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THE LEADING EDGE

AERODYNAMIC DESIGN
OF ULTRA-STREAMLINED
LAND VEHICLES

BY GORO TAMAI

11
CONTENTS
Useful Relationships iv

List of Symbols v

Preface vii

Introduction: A Short History of Streamlined Land Vehicles xi

1. General Aerodynamic Concepts 1


Significance of Aerodynamic Drag 1
Aerodynamic Drag Components 6
Drag Area 9
Trade-off Between Aerodynamic Drag and Vehicle Mass 18

2. Basic Fluid Mechanics 21


Some Fluid Fundamentals 21
The Boundary Layer 27

3. Aerodynamic Forces on Bodies 69


Streamlining Examples 69
Drag of Flat Plates and Bodies of Finite Thickness 73
Ground Effect 105
Aerodynamic Moments 128
Crosswind Effects 132

4. Vehicle-level Aerodynamic Details 147


Interference Drag 147
Drag of the Wheel System 158
Bubble Canopies 184
Nose Shape 196
Trailing-edge Thickness of the Main Body 200
Gaps and Seams 204
Effect of Surface Roughness on Skin Friction 208
Ventilation 209

5. Aerodynamic Drag of the Entire Vehicle 217


Construction of a Simple Aerodynamic Drag Model 217
Practical Aspects of Body Design 222
Testing and Development 222

6. Real World Examples 257


Successful Bodies and Their Development 257

References 273

Index 282

About the Author 290