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Breaking Free From Product Marketing / 73

G. Lynn Shostack

Breaking Free from Product Marketing

Service marketing, to be effective and successful, requires a
mirror-opposite view of conventional ''product" practices.

N EW CONCEPTS are necessary if service

marketing is to succeed. Service marketing is
an uncharted frontier. Despite the increasing
articulating how and why their priorities and con-
cepts have changed. Often, they also find to their
frustration and bewilderment that "marketing" is
dominance of services in the U.S. economy, basic treated as a peripheral function or is confused
texts still disagree on how services should be with one of its components, such as research or
treated in a marketing context.^ advertising, and kept within a very narrow scope
The heart of this dispute is the issue of of influence and authority. ^
applicability. The classic marketing "mix," the This situation is frequently rationalized as
seminal literature, and the language of marketing being due to the "ignorance" of senior management
all derive from the manufacture of physical goods. in service businesses. "Education" is usually rec-
Practicing marketers tend to think in terms of ommended as the solution. However, an equally
products, particularly mass-market consumer feasible, though less comforting, explanation is that
goods. Some service companies even call their service industries have been slow to integrate mar-
output "products" and have "product" manage- keting into the mainstream of decision-making and
ment functions modeled after those of experts control because marketing offers no guidance, ter-
such as Procter and Gamble. minology, or practical rules that are clearly relevant
Marketing seems to be overwhelmingly prod- to services.
uct-oriented. However, many service-based com-
panies are confused about the applicability of Making Room for Intangibility
product marketing, and more than one attempt to
adopt product marketing has failed. The American Marketing Association cites both
Merely adopting product marketing's labels goods and services as foci for marketing activities.
does not resolve the question of whether product Squeezing services into the Procrustean phrase,
marketing can be overlaid on service businesses. "intangible products,"^ is not only a distortion of
Can corporate banking services really be marketed the AMA's definition but also a complete contradic-
according to the same basic blueprint that made tion in terms.
Tide a success? Given marketing's historic tenets, It is wrong to imply that services are just like
there is simply no alternative. products "except" for intangibility. By such logic,
Could marketing itself be "myopic" in hav- apples are just like oranges, except for their "apple-
ing failed to create relevant paradigms for the ser- ness." Intangibility is not a modifier; it is a state.
vice sector? Many marketing professionals who Intangibles may come with tangible trappings, but
transfer to the services arena find their work fun- no amount of money can buy physical ownership of
damentally "different," but have a difficult time such intangibles as "experience" (movies), "time"
(consultants), or "process" (dry cleaning). A service
About the Author is rendered. A service is experienced. A service
G. LYNN SHOSTACK is Vice President, Citibank, N.A.,
cannot be stored on a shelf, touched, tasted or tried
New York; she is Marketing Director for the Investment
on for size. "Tangible" means "palpable," and
"material." "Intangible" is an antonym, meaning
Management Group.
"impalpable," and "not corporeal.'*" This distinc-
74 / Journal of Marketing, April 1977

