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We can find challenges in every sphere of our lives. Be it finding the best
route to a cinema hall on traffic packed roads or choosing the right item in a
super market.
How best are we equipped to deal with challenges is the question?
Reasoning Ability is a systematic process of thinking where a problem or
plan is analysed from various angles in its most practical sense. Hence
yields better decisions and better conclusions.
That’s why every student’s Reasoning Ability is tested in almost every
competitive exam today.
Republic - 3
The process of learning is dependent on one’s ability to think logically and
reason quickly and effectively. These two factors are hence very crucial to a child’s progress in
This critically important ability of reasoning should be seeded and nurtured in the minds of the students
in their budding stage itself. Once the seed of reasoning sprouts in the young minds, the way they see the
world entirely changes. Life itself looks like an exciting puzzle to be solved.
Reasoning and logic skills are an integral part of a wide range of subjects such as Math, Science,
Design and Technology, etc. These skills are also vital in our day to day lives.
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Knowledge Republic - 3 Class - 3 Knowledge Republic - 3 Unified Council

About Myself My

Name : _________________________ Mnemonics (pronounced ‘ne-mo-nics’) is the art of assisting own

Date of birth : _________________________ memory by using a system of artificial aids such as, rhymes,
rules, phrases, diagrams, acronyms and others; all to help in the
Father’s name : _________________________
recall of names, dates, facts and figures.
Class : _________________________
School : _________________________ The word ‘mnemonics’ comes from the Greek mneme (memory)
and mnemon (mindful). Here are a few examples :
Address : _________________________
_________________________ 1. Characteristics of living things can be memorised as :
_________________________ RENGRIM : Respiration, Excretion, Nutrition, Growth,
Home address : _________________________ Reproduction, Irritability, Movement.
_________________________ 2. Vertebrate animal classification :
FARM B : Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Mammals, Birds
3. Types of mechanical machines : ‘I Like Playing Soccer With
Signature William’. (Inclined plane, Lever, Pulley, Screw, Wedge, Wheel
and axle).
All those in the Knowledge Republic, 4. The size of the planets : ‘SUN-J-SUN’ (Sun; then Jupiter,
will have endless fun and resolve Saturn, Uranus, Neptune).
To enjoy as much as one can. 5. Food Chain : the order of energy used by living
things : ‘Some People Can Have Crazy Outrageous Dreams’
To work hard yet keep it fun.
Sun  Producers  Consumers
To respect and encourage each individual’s ability and creativity.
(Herbivores  Carnivores  Omnivores  Decomposers)
To eat, sleep and breathe in the world of knowledge.
6. Metric Lengths :
To uphold values, basic honesty and integrity.
To pursue ever-higher goals. King Henry Doesn’t Mind Drinking Chocolate Milk
By Order of Kilo Hecto Deca Meter Deci Centi Milli
x1000 x100 x10 1 1/10th 1/100th 1/1000th
Knowledge Republic
Km Hm Dm m dm cm mm
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Knowledge Republic - 3 Class - 3 Knowledge Republic - 3 Unified Council

