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Item Bank on Design of RCC Structures

by Upendra M. Karkhanis
____________________________________________________________________________________________

Item Bank on
DESIGN OF RCC STRUCTURES
(as per IS:456-2000)
by
Upendra M. Karkhanis

A. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS

A.1 Topic 1 : Introduction to Limit State Theory

A.1.1 Define the term structure.


A.1.2 What is meant by design of a structure ?
A.1.3 What is meant by functional requirements of a structure ?
A.1.4 Enlist five structures and state their functional requirements.
A.1.5 Enlist the structural requirements of structure ?
A.1.6 What is meant by strength of a structural component ?
A.1.7 Enlist structural components of a building.
A.1.8 Enlist non-structural components of a building.
A.1.9 What is meant by load bearing building structure ?
A.1.10 What is meant by framed building structure ?
A.1.11 Enlist five basic structural actions ?
A.1.12 Describe the basic structural actions with the help of sketches.
A.1.13 Enlist the structural actions involved in the behaviour of i) slab ii) beam iii) column iv)
footing
A.1.14 What is the purpose of Indian Standard codes ?
A.1.15 Which organization publishes IS codes ?
A.1.16 Compare concrete and steel on i) strength ii) ductility.
A.1.17 Write full form of i) RCC ii) PCC
A.1.18 Why is concrete required to be reinforced ?
A.1.19 Which IS code is used for ordinary RCC design ?
A.1.20 Enlist the two methods of RCC analysis and design ?
A.1.21 Enlist different shapes of RC beam sections ?
A.1.22 Enlist the types of bending.
A.1.23 Enlist four common RCC structures and state their functions.
A.1.24 State advantages of RCC structures.
A.1.25 State disadvantages of RCC structures.
A.1.26 Which IS code is used for Design of General RCC Structures ?
A.1.27 Enlist three RCC structures for which IS:456-2000 is not applicable.
A.1.28 Which is the lowest allowed grade of concrete for RCC structural members ?
A.1.29 Which are the common grades of concrete used for RCC structures ?
A.1.30 Which are the common grades of steel used for RCC structures ?
A.1.31 Write full forms of i) HYSD ii) TMT iii) MS
A.1.32 Distinguish between mild steel and HYSD steel on i) strength and ii) ductility
A.1.33 State the commercial name of HYSD steel.
A.1.34 State the grades of HYSD steel.
A.1.35 Out of mild steel and HYSD steel, which is commonly used as reinforcement ? Why ?

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Item Bank on Design of RCC Structures
by Upendra M. Karkhanis
____________________________________________________________________________________________

A.1.36 State the common diameters of mild steel and HYSD bars available in the market.
A.1.37 Write the meaning of each term in i) M25 and ii) Fe 500.
A.1.38 Define : i) Characteristic strength ii) Limit State
A.1.39 Enlist two main limit states.
A.1.40 Enlist criteria included in limit state of strength.
A.1.41 Enlist criteria included in limit state of serviceability.
A.1.42 State two types of problems. Distinguish between them.

A.2 Topic 2 : Flexural Analysis and Design of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections

A.2.1 Define : i) singly reinforced beam ii) doubly reinforced beam


A.2.2 How is position of reinforcement decided in a beam ?
A.2.3 What is meant by flexural analysis of a beam ?
A.2.4 State assumptions in limit state of collapse for flexure.
A.2.5 How is the assumption sections plane before bending remain plane after bending related
to the shape of strain diagram of beam ?
A.2.6 State the value of maximum permissible compressive strain in concrete in beam ?
A.2.7 When concrete in a beam can be said to have collapsed ?
A.2.8 How is the value of εcu related to grade of concrete ?
A.2.9 What is the shape of stress-strain graph of concrete as given by IS:456-2000 ?
A.2.10 Up to which value of strain is the stress-strain graph of concrete parabolic ?
A.2.11 What do you mean by idealized stress-strain graph ?
A.2.12 What do you mean by design stress-strain graph ?
A.2.13 State the value of material factor of safety for flexure for i) concrete ii) steel.
A.2.14 State how does the value fck get reduced to 0.446 fck.
A.2.15 State the value of maximum permissible strain in steel in flexure.
A.2.16 When steel reinforcement in a beam can be said to have collapsed ?
A.2.17 Define : i) Overall depth ii) Effective depth iii) Clear cover iv) Effective cover
A.2.18 State the relation between overall depth and effective depth.
A.2.19 State the function of concrete cover to the reinforcement.
A.2.20 State the values of clear cover for i) Slabs ii) Beams.
A.2.21 Define : i) Ultimate moment of resistance and ii) lever arm of beam.
A.2.22 State five factors on which moment of resistance depends.
A.2.23 What is the shape of strain diagram of a beam ?
A.2.24 State the values of stress block parameters of concrete : i) average stress ii) depth of
ultimate compressive force in concrete.
A.2.25 State the appropriate position of tensile reinforcement in a i) simply supported beam and
ii) cantilever beam.
A.2.26 Define : i) Balanced beam ii) Under-reinforced beam iii) Over-reinforced beam. Which of
these beams is preferred ? Why ?
A.2.27 Why over-reinforced beams are not allowed ?
A.2.28 Enlist four design constants.
A.2.29 On what the values of design constants depend ?
A.2.30 While calculating ultimate moment of resistance of an over-reinforced beam, which value
of xu is taken ?
A.2.31 Distinguish between collapse of concrete and steel on i) process of collapse ii) safety of
collapse.

