a constant in terms of direction

to achieve the weathervane ability of the FPSO. Table 1 presents the and speed, taken as the 1-min average.

motion-released states of all the joints marked from X1 to X4, Method 2: Fluctuating wind is modeled and considered by a

where X, Y and Z are the translational degrees of freedom, and R1, steady component based on the 1-h average velocity plus a time-

R2 and R3 are the rotational degrees of freedom. varying component calculated from a suitable empirical wind gust

The above joint-connection modes and restoring force mode by spectrum. The recommended wind gust spectrum Sðf Þ in offshore

counterweight ballasts exhibit the strong weathervane effect of the engineering is taken from the Appendix B in API 2SK (American

FPSO. The FPSO may be positioned in the direction of the composi- Petroleum Institute, 2005), and expressed as follows:

tion forces of wind, wave and current. Furthermore, SYMs provide σ 2 ðzÞ F

SAPI ðf Þ ¼ ð2Þ

their advantageous ability to be used and maintained in the sea ice f ð1 þ 1:5FÞ5=3

zone of the Bohai Bay. Typically, the FPSO with SYMs can be hypo-

in which F ¼ f =f p ,f p ¼ 0:025VðzÞ=z; σ ðzÞ ¼ 0:15VðzÞðz=zs Þ 0:125 , f

thesized as the spring–mass mechanical model shown in Fig. 2:

frequency of ﬂuctuating wind, VðzÞ is the 1-h mean wind speed at

The governing equations for describing the kinematic mech-

elevation z m above the waterline, and zs is the thickness of the

anisms of FPSO and SYMs can be summarized as follows:

"surface layer" and is always equal to 20 m.

Mx€ þ Cx_ þ Kx ¼ F ð1Þ If the location of the wind gauge is chosen, then the wind speed

and wind direction are the main monitoring parameters for the

where M is the mass matrix (real mass and added mass) of FPSO, C

wind load monitoring. By analyzing the standard wind spectrum, a

the damping matrix, K the stiffness matrix, x is the displacement

sampling frequency of 1 Hz satisﬁed the requirement of the data

vector of FPSO, and F is the environmental forces caused by wind, processing. Considering the relationship of the motions of the

wave and current. The environmental loading and six degrees of FPSO and wind load, the relative wind direction to the FPSO bow

freedom of the FPSO serve the major roles in the design and should be decided and collected in the wind monitoring system.

operation of the single point mooring system.

3.1.2. Wave monitoring

Waves play important roles in the designs of moorings and

3. Proto-type monitoring system of SYMs vessels in offshore structures. In offshore engineering, the spec-

trum density analysis method of irregular waves is always utilized

On the basis of the design criteria of the mooring system in API and adopted. The standard spectrum density matrix shows the

2SK, combined with the hydrodynamic simulation and model energy distribution state of harmonic waves and expresses the

testing, the present proto-type monitoring system is consistent main affection of the essential wave frequency.

with the following three subsystems: meteorological–oceano- The proto-type wave spectrum from the wave load monitoring

graphical environmental loading monitoring system; motions and provides a direct method for the response calculation of the

258 W. Wu et al. / Ocean Engineering 113 (2016) 255–263

ones (roll, pitch and yaw) are often treated as the main unknown

variations in hydrodynamic numerical simulations.

GPS, as the most common monitoring technique, is often uti-

lized to measure the variations of the positions. Traditional GPS

provides a low accuracy for measuring the positions and dis-

placements of ocean ﬂoaters. The real-time kinematic (RTK)

technique, that is, a base is located in a jacket and a move is built

Fig. 3. Deﬁnition of six degrees of freedom for FPSO hull.

in the FPSO, should be adopted to enhance the data precision. In

the RTK mode, measurements of the phase of the signal's carrier

platform system. Wave height, wave period and wave direction wave are used rather than the initial signal content, and it relies on

should be recorded and further summarized to the standard wave a single reference station to provide real-time corrections, pro-

spectrum (P-M or JONSWAP spectrum). In recent years, Acoustic viding accuracy up to cm level (Schmidt, 2011).

