Lectures on Computer Fundamentals

Dr. John Wang Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Virginia Wesleyan College

Monday, December 26, 2005

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW .............................................................................................. 1 WHAT IS A COMPUTER? ................................................................................................... 1 WHAT IS A COMPUTER SYSTEM? ..................................................................................... 1 LAB – DESKTOP SETTINGS ............................................................................................... 2 LAB – FILES ..................................................................................................................... 2 SOFTWARE ....................................................................................................................... 2 LAB - H DRIVE AND MY DOCUMENTS ............................................................................. 3 LAB - CREATING FOLDERS ............................................................................................... 3 BINARY NUMBER AND ARITHMETIC ................................................................................ 4 HEXADECIMALS AND DECIMALS ...................................................................................... 5 Conversion: Hex and Binary ...................................................................................... 6 Conversion: Binary to Decimal .................................................................................. 7 LAB – DISK CAPACITY ..................................................................................................... 7 CHARACTER AND ITS STORAGE ........................................................................................ 7 TYPES OF COMPUTERS ..................................................................................................... 8 DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTERS ....................................................................................... 9 Generations of the Modern Electronic Computers................................................... 10 CHAPTER EXERCISES ..................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 2 HARDWARE........................................................................................... 16 THE BASIC COMPONENTS OF CPU ................................................................................. 16 INPUT DEVICES .............................................................................................................. 19 LAB – PRINT SCREEN ..................................................................................................... 20 OUTPUT DEVICES ........................................................................................................... 21 LAB – MS WORD 2000 STATISTICS AND PASSWORD TO OPEN ...................................... 23 CHAPTER EXERCISES ..................................................................................................... 23 CHAPTER 3 SOFTWARE ............................................................................................ 25 SYSTEM SOFTWARE ....................................................................................................... 25 LAB – DOS FEATURE .................................................................................................... 26 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ............................................................................................... 26 LAB – INTERNET SEARCH .............................................................................................. 26 LAB – SINGLE-CLICK ON DESKTOP ................................................................................ 27 CHAPTER EXERCISES ..................................................................................................... 27 CHAPTER 4 PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS............................................................ 29 PROGRAMMING .............................................................................................................. 29 ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................................. 29 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES ......................................................................................... 29 PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES ......................................................................................... 32 DATABASE CONCEPTS ................................................................................................... 33 LAB – SHORTCUT ON DESKTOP ...................................................................................... 34

LAB – EMAIL SIGNATURE .............................................................................................. 34 CHAPTER EXERCISES ..................................................................................................... 34 CHAPTER 5 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ....................................................... 37 DIGITAL INFORMATION .................................................................................................. 37 DOMAIN NAME AND INTERNET ...................................................................................... 38 SERVER/CLIENT SYSTEMS ............................................................................................. 39 LAB – IP ADDRESS ........................................................................................................ 40 SECURITY ISSUES. .......................................................................................................... 40 SOCIAL ISSUES. .............................................................................................................. 41 CHAPTER EXERCISES ..................................................................................................... 42 MICROSOFT WORD 2000 LAB.................................................................................. 44 PROGRAM INTERFACE .................................................................................................... 44 EXERCISES ..................................................................................................................... 44 SPECIAL KEYS................................................................................................................ 44 EXERCISES ..................................................................................................................... 45 ADVANCED FEATURES ................................................................................................... 45 MICROSOFT EXCEL 2000 LAB................................................................................. 47 TUTORIAL 1 ................................................................................................................... 47 TUTORIAL 2 ................................................................................................................... 47 MICROSOFT ACCESS 2000 LAB............................................................................... 50 CREATE TABLES ............................................................................................................ 50 USING A FORM ............................................................................................................... 51 HTML - WEB PAGE DESIGN ..................................................................................... 53 YOUR FIRST WEB PAGE ................................................................................................. 53 HTML TAGS ................................................................................................................. 54 BACKGROUND COLOR SETTING ..................................................................................... 55 Image Background .................................................................................................... 55 HTML HYPERLINKS ...................................................................................................... 56 HTML IMAGES .............................................................................................................. 57 IMAGE LINKS ................................................................................................................. 57 HTML FONTS ................................................................................................................ 57 LISTS.............................................................................................................................. 58 Unordered Lists ........................................................................................................ 59 Ordered Lists ............................................................................................................ 59 SECTION EXERCISES ...................................................................................................... 61 TABLES .......................................................................................................................... 62 STYLES .......................................................................................................................... 62 JAVASCRIPT ................................................................................................................... 63 BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................... 65