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Item Bank on Design of RCC Structures
by Upendra M. Karkhanis
____________________________________________________________________________________________

A.2.32 State, with reason, whether the following statement is true or false : Ultimate moment of
resistance depends on loads and support conditions.
A.2.33 Define : Anchor bars in beams. State their function.

A.3 Topic 3 : Design of Slabs

A.3.1 Define : i) Slab ii) Aspect ratio


A.3.2 Classify slabs by i) support conditions ii) spanning directions.
A.3.3 Define : i) One-way slab ii) Two-way slab
A.3.4 State three differences between one-way slab and two-way slab.
A.3.5 State design criteria of slabs.
A.3.6 Define distribution steel and state its function.
A.3.7 Why distribution steel is not required in two-way slabs ?
A.3.8 Out of Astx and Asty, which is more ?
A.3.9 How are bending moments calculated in two-way slabs ?
A.3.10 Define : Torsion steel in slabs. State its function.
A.3.11 State the relation between dx and dy in case of two-way slabs.
A.3.12 State value of basic l/d ratio for i) simply supported slabs, ii) continuous slabs, iii)
Cantilever slabs.
A.3.13 Out of simple supported, continuous and cantilever slabs, which is most critical for
deflection ? Why ?
A.3.14 Out of simply supported, continuous and cantilever slabs, which is most critical for flexure
? Why ?
A.3.15 Define : Effective span of slab or beam
A.3.16 How is the effective span of cantilever slab calculated ?
A.3.17 How is the effective span of simply supported slab calculated ?
A.3.18 Write steps in design procedure of slabs.
A.3.19 Which IS code is used for loading standards ?
A.3.20 Enlist loads on slabs.
A.3.21 State the value of live load on roof slab with i) access allowed ii) access denied.
A.3.22 State the value of unit weight of i) PCC, ii) RCC, iii) Brick masonry
A.3.23 State IS requirements regarding i) spacing of main and distribution steel ii) area of main
and distribution steel, iii) end covers for slab bars.
A.3.24 State the general range of values for i) span of slabs ii) depth of slabs.
A.3.25 Enlist the checks to be applied to the flexural design of slabs.
A.3.26 Define : Load factor. What is its purpose ? State its value.
A.3.27 Define : i) Working load ii) Ultimate load.
A.3.28 State the relation between ultimate load and working load.
A.3.29 State the function of chairs while laying slab bars on the construction site.
A.3.30 How is clear cover maintained during concreting process of slab on site ?
A.3.31 How is the spacing of slab bars maintained during concreting process on site ?
A.3.32 Why are alternate bottom bars of slabs bent up ?
A.3.33 At what distance from the supports are alternate bottom bars of slabs bent up ?
A.3.34 How is continuity of slab panels established in continuous slabs ?
A.3.35 What is meant by partial fixity of a simple support ? State its significance.

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Item Bank on Design of RCC Structures
by Upendra M. Karkhanis
____________________________________________________________________________________________

A.4 Topic 4 : Pre-stressed Concrete

A.4.1 Define : i) Pre-stressed concrete ii) Pre-tensioning iii) Post-tensioning


A.4.2 State advantages of pre-stressed concrete over RCC.
A.4.3 State disadvantages of pre-stressed concrete over RCC.
A.4.4 State four applications of pre-stressed concrete.
A.4.5 State common grades of concrete used in pre-stressed concrete.
A.4.6 State common grades of steel used in pre-stressed concrete.
A.4.7 Enlist losses of pre-stress.
A.4.8 Distinguish between pre-tensioning and post-tensioning.

