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Bas Buchner and Tim Bunnik (Maritime Research Institute Netherlands, MARIN)

model, extreme wave crests can be observed. The

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2007 Offshore Technology Conference held in measured wave had a Ac/Hs ratio of 1.59. As a pilot study

Houston, Texas, U.S.A., April 30-May 3 2007.

into the understanding of the occurrence of this type of

This paper was selected for presentation by an OTC Program Committee following review of

information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as

extreme waves, [6] describes the spatial development of

presented, have not been reviewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are subject to this wave in the basin, see Figure 1.

correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any

position of the Offshore Technology Conference, its officers, or members. Papers presented at

OTC are subject to publication review by Sponsor Society Committees of the Offshore

Technology Conference. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this

paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Offshore Technology

Conference is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not

more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous

acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, OTC, P.O.

Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

Abstract

structure as a result of airgap problems, greenwater on the Figure 1: Spatial development of a wave in a model basin (from

deck or slamming to the hull. As the physics of these problems [6])

are different, there is no single way of identifying and

characterizing extreme waves. It should be noted ofcourse that even for fixed platforms the

As part of the investigations into the effect of extreme waves crest amplitude is not the only factor, the structure itself

on deepwater floating structures, this paper focuses on the can clearly enhance the local wave elevation [7].

challenges of the numerical prediction of platform response

due to extreme waves. This will be done by using an improved - For floating structures such as TLPs, Semis and Spars the

Volume Of Fluid (iVOF) method. Two case studies are wave loading and response is even more complex, as was

presented, which both required specific extensions of the shown in recent tests on the Snorre TLP [8]. The dynamic

methodology. First green water simulations on a FPSO are response of the platform to the wave impact can be the

discussed, requiring the coupling of a linear diffraction code to main factor in the survivability of the platform.

the iVOF method as part of a domain decomposition. Second

the dynamic response of a TLP to an extreme wave is studied,

requiring the integrated analysis of the wave loading and

platform response.

Introduction

showed the importance of extreme waves for all types of

offshore structures [1-5]. Extreme waves can lead to damage

to floating offshore structures as a result of airgap problems,

greenwater on the deck or slamming to the hull. As the physics

of these problems are different, there is no single way of

identifying and characterizing extreme waves: Figure 2: Airgap tests on the Snorre TLP (from [8])

- For airgap problems, the crest ampltidue of the waves is In [8] the important observation was made that extreme

the most important aspect. Therefore, it is important to wave and airgap problems belong to the group of (what

know the ratio Ac/Hs between Crest Amplitude (Ac) and was called) ‘badly behaved’ problems. A ‘badly behaved’

Significant wave height (Hs). In [6] the detailed analysis of problem is a problem with a step or discontinuity in the

an observed extreme wave in a model basin is described. It response. For a fixed platform or TLP it can for instance

was shown that even in a wave with moderate steepness occur that the deck is not hit in the 100 year wave as the

(Hs=11.9 m, Tp=15.3 s), generated with a random phase maximum wave crest just passes below the deck. However,

2 OTC 18493-PP

year wave, the deck can be hit and the response of the

platform to the wave loading will change significantly.

This should be taken into account in the analysis of the

long term survivability of the platform [8].

on ship-type offshore strucutres, such as FPSOs [9]. In the

relative wave motion, which is the main input to the green

water problem, the wave height is only one component.

The motion response of the vessel, determined for instance

mainly by the wave length and hull shape, is an important

factor as well in the relative wave motions.

MWL

6m

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

wave impact loading on the bow (from [10])

Figure 3: Green water loading on a FPSO (from [9]) It will be clear that these questions cannot be answered in a

single paper. In [6] a study on the spatial propagation of an

- Finally it was shown in [10] that for the direct wave extreme wave in a model basin is presented, whereas in [5] the

loading on the hull of the structure (slamming) the extreme full scale wave measurements and platform response of the

wave front steepness is the most important factor (and not Marco Polo TLP in Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina and Rita are

the extreme wave crest amplitude). This explained the studied.