tion has profound implications. Yet marketing of- cor, food & drink, seat design, and overall graphic
fers no way to treat intangibility as the core element continuity from tickets to attendants' uniforms.
it is, nor does marketing offer usable tools for man- These items can dramatically affect the "reality" of
aging, altering, or controlling this amorphous core. the service in the consumer's mind. However, there
Even the most thoughtful attempts to broaden is no accurate way to lump them into a one-word
the definition of "that which is marketed" away description.
from product synonymity suffer from an underlying If "either-or" terms (product vs. service) do
assumption of tangibility. Not long ago, Philip Kot- not adequately describe the true nature of marketed
ier argued that "values" should be considered the entities, it makes sense to explore the usefulness of
end result of "marketing. "^ However, the text went a new structural definition. This broader concept
on to imply that "values" were created by "ob- postulates that market entities are, in reality, combi-
jects," and drifted irredeemably into the classic nations of discrete elements which are linked together
product axioms. in molecule-like wholes. Elements can be either
To truly expand marketing's conceptual boun- tangible or intangible. The entity may have either a
daries requires a framework which accommodates tangible or intangible nucleus. But the whole can
intangibility instead of denying it. Such a frame- only be described as having a certain dominance.
work must give equal descriptive weight to the
components of "service" as it does to the concept of Molecular Model
A "molecular" model offers opportunities for visu-
The Complexity of Marketed Entities alization and management of a total market entity.
It reflects the fact that a market entity can be partly
What kind of framework would provide a new con- tangible and partly intangible, without diminishing
ceptual viewpoint? One unorthodox possibility can the importance of either characteristic. Not only can
be drawn from direct observation of the mar- the potential be seen for picturing and dealing with
ketplace and the nature of the market "satisfiers" multiple elements, rather than a thing, but the con-
available to it. Taking a fresh look, it seems that cept of dominance can lead to enriched consid-
there are really very few, if any, "pure" products or erations of the priorities and approach that may be
services in the marketplace. required of a marketer. Moreover, the model sug-
Examine, for instance, the automobile. With- gests the scientific analogy that if market entities
out question, one might say, it is a physical object, have multiple elements, a deliberate or inadvertent
with a full range of tangible features and options. change in a single element may completely alter the
But another, equally important element is marketed entity, as the simple switching of FE^Os to FE2O3
in tandem with the steel and chrome—i.e., the ser- creates a new substance. For this reason, a marketer
vice of transportation. Transportation is an indepen- must carefully manage all the elements, especially
dent marketing element; in other words, it is not those for service-based entities, which may not
car-dependent, but can be marketed in its own have been considered previously within his do-
right. A car is only one alternative for satisfying the
market's transportation needs.
This presents a semantic dilemma. How Diagramming Market Entities
should the automobile be defined? Is General
A simplified comparison demonstrates the concep-
Motors marketing a service, a service that happens
tual usefulness of a molecular modeling system. In
to include a ¿jy-product called a car? Levitt's classic
Exhibit 1, automobiles and airline travel are broken
"Marketing Myopia" exhorts businessmen to think
down into their major elements. As shown, these
in exactly this generic way about what they mar-
two entities have different nuclei. They also differ
ket.^ Are automobiles "tangible services"? It cannot
in dominance.
be denied that both elements—tangible and intan-
gible—exist and are vigorously marketed. Yet they Clearly, airline travel is intangible-dominant;
are, by definition, different qualities, and to at- that is, it does not yield physical ownership of a
tempt to compress them into a single word or tangible good. Nearly all of the other important
phrase begs the issue. elements in the entity are intangible as well. Indi-
Conversely, how shall a service such as airline vidual elements and their combinations represent
transportation be described? Although the service unique satisfiers to different market segments.
itself is intangible, there are certain very real things Thus:
that belong in any description of the total entity, • For some markets—students, for example—
including such important tangibles as interior de- pure transport takes precedence over all other
Breaking Free From Product Marketing / 75

considerations. The charter flight business might represent the other extreme, tangible or
was based on this element. As might be ex- T-dominant. Such a scale accords intangible-based
pected during lean economic times, "no frills" entities a place and weight commensurate with
flights show renewed emphasis on this nu- their true importance. The framework also pro-
clear core. vides a mechanism for comparison and market
• For business travelers, on the other hand,
In one of the handful of books devoted to
schedule frequency may be paramount.
services, the author holds that "the more intangi-
• Tourists, a third segment, may respond most ble the service, the greater will be the difference
strongly to the combination of in-flight and in the marketing characteristics of the service."'
post-flight services. Consistent with an entity scale, this axiom might
now be amended to read: the greater the weight
As the market entity of airline travel has
of intangible elements in a market entity, the
evolved, it has become more and more complex.
greater will be the divergence from product mar-
Ongoing reweighting of elements can be observed,
keting in priorities and approach.
for example, in the marketing of airline food, which
was once a battleground of quasi-gourmet offer-
ings. Today, some airlines have stopped marketing Implications of the Molecular Model
food altogether, while others are repositioning it The hypothesis proposed by molecular modeling
primarily to the luxury markets. carries intriguing potential for rethinking and re-
shaping classic marketing concepts and practices.
Airlines vs. Automobiles Recognition that service-dominant entities differ
from product-dominant entities allows considera-
In comparing airlines to automobiles, one sees ob- tion of other distinctions which have been intui-
vious similarities. The element of transportation is tively understood, but seldom articulated by ser-
common to both, as it is to boats, trains, buses, and vice marketers.
bicycles. Tangible decor also plays a role in both
A most important area of difference is im-
entities. Yet in spite of their similarities, the two
mediately apparent—i.e., that service "knowl-
entities are not the same, either in configuration or
edge" and product "knowledge" cannot be gained
in marketing implications.
in the same way.
In some ways, airline travel and automobiles A product marketer's first task is to "know"
are mirror opposites. A c£ir is a physical possession his product. For tangible-dominant entities this is
that renders a service. Airline travel, on the other relatively straight-forward. A tangible object can
hand, cannot be physically possessed. It can only be be described precisely. It is subject to physical
experienced. While the inherent "promise" of a car examination or photographic reproduction or
is service, airline transportation often promises a quantitative measure. It can not only be exactly
Lewis Carroll version of "product," i.e., destination, replicated, but also modified in precise and dupli-
which is marketed as though it were physically cate ways.
obtainable. If only tropical islands and redwood
forests could be purchased for the price of an airline It is not particularly difficult for the marketer
ticket! of Coca-Cola, for example, to summon all the facts
regarding the product itself. He can and does
The model can be completed by adding the make reasonable assumptions about the product's
remaining major marketing elements in a way that behavior, e.g., that it is consistent chemically to
demonstrates their function vis-a-vis the organic the taste, visually to the eye, and physically in its
core entity. First, the total entity is ringed and de- packaging. Any changes he might make in these
fined by a set value or price. Next, the valued entity three areas can be deliberately controlled for uni-
is circumscribed by its distribution. Finally, the formity since they will be tangibly evident. In
entire entity is encompassed, according to its core other words, the marketer can take the product's
configuration, by its public "face," i.e., its posi- "reality" for granted and move on to consid-
tioning to the market. erations of price, distribution, and advertising or
The molecular concept makes it possible to promotion.
describe and array market entities along a con- To gain service "knowledge," however, or
tinuum, according to the weight of the "mix" of knowledge of a service element, where does one
elements that comprise them. As Exhibit 2 indi- begin? It has been pointed out that intangible ele-
cates, teaching services might be at one end of ments are dynamic, subjective, and ephemeral.
such a scale, intangible or ¡-dominant, while salt They cannot be touched, tried on for size, or dis-
76 / Journal of Marketing, April 1977