The mnemonic sentence/chart is one way to convert a 11. The colours of the rainbow, in order : ROY G. BIV
measurement to smaller/larger units of the same length, but Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet
what you’re actually doing mathematically is dividing (or or in the opposite order : VIBGYOR
multiplying) by 10 (or a power of 10, such as 1000, etc). One Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red
more short mnemonics can help to summarise this process. 12. Days in each month :
SLow Down : Convert Small to Large units ? : Divide. 30 days hath September,
(e.g. 200mm/10 = 20/1 = 20cm). April, June and November,
All the rest have 31,
7. The four seasons : Count the vowels in each seasonal word — Except February alone
they give a clue for the dates : (And that has 28 days clear,
sprIng  (1)  21st March onwards With 29 in each leap year).
sUmmEr  (2)  22nd June onwards
The number of days in each month can also be found by count-
AUtUmn  (3)  23rd September onwards
ing across the knuckles and valleys on the back of each clenched
wIntEr  (2)  22nd December onwards fist (from left to right) as shown below in the picture. Each
8. The order of the planets : ‘knuckle’ month has 31 days, while each ‘valley’ month has only
30 days (excepting of course February).
Son — “Men Very Easily Make Jugs Serve Useful Nocturnal
(Sun — Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,
Neptune, Pluto).
9. Reading directions on a map (clockwise) :
Never Eat Sour Watermelon. (North East South West)
10. The Moon — Waxing and Waning (This is for knowing
whether a near full moon is coming or going) :
L-E-FT hand curve = D-E-CREASING.
R-I-GHT hand curve = I-NCREASING 13. Keyword Strategy :
Using the natural curve of the hand from first finger to Word Keyword Strategy
thumb, if the Moon’s crescent fits the curve of the L-E-FT Vein In The blood flows into the heart
hand, then it is D-E-CREASING, but if the crescent fits the Artery A The blood flows away from the heart
R-I-GHT hand, then it is I-NCREASING.
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Knowledge Republic - 3 Class - 3 Knowledge Republic - 3 Unified Council

Creative Thinking
Multiple choice questions usually include a
phrase or a stem followed by 4 options. T I P S forice
 Cover the options, read the stem, and M ultiple Cho 1) Arun wants to place 4 dots along each side of a rectangle.
try to answer
Select the option that most closely
matches your answer.
 Read the stem with each option
a) What is the smallest number of dots he needs ?
Treat each option as a true-false
question, and choose the ‘most true’. b) What is the largest number of dots he can use ?
2) I want to take out exactly 1 litre of
Strategies for answering difficult questions : water from a tank. I only have one 7
 Eliminate options you know to be incorrect. litre can and an 2 litre can. How can I
get exactly 1 litre of water using these 7 litre
 Give each option of a question, the ‘true-false test’
two cans ?
This may narrow down your selection to the best answer. 2 litre
 Question options that grammatically don’t fit with the stem 3) 50 marbles are to be put into 8 boxes
so that each box has atleast 1 marble. What is the maximum
 Question options that are totally unfamiliar to you. number of marbles can be put in a box ?
 Question options that contain negative or absolute words
4) How many regions atmost can 3 straight lines cut the circle
Try substituting a qualified term for the absolute one, like below into ?
‘frequently’ for ‘always’ to see if you can eliminate it.
 ‘All of the above’
If 2 of 3 options seem correct, ‘all of the above’ is a strong
 Look alike options 5) John, Madav and Prudvi each likes a different flavour of ice-
Probably one is correct; choose the best but eliminate cream i.e., vanilla, mango and chocolate.
choices that mean basically the same thing, thereby a) John, does not like either mango or chocolate.
cancelling each other out.
b) Madav does not like mango.
 If two alternatives seem correct
Name the flavour of ice-cream each boy likes.
Compare them for differences, then refer to the stem to find
your best answer.
Answers on page 20
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Knowledge Republic - 3 Class - 3 Knowledge Republic - 3 Unified Council