registers and other components.Chapter 1 Overview Chapter 1 Overview What Is a Computer? A computer is a computing device. etc). Desktop computer Laptop or notebook A computer refers its hardware and software. Without the monitor. What Is a Computer System? A computer system refers the computer. mouse. or other input/output (I/O) devices. The basic components of a computer are the central processing unit (CPU). and output the result to user. process (compute) it. and storages (hard disk. the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU). scanner. and peripherals (printer. keyboard. CD-ROM disk. etc) CPU Memory Hard drive The CPU is the heart of a computer. The software likes the human knowledge. It receives information. Zip disk. It includes the control unit (CU). we cannot use the computer well. monitor. memory. The computer hardware means the physical device of computer and is similar to a human brain. A computer system -1- . speaker. keyboard.

You may test other selections in the Display Properties window.Chapter 1 Overview Lab – Desktop Settings Desktop is the display area on the monitor.ppt --. Software Also called the computer program.xls --.Hide extensions for known file types. File1. clear or select the check box .gif The instructions to show/hide the file extension in Window XP are as follows. p3. Lab – Files File name format: name. Step 1: Right click it and select Properties.jpg. A C++ program -2- .MS-Word File2.doc --. If there is no icon. Step 1: open My Computer by clicking the icon on the desktop (the display area of the monitor). Then click OK.extension The file name extension represents its type and the program used for the file. p2. It is a set of instructions for computer to follow. you can create one from Start button right click My Computer Show on Desktop Step 2: Click Tools menu Folder Option… Step3: Click View tab.MS-Excel Picture files: P1. In advance settings text box. then the Display Properties window pops up. Step 2: Select desktop tab and choose your favorite background.jpeg. Step 3: Then select Screen Saver tab and choose your favorite screen saver.MS-PowerPoint File3.

build other folders for your classes you are taking. Then close the document. and I am studying CS100. Some new computers may have a zip drive and USB ports that can connect a USB flash drive to the computer. a disk) that stores many files and folders. a program is usually carried in a file.H Drive and My Documents Question The folder “My Document” and folder “My Computer\H:” are the same folders in VWC campus computers.txt. a hard drive or C-Drive. WWW: World Wide Web Lab . Check if file name extension is shown or not.xls. -3- . set it shown. build a MS-Word document named ex1. Type one sentence in the document: My name is xxx (your name). then process it. and a Compact-Disc (CD) or DVD drive. Lab . Acronyms: abbreviation BASIC: Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. A file is an entity that contains a computer program or other data.Creating Folders In the H-drive.doc. In other word. build another MS-PowerPoint file named ex3. If not.Chapter 1 Overview IPO (input – process – output): computer (program) receives raw information as the input from a user. Click cs100 so go to the folder. The drive provides a physical (hardware) connection between the storage device and the CPU. A folder or a directory is an entity that contains a group of (related) files. Compare: a driver is a computer program that provides an instructional (software) connection between an I/O device and the CPU. Build a folder named cs100. A drive is the physical equipment that can hold a storage device (for example. build a new folder named www. that is the same place as the My Documents folder. A modern computer usually contains a floppy-drive or A-drive. and output the result back to the user.ppt. build another plain text file named ex4. True or false? Open the two folders to compare their contents. Build a MS-Excel file named ex2.