A.5 Topic 5 : Water Tanks

A.5.1 Enlist types of water tanks.


A.5.2 What is meant by ESR ?
A.5.3 Enlist the forces acting on an ESR.
A.5.4 Enlist components of an Intze type ESR.

A.6 Topic 6 : Retaining Walls

A.6.1 Enlist types of retaining walls


A.6.2 Enlist components of T-shaped retaining wall
A.6.3 State stability requirements of retaining wall

B. NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

B.2 Topic 2 : Flexural Analysis and Design of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams

B.2.1 Calculate value of yield strain for steel grade i) Fe250 ii) Fe415 iii) Fe500
[ Ans. : i) 0.0031 ii) 0.0038 iii) 0.0042 ]

B.2.2 Calculate values of design constants for all combinations of concrete grades M20, M25
and M30 with steel grades Fe250, Fe415 and Fe 500. Write the results in tabulated form.

B.2.3 A beam 300 mm x 500 (effective) is reinforced with 4-20φ. Considering steel constant pub,
determine whether the beam is under-reinforced for the material grades i) M20-Fe415
and ii) M20 Fe500. [ Hint : For the beam, pu = 100 Ast / bd = 0.84 % ]
[ Ans : i) under-reinforced ii) over-reinforced ]

B.2.4 A beam 230 mm x 550 mm (effective) is reinforced with 3-22φ. Calculate i) ultimate
compressive force and ii) lever arm. Assume materials of grade M20-Fe250.
[ Hint : xu = 149.73 mm ] [ Ans. : i) Cu = 247.95 kN ii) zu = 437.11 mm ]

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Item Bank on Design of RCC Structures
by Upendra M. Karkhanis
____________________________________________________________________________________________

B.2.5 A cantilever beam has span 2 m. It has effective cross-section as 230 mm x 435 mm and
reinforcement as 4-16φ. Materials of grade M20-Fe415 are used. Determine ultimate
moment of resistance and ultimate load carrying capacity.
[ Ans.: Mur = 104.92 kNm, wu = 52.46 kN/m ]

B.2.6 Determine ultimate moment of resistance of a beam having overall cross-section as 250
mm x 450 mm with reinforcement as 3-25φ + 2-16φ. Material grades are M20-Fe415.
Clear cover to bars is 25 mm. Also determine ultimate load carrying capacity if the beam
has simply supported span of 5.2 m.
[ Ans.: Mur = 107.98 kNm, wu = 31.94 kN/m ]

B.2.7 Determine ultimate moment of resistance of a slab 160 mm thick carrying main
reinforcement as 8 φ @ 110 mm c/c. Materials : M20-Fe415 grade. Take clear cover to
bars as 15 mm. [ Hint : Ast = 1000 ast / s = 454 mm2 , b = 1000 mm ]
[ Ans. : Mur = 21.55 kNm ]

B.2.8 A rectangular beam has to resist an ultimate bending moment of 180 kNm. Its width is
restricted to 230 mm. Determine area of steel to make it a balanced beam. Materials :
M20-Fe415 grade. [ Hint : Calculate db for given BM. Then use pub = 0.96 % ]
[ Ans. : 1112 mm2 ]

B.2.9 Design reinforcement for a beam 300 mm wide and 500 mm deep (effective) for an
ultimate maximum bending moment of 125 kNm assuming M20-Fe415 grade materials.
Assume a balanced section. [ Ans. : 1470 mm2 ]

B.2.10 A cantilever beam of span 2 m is loaded with 230 mm thick 2,5 m high wall of masonry
having unit weight 20 kN/m3. Design the beam for flexure as a balanced beam. Assume
materials of M20-Fe500 grade. [ Hint : Ultimate load from wall = 1.5 x 20 x 0.23 x 2.5 =
17.25 kN/m ] [ Ans. : 230 mm x 238 mm (effective), Ast = 416 mm2 ]

B.2.11 Determine ultimate load carrying capacity of a cantilever beam of span 1.3 m with overall
cross-section as 300 mm x 475 mm and tensile reinforcement as 3-28 φ. Clear cover to
bars is 25 mm. Materials of grades M20-Fe500 are used.
[ Ans. : 218.62 kN/m ]

