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METABK 58(1-2) 19-21 (2019)

UDC – UDK 669.011:669.882.782.71.721-541.451:532.13:537.311.3=111

СаО - SiO 2 - Al 2О 3 – MgО

Received – Primljeno: 2018-05-30

Accepted – Prihvaćeno: 2018-09-20

Original Scientific Paper – Izvorni znanstveni rad

Experimentally using electric vibration viscometer and the method of design of experiments on the simplex studied

the melt viscosity of the system CaO - SiO2 - Al2О3 - MgО. Developed its mathematical model and computer program

that allows calculation of viscosity in the temperature range 1 573 - 1 823 К. Using the model diagrams are con-

structed in the form of isothermal sections of the tetrahedron on MgO. It is concluded that the use of the model is

more efficient than Chart, so it does not require a complex geometric constructions tetrahedron when the viscosity

values, and, moreover, can be used in automatic process control in real time.

Keywords: metallurgy, CaO - SiO2 - Al2О3 - MgО system, viscosity, electric conductivity, axial diagram

sensitivity and allows to determine the viscosity of the

In the research and production activities is common slag in a wide range of values [12].

for evaluation of the properties of slag and metal from

the diagrams. They are visible and give the opportunity

to choose among the many specific compositions pre- RESULTS OF RESEARCHING

sented. However, there are difficulties in their use. This For research in the system CaO - SiO2 - Al2O3 - MgO

inability to image plane multicomponent (more than was selected portion encompassing the most common

four) systems, insufficient accuracy of removing the oxide melts domain, cupola, ferroalloy, ceramic and

charts data by geometric constructions, the impossibili- other industries. It was a tetrahedron whose vertices are

ty of their use in automatic process control in real time. located in the following areas: the first - on the side of

It seems appropriate to create a mathematical model the binary CaO – Al2O3 at crystallization at twelve-cal-

diagrams when the above-mentioned difficulty is large- cium seven aluminate (12CaO·7Al2O3) with coordi-

ly removed. Sharing graphic diagrams and mathemati- nates 48,48 % CaO and 51,52 % Al2O3, the second one

cal models should help improve the effectiveness of on the side of the binary CaO – SiO2 between rankinite

research in this area. This article presents the results of (3CaO·2SiO2) and pseudowollastonite (aCaO·SiO2)

the work in this direction. with coordinates / %: 52 CaO and 48 SiO2, in a third one

of the ternary eutectic crystallization point with coordi-

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY nates / %: 9,8 CaO, 19,8 Al2O3 and 70,4 SiO2, and the

fourth was in the volume of the tetrahedron and con-

The decision of the goal to create a mathematical tained / %:12CaO, 19SiO2, 9Al2O3 и 40MgO.

model requires the use of a common reference data of Used on the simplex method of planning, allowing a

high accuracy. Analysis of the available data[1 - 8] mathematical model and build diagrams «structure -

showed significant differences in viscosity of the same property» [13, 14]. In this method, the form approxi-

slag at the same temperature due to methodological er- mating polynomial is given in advance, and the degree

rors[9 - 11], therefore, it was decided to independently of the polynomial is determined depending on the ex-

carry out experimental investigations, taking measures pected complexity of the response surface. To study

to reduce instrument and computational errors. For the four-component system СаО - SiO2 - Al2О3 - MgО was

above reason, it was decided to independently perform selected fourth degree polynomial.

experimental studies viscosity, taking measures to re- The total form of the equation for calculating the

duce the instrumental and computational errors. To de- viscosity versus composition at a fixed temperature as

termine the viscosity was chosen amplitude resonant follows.

lgη = β1х1 + β2х2 + β3х3 + β4х4 + β12х1х2 + β13х1х3 + β14х1х4

A. Akberdin, A. Kim, Chemical-Metallurgical Institute, Karaganda, + β23х2х3 + β24х2х4 + β34х3х4 + γ12х1х2(х1 - х2) + γ13х1х3(х1

Kazakhstan – х3) + γ14х1х4(х1 – х4) + γ23х2х3(х2 – х3) + γ24х2х4(х2 – х4)

R. Sultangaziyev, Karaganda State Technical University, Karaganda,

Kazakhstan, email: sulrus83@mail.ru

+ γ34х3х4(х3 – х4) + σ12х1х2(х1 – х2)2 + σ13х1х3(х1 – х3)2+

A. AKBERDIN et al.: MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF CHARTS MELT VISCOSITY OF THE CaO - SiO2 - Al2O3 – MgO

σ14х1х4(х1 – х4)2+ σ23х2х3(х2 – х3)2 + σ24х2х4(х2 – х4)2 + x12x2x3– 17,588 x12x2x4 – 35,808 x12x3x4 + 16,794 x22x3x4

σ34х3х4(х3 – х4)2 + β1123 x12x2x3+ β1124 x12x2x4 + β1134 x12x3x4 – 61,898 x1x22x3 – 3,263 x1x22x4– 11,692 x1x32x4 – 15,164