common misconceptions
misconceptions and
and facts
Misconception The Sun does not move.
Fact The Sun rotates from West to East and also
orbits around the centre of the Milkyway.
 Find an example of handwriting you like and might want to
imitate. This will give you a goal. Misconception The urinary system is the only excretory system
in the body.
 Buy some ruled paper you’re comfortable with, wide-college Fact The skin and the lungs are also excretory organs.
or narrow-ruled.
Misconception An empty beaker does not contain any matter.
 Select a pen or pencil you like for daily use. This doesn’t Fact An empty beaker contains air, which is matter.
have to be an expensive one.
Misconception Seeds need sunlight to germinate.
 Realise that practising and perfecting will be an ongoing Fact Seeds can germinate in the dark. They do not
process. To truly improve your handwriting, you must work need sunlight to germinate because the baby
on it till the improvements become a natural behaviour. plants get food from the seed leaves.
 Develop a test sentence for yourself and write it at the top Misconception Penguins can fly.
of your first practice page. At the beginning of each week, Fact Penguins are sea birds which have small wings.
write this sentence at the top of a new page to help you They cannot fly but can swim and walk.
gauge your progress. Misconception The Universe has a permanent size.
 Begin with individual letters and practice writing at least Fact The Universe is expanding.
one letter per day, incorporating the improvements that will
Misconception Sand does not hold water.
help you reach your goal. Concentrate on overall letter
formation, the size of ascenders and descenders, the slant Fact In sandy soil, the particles are loosely packed
and there is a lot of air in the spaces between
of each letter and the beginning and ending strokes. the particles when water is poured on a heap
 Move on to complete words once you’ve made it all the way of sand, it sinks quickly. This shows that sand
can hold some amount of water.
through the alphabet. Pay attention to character spacing,
the way your letters flow from one into the next and the Misconception Clouds are made up of different gases in the air.
spacing you place between words. Fact Clouds are not gases, and they are not formed
by the various gases in the air. Clouds are made
 Practice, practice, practice until your handwriting looks the up of tiny water droplets formed when water
way you want it to. vapour condenses.
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Knowledge Republic - 3 Class - 3 Knowledge Republic - 3 Unified Council

1. When heated, ice (solid) becomes water (liquid) and water

To find out the melting point, becomes steam (gas).
freezing point and 2. When ice is melting or water is freezing, its temperature
boiling point of water. remains constant at 0oC. Hence melting and freezing points
are the same at 0oC.
3. Water boils at 100oC. Therefore the boiling point of water
is 100oC.
\ \ \

F inding the melt ing point and boiling point of water when ice is heated continuously.
Procedure :
1. Place some ice chips in a conical flask and heat them on
a low flame. How many ‘energy’ words can you find in the long word below ?
2. Record the temperature of the ice when it begins to melt
3. Continue to heat the water until it boils.
4. Note the temperature when the water boils and starts ASINSOLAROFITIDIESELTO
turning into steam.
Write here :
Conclusion :
Observation Temperature (oC)
When ice melts (or water is freezing) .... 0
Melting Point or Freezing Point ............... 0
Temperature when water is heated ........ continues to rise
Temperature when water begins to boil . 100
Boiling Point of water ............................. 100
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Knowledge Republic - 3 Class - 3 Knowledge Republic - 3 Unified Council

Puzzles 5) Can you draw each figure below in 1 continuous stroke ? Try it.

1) Shown in the sketch are six matchsticks. Can you rearrange them
to make nothing ?

6) By moving 1 matchstick, can you change the number to another ?

2) Divide the clock as specified. Sum of all the numbers on each

part must be same. to
11 12 1 11 12 1 11 12 1
10 2 10 2 10 2
9 3 9 3 9 3
8 4 8 4 8 4
7 6 5 7 6 5 7 6 5
to or
Two halves Three parts Six parts
3) There are 6 glasses on a table. 3 are empty and 3 are filled with
water as shown below. How many times must you move the
glasses so that the empty glasses and filled glasses alternate ? to or

7) A rope, laid on the floor, is cut thrice as shown in the figure

below. How many pieces of rope are there now ?
4) String 25 beads together using a piece of thread that enters
from A and exits from B. The thread cannot cross and all the
beads must be strung together. How do you do this ? Try it.

Answers on page 20 Answers on page 21
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Knowledge Republic - 3 Class - 3 Knowledge Republic - 3 Unified Council