Doppler Current Proﬁle (ADCP) (Kelly et al., 2003; Liagre et al., For the measurement of attitudes, the inclinometer, gyro-

2008), wave radar, and so on are often utilized in proto-type scopes, inertial navigation system (INS) etc. are used widely in

measurement. engineering aspects. Typically, the inclinometer shows strong

advantages in measuring static or quasi static inclination. The

3.1.3. Current monitoring rotational motions (roll, pitch and yaw) of the FPSO subject to

Current is the most essential factor in the design of underwater wave and wind loads show the dynamic characteristic. INS, which

structures, such as pontoons, risers and mooring systems. The includes three gyros and three accelerometers, proposes advan-

following equation (Oil Companies International Marines Forum, tageous abilities to continuously calculate via dead reckoning the

1994) can be used to determine the current force of the platform position, orientation, and velocity of FPSO, without the need for

under the water line: external references. A summarized table (Table 2) is present in the

8 following to show the vessel motions and related sensors used in

>

> F xc ¼ 12dC xc ðφcR Þρc V 2cR B motion monitoring system of FPSO vessel.

<

F yc ¼ 12dC yc ðφcR Þρc V 2cR Lpp ð3Þ

>

>

: M ¼ 1dC ðφ Þρ V 2 L2

xyc 2 xyc cR c cR pp 3.3. Restoration force monitoring system of SYMs

3

The restoration force is the essential design index for a mooring

the tangential, lateral force and yawing moment, respectively; C xc

system. For an in-site FPSO, it is difﬁcult or forbidden to install the

φcR C xyc φcR and C yc φcR are the parameters respectively direct pressure/tensile sensors on the mooring structure. Tradi-

related to F xc , F yc and M xyc ; d is the mean drift; B is the width of

tionally, FBGs or strain gauges are always installed on industrial

the vessel; and V cR is the current velocity with the full proﬁle of

equipment to measure the stress variations, but to the author's

the vessel, Lpp length parameter related to current force.

knowledge, the above sensor cannot provide long-term reliability

In Eq. (3), the current speed and current direction in the dif-

for marine structures, due to the harsh ocean environment.

ferent water layers are the key factors for the calculation of current

In the next section, a dynamic algorithm of the restoration

force. ADCP (American Petroleum Institute, 2005; Kelly et al.,

force of a mooring system is presented for SYMs, on the basis of

2003) provides high accuracy and resolution for the multi-proﬁle

the Kane dynamic method (Kane and Levinson, 1985).

measurement of currents.

As shown in Fig. 4, two generalized velocities are deﬁned as

u1 ¼ φ _ 1 and u2 ¼ φ

_ 2 , and the positive direction is deﬁned as the

3.2. Motion monitoring system of FPSO vessel increase of the angles of φ1 and φ2 . uv ¼ X _ v is the vertical move-

ment velocity and positive is deﬁned as the upward direction. uh

Under the oceanographical environmental force, the FPSO ¼X _ h is the horizontal movement velocity, and the positive direc-

exhibits complex motions. As shown in Fig. 3, three translational tion is pointed to the right. m1 ; m2 ; m3 are the weights of the yoke,

degrees of freedom (sway, surge and heave) and three rotational counter weight and mooring leg, respectively.

For the considered conﬁguration of SYMs, we set the following

geometrical boundary conditions:

(

X h ¼ cos φ1 UL4 þ sin φ2 U L5

ð4Þ

X v ¼ cos φ2 U L5 sin φ1 U L4

where L4 ; L5 are the respective lengths of the yoke and mooring leg.

Table 2

Motion characteristics of FPSO and monitoring sensors.

freedom

Sway frequency

Heave Wave frequency INS

Roll Rotation Wave frequency INS incline meters

Pitch

Yaw Current Excitation Wave INS Gyrocompass

frequency

Fig. 4. Deﬁnition of major parameters of SYM system.

