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Pengantar Rekayasa dan Desain I

Kinematics and Bio Mechanics
 Expected outcomes for the 9th week
 Students able to understand the kinematics principle and its
application in everyday life
Moving components
 Specific motion direction and magnitude
 Specific motion timing (harmonic motion)
 Word origin:
 Greek : kinema
 Meaning: motion (gerakan)
 Kinematics:
 Part of Dynamics (Dinamika) which specialized in motion
(Mabie & Reinholtz, Mechanisms & Dynamics of
Machinery, Wiley)
 Study on how object moves (Kosky)
 Limitation
 Not concerning about the cause of the motion (force and
 Rigid body is assumed
 Object as a particle

 Object as a structure (has dimensions)

Degrees of Freedom (Derajat Kebebasan)
 Degrees of Freedom, DOF :
 The number of free parameters to define the every time
unique position (jumlah parameter bebas untuk
mendefinisikan posisi tiap saat secara unik)
 The number of motion possibilities (jumlah kemungkinan
untuk bergerak)
Number of DOF?
 Object movement in 2D plane

3 dof
 Pure rotation
 Pure translation (x direction)
• Pure translation (y direction)
Number of DOF ?
 Structure design

0 dof
(no possible
1 dof

Car window mechanism

1 dof
Piston mechanism
 Number of DOF ?
DOF (mobility) calculation

M = 3(L – 1) – 2J1 – J2

Kutzbach equation:
 M: mobility (number of d.o.f)
 L: number of link (jumlah batang)
 J1: number of joint type-1 (reducing 2 d.o.f)
 J2: number of joint type-2 (reducing 1 d.o.f)
Joints example
L J1 J2 M
Pin (revolute) 2 1 0 +1
Slider 2 1 0 +1
Rolling Contact 2 1 0 +1
Roll-Slide Contact 2 0 1 +2
Gear Contact 3 2 1 +1
Belt and pulley 4 4 0 +1
L = # links, J1 = #pins + #sliders, J2 = #roll-slides, M = d.o.f.
 The use of knowing DOF
 Knowing certain mechanism motion (position, velocity,
Mengetahui gerakan suatu mekanisme tertentu (posisi,
kecepatan, percepatan) titik tertentu -> gaya dll
 To design a particular mechanism that can produce
particular motion
Mendesain sistem mekanisme yang dapat menghasilkan
gerakan tertentu
Tractor with Loader

 Is a knowledge that study the mechanics of

biological system or living things (ilmu yang
mempelajari peran mekanika dalam sistem biologi
atau makhluk hidup).
 Applications:
 Sports: in order to improve athlete performance.
 Health related: can be used to analyze people’s health
and to improve people’s health

Walking motion analysis (Gait)
5-Segment Model 7-Segment Model