+ β2234 x22x3x4 + β1223 x1x22x3 + β1224 x1x22x4 + β1334 x1x32x4 + x2x32x4 – 0,740 x1x2x32 – 21,492 x1x2x42 + 41,875 x1x3x42 +

β2334 x2x32x4 + β1233 x1x2x32 + β1244 x1x2x42 + β1344 x1x3x42 + 18,261 x2x3x42 + 27,45 x1x2x3x4 (Eq 10)

β2344 x2x3x42 + β1234 x1x2x3x4 (Eq 1)

The crystallization temperature can be calculated so.

where η – viscosity / Pa.s, Тcr. = 1 593х1 + 1 793х2 + 1 618х3 +1 867х4 + 320х1х2 +

β1, β2, β3 and so on - the coefficients of which are calcu- 70х1х3 + 8х1х4 – 330х2х3 – 292х2х4 – 62х3х4 + 0х1х2(х1 –

lated from the experimentally found values of viscosity, х2) + 120х1х3(х1 – х3) – 805,33х1х4(х1 – х4) +

and are shown in Table 5. 333,33х2х3(х2 – х3) – 1 018,67х2х4(х2 – х4) + 114,67х3х4(х3

х1, х2, х3 и х4 – content, respectively pseudocomponents – х4) – 1 173,33х1х2(х1 - х2)2 + 2 866,67х1х3(х1 – х3)2 –

СаО, SiO2, 714,67х1х4(х1 – х4)2 + 93,33х2х3(х2 – х3)2 – 773,33х2х4(х2

Al2O3 and MgO in the vertices of the simplex, of a unit. – х4)2 – 989,33х3х4(х3 – х4)2 + 7 240 x12x2x3 +138,67

x12x2x4 – 1 597,33 x12x3x4 + 1 1314,7 x22x3x4 – 15 160

In planning matrix Central slag composition of the x1x22x3 + 1 658,67 x1x22x – 2 362,67 x1x32x4 + 8 688 x2x32x4

coordinates of pseudo-weight percentage is produced + 6 906,67 x1x2x32 – 7 098,67 x1x2x42 + 1 586,67 x1x3x42

by the formulas: – 14 344 x2x3x42 – 29 450,7 x1x2x3x4 (Eq 11)

СаО = 4 8,48х1 + 52х2 + 9,8х3 + 12х4, (Eq 2)

SiO2 = 4 8х2 + 70,4х3 + 39х4 (Eq 3) Developed models can be used to evaluate the prop-

Al2O3 = 51,52х1 + 19,8х3 + 9х4 (Eq 4) erties of the melts, the following values contoured ox-

MgO = 40х4 (Eq 5) ides concentration wt.%: СаО 9,8 - 52,0; SiO2 0 - 70,4;

When the machine method for finding the viscosity of Al2О3 0 - 51,52 and MgO 0 - 40.

the expression (1) the system of equations (2) - (5) are Models can be used to visualize the results of calcula-

solved in a general way with respect to х1, х2, х3 and х4: tions by charting. Figures 1 and 2 show an example.

х1 = 4,28.10-6.MgO + 1,516.10-2.Al2O3 - Comparison of these diagrams with the most cited in the

-4,892.10-3.SiO2 + 4,516.10-3.CaO, (Eq 6) literature [5 - 7] shows identity stroke contour and match

х2 = - 3,629.10-3.MgO - 1,622.10-2.Al2O3 + the numerical values of properties in a number of areas.

+ 2,162.10-3.SiO2 + 1,723.10-2.CaO, (Eq 7) Describing the overall structure of these diagrams, it

х3 = - 1,137.10-2.MgO +,106.10-2.Al2O3 + can be noted that they can clearly be seen extreme de-

+ 1,273.10-2.SiO2 - 1,175.10-2.CaO, (Eq 8) pendence of these properties on the composition. When

. -2.

х4 = 2,5 10 MgO (Eq 9) raising the state diagram and phase diagram of this sys-

According to the developed method, a known part of tem can be established that these specific areas are con-

slag СаО, SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO by using Equations (6 fined to eutectic crystallization and fields of chemical

- 9) are initially values х1, х2, х3 and х4, that substituting compounds, which confirms the view of the presence in

into equation 1, one can determine the viscosity. The the liquid such as molecules associations undergoing

crystallization temperature of slag of the logarithm of structural transformations during cooling [16,17].

viscosity versus inverse absolute temperature and ap- In a number of productions being continuous or pe-

plied the same processing techniques to create a math- riodic monitoring of the chemical composition of the

ematical model. melt. In this case, the model can be used to evaluate

their properties in automatic process control.

DISCUSSION RESULTS OF RESEARCHING.