W. Wu et al. / Ocean Engineering 113 (2016) 255–263 259

The global equilibrium equations for entire SYM system are of the whole SYMs are written as

simply expressed in the horizontal and vertical directions. 8

, ,

>

>

>

> F 1 ¼ m1 gj

( 0 >

>

Fh ¼ Fh >

>, ,

ð5Þ >

> F 2 ¼ m2 gj

0 >

>

F v þ F v ¼ ðm1 þm2 þ m3 Þg >,

>

> , ,

< F 3 ¼ F i þ ðF v m3 gÞj

h

ð10Þ

According to the moment equilibrium theory, the moment >

>

,

>

> M1 ¼ 0

balance relations for point ‘O’ in Fig. 4 are established and >

>

> ,

>

>

> M2 ¼ 0

expressed as follows: >

>

>

> ,

>

:M ,

( 0 0 3 ¼ L3 sin φ2 F v L3 cos φ2 F h k

m2 gðL4 L2 Þ cos φ1 þ m1 gðL4 L1 Þ cos φ1 þ F h L4 sin φ1 ¼ F v L4 cos φ1

m3 gðL5 L3 Þ sin φ2 þ F h L5 cos φ2 ¼ F v L5 sin φ2 The global inertial forces are written as

8

ð6Þ >

>

, ,

F 1 ¼ m1 L1 u_ 1 sin φ1 þ u21 cos φ1 i þ u_ 1 cos φ1 u21 sin φ1 j,

>

>

>

>

>

>

> ,

> , ,

where L1 is the distance from point ‘O’ to the gravity center of the >

>

>

> F 2 ¼ m2 L2 u_ 1 sin φ1 þ u21 cos φ1 i þ u_ 1 cos φ1 u21 sin φ1 j

>

>

>

yoke, L2 is the distance from point ‘O’ to the gravity center of the >

< , , ,

F 3 ¼ m3 u_ h þ m3 L3 u_ 2 cos φ2 m3 L3 u22 sin φ2 i ðm3 u_ v þ m3 L3 u_ 2 sin φ2 þ m3 L3 u22 cos φ2 Þj

ballista, and L2 ¼ L5 =2. >

>

> ,

> ,

>

By applying the mathematical derivatives (time-domain dif- > M1 ¼ J 1 u_ 1 k

>

>

>

>

>

>M , ,

>

> 2 ¼ J2u_ 1k

ferentiation) to Eq. (4), we can obtain the velocity boundary con- >

>

> ,

> ,

: M3 ¼ J 3 u_ 2 k

ditions in the rate form:

( ð11Þ

L5 u2 cos φ2 L4 u1 sin φ1 ¼ uh

ð7Þ Combining Eqs. (8)–(10), we can obtain the global equation for

L5 u2 sin φ2 þ L4 u1 cos φ1 ¼ uv the whole dynamic system of SYMs, as follows:

8 , ð1 Þ , , ð1 Þ , ð1 Þ , ð1 Þ , ð1 Þ , ð1Þ

> , , ,

F~1 ¼ F 1 U v1 þF 2 U v2 þF 3 U v3 þ M 1 U ω1 þ M 2 U ω2 þM 3 U ω3

, ,

It may then be easily observed that φ1 and φ2 are independent >

>

>

>

>

> ð1 Þ ð1 Þ ð1 Þ ð1 Þ ð1Þ ð1 Þ

of each other. Therefore, u1 and u2 are treated as individual vari- < F~ ¼ F, U v, þ F, U v, þ F, U v, þM ,

Uω

, ,

þM U ω

, ,

þM Uω

,

1 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 3 3

ables, and uh and uv are expressed as the functions of u1 and u2 . >

> , ,

ð2 Þ

, , , ð2 Þ

, , ,

ð2 Þ ð2 Þ , ,

ð2 Þ , ,

ð2Þ

, , , ,

>

>

> F~2 ¼ F 1 U v1 þF 2 U v2 þF 3 U v3 þ M 1 U ω1 ω

þ M 2 U 2 þM 3 U 3 ω

Next, the centroid velocity v1 ; v2 ; v3 and angular velocity ω1 ; >

>

: , , ð2 Þ , , ð2 Þ , , ð2 Þ , , ð2 Þ ,

, ð2Þ ,

, ð2 Þ

, , F~2 ¼ F 1 U v1 þ F 2 U v2 þ F 3 U v3 þM 1 U ω 1 ω

þM 2 U 2 þ M 3 U 3 ω

ω2 ; ω3 can be written by using the generalized velocity (u1 ,u2 ), as

ð12Þ

follows:

8 ( Substituting

Eq. (10) in to global balance relation

>

> , , , F~1 þ F~1 ¼ 0

>

> v1 ¼ L1 u1 sin φ1 i þ cos φ1 j , the horizontal restoring force of mooring system F h

>

>

> F~2 þ F~2 ¼ 0

>

>

>

> , , , and restoring force in the vertical direction F v can be ﬁnally

>

> v ¼ L u sin φ i þ cos φ j

>

> 2 2 1 1 1 obtained in the following form

>

>

>

<,

, , α β

v3 ¼ uh L3 u2 cos φ2 i þ uv þ L3 u2 sin φ2 j ð8Þ Fh ¼ = cot φ2 þ tan φ1 ð13Þ

>

> cos φ1 sin φ2

>

> , ,

>

> ω1 ¼ u 1 k

>

>

>

> F v ¼ α sin φ1 UF h = cos φ1 ð14Þ

>

> , ,

> ω2 ¼ u 1 k

>

>

>

> Theqglobal restoring force of mooring system F rest is obtained as

>

:ω , , ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

3 ¼ u2 k

F rest ¼ F h 2 þ F v 2 .

in which

Deﬁning the conceptions of partial velocity and partial angular

, ð1Þ ,

, ð1Þ , α U L4 ¼ ðm1 L1 þ m2 L2 Þg cos φ1 þ m3 gL4 cos φ1 m1 L21 u_ 1 m2 L22 u_ 1

velocity relative to u1 as vi ∂v i

¼ ∂u ; ði ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ, ωi ¼ ∂∂uω1i ;

1

ði ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ, we then obtain J 1 u_ 1 J 2 u_ 1 þ m3 u_ 2 L3 L4 sin φ2 φ1 þ m3 u22 L3 L4 cos φ2 φ1

8 þ m3 u_ h L4 sin φ1 þ m3 u_ v L4 cos φ1 ð15Þ

>

> , ð1Þ , ,

>

>

>

ν1 ¼ L1 sin φ1 i þ cos φ1 j

>

>

> ð1Þ

> β ¼ m3 L3 u_ 2 u_ h cos φ2 þ u_ v sin φ2 þ m3 g sin φ2

>

> , , ,

>

> ν2 ¼ L2 sin φ1 i þ cos φ1 j U ðL5 L3 Þ=L5 J 3 u_ 2 =L5 ð16Þ

>

>

>

>

>

< , ð1Þ Observing Eqs. (13) and (14), the restoring force F h F v can be

, ,

ν3 ¼ L4 sin φ1 i L4 cos φ1 j ð9Þ gained as the function of φ1 , φ2 and u1 ; u2 ; u_ 1 ; u_ 2 . F h ¼ f

>

>

>

> , ð1Þ ,

φ1 ; φ2 ; u1 ; u2 ; u_ 1 ; u_ 2 and u1 ; u2 ; u_ 1 ; u_ 2 are the function of φ1 ,φ2 .

>

> ω ¼ k

>

> 1

>

> Therefore, the restoring force monitoring system for SYMs can

>

> , ð1Þ ,

> ω2 ¼ k

> be developed and composed by the angular and its velocity

>

>

>

> , ð1Þ information of the yoke and mooring leg.

: ω3 ¼ 0 The above Kane dynamic method exhibits the advantages in

the calculation of mooring restoring force. With difference to the

Similarly, we can also obtain the partial velocity vi ð2Þ ¼ ∂u

∂vi

2

; classical Laplace dynamic method, there is no kinetic function in

ði ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ and partial angular velocity ωi ð2Þ ¼ ∂∂uω2i ; ði ¼ 1; 2; 3Þ rela- the present dynamic method and the complicated derivation

tive to u2 . process is avoided in the process of solving mooring force. The

Assuming J 1 ; J 2 ; J 3 are the moments of the inertia of yoke, ﬁnal expressions of global horizontal and vertical restoring force

counter weight and mooring leg, respectively, the external forces (F h and F v ) are easy to be implement and displayed at the

260 W. Wu et al. / Ocean Engineering 113 (2016) 255–263

integrated monitoring system. But it need to be noted that the that the monitoring data show good approximate results to those

present algorithm is a 2D rigid-body dynamic method. Mooring of the calculated ones in the frequency domain. It is observed that

legs, ballista, and yoke are assumed as rigid bodies without roll pitch motions of calculated is a little bit greater than that of

considering the elastic deformations. The 3D characteristics of measurement ones. That is because the wave direction is ﬁxed