conditions for Tricks for

seed germination Quick
Seeds need air to germinate
layer Pour some boiled water into a beaker. Why multiply ?
of oil
Boiling the water drives the air out. When A computer can multiply thousands of numbers in less than a
boiled the water has cooled, drop some seeds into second. A human is lucky to multiply two numbers in less than
water it. Gently pour oil on top of the water to
a minute. So we tend to have computers do our math.
form a layer. The layer of oil prevents air
But you should still know how to do math on paper or even in
from entering the water. Leave the beaker in a bright and airy
your head. For one thing, you have to know a little math even
place for a few days. The seeds show no sign of starting to to use a calculator. Besides, daily life tosses plenty of math
germinate. This shows that seeds need air to germinate. problems your way. Do you really want to haul out Trusty Buttons
Seeds need water to germinate every time you go shopping ?
Of course, normal multiplication can get boring. Here’s the secret
Put some cotton wool in a shallow
shortcut. You might think of numbers as a dreary line from 0 to forever.
container and then place some
Numbers do go on forever, but you can also think of them as cycles.
seeds on it. Keep the cotton wool dry. Leave the container in a Ten ones make 10. Ten tens make 100. Ten hundreds make 1000.
bright and airy place for a few days. None of the seeds shows
If numbers were just a straight highway, there’d be no shortcuts.
signs of germinating. This shows that seeds need water to
But they’re more like a winding road. If you know your way
around, you can cut across the grass and save lots of time.
Seeds need warmth to germinate Multiply by 10 : Just add 0
Wet some cotton wool in a shallow container. The easiest number to multiply by is 10. Just ‘add 0’.
Place some seeds on the cotton wool and then 3 × 10 = 30; 140 × 10 = 1400
put the container in the refrigerator for a few Isn’t that easy ? This ‘trick’ is really just using our number
days. The seeds do not germinate in the cold. system. 3 means ‘3 ones’. Move 3 once to the left and you get
This shows that seeds need warmth to germinate. Seeds need air,
30, which means, ‘3 tens’. See how our numbers cycle in tens ?
water and warmth Whenever you move the digits once to the left, that’s the same
Do Seeds germinate in the dark ? to germinate as multiplying by 10.
Seeds can germinate in the dark. They do not need sunlight to And that’s the quick way to multiply by 10. Move each digit once
germinate because the baby plants get food from the seed leaves. to the left. Fill the last place with a 0.   
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Knowledge Republic - 3 Class - 3 Knowledge Republic - 3 Unified Council

V ocabulary
Multiply by
I. Identifty each member of the family by completing the table
It all adds up to below. Use the words you have learnt in the previous exercise.
Have you ever heard of the Member of the family Relationship
Amazing Facts of Nine ? 1. a parents sister

2. son/daughter
Let’s take a look.
3. the child of an aunt/uncle
29 = 18 1+8=9 4. son or daughter's child
39 = 27 2+7=9 5. grandfather/grandmother
49 = 36 3+6=9
6. the son of a sibling
59 = 45 4+5=9
7. the daughter of a sibling
69 = 54 5+4=9
79 = 63 6+3=9 8. father/mother
89 = 72 7+2=9 9. a family member related by blood
99 = 81 8+1=9 10. brother/sister
11. husband/wife
See the pattern ? When we multiply a single-digit number times 9 :
12. a parent’s brother
– The tens digit is one less than our original number.
II. Discover what the young of different insects are known as by
– The tens digit plus the ones digit equals nine ! unscrambling the letters. An example has been done for you.
This makes it easy to multiply any single digit times 9. Adult insects Young
c a t e r p i l l a r
Suppose you want to multiply 5 times 9. First, subtract 1 from 1. butterfly
(l l p a t e r c i a r)
the original number to get the tens digit.
n h
5 – 1 = 4 (tens digit of answer). 2. grasshopper
(y n h m p)
Then subtract this tens digit from 9 to get the ones digit. l v
3. beetle
9 – 4 = 5 (ones digit of answer). (a a r v l e)
a t
So the answer is 45. Let’s double check. Do the digits add up to 9 ? 4. fly
(g g t m a o)
4 + 5 = 9. Yes, it does !
p l n
5. spider
Isn’t this a great trick ? Remember, this works only for single (g i s p r e d l n i)
digits. Don’t try it on 13  9 or 6,425  9. t m e
6. mosquito
(u m b l r e t)
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Knowledge Republic - 3 Class - 3 Knowledge Republic - 3 Unified Council

III. Find words in this cramped list. Write them below the final V. Let’s see how well you know the male or female gender, like,
blend they contain. Man → Woman, of the following. To make it easy, some help
is provided and every letter of that spelling is represented by
p a s t s o f tt ra m p gu l p p u l p d r i f t l a s t me l tj ol tp um p one dash.