Diagram of Market Entities

Airlines Automobiles

Marketing Positioning Market Positioning
(weighted toward evidence) Tangible Elements (v^/eighted toward image)
) Intangible Elements

played on a shelf. They are exceedingly difficult to resources, and long history. With this "reality" in
quantify. mind, he concluded that the service could be better
Reverting to airline travel, precisely what is represented by professional salesmen, than through
the service of air transportation to the potential the traditional, but intemiptive use of the portfolio
purchaser? What "percent" of airline travel is com- manager as main client contact.
fort? What "percent" is fear or adventure? What is Three salesmen were hired, and given a train-
this service's "reality" to its market? And how does ing course in investments. They failed dismally,
that reality vary from segment to segment? Since both in maintaining current client relationships and
this service exists only during the time in which it in producing new business for the firm. In
is rendered, the entity's true "reality" must be de- hindsight, it became clear that the department head
fined experientially, not in engineering terms. misunderstood the service's "reality" as it was
being experienced by his clients. To the clients,
A New Approach to Service Definition "investment management" was found to mean "in-
vestment manager"—i.e., a single human being
Experiential definition is a little-explored area of upon whom they depended for decisions and ad-
marketing practice. A product-based marketer is in vice. No matter how well prepared, the professional
danger of assuming he understands an intangible- salesman was not seen as an acceptable substitute
dominant entity when, in fact, he may only be by the majority of the market.
projecting his own subjective version of "reality."
And because there is no documented guidance on Visions of Reality
acquiring service-knowledge, the chances for error Clearly, more than one version of "reality" may be
are magnified. found in a service market. Therefore, the crux of
Case Example service-knowledge is the description of the major
consensus realities that define the service entity to
One short-lived mistake (with which the author is various market segments. The determination of
familiar) occurred recently in the trust department consensus realities should be a high priority for
of a large commercial bank. The department head, service marketers, and marketing should offer more
being close to daily operations, understood "in- concrete guidance and emphasis on this subject
vestment management" as the combined work of than it does.
hundreds of people, backed by the firm's stature.
Breaking Free From Product Marketing / 77