SYMs including the inconsistency of motions of two mooring with 45° in calculation cases. But the in-ﬁeld actual wave direction

legs, the heave and pitch motions of yoke and the torsion degree

changes with time during the record periods. The measured heave

along the axial direction of mooring legs are neglected in the

data which is obtained by RTK GPS is related to the position of base

formula derivation of dynamic algorithm. The follow up research

and move. In actual, the move is not easy to be installed in the

should focus on the affections of above assumptions.

gravity center of vessel. So affections of roll and pitch bring the

error of heave motions and increase the heave amplitude in fre-

4. Integrated monitoring system and implementation on FPSO quency domain. On the other side, low-frequency motion, such as

in the Bohai Bay surge of FPSO, shows the relative difference in the amplitude

between measurement and calculated one. That proves the inﬂu-

The monitoring activities were distributed in three monitoring ence of wind and current on the low frequency response of FPSO is

systems (as shown in Fig. 5), namely: signiﬁcant.

2. Position and motions monitoring system

3. Restoring force and position of SYMs monitoring system Table 3

Summary of parameters of monitoring system.

Full sensors are installed (as present in Table 3 and shown in

Objects Parameters Sensors Resolution/range/sampling

Fig. 6 ) in one FPSO in the Bohai Bay and monitored continuously. rate

The global measurement information is presented in numerals,

graphics and screens by an integrated monitoring system, as Wind Speed direction Wind gauge ( 7 0.3 m/s)/(0–100 m/s, 0–

shown in Fig. 7, which was developed in C þ þ. 360°)/1 Hz

Wave Height period ADCP wave radar ( 7 6 mm)/(wave height

range 0.2–50 m)/half an hour

per record

5. Monitoring data processing and discussions Current Speed direction ADCP ( 7 0.5 m/s)/(proﬁling range

40 m velocity range 7 10 m/

s)/0.0167 Hz

5.1. Motion veriﬁcation of FPSO vessel

Floater Surge RTK GPS ( 7 0.5 m)/(–)/1 Hz

Sway accelerometer ( 7 0.005 g)/( 7 5 g)/5 Hz

RAO (response amplitude operator), as the basic concept in Heave

offshore engineering, describes the intrinsic dynamic character- Pitch INS inclinometers ( 7 0.1°)/(0–360°)/1 Hz

istics of ﬂoaters, and is used to evaluate the ﬂoaters’ response Roll ( 7 0.01°)/(0–360°)/5 Hz

Yaw

subject to wave loads.

SYMs Restore force RTK GPS ( 7 0.5 m)/(–)/1 Hz( 70.01°)/

Typically, for the irregular disturbance of waves or wind, the Attitude inclinometers (0–360°)/5 Hz

spectral density Sy ðωÞ of motion is equal to the RAO multiplied

with the input spectral density of Sξ ðωÞ, i.e. Yang et al. (2008).

Sy ðωÞ ¼ Sξ ðωÞ RAO ð17Þ

FPSO motions between calculated results from Eq. (17) and data

monitored by INS and GPS. The monitoring data of FPSO is chosen

by the wave direction of 45° relative to the FPSO bow. The FPSO is

in its full load state at this time.

Fig. 8(a–c) respectively present the PSD (power spectrum

density) of the roll, pitch and heave of the FPSO obtained by INS

and GPS. Three curves calculated by Eq. (17) are also shown with

blue lines in these same ﬁgures. The PSD of low-frequency surge

motions of FPSO is present in Fig. (8d) measured by GPS and cal-

culated by Eq.(17).

The comparison shows that the above analysis method suc-

ceeded to simulate the wave-induced vessel motions. It is noted Fig. 6. Layout of global monitoring system for FPSO.