Chapter 1 Overview Copy the ex1. It is the basic unit for computer memory. 10 – 10 = 0. and etc. In other words. The native language of computer is called machine language (ML). … Subtraction: 0 – 0 = 0. 100 – 1 = 11.-------------------1 0 1 0 1 1 10101 + 10110 = ? -4- . 10 – 0 = 10.vwc. which consists of 0 and 1.doc For example. so the URL would be: http://student. 111 + 1 = 1000. 1001. 1100001.edu/~your-screen-name/ex1. the letter ‘A’ is stored as 0100 0001 and ‘a’ is stored as 0110 0001. 10 + 1 = 11. 1 + 0 = 1. 0 or 1 Byte (B) is a group of 8-bit. 101 + 1 = 110. For example. 100 – 10 = 10.doc What is shown in the IE? Binary Number and Arithmetic A binary number is a number whose digits can only be 0 or 1. 0 + 1 = 1. … Using vertical formula: 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 + 1 -.edu/~zwang/ex1. for example. 10 + 0 = 10. Open the Internet Explore (IE). 1000001. the CPU can only understand (read/write) the combinations of 0 or 1. 11 – 10 = 1.doc to H:\www\ folder with drag-drop. 110 + 1 = 111. 100 + 1 = 101. type the following URL (web address): http://student. 11 – 1 = 10. 1 – 1 = 0.vwc. 11 + 1 = 100. 100 – 11 = 1. 1 + 1 = 10. my screen name is zwang. xxxxxxxx The smallest number for a byte is 0000 0000 = 0 The largest number for a byte is 1111 1111 = 255 Addition: 0 + 0 = 0. 10 – 1 = 1. 10 + 10 = 100. All data/instructions stored and executed in computer are binary numbers. 10. 1 – 0 = 1. BIT stands for BInary digiT.

. 2.…..024 B ~ 1000 B MB (mega-byte): 2^20 B = 1. 9 Binary --------0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 1 0000 1 0001 1 0010 …… 1111 1111 Hex ----0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 10 11 12 FF Decimal -----------0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 255 -5- . B. 1.Chapter 1 Overview Exercise Perform the following binary additions: a) 101 + 11 = ___________ b) 1101+ 1011 = ___________ c) 1111 + 11 = ____________ KB (kilo-byte): 2^10 B = 1. …. . 1. F Decimal digit: 0. A.576 B ~ 1 million B GB (giga-byte): 2^30 B Hexadecimals and Decimals Binary digit: 0.048.. 9. 1 Hexadecimal (hex) digit: 0.

Conversion: Hex and Binary Example Convert the following hex (H) to binary. a) E00 = _________ b) 1E = ________ c) E1 = ________ d) 201 = __________ e) 12 = __________ f) 100 = __________ g) F1 = __________ h) 1F = ___________ -6- . Exercise Convert the following binary numbers to the corresponding hex numbers. 10 1010 010101010 1 1111 1111 = __2_A_ = __0AA_ = _1FF___ 1 1011 0101 = _1B5_ Each digit of a hex number represents the four digits of a binary.Chapter 1 Overview …… Binary-Hex Conversion Rule: a 4-bit binary is corresponding to a 1-digit hex number. Therefore. a) 1 0010 = _______ b) 10 1111 = ________ c) 011 1100 = _______ d)101 1111= ________ Exercise Convert the following hex numbers to the corresponding binary numbers. a hex is a short version of a binary. 1A 10 110 2201 = = = = _0001 1010___ _0001_0000___ _0001_0001_0000__ _0010_0010__0000_0001_ Example Convert the following binary to hex.

(Click the My Computer icon and then select the hard disks) and the capacity of your H:\ drive. Example Convert the following binary numbers to the corresponding decimal numbers. Character and its Storage Each printed symbol has its only binary representation (ASCII code). the accumulation sums up the decimals corresponding to the binary digit 1. ‘A’: ‘a’: ‘1’: 0100 0001 = 41H = 65 0110 0001 = 61H = 97 0011 0001 = 31H = 49 -7- . ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. a) 10000 = ___________ 16 b) 10001 = __________ 16 + 1 = 17 c) 10100 = ___________ 16 + 4 = 20 Exercise Convert the following binary numbers to the corresponding decimal numbers.Chapter 1 Overview Conversion: Binary to Decimal Convert the binary 101010 to decimal? Using vertical formula: Binary: 1 0 1 0 1 0 16 8 4 2 1 Decimal: 32 ------------------------------------------------------------------Accumulation: 32+ 8+ 2 = 42 Here. 111 = ___________ 1010100 = ___________ 100010 = ___________ Lab – Disk Capacity Find the capacity (in GB) of the hard disk for your computer.