Scale of Market Entities
Soft Drinks
Cosmetics Fast-food

1T T

I Li 1
outlets Advertising
A Í rli n^c
^ ^ ^


To define the market-held "realities" of a ser- there appears to be a critical difference between the
vice requires a high tolerance for subjective, "soft" way tangible- and intangible-dominant entities are
data, combined with a rigidly objective attitude best represented to their markets. Examination of
toward that data. To understand what a service actual cases suggests a common thread among effec-
entity is to a market, the marketer must undertake tive representations of services that is another
more initial research than is common in product mirror-opposite contrast to product techniques.
marketing. More important, it will be research of a In comparing examples, it is clear that con-
different kind than is the case in product market- sumer product marketing often approaches the
ing. The marketer must rely heavily on the tools and market by enhancing a physical object through
skills of psychology, sociology and other behavioral abstract associations. Coca-Cola, for example, is
sciences—tools that in product marketing usually surrounded with visual, verbal and aural associa-
come into play in determining image, rather than tions with authenticity and youth. Although Dr.
fundamental "reality." Pepper would also by physically categorized as a
In developing the blueprint of a service enti- beverage, its image has been structured to suggest
ty's main elements, the marketer might find, for "originality" and "risk-taking;" while 7-up is
instance, that although tax return preparation is "light" and "buoyant." A high priority is placed on
analogous to "accurate mathematical computation" linking these abstract images to physical items.
within his firm, it means "freedom from responsi- But a service is already abstract. To compound
bility" to one segment of the consuming public, the abstraction dilutes the "reality" that the
"opportunity for financial savings" to another seg- marketer is trying to enhance. Effective service rep-
ment, and "convenience" to yet a third segment. resentations appear to be turned 180° away from
Unless these "realities" are documented and abstraction. The reason for this is that service im-
ranked by market importance, no sensible plan can ages, and even service "realities," appear to be
be devised to represent a service effectively or de- shaped to a large extent by the things that the con-
liberately. And in nezv service development, the sumer can comprehend with his five senses—
importance of the service-research function is even tangible things. But a service itself cannot be tangi-
more critical, because the successful development ble, so reliance must be placed on peripheral clues.
of a new service—a molecular collection of intang- Tangible clues are what allow the detective in
ibles—is so difficult it makes new-product devel- a mystery novel to surmise events at the scene of a
opment look like child's play. crime without having been present. Similarly,
when a consumer attempts to judge a service, par-
Image vs. Evidence—The Key ticularly before using or buying it, that service is
"known" by the tangible clues, the tangible evi-
The definition of consensus realities should not be dence, that surround it.
confused with the determination of "image." Image
The management of tangible evidence is not
is a method of differentiating and representing an
articulated in marketing as a primary priority for
entity to its target market. Image is not "product;"
service marketers. There has been little in-depth
nor is it "service." As was suggested in Exhibit 1,
exploration of the range of authority that emphasis
78 / Journal of Marketing, April 1977

on tangible evidence would create for the service Similarly, although the services may be iden-
marketer. In product marketing, tangible evidence tical, the consumer's differentiation between "Bank
is primarily the product itself. But for services, tan- A Service" and "Bank B Service" is materially af-
gible evidence would encompass broader consid- fected by whether the environment is dominated by
erations in contrast to product marketing, different butcher-block and bright colors or by marble and
considerations than are typically considered mar- polished brass.
keting's domain today. By understanding the importance of evidence
management, the service marketer can make it his
Focusing on the Evidence business to review and take control of this critical
part of his "mix." Creation of environment can be
In product marketing, many kinds of evidence are deliberate, rather than accidental or as a result of
beyond the marketer's control and are consequently leaving such decisions in the hands of the interior
omitted from priority consideration in the market decorators.
positioning process. Product marketing tends to
give first emphasis to creating abstract associations.
Service marketers, on the other hand, should
Integrating Evidence
be focused on enhancing and differentiating Going beyond environment, evidence can be inte-
"realities" through manipulation of tangible clues. grated across a wide range of items. Airlines, for
The management of evidence comes first for service example, manage and coordinate tangible evidence,
marketers, because service "reality" is arrived at by and do it better than almost any large service indus-
the consumer mostly through a process of deduc- try. Whether by intuition or design, airlines do not
tion, based on the total impression that the evi- focus attention on trying to explain or characterize
dence creates. Because of product marketing's the service itself. One never sees an ad that at-
biases, service marketers often fail to recognize the tempts to convey "the slant of takeoff," "the feel of
unique forms of evidence that they can normally acceleration," or "the aerodynamics of lift." Airline
control and fail to see that they should be part of transport is given shape and form through consis-
marketing's^-responsibilities. tency of a firm's identification, its uniforms, the
decor of its planes, its graphics, and its advertising.
Differentiation among airlines, though they all pro-
Management of the Environment vide the same service, is a direct result of differ-
Environment is a good example. Since product dis- ences in "packages" of evidence.
tribution normally means shipping to outside Some businesses in which tangible and intan-
agents, the marketer has little voice in structuring gible elements carry equal weight emphasize
the environment in which the product is sold. His abstractions and evidence in about equal propor-
major controllable impact on the environment is tions. McDonald's is an excellent example. The food
usually product packaging. Services, on the other product is associated with "nutritious" (two all-
hand, are often fully integrated with environment; beef, etc.), "fun" (Ronald McDonald) and "helpful"
that is, the setting in which the service is "distrib- ("We Do it All for You," "You Deserve a Break
uted" is controllable. To the extent possible, man- Today"). The main service element, i.e., fast food
agement of the physical environment should be one preparation, is tangibly distinguished by urü-
of a service marketer's highest priorities. formity of environment, color, and style of graphics
Setting can play an enormous role in influenc- and apparel, consistency of delivery (young em-
ing the "reality" of a service in the consumer's ployees), and the ubiquitous golden arches.
mind. Marketing does not emphasize this rule for Using the scale developed in Exhibit 2, this
services, yet there are numerous obvious examples concept can be postulated as a principle for ser-
of its importance. vice representation. As shown in Exhibit 3, once
Physicians' offices provide an interesting ex- an entity has been analyzed and positioned on
ample of intuitive environmental management. Al- the scale, the degree to which the marketer will
though the quality of medical service may be iden- focus on either tangible evidence or intangible
tical, an office furnished in teak and leather creates abstractions for market positioning will be found
a totally different "reality" in the consumer's mind to be inversely related to the entity's dominance.
from one with plastic slipcovers and inexpensive The more intangible elements there are, the
prints. Carrying the example further, a marketer more the marketer must endeavor to stand in the
could expect to cause change in the service's image consumer's shoes, thinking through and gaining
simply by painting a physician's office walls neon control of all the inputs to the consumer's mind
pink or silver, instead of white. that can be classified as material evidence.
Breaking Free From Product Marketing / 79