W. Wu et al. / Ocean Engineering 113 (2016) 255–263 261

spectrum density of roll (deg 2 /Hz)

0.08 0.015

calculation calculation

measured by INS measured by INS

0.06

0.01

0.04

0.005

0.02

0 0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

frequency(Hz) frequency(Hz)

roll motion pitch motion

spectrum density of heave (cm /Hz)

0.06 0.2

calculation

2

calculation

0.05 measured by GPS

measured by GPS

0.15

0.04

0.03 0.1

0.02

0.05

0.01

0 0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

frequency(Hz) frequency(Hz)

heave motion surge motion

Fig. 8. PSD curve comparison between vessel motions obtained by INS/GPS and those calculated. (a) roll motion (b) pitch motion (c) heave motion (d) surge motion. (For

interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

FBG sensors

262 W. Wu et al. / Ocean Engineering 113 (2016) 255–263

Typical parameters of monitoring data with two sea states. with the environmental parameters can be displayed to ensure the

safety of the operators.

Sea state Wind Signiﬁcant Max Max Max Max Max

speed wave pitch roll sway angle angle of

(m/s) height (m) value value value of mooring

(deg) (deg) (m) yoke leg (deg) 6. Conclusions

(deg)

In this study, a global integrated monitoring system for soft

2nd 23.2 4.1 0.8 0.85 2.7 25.0 5.1 yoke mooring systems was developed and constructed on a FPSO

in the Bohai Bay.

meteorological–oceanographical monitoring system, position

and motions monitoring system of FPSO, and restorative force

monitoring system for SYMs.

2) At present, more than two years of monitoring data have been

collected and recorded. Two types of analysis and veriﬁcations

have been performed: motions analysis of FPSO by RAO multi-

plied with wave spectrum, and restorative force veriﬁcation

between the Kane dynamic method and FBG gauges.

3) The good consistency illustrated in data analysis of restore force

and vessel motions show the validation and feasibility of the

present monitoring system in the safety assessment of FPSO

with SYMs.

Fig. 10. Comparison between restore force of Kane method and FBG (in sea state 1).

7. Challenges and future prospects

shore engineering. The soft yoke mooring system play the

important role for the position-keeping of FPSO especially in cold

region. The present monitoring system is composed by three

monitoring subsystems. Several challenges and future prospects

also need to be improved and further investigated.

The multi-hinge connection mode signiﬁes that SYMs is the

new concept ﬂoating position-keeping structure. It brings chal-

lenges and difﬁculties in the design process by classical hydro-

dynamic numerical modeling due to the of ﬂexible-rigid multi-

body characteristic. The state-of-the-art monitoring techniques for

different kind of hinges of SYMs should be developed and imple-

ment to obtain the fatigue and wear behavior.

Secondly, the Independent Remote Monitoring System (IRMS)

Fig. 11. Comparison between restore force of Kane method and FBG (in sea state 2). should be pay enough attention to establish in the global inte-

gration system. The motions of FPSO together SYMs can be

5.2. Restore force veriﬁcation of SYMs recorded during harsh weather. The monitoring information can

be observed, gained and recorded by remote technique.

The Kane dynamic algorithm described in this section is Finally, a data base should be established to record all the

derived on the basis of the 2D SYMs model. The frictions of the monitoring data and events in detailed in order for performing

hinges are neglected. risk assessments of FPSO and SYMs with long-term statistical

In order to verify the errors for the numerical algorithm of information.

restoring force from the above hypothesis, FBG gauges were

installed on two mooring legs for short term measurements. The

Acknowledgment

layout of the FBG gauges on the mooring legs is presented in Fig. 9.

Two typical sea states are selected to verify the feasibility of the

The authors are pleased to acknowledge the support of this

Kane method to the monitoring data of the FBG gauges. The

work by the National Science Foundation of China: 11572072,

characteristic parameters of the meteorological–environmental

National Key Basic Research and Development Program through

factors and extreme values of FPSO and SYMS are presented in

contract grant numbers: 2014CB046803, 2016ZX05028-002-004.

Table 4.

The National Science Group of China through contract grant

Figs. 10 and 11 present the results of the restorative force cal-

number, 51221961.

culated by the Kane dynamic method and that measured by FBG in

two cases. High consistency can be observed to be in present the

ﬁgures for both the ordinary sea state and harsh sea state. This References

proves the reliability and effectiveness of the present dynamic

method, on the basis of the measurements of angle and angular ABS, 1996. Rules for Building and Classing Single Point Moorings. American Bureau

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