damage to the bow of the Schiehallion FPSO, of which a In the present paper the focus will be on the challenges of the

model test is shown in Figure 4. numerical prediction of the platform response in extreme

waves. This will be done by using an improved Volume Of

These examples and the importance of the extreme wave Fluid (iVOF) method as it is presently under development

problem for the survivability of offshore structures, brings the [11,12]. First the general method will be described. Then two

offshore industry to important questions such as: case studies will be presented, which both required specific

extensions of the methodology:

- How do we identify and characterise extreme waves for

different types of offshore structures and wave impact load - Green water simulation on a FPSO, requiring the coupling

mechanisms? of a linear diffraction code to the iVOF method as part of a

- How are these extreme waves generated (for instance in domain decomposition.

hurricane type conditions)? - Dynamic response of a TLP to an extreme wave, requiring

- How do we carefully take into account the inherent the integrated analysis of the wave loading and platform

randomness of extreme waves? response.

- What is the effect of short-crestedness?

- What are the loading levels and dynamic response of the Description of the iVOF method

platform?

- What are the available measures we can take in the design? General

- How should we analyse them with full scale The iVOF method is based on the Navier-Stokes equations for

measurements, model tests and simulations? an incompressible, viscous fluid. The equations are discretised

using the finite volume method. The displacement of the free

surface is done using the Volume of Fluid method first

introduced by Hirt and Nichols [13]. To avoid small droplets

disconnecting from the free surface, the iVOF-method is

combined with a local height function.

OTC OTC-17853-PP 3

The iVOF method has already been used for a number of During the simulation, these finite elements are displaced

applications, like sloshing on board tumbling spacecraft, and according to their prescribed motion.

blood flow through arteries. Maritime applications are

sloshing in anti-roll tanks, simulation of dambreak flows as a Green water simulation with domain decomposition

model for green water flow on the deck, and falling objects in

calm water [12]. There is a need for calculation methods for local flow

phenomena of wave impact loading and loading from green

Boundary conditions water on the deck of offshore floaters. (Non-linear) methods to

At solid walls and at objects in the flow, a no-slip boundary predict the wave field around the vessel and the vessel motions

condition is used. At the boundaries of the computational exist, but when waves are getting steep and are overturning or

domain, a number of boundary conditions can be applied. flowing over the structure, other methods should be used to

Some of the domain boundaries may let fluid flow in or out of calculate the flow and resulting loads.

the domain. In case of simulations including waves an inflow

boundary is used where the incoming wave orbital velocities Green water loading is a highly complex and nonlinear

are prescribed and at the opposite boundary an outflow process. In [9] it was shown that numerical prediction methods

condition is used. for the prediction of green water loading need to take into

account the following phases in this process, see Figure 6:

When using the domain decomposition technique, the

velocities at the domain boundaries are prescribed using the A. Nonlinear swell-up around the bow.

wave kinematics calculated by the far field solver (linear B. 'Dam breaking'-type flow onto the deck.

diffraction) C. 'Hydraulic jump'-type shallow water flow on the

moving deck, focussing into a high velocity water 'jet'

At the interface between water an air, a free surface condition when the water fronts from the sides meet.

is apllied imposing continuity of normal and tangential D. Water impact and water run-up in front of the

stresses and atmospheric pressure. structure, eventually turning over.

Discretisation

To solve the Navier-Stokes equations numerically, the

computational domain is covered with a fixed Cartesian grid.

The variables are staggered, which means that the velocities

are defined at cell faces, whereas the pressure is defined in cell

centers.

fixed rectangular grid. Volume apertures and edge apertures Figure 6: The main phases of the green water problem

are used to indicate for each cell which part of the cell and cell schematically in side view (left) and top view

face respectively is open for fluid and which part is blocked by (right): from the non-linear relative wave motions in

solid geometry. To track the free surface, the volume-of-fluid front of the bow, via the complex flow onto and on

function Fs is used, which is 0 if no fluid is present in the cell, the deck to the impact on deck structures.

1 if the cell is completely filled with fluid and between 0 and 1

if the cell is partly filled with fluid. The Navier-Stokes In [11] the results were shown of the simulation with iVOF of

equations are solved in every cell containing fluid. the flow of green water over the deck of an FPSO and the

resulting impact on deck structures. However, the

computational domain was limited to the area on the deck. The

0.0 0.0 0.0 h=1.5

(measured) freeboard exceedance around the deck was used as

boundary condition and the deck was not moving in this

h=0.9 approach.