synonym for the advertising business for many

EXHIBIT 3 years. Physicians are uniformly "packaged" in
Principle of Market Positioning smocks. Lawyers and bankers are still today
Emphasis known for pin-stripes and vests. IBM representa-
tives were famous for adhering to a "White Shirt"
Tangible Tangible policy. Going beyond apparel, as mentioned ear-
Dominant Evidence lier, McDonald's even achieves age uniformity—
an extra element reinforcing its total market im-
cosmetics | age.
These examples add up to a serious principle
when thoughtfully reviewed. They are particularly
instructive for service marketers. None of the above
\ examples were the result of deliberate market plan-
food m- j ^
outlets y ning. McDonald's, for instance, backed into age
consistency as a result of trying to keep labor costs
low. Airlines are the single outstanding example of
consciously-planned standards for uniformity in
human representation. The power of the human
airlines | evidence principle is obvious, and the potential
1 Intangibie power of more deliberately controlling or structur-
Intangible Image ing this element is clear.
Dominant Lest this discussion be interpreted as an advo-
cacy of regimentation, it should be pointed out that
management of human evidence can be as basic as
Some forms of evidence can seem trivial
providing nametags to service representatives or as
until one recognizes how great their impact can
complex as the "packaging" of a political candidate,
be on service perception. Correspondence is one
whose very words are often chosen by committee
example. Letters, statements, and the like are
and whose hair style can become a critical policy
sometimes the main conveyers of the "reality" of
issue. Or, depending upon what kind of service
a service to its market; yet often these are treated
"reality" the marketer wishes to create, human rep-
as peripheral to any marketing plan. From the
resentation can be encouraged to display non-
grade of paper to the choice of colors, correspon-
conformity, as is the case with the "creative" de-
dence is visible evidence that conveys a unique
partments of advertising agencies. The point is that
message. A mimeographed, non-personalized,
service marketers should be charged with tactics
cheaply offset letter contradicts any words about
and strategy in this area, and must consider it a
service quality that may appear in the text of that
management responsibility.
letter. Conversely, engraved parchment from the
local dry cleaner might make one wonder about
their prices. Services and the Media
Profile as Evidence As has been previously discussed, service elements
are abstract. Because they are abstract, the marketer
As was pointed out in the investment manage- must work hard at making them "real," by building
ment example, services are often inextricably en- a case from tangible evidence. In this context,
twined with their human representatives. In media advertising presents a particularly difficult
many fields, a person is perceived to be the ser- problem.
vice. The consumer cannot distinguish between The problem revolves around the fact that
them. Product marketing is myopic in dealing media (television, radio, print) are one step re-
with the issue of people as evidence in terms of moved from tangibility. Media, by its McLuhan-
market positioning. Consumer marketing often esque nature, abstracts the physical.
stops at the production of materials and programs Even though product tangibility provides an
for salesmen to use. Some service industries, on anchor for media representation because a product
the other hand, have long intuitively managed can be shown, media still abstract products. A
human evidence to larger ends. photograph is only a two-dimensional version of a
Examples of this principle have been the physical object, and may be visually misleading.
basis for jokes, plays, and literature. "The Man in Fortunately, the consumer makes the mental con-
the Grey Flannel Suit," for example, was a nection between seeing a product in the media and
80 / Journal of Marketing, April 1977