The most popular PC manufacturers are Dell. PC Notebook Macintosh The microcomputers or PC (Personal Computers) are the small size computers and basically used for family or office activities. Compaq. Microcomputers . and supercomputer. web. The commonly used microcomputers are various desktop and laptop (or notebook) computers.Chapter 1 Overview Here. a. missiles. 41H represents the hex number 41 while 65 is its corresponding decimal form. and Sony. mainframe. file. Server usually is a multi-user and multi-task computer. mail. b. c. IBM: international business machines. used as server. “ABC” stored in computer in the following form: 01000001 01000010 01000011 or in the hex representations: 41H 42H 43H Types of Computers There are four types of computers: microcomputer. HP. IBM. Minicomputer More powerful than PC but its size is smaller than mainframes. An embedded system is a special-function computer system: elevators. mobile (cellular) phones. Server is the computer that provides services such as printing. mini-computer. Apple (Macintosh) computers are not IBM PC-compatible. Mainframe computer -8- . etc. The computer requesting service is called client. printers and etc.

Compare: A Pentium 4 PC -. Abacus Analytical engine – designed by Charles Babbage in 1830s.768 processors. used by bank or large company.6 TB fiber-channel disk. A banking mainframe can process lots of data from ATMs. 32. a few GFLOPS (109 FLOPS) Development of Computers The oldest simple mechanical calculator is abacus. -9- . ATM: automatic teller machine. Supercomputer The most powerful computer. used for researches.5 (UNIX like). Capable of 135. d.Chapter 1 Overview Larger size and more powerful than minicomputer.IBM's Blue Gene/L. weather forecasting and space missions. There are thousands of processors (CPUs) working simultaneously. OS: IRIX 6. It is a more advanced mechanical programmable “computer”. 64 GB RAM. 1.5 TFLOPS (1012 FLOPS).2GHz CPU. The fastest supercomputer -. Used over thousands years. SGI Origin 2800 SGI Origin 2800 at Mississippi Center for Supercomputing research: 128 CPUs.

Chapter 1 Overview Analytical engine The world’s first programmer: Ada Byron (or Ada Lovelace).10 - . She contributed so called the first algorithm (program) being implemented (programmed) on the Babbage’s analytical engine. UNIVAC FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator) was the first high-level programming language (1957) COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language): commonly used in business area (1960) Generations of the Modern Electronic Computers . The first electronic computer was built in early 1940s: ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) ENIAC The first commercial computer: UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) (1951).

use large-scale integrated circuits (LSICs) or very large-scale integrated circuits (VLSICs) .Chapter 1 Overview 1st generation (~51 .57): use vacuum tubes Vacuum tubes 2nd generation (~58 .11 - .90): PC generation. Magnetic core is used for storing computer instructions. Magnetic core 4th generation (~70 . Integrated circuits Computers begin to be popularly used in business.63): use transistors Transistors 3rd generation (~64 – 69): use integrated circuits (ICs).

digitalized Chapter Exercises 1. When did the PC/XT appear? Which company made it? What operating system did the PC use? . What is a computer? 2. IBM-PC/XT 5th generation (~91 – present): network (Internet. voice.Chapter 1 Overview VLSICs In 1981. graphics) communications. IBM built the popular PC/XT with MS-DOS of Microsoft.12 - . Internet and WWW Computers in the world are connected as a huge network: share resources. WWW) and supercomputing generation. instant (words.

Basic c. What is the native language of computer? 17. or 2. Write down the four types of computers. C d. When was the first commercial computer