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History of Number Theory Development

In the beginning in ancient times many nations settled along the great rivers.
Egyptians along the Nile in Africa, Babylonians along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers,
Hindus along the Indus and Ganga rivers, the Chinese along the Huang Ho and Yang Tze
rivers. These nations need the skills to control floods, dry up swamps, make irrigation to
process the land along the river into agricultural areas for that practical knowledge is needed,
namely technical and mathematical knowledge together. History shows that the beginning of
Mathematics originated from a nation that lived along the river. They need calculations,
calendars that can be used according to changing seasons. Measuring tools are needed to
measure land parcels owned. Increasing civilization requires ways to assess trade, financial
and tax collection activities. For practical purposes, numbers are needed.

Numbers used to be used as symbols to replace an object such as gravel, twigs that
each tribe or nation has its own way to describe numbers in symbolic form including:

 Symbol of the Babylonian nation's number

 Symbols of Mayan numbers in America 500 years BC.
 Number symbols use hieroglyphics made by the Ancient Egyptians.
 Symbols of Arabic numbers made in the 11th century and used today by Muslims
throughout the world.
 Symbol of the number of the Ancient Greeks.
 Symbols of Roman numbers which are still used today.

The history of the development of number theory can be grouped into two periods,

1. Number Theory in Prehistory (BC)

The concept of numbers and counting processes evolved from an age before there
was history (meaning no history of when it began). It may be debatable, but it is believed that
even the most primitive times humans have a " sense " of what is called numbers, at least to
recognize which is "more" or what is "less" to various things. This is evidenced by the
discovery of the oldest mathematical object, namely the bones of Lebombo in the Lebombo
mountains in Swaziland and possibly dating from 35,000 BC. This bone contains 29 different
incisions which are deliberately scratched on the fibula baboon bone. There is evidence that
women usually count to remember their menstrual cycles; 28 to 30 scratches on bones or
stones, followed by different marks. In addition, there were also found prehistoric artifacts in
Africa and France, from 35,000 BC and 20,000 years old, which indicates an early attempt to
calculate time. Ishango Bone, found near the water trunk of the Nile River (northeast of
Congo), contains a row of stick marks carved in three lanes extending to the bone. The
general interpretation is that Ishango's bone shows the most ancient demonstration known
about the sequence of primes.

a. Number Theory in the Babylonian Tribe

Babylonian mathematics refers to all the mathematics developed by the

Mesopotamians (now Iraq) from the beginning of Sumeria to the beginning of the helenistic
civilization. Named "Babylonian Mathematics" because of the main role of the Babylonian
region as place to study. At the time of helenistic civilization, Babylonian Mathematics
combined with Greek and Egyptian Mathematics to generate Greek Mathematics. Then under
the Islamic Caliphate, Mesopotamia, especially Baghdad, was once again an important center
for the study of Islamic Mathematics.

Contrary to the scarcity of sources in Egyptian Mathematics, Babylonian

Mathematical knowledge was derived from more than 400 clay tablets excavated since the
1850s. The slabs are written in nail writing when the clay is still wet, and burned in a furnace
or dried in the sun. Some of them are home works.

The earliest evidence of written mathematics is the work of the Sumerians, who built
ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia. They developed a complicated system of metrology
since 3000 BC. From about 2500 BC to the future, the Sumerians wrote a multiplication table
on clay plates and dealt with geometrical exercises and division questions. The earliest traces
of the Babylonian number system also refer to this period.

Most of the known clay plates date from 1800 to 1600 BC, and cover topics such as
fractions, algebra, cubic and quadratic equations, and the calculation of regular numbers,
multiplication inverses, and twin primes. The plate also includes multiplication tables and
methods for solving linear equations and quadratic equations. Babylonian Plate 7289 SM
gives a near to which is accurate to five decimal places.

Babylonian mathematics is written using the sexagesimal (base-60) number system.

This is where the use of numbers 60 seconds for a minute, 60 minutes for one hour, and 360
(60 x 6) degrees for one circle turn, also use seconds and minutes in a circle that symbolizes
fractional degrees. Also, unlike the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, the Babylonians had a
true system of values, where the numbers written in the left-hand lane expressed greater
values, such as in the decimal system.

Babylonian Numeration System (± 2000 BC), the first time people who know the
number 0 (zero) are Babylonian.

b. Number Theory in Ancient Egyptian Tribes

Egyptian mathematics refers to mathematics written in Egyptian. Since the Egyptian

mathematical helicopter civilization merged with Greek and Babylonian mathematics which
aroused helenistic mathematics. The study of mathematics in Egypt continued under the
Islamic Khilafah as part of Islamic mathematics, when Arabic became the written language
for Egyptian scholars.