Experimental values of viscosity (η) and the crystal- CONCLUSION

lization temperature (Тcr.) served as a basis for calculat- Mathematical models diagrams and charts viscosity

ing said equation (1) the polynomial coefficients. For melt crystallization temperature of the СаО - SiO2 -

example, β1 = η1; β2 = η2; β3 = η3; β4 = η4; β12 = 9/4(η112 Al2O3 - MgO. They allow you to conduct numerical cal-

+ η122 - η1∙η2) and so on [15]. The thus obtained all 35 culations of the unknown quantities by the chemical

coefficients for the polynomial viscosity and crystalli- composition of the melt. Using the model are graphs of

zation temperature are given in Table 5. In accordance viscosity and crystallization temperature. Sharing mod-

therewith, the equation for calculating the viscosity to els and diagrams easier to find the desired compositions

temperature, such as 1 773K as follows. for the process. It is possible to use models in automatic

lgη = – 0,195х1 – 0,407х2 + 1,250х3 + 3,000х4 + process control in real time.

3,203х1х2 – 0,547х1х3 – 3,719х1х4 + 0,473х2х3 –

7,107х2х4 – 8,215х3х4 – 1,415х1х2(х1 – х2) + 4,309х1х3(х1

– х3) + 3,373х1х4(х1 – х4) – 2,31х2х3(х2 – х3) – 2,008х2х4(х2 REFERENCES

– х4) + 10,838х3х4(х3 – х4) – 9,548х1х2(х1 – х2)2 + [1] Machin J.S. a Hanna D.L. Viscosity Studies of System

10,371х1х3(х1 – х3)2 – 10,707х1х4(х1 – х4)2 + 0,312х2х3(х2 CaO-MgO- Al2O3- SiO2; I 40 % SiO2 // Journal of the

– х3)2 + 3,737х2х4(х2 – х4)2 – 6,636х3х4(х3 – х4)2 + 39,515 American Ceramic Society. , 8(1945)11,310-316

A. AKBERDIN et al.: MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF CHARTS MELT VISCOSITY OF THE CaO - SiO2 - Al2O3 – MgO

a) b) a) b)

c) d) c)

Figure 1 Diagrams the melt viscosity of the system СаО - SiO2 Figure 2 Diagrams the melt crystallization temperature

- Al2О3 - MgО with 2 (а), 4 (b), 6 (c) and 8 % MgО (d) at systems СаО - SiO2 - Al2О3 - MgО with 6 % (а), 8 % (b)

1 723К. and 10 % MgО (c).

[2] Machin J.S. a Tin Boo Yee. Viscosity Studies of System [11] Levin L. Evaluation of error in the determination of the

CaO-MgO- Al2O3- SiO2; IV 50 a 65% SiO2 . Voriation of viscosity of slag on electric vibration viscometer. In the

Viscosity when CaO, MgO and Al2O3 Are constant // book: “Production of pig iron”, Sverdlovsk, 8 (1982) 133-

Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 37 (1954)4, 177- 138

186 [12] Soloviev A.N., A. B. Kaplun. Vibrating method for measu-

[3] Maccaffery R. // Trans. of AIMME. 100 (1932) 64-85 ring the viscosity of liquids. - Novosibirsk: Science, (1970)

[4] Voskoboynikov VG Danube NE et al. Properties of liquid 140

blast furnace slag. - M.: Metallurgy (1975) 184 [13] Novik F.S., R.S. Mintz, Malkov Y.S. Application of the

[5] Gultyaev I.I. The viscosity of slags of calcium oxide - ma- method of simplex lattices charting structure-property //

gnesium oxide - silica with 5% alumina // Proceedings of Factory Laboratory. 7 (1967) 840-847

the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, OTH, Metallurgy [14] Scheffe H. Experiments with mixtures // J. Roy. Statist. 20

and fuel 5 (1960) 219 (2) (1958) 344-350

[6] Zhmoydin G.I., Kulikov I.S. Physico-chemical properties [15] V.V. Nalimova. New ideas in the planning of the experi-

of synthetic lime-alumina slag // In .: recovery and melting ment. - M .: Science, (1969)150

iron. - M .: Nauka, (1965) 39-61 [16] I.S. Kulikov. Hot metal desulphurization. Moscow, Metal-

[7] Zhmoydin G.I., Kulikov I.S. Slag mode blast furnaces. - lurgy (1962) 308

M.: Metallurgy (1967) 200-208 [17] G.H. Zhang, K.C. Chou, X.Y. Lv. Influences of different

[8] Gilot N.L. Formation and properties of blast furnace slag. components on viscosities of cao-mgo-al 2 o3-sio2 melts.

- M .: Metallurgy (1974) 120 J. Min. Metall. Sect. B-Metall. 50 (2) B (2014) 157 - 164

[9] Pavlov M.A., Pilnik O.V. // Soviet metallurgy., 3 (1932)

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[10] Gultyay I.I. // Proceedings A. S. of the USSR. Metallurgy

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