0.0 0.1 0.5

h=0.3

0.3 0.8 1.0

domain. Real wave (left), representation by volume

fractions (middle) and reconstruction in the iVOF

method (right).

Moving objects

The iVOF method offers the possibility to have 1 object with a

prescribed motion in the flow. At the start of a simulation, the Figure 7: The approach where water impact and water run-up

geometry is built from an arbitrary finite element description. are also taken into account [11].

4 OTC 18493-PP

The computational domain of the iVOF method is extended to

the area outside the bow (see Figure 8), so nonlinear waves

and wave run up can be taken into account in the numerical

simulation. As boundary conditions (waves and resulting ship

motions), the input of linear diffraction analysis is used. This

domain decomposition allows detailed flow simulations in

areas with complex nonlinear flows and still limits the

computation times. The linear diffraction analysis also

provides improved boundary conditions, inflow as well as

outflow, for the computational domain.

wave kinematics at a grid of points; these are used to

give the initial configuration in the smaller iVOF

domain and the inflow and outflow velocities at the

domain boundaries.

to the outer linear diffraction domain. Output from the

interface is the kinematics of the wave field and the ship

motion. The interface program takes the following steps:

The diffraction program has been run for a specified

geometry at a range of wave frequencies and

Figure 8: The far field wave kinematics and vessel motions are directions and has produced Response Amplitude

calculated using a diffraction code and used to Operators for the vessel motions, water pressures and

initialise the iVOF method for the close surroundings water velocities in a grid surrounding the vessel.

of the vessel's bow. 2. Specify wave conditions (regular or spectrum).

3. Generate time series of vessel motions, water

Domain decomposition velocities and pressures using the RAO's of the

In order to initialise simulations of wave loading on floating or diffraction analysis.

fixed structures, the iVOF method has been coupled to a linear

diffraction code. The linear diffraction code is able to calculate Results

the linearised wave kinematics and vessel motions, but cannot The domain decomposition technique has been applied to a

calculate the non-linear local flow phenomena close to the green water experiment [9]. In this experiment a free floating

vessel. These are subsequently calculated by the iVOF FPSO has been placed in regular waves with a 12.9 s period, a

method. However, the use of the iVOF method is limited to 13.52 m wave height in water with a depth of 150 m. The

the close surroundings of the vessel because of the required wave in front of the FPSO, and several relative wave heights,

computational effort. So, as sketched in Figure 9, first the water heights and pressures at the deck of the FPSO were

linear diffraction code is used to calculate the far wave field measured (see Figure 14). Furthermore, the forces on and the

and the vessel motions and then the iVOF method calculates pressure at several locations on a box-like deck structure were

the local non-linear wave dynamics. This is a one-way measured. The FPSO has a total length of 260 m and is 47 m

coupling, so the diffraction results are not influenced by the wide. The draft is 16.5 m, the total height of the deck at the

iVOF results. The RAO's calculated by the diffraction code are fore side of the FPSO is 25.6 m. There is a bulwark extension

used to give the initial flow in the complete iVOF domain and of 1.4 m. The bow has a full elliptical shape without flare.

to prescribe velocities, pressure and water height at the

boundaries of the iVOF domain during the time domain First, a diffraction analysis has been carried out to determine

simulation. the vessel motion RAO's and the kinematics at a grid of points

around the vessel. Figure 10 shows a comparison between the

predicted and measured heave and pitch motion of the vessel

(heave motion at the center of gravity). The heave and pitch

motion are the most important motions for the prediction of

green water on the deck in head seas. As can be seen from the

figure, the motions are predicted reasonably well by the linear

diffraction theory. Only a slight shift in the predicted heave

OTC OTC-17853-PP 5

This is proably an effect of the green water on the vessel In Figure 13 a snapshot of the simulation at time 7.5 s is

motions [9], which is not taken into account. shown, where the high velocity jet is very well visible.

measured during the experiment: heave (left) and

pitch (right).