B.2.12 Design a singly reinforced rectangular balanced beam to resist ultimate bending moment
of 98 kNm for materials of grade M20-Fe415. Assume d = 2b.
[ Ans. : b = 207 mm, d = 414 mm, Ast = 823 mm2 ]

B.2.13 Determine whether a section of 230 mm x 550 mm with 3-20φ is sufficient for a simply
supported beam of span 5.8 m to resist an ultimate load of 80 kN/m if materials of grade
M20-Fe415 are used. Assume clear cover as 25 mm. [ Calculate and compare Mur and
Mbud ] [ Ans. : Given section is not sufficient ]

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Item Bank on Design of RCC Structures
by Upendra M. Karkhanis
____________________________________________________________________________________________

B.3 Topic 3 : Design of Slabs

B.3.1 Design a simply supported one-way slab having span 3.4 m as a floor slab for a live load
of 3 kN/m2. Materials : M20-Fe500. Draw reinforcement detailing.

B.3.2 Design a cantilever roof slab with access denied for a span of 1.5 m assuming M25-
Fe500 grade materials. Draw reinforcement detailing.

B.3.3 Design a two-way simply supported residential floor slab with corners free to lift for a
panel size 3.5 m x 5 m for materials of grades M20-Fe415. Draw reinforcement detailing.

B.3.4 Design the waist slab of a dog-legged stair for a floor to floor height of 3.3 m assuming
materials of grades M20-Fe415. Draw reinforcement detailing.

C: DIAGRAM QUESTIONS

C.1 Topic 1 : Introduction to Limit State Theory

Draw labeled diagrams of the following :

C.1.1 A building structure with structural and non-structural components labeled.


C.1.2 i) A rod subjected to sagging bending ii) A rod subjected to hogging bending

C.2 Topic 2 : Flexural Analysis and Design of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections

Draw labeled diagrams of the following :

C.2.1 Stress-strain graph for concrete


C.2.2 Stress-strain graph for steel grade Fe 250
C.2.3 Stress-strain graph for steel grade Fe 415 / Fe 500
C.2.4 Typical rectangular cross-section of i) singly reinforced beam with sagging bending ii)
singly reinforced beam with hogging bending iii) doubly reinforced beam with sagging
bending
C.2.5 Typical rectangular cross-section of i) singly reinforced beam with sagging bending ii)
singly reinforced beam with hogging bending iii) doubly reinforced beam with sagging
bending
C.2.6 L-section, cross-section, strain diagram and stress diagram for a singly reinforced
rectangular beam singly reinforced cross-section
C.2.7 A typical singly reinforced cross-section showing effective depth, overall depth, clear
cover and effective cover

C.3 Topic 3 : Design of Slabs

Draw labeled diagrams of the following :

C.3.1 A dimensioned panel showing spanning direction, support beams and span of i) one-way
slab and ii) two-way slab

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Item Bank on Design of RCC Structures
by Upendra M. Karkhanis
____________________________________________________________________________________________

C.3.2 Typical cross-section of simply supported one-way slab


C.3.3 Typical cross-sections of simply supported two-way slab i) along short span and ii) along
long span
C.3.4 Typical cross-section of one-way continuous slab having 3 spans
C.3.5 Typical cross-section of cantilever slab
C.3.6 Cross-section and plan of slab showing IS specifications for i) spacing of bars, ii) Cover
to bars
C.3.7 Plan and cross-section with typical reinforcement detailing of dog-legged stair

C.4 Topic 4 : Pre-stressed Concrete

Draw labeled diagrams of the following :

C.4.1 L-section of a post-tensioned pre-stressed beam subjected to axial pre-stressing force


C.4.2 L-section of a post-tensioned pre-stressed beam subjected to eccentric pre-stressing
force
C.4.3 Pre-tensioning

C.5 Topic 5 : Water Tanks

Draw labeled diagrams of the following :


C.5.1 Intze tank with its components labeled

C.6 Topic 6 : Retaining Walls

Draw labeled diagrams of the following :


C.6.1 Types of retaining wall
C.6.2 T-shaped cantilever retaining wall with components labeled
C.6.3 Typical bending pattern of components of a T-shaped cantilever retaining wall
C.6.4 Typical reinforcement detailing of components of a T-shaped cantilever retaining wall
C.6.5 A typical retaining wall retaining earth level at top
C.6.6 A typical retaining wall retaining earth with surcharge