lt lp ft mp st 1) Dog ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

2) King ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
3) Mare ___ t ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
4) Witch ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
IV. Write the names of animals in the given blank for the sounds
that it makes as per the example shown. 5) Author ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

SOUND THING/ANIMAL 6) Mistress ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

1) Chirp _____Birds______ 7) Duck ___ ___ ___ ___ e

2) Chatter _______________ 8) Duchess ___ ___ ___ ___

3) Honk _______________ 9) Gander ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

10) Uncle ___ ___ ___ ___
4) Hiss _______________
11) Cow ___ u ___ ___
5) Meow/Purr _______________
12) Cock ___ ___ ___
6) Hummm/Buzz _______________
13) Sow ___ ___ ___ ___
7) Roar _______________
14) Tailor ___ e ___ ___ s ___ ___ ___ ___ s
8) Bark _______________
15) Actor ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
9) Moo _______________
10) Ring _______________
Who am I ?
11) Squeak _______________
• I Start with ‘P’ and end with ‘E’, but i have thousands of
12) Trumpet _______________ letters.
13) Quack _______________ • I have 28 days in a month.
Answers on page 21
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Knowledge Republic - 3 Class - 3 Knowledge Republic - 3 Unified Council

Few Amazing Facts
Creative Thinking
A cat’s tail contains nearly 10% of all the bones in its body.
The term ‘astronaut’ comes from Greek words that means 1) a) b)
‘Star’ and ‘Sailor’.
2) 7–3×2=1 3) 50 – 7 = 43
Hummingbirds wings can beat 200 times a second.
2 Vanilla Mango Chocolate
You lose about 50 to 100 hairs a day. 1
7 4
3 John D × ×
A dog has a sense of smell that is a hundred times more 4) 6
5) Madav × × D
sensitive than that of a human being. Prudvi × D ×
Taste buds do not last very long. Some are replaced within Puzzles
24 hours.
Salt is added to icy roads during winter to melt the ice. This
happens because the freezing point of ice is lowered below 1)
A butterfly uses its antennae to smell and its feet to taste.
11 12 1 11 12 1 11 12 1
A snake uses special structures located at the roof of its 10 2 10 2 10 2
9 3 9 3 9 3
mouth to smell. 8 4 8 4 8 4
2) 7 6 5 7 6 5 7 6 5
Our nose can detect 120 000 types of smell.
Two halves Three parts Six parts
There are between 7 and 15 different types of smell
3) Only once time.
receptors in our nose. Each detects a specific type of
chemical. Different smells stimulate one or more types of
receptors to different degrees.
The human tongue has about 10 000 taste buds. Each taste
bud has as many as 80 smell receptors.
Insects like bees, crickets and mosquitoes produce sounds
when their wings vibrate.
4) 5)
Grasshoppers produce sounds by rubbing one body part B
against another.
19 20
Knowledge Republic - 3 Class - 3

6) a)

to or

to or

7) 13 pieces of rope

V ocabulary

I) 1. Aunt 2. Child 3. Cousin 4. Grand child

5. Grand parent 6. Nephew 7. Niece 8. Par ent
9. Relative 10. Sibling 11. Spouce 12. Uncle
II) 2. Nymph 3. Lar vae 4. Maggot 5. Spiderling
6. Tumbler
III) melt, jolt; gulp, pulp; soft, rift; tramp, jump; last, past
IV) 2. Monkeys 3. Horns 4. Snake 5. C ats
6. Bees 7. Lions 8. Dogs 9. Cows
10. Bel ls 11. Mice 12. Elephants 13. Duck

V) 1. Bitch 2. Queen 3. Stallion 4. Wizard

5. Authoress 6. Mister 7. Drake 8. Duke

9. Goose 10. Aunt 11. Bull 12. Hen

13. Boar 14. Seamstress 15. Acteres

Who am I ?
• Post office • All months in a year have 28 days

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