Figure 12: Contours of the water front propagating over the deck

iVOF simulation. Furthermore, the initial velocity field and of the FPSO, model test every 0.31 s (left) and iVOF

wave height are prescribed using the diffraction results. The every 0.30 s (right).

iVOF domain encloses the bow of the ship and about half a

wavelength up front. At the boundaries of the domain the three

velocity components and the water height are prescribed using

the results of the diffraction code. A grid of 112x80x76 grid

points is used in the iVOF simulation with stretching towards

the bow of the ship. The simulation length is 15 seconds.

relative wave probes have been positioned at 30 and 5 m in

front of the bow. In Figure 11, the relative wave height

calculated by the iVOF method is compared with the

experiment. The agreement between measurement and

calculation is reasonable.

of the FPSO.

Figure 11: Relative wave height 30 m (left) and 5 m (right) in

front of the bow of the FPSO. To make a further comparison of the behaviour of the water on

the deck with the experiment, the measurements of the water

Figure 12 shows contours describing the propagation of the probes at the deck and the pressure panels at the deck have

water front on the deck of the FPSO. Ref [9] describes the been used. Figure 14 shows the measurement positions of the

water flow on the deck in the following words: First, the water probes and pressure panels at the deck of the FPSO: at

horizontal velocity of the water front on the deck is almost four positions the water height is measured, with a mutual

zero. Then, the water front starts to translate onto the deck distance of 10 m; the distance between the pressure panels

with a similar velocity from all sides, perpendicular to the (positioned in between the water height probes) is also 10 m,

local deck contour. Finally, the water contours from the front with P1 positioned 7 m left of H1. Height probe H4 is

and sides meet at the centerline of the ship and result in a high positioned just in front of the deck structure.

velocity 'jet', which flows with a high velocity aft along the

middle of the deck. These stages can be recognised in the

contour plots in Figure 12. In the experiment, the time interval

between two contours is 0.31 s, and in the simulation the

difference is 0.30 s. The agreement between the propagation

of the water front in experiment and simulation is rather good.

The water jet is formed a bit earlier in the simulation than in

the experiment.

6 OTC 18493-PP

the deck of the FPSO.

Figure 17: Pressure at the center line of the deck structure, 2.4 m

In Figure 15 the water height at the deck at positions H1 and above the deck.

H3 is shown. The moment the water reaches the water probes

is very well predicted by the iVOF method. The amount of At the deck structure also pressure panels are positioned to

water on the deck is larger than in the experiment. Close to the measure the wave impact. The lowest panel is positioned 2.4

deck edge (at H1) the water height is 2 m higher than m above the deck level. The time trace of the load on that

measured in the experiment and further on the deck at H3, it is panel is shown in Figure 17, which shows a reasonable

still 1.5 m too high. The second hump in the left of Figure 15 agreement between simulation and experiment. The peak of

is predicted by the iVOF method at the same moment as in the first impact is higher in the simulation, but afterwards, the

experiment. This hump is present due to the water returning decay of pressure is predicted fine.

from the deck structure. In Figure 16, the pressure at the deck

at positions P1 and P3 is shown. The same conclusion can be Dynamic response of a TLP to an extreme wave

drawn from this plot as from the plotted water heights: the

amount of water on the deck is too large, but further aft on the In the green water problem, the motion response of the FPSO

deck the agreement becomes better. In both pictures of Figure could be calculated separately from the iVOF simulation.

16 an oscillating behaviour of the pressure can be observed. However, for a TLP the wave impact is resulting in a dynamic

Every oscillation represents a switch of the monitoring point response of the TLP at its (short) natural period, so that the

fixed at a moving structure to another cell. The pressure value loading and response cannot be uncoupled. To simulate the

changes when such a switch of cell happens, because the dynamic behaviour of the TLP after it is hit by an extreme

pressure is positioned in the cell center. wave, the iVOF method was therefore extended by solving the

equation of motion of the TLP, subject to arbitrary forces.

Methodology

The iVOF method is now able to compute the motions of

offshore structures as a result of the non-linear wave loads

computed by the iVOF method.

waves due to the large computational times. The simulations

Figure 15: Water height at the deck close to the bow H1 (left) and have therefore been carried out in regular waves in order to

closer to the deck structure H3 (right). investigate at least qualitatively the effect of wave impact with

the topside. In order to show the principle of the badly

behaved load mechanism, simulations were carried out with 2

different wave heights:

- Wave height of 36.4 m, wave period 13.0 s

springs, 1 at each corner of the TLP. This assumption is made

Figure 16: Pressure at the deck close to the bow P1 (left) and because the tether mass is small compared to the TLP mass.

close to the deck structure P3 (right).

