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Lesson one

When men went to war, the factories were empty so women started to work
on them. And the women emancipation started. Women asked for their right
and for equality with men (vote, diploma, wages, presentation in the
parliament… etc). And they started to act like men (smoke and drink in public)
shorter clothes and hairs. Small group of traders were called the unionists
were doing their job through Europe and asking for work class rights because
Britain were enclosed only rich people do the trade. So other people started to
look for trade outside the country. The two major parties of Britain are the
conservative (religious, nationalists…) and liberal (freedom of everything; it
includes the capitalists) Karl marks and angel came with the idea of socialism
but it was rejected by the government. And the liberal party was divided some
accepted the idea and some rejected it so this caused its breaking. So those
who accepted the idea of socialism established the labor party (the left party)
with the traders and the women who are asking for their rights. Whereas the
capitalists joined the conservative party (the right party).The left party (labor)
gave more rights to the poor classes and helped them. Established free
educational intuitions and free health care and they helped widows and poor
incapable and sick people. This made people happier and this government
state was called the welfare state. Welfare state caused two problems:

1- People became lazy and irresponsible.

2- Financial problems because everything was free.

So the conservative party was elected and it changed everything. No more


free things. People have to work and be responsible and must pay for
everything. Election was moving from left to right each 4 years and this helped
Britain to mountain its balance. George 5th was loved by his people because
he did special things that no one did before (attending football matches,
talking to his people through bbc radio, and walking on the streets…etc) After
his death Edward 8th became the king wanted to marry divorced woman and
it wasn't acceptable for his people so he let the throne to his brother George
6th and after him his daughter Elizabeth 2nd became the queen till now.
Britain had three problems at that time (Wales, Ireland, and Scotland)

1- In Ireland a referendum was organized and the result was the division
of Ireland (south Ireland independent)
2- Wales had lost its identity because the language used was English and
so England gave them a prince (Charles)
3- In Scotland a referendum was organized too and 51% were with
independence and 49% were against so England gives it its
independence with conditions. Not sure about This one.
Lesson two
The prime minister on 1979 was Margaret Thatcher (from the right party
conservative) and she was very successful and loved by her people. She
encouraged hard work, individualism, and self- help. Individualism means
don't help anyone while self- help means you should help yourself. And she
used the austerity system on 1980s.Outside, she wanted to provide free trade
and she started to look for markets and organizations seeking free trade.

Britain joined the European community and they thought that their currency
is higher than the other members of the community so she posed conditions
(trade with its currency, Britain won't accept people from other nations to work
in Britain, and it won't let any country join the community especially if it's poor
country). Because of these conditions and because of the notion that Britain
had that they're superior and the invidualism idea, Britain faced a lot of
problems with Europe and it quit the European community and the European
common market. And it was called the reluctant country. Britain built
relationships with the Atlantic countries (usa and Canada) and established the
nato organization which is a military organization in order to be protected and
economically strong. And it started to civilize places in the world. Later the
election came and the right party stills the dominant and the country got
stronger with tatcha who could bring Britain to stronger position in the world.
Because the economy refreshed tatcha started to help poor people and to
have socialist ideas with conservative policies. And Britain started to develop
in science (develop its research space, design nuclear weapons, and
intercontinental ballistic missile).The relation with European nations was
merely interests (trade and economy) and stronger relationship with the
Atlantic alliances because they share some cultural background and same
language and common identity. Three elements in Britain’s foreign policy are
crucial:

1- It refused the intergovernmental struggle meaning no one interfere in


Britain affairs and problems and it won't interfere either
2- Strong emphasis on the Atlantic alliance
3- Preference of political economy that promote global free trade.

After four years the election took place and people were nationalist cause
tatcha influenced them so they kept to follow the right party but the prime
minister changed now we've john major in 1990 who wasn't successful
especially on the external policy. So after 4 years people moved to the left
party with tony Blair who mixed the socialist idea with invidualism. And after
him came Gordon brown form the left also then they turn to the right with
David Cameron then Theresa Mary.

Lesson three
Educational system means the steps (primary, middle, high school) and its
objectives. Britain educates its people to be active, responsible and good
citizens and serve the society. In Britain we've primary, elementary, high
school. In Usa primary, elementary, secondary (college) In Britain college is
kind of university. Every child is educated differently at home and school is
trying to gather these children upon some principles (education).Before
primary we've nursery step which's very important to prepare the child to
school. In Scotland child of 3 is in nursery in Britain when he reaches 4 years
old. In Scotland they start primary school at 4 years old while in Britain at 6.In
Scotland the primary school's period is 6 years, the elementary is 3 years, 4
years for high or secondary school. In Britain is 5, 4, and 3. And about 18
years you'll have a test to join the university. Britain educational system is
known by its tests that its pupils do. Their first one is at 11 then 14, 16 and 18.
And they have a lot of other tests. Education is obligatory till the age of 18.
Only 20% choose to quit schools at the age of 18 yet they go to improve their
skills which they like not to be a burden on the society. all pupils of Britain are
well- educated. The system is based on citizenship and treating people as
individuals. So they must be active and responsible. They've to study
mathematics, history, science, English, and civics…etc Britain is like Algeria in
one way which is the pupil will study on one class with same teacher and
same peers for a long period. This makes the classroom place of
socialization. In USA the same steps with same matters and same ages
almost but with variety of societies and languages, so if you're Chinese you've
to go to a Chinese school and same with other people (Spanish, French…)
and if you're rich you can be taught at home. Public schools are free and
private ones you've to pay. In Britain it's the contrary. In USA pupil study a
matter for 50mns and change the class to study another matter. This changes
of classes causes high level of individualism. And the classroom isn't a social
place.