recognizing it in reality. This is true even when a evidence, working against the media's abstracting
product is substantially distorted. Sometimes, only qualities. Merrill Lynch, for instance, has firmly
part of a product is shown. Occasionally, as in re- associated itself with a clear visual symbol of bulls
cent commercials for 7-up, the product is not and concomitant bullishness. Where Merrill Lynch
shown. However, the consumer remembers past does not use the visual herd, it uses photographs of
experience. He has little difficulty recognizing 7-up tangible physical booklets, and invites the con-
by name or remembered appearance when he sees sumer to write for them.
it or wants to buy it. Therefore, the final principle offered for ser-
Thus, media work with the creation of product vice marketers would hold that effective media rep-
image and help in adding abstract qualities to tan- resentation of intangibles is a function of establish-
gible goods. Cosmetics, for example, are often posi- ing non-abstract manifestations of them.
tioned in association with an airbrushed or soft-
focus filmed ideal of beauty. Were the media truly
accurate, the wrinkles and flaws of the flesh, to Conclusion
which even models are heir, might not create such This article has presented several market-inspired
an appealing product association. thoughts toward the development of new market-
ing concepts, and the evolution of relevant service
Making Services More Concrete marketing principles. The hypotheses presented
here do not by any means represent an exhaustive
Because of their abstracting capabilities, the media
analysis of the subject. No exploration was done,
often make service entities more hazy, instead of
for example, on product vs. service pricing or prod-
more concrete, and the service marketer must work
uct vs. service distribution. Both areas offer rich
against this inherent effect. Unfortunately, many
potential for creative new approaches and analysis.
marketers are so familiar with product-oriented
thinking that they go down precisely the wrong It can be argued that there are many grey areas
path and attempt to represent services by dealing in the molecular entity concept, and that diagram-
with them in abstractions. ming and managing according to the multiple-
The pages of the business press are filled with elements schema could present considerable
examples of this type of misconception in services difficulties by virtue of its greater complexity. It
advertising. In advertisements for investment man- might also be argued that some distinctions be-
agement, for instance, the worst examples attempt tween tangible and intangible-dominant entities
to describe the already intangible service with more are so subtle as to be unimportant.
abstractions such as "sound analysis," "careful The fact remains that service marketers are in
portfolio monitoring," "strong research capabil- urgent need of concepts and priorities that are rele-
ity," etc. Such compounded abstractions do not vant to their actual experience and needs, and that
help the consumer form a "reality," do not differ- marketing has failed in evolving to meet that de-
entiate the service and do not achieve any credibil- mand. However unorthodox, continuing explora-
ity, much less any customer "draw." tion of this area must be encouraged if marketing is
to achieve stature and influence in the new post-
The best examples are those which attempt to
Industrial Revolution services economy.
associate the service with some form of tangible

1. See, for example, E. Jerome McCarthy, Basic Market- 4. Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary (Springfield, MA:
ing: A Managerial Approach, 4th ed. (Homewood, IL: G.&C. Merriam Company, 1974).
Richard D. Irwin, 1971) pg. 303 compared to William J. 5. Philip Kotier, "A Generic Concept of Marketing,"
Stanton, Fundamentals of Marketing, 3rd ed. (New York; Journal of Marketing, Vol. 36 No. 2 (April 1972), pp.
McGraw-Hill, 1971), pg. 567. 46-54.
2. See William R. George and Hiram C. Barksdale, "Mar- 6. Theodore H. Levitt, "Marketing Myopia," Harvard
keting Activities in the Service Industries," Journal of Business Review, Vol. 38 (July-August 1960), pp. 45-46.
Marketing, Vol. 38 No. 4 (October 1974), pp. 65-70.
7. Aubrey Wilson, The Marketing of Professional Services,
3. The Meaning and Sources of Marketing Theory— (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972) pg. 8.
Marketing Science Institute Series (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1965), pg. 88.