OTC OTC-17853-PP 7

The modelled geometry of the TLP is shown in Figure 18. The In the simulations, a symmetry condition was used and the

cell size near the TLP is 2x2x2 m: computation thus included only half the domain indicated. A

total of 718,160 grid cells were used in the simulations.

Results

A total of almost 3 wave periods was simulated (36 s). The

computational time on a modern PC was about 1 week. Prior

to the 3D simulation, a 2D simulation without the TLP was

carried out to check the quality of the computed undisturbed

wave (similar to what is done in the model basin). The wave

elevation at the centre of the TLP (H=29.7 m top, H=36.4 m

bottom) is shown in Figure 20. The non-linearity in the waves

(steep crest, flattened through) can clearly be observed.

25

20

15

10

-5

-10

-15

0 10 20 30 40 50

time [s]

25

Figure 18: TLP model

20

The simulations are initiated with the water at rest. The first 15

wave period is used to start-up the wave orbital velocities at

wave elevation [m]

domain is extended for about 1500 m to avoid wave

0

reflections from that direction to occur within the simulated

period, using so-called stretched cells which exponentially -5

expand in size in downstream direction. A 3D view of the

-10

domain is shown in Figure 19.

-15

0 10 20 30 40 50

time [s]

- Tether forces

- Hydrodynamic forces on the TLP

T=31 s (smallest wave height is shown on the left and the

highest wave height on the right) are shown in Figure 21 for

the smallest wave of 29.7 m and in Figure 22 for the largest

wave of 36.4m:

8 OTC 18493-PP

Figure 21: Snapshots during iVOF Simulation (smallest wave Figure 22: Snapshots during iVOF Simulation (largest wave of

of 29.7 m) 36.4 m)

OTC OTC-17853-PP 9

It can be seen that in the case of the lowest wave, the wave 15

crest just misses the deck. The higher wave however causes H=29.7 m

H=36.4 m

significant vertical deck impacts. This is illustrated in Figure

10

5

0

- The top tension in the aft tethers

-5

4 0 10 20 30

x 10 time [s]

14

top tension forward tether [kN]

12 0.1

0

10

-0.1

8 -0.2

H=29.7 m

-0.3 H=36.4 m

6

-0.4

4 -0.5

0 10 20 30

H=29.7 m time [s]

2 H=36.4 m

0.3

H=29.7 m

0 0.25 H=36.4 m

0 10 20 30 0.2

time [s] 0.15

4

x 10 0.1

14 0.05

H=29.7 m

0

12 H=36.4 m -0.05

top tension aft tether [kN]

-0.1

10

0 10 20 30

time [s]

8 Figure 24: TLP motion timeseries

6

These show that:

4

1. Due to the mean wave drift force, the TLP is pushed

2

backwards also causing a mean, non-zero setdown.

0 2. Heave and pitch motions are small and follow the

0 10 20 30

time [s]

tether tension behaviour with the typical combined

Figure 23: Tether tension timeseries wave-frequency and resonant TLP response.

The tether loads clearly show the familiar, combined resonant Due to the fact that the TLP has not reached its mean, wave

and wave frequency response. The high-frequency, resonant drift force induced surge offset (and setdown) yet, it is most

variations in the tether loads are significantly larger in case of likely that subsequent wave crests lead to higher tether loads

the highest wave. Furthermore, the maximum tether load is due to a further reduced airgap. However, this appears to be an

highest on the forward tether, but the aft tether becomes slack effect which is particular for regular waves since extreme

after the wave crest has passed the aft columns (T=30 s). This waves in nature will occur as single events which are very

clearly shows the ‘badly behaved load mechanism’: A wave larger than waves in the vicinity.

just missing the deck induces relatively moderate dynamic

tether forces whereas a slightly higher wave that hits the deck Conclusions

can cause slack tethers and subsequent serious damage to the Based on the results presented in this paper it can be

platform. Traditional methods (linear or second order concluded that:

diffraction theory) are not capable of predicting such effects.

- Extreme waves can lead to damage to floating offshore

Finally, the surge, heave and pitch motion of the TLP are structure as a result of airgap problems, greenwater on the

shown in Figure 24. deck or slamming to the hull. As the physics of these

problems are different, there is no single way of

identifying and characterizing extreme waves

- The coupling of linear diffraction theory to the improved

Volume Of Fluid (iVOF) method as part of a domain

decomposition is an important step in the effective

prediction of the green water problem. It limits the

calculation time and still keeps the detailed analysis of the

green water problem in the most important area. The

10 OTC 18493-PP

comparison between the measurements and simulations is 5. Van Dijk, R.R.T and Van den Boom, H.J., ‘Full Scale

good. Monitoring Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform’,

- The coupling of the iVOF method to a time domain OMAE2007-29635, San Diego, June 2007.

simulation of the TLP response allows the simulation of 6. Buchner, B., Van Dijk, R.R.T and Voogt, A.J. ‘The

dynamic response of a TLP to a wave that hits the deck. Spatial Analysis of an Extreme Wave in a Model

This make the analysis of the dynamic tether loads in this Basin’, OMAE2007-29409, OMAE, San Diego, June

type of complex situations. To use this methodology for 2007.

the analysis of TLP designs, it is however needed to 7. Buchner, B., Loots, E., Forristall, G.Z. and van

investigate longer time series or deterministic wave Iperen, E., ‘Hydrodynamic Aspects of Gravity Based

groups. Structures in Shallow Water’, OTC 2003.

8. Johannessen, T.B., Haver, S., Bunnik, T.H.J and

Acknowledgement Buchner, B.: “Extreme Wave Effects on Deep Water

TLPs Lessons Learned from the Snorre A Model

Theresa Helmholt from RuG is acknowledged for carrying out Tests”, DOT Conference, Houston, 2006.

the green water simulations. Thomas B. Johannessen 9. Buchner, B.:”Green water on ship-type offshore

(AkerKvaerner) and Sverre Haver (Statoil) are thanked for structures”, PhD thesis, Delft University of

their interesting discussion of the TLP simulations. Technology, 2002.

10. Voogt, A.J. and B.Buchner, 2004, “Wave Impacts

References Excitation On Ship-Type Offshore Structures In

1. Cox, A.T., Cardone, V.J., Counillon, V. and Szabo, Steep Fronted Waves”, Proceedings of the OMAE

D., ‘Hindcast study of wind, waves and current in Speciality Symposium on FPSO Integrity, Houston,

Northern Gulf of Mexico in Hurricane Ivan (2004)’, 2004

OTC 17736, 2005. 11. Fekken,G., Veldman, A.E.P. and Buchner, B.:

2. Perego, R.N., Beynet, P.A., Chappel, J.F.,Garrett, “Simulation of green-water loading using the Navier-

D.L., Gordon, R.B., ‘The Marlin TLP: Measured and Stokes equations”, Proceedings 7th Intern. Conf. on

predicted response during Hurricane Ivan’ OTC Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics, Nantes, 1999.

17335, 2005. 12. Kleefsman, K.M.T. and Veldman, A.E.P.: “An

3. Cooper, C., Stear, J., Heideman, J., Santala, M., improved {V}olume of {F}luid i{VOF} method for

Forristall, G.Z., Driver, D. and Fourchy, P., wave impact type problems”, Proceedings of OMAE-

‘Implications of Hurricane Ivan on Deepwater Gulf FPSO 2004.

of Mexico Metocean Design Criteria’, OTC 17740, 13. Hirt, C.R. and Nichols, B.D.: “Volume of fluid

2005. ({V}{O}{F}) method for the dynamics of free

4. Forristall, George Z., ‘Maximum Wave Heights Over boundaries”, J. Comput. Phys., 1981.

an Area and the Air Gap Problem’, OMAE2006- 14. ‘Generation and Analysis of Harsh Wave

92022, June 4-9, 2006, Hamburg, Germany. Environments’, Janou Hennig, PhD thesis TU Berlin,

2005.

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