The longest Egyptian mathematical writing is the Rhind Sheet (sometimes also
referred to as "Ahmes Sheet" based on the author), estimated to date from 1650 BC but
perhaps it was a copy of an older document from the Middle Kingdom from 2000-1800 BC .
The sheet is an instruction manual for students of arithmetic and geometry. In addition to
providing broad formulas and ways of multiplication, division, and workmanship of fractions,
the sheet also provides evidence for other mathematical knowledge, including composite and
prime numbers; arithmetic averages, geometry, and harmonics; and a simple understanding of
the Eratosthenes Sieve and perfect number theory (ie, number 6). The sheet also contains
ways to solve first-order linear equations as well as arithmetic and geometry sequences.

Another important Egyptian mathematical text is the Moscow sheet, also from the
Middle Kingdom era, dating to about 1890 BC. This manuscript contains questions about
words or story problems, which may be intended as entertainment.

The Numeration System of Ancient Egypt (± 3000 BC) is additive, where the value
of a number is the sum of the values of the symbols.

Symbols and symbols of Egyptian numbers

c. Number Theory in Indian Tribes

Sulba Sutras (approximately 800-500 BC) are geometric writings that use irrational
numbers, prime numbers, rule three and cubic roots; calculate the square root of 2 to a portion
of a hundred thousands; provide a method of constructing a circle that extends to the given
square, solving linear and quadratic equations; developed the Pythagorean triples
algebraically, and gave statements and numerical evidence for the Pythagorean theorem.

Panini (around the 5th century BC) which formulated the rules of Sanskrit grammar
uses the same notation as modern mathematical notation, and uses meta, transformation and
recursion rules. Pingala (roughly the 3rd to the first century BC) in its prosody treatise uses a
tool that corresponds to a binary number system. The discussion of combinatorics
corresponds to the basic version of the binomial theorem. Pingala's work also contains basic
ideas about Fibonacci numbers.

In about the 6th century BC, the Pythagorean group developed the properties of the
complete number (perfect number), amicable number, prime number, triangular number,
square number, number pentagon number (pentagonal number) and other numbers (figurate
numbers). One of the properties of the famous triangular number is called the Pythagorean
triple, namely: aa + bb = cc which is found by calculating the area of a square area whose
sides are the sides of a right triangle with hypotenose is c, and the other side is a and b.
Another study that is very popular until now is the distinction between prime numbers and
composite numbers. Prime numbers are more than one positive integer that does not have a
Factor Astronished man (astronisic person) Scrool (letter scroll) Vertical staff Heel Bone
knee shot Polliwin burbot tadpole Pointin finer swallow Lotus flower buna lotus positive
except 1 and the number itself. Positive numbers other than one and other than prime
numbers are called composite numbers. Historical records show that the problem of primes
has attracted the attention of mathematicians for thousands of years, especially those relating
to how many primes and how formulas can be used to search for and list prime numbers.

With the development of a numeration system, it also develops arithmetical ways or

procedures for the work base, especially to answer common problems, through certain steps,
which are clearly called algorithms. The beginning of the algorithm is done by Euclid.
Around the 4th century BC, Euclid developed basic concepts of geometry and number theory.
The seventh Euclid book contains an algorithm to find the Biggest Guild Factor of two
positive integers using an efficient technique or procedure, through a number of finite steps.
The word algorithm comes from algorithmism. In Euclid's time, this term was not yet known.
The word Algorism derives from the name of a Muslim and the famous book writer in 825
AD, namely Abu Ja'far Muhammed ibn Musa Al-Khowarizmi. The final part of his name
(Al-Khowarizmi), inspired the birth of the term Algorism. The term is most people's
vocabulary entry algorithm at the beginning of the computer revolution, namely the end of

In the 3rd century BC, the development of number theory was marked by the work
of Erathosthenes, now known as the Erastosthenes (The Sieve of Erastosthenes) Sieve. In the
next six centuries, Diopanthus published a book called Arithmetika, which discussed the
resolution of equations in integers and rational numbers, in symbolic form (not geometric
shapes / shapes as developed by Euclid). With the work of this symbolic form, Diopanthus is
referred to as one of the founders of algebra.

The following are number symbols found:

2. Numbers Theory in Historical Period (AD)

The beginning of the rise of modern number theory was pioneered by Pierre de
Fermat (1601-1665), Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), JL Lagrange (1736-1813), AM Legendre
(1752-1833), Dirichlet (1805-1859), Dedekind (1831 -1916), Riemann (1826-1866),
Giussepe Peano (1858-1932), Poisson (1866-1962), and Hadamard (1865-1963). As a prince
of mathematics, Gauss was fascinated by the beauty and beauty of number theory, and to
describe it, he called number theory the queen of mathematics. At this time, number theory
not only developed as far as the concept, but also widely applied in various fields of science
and technology. This can be seen in the use of number concepts in the method of line codes,
cryptography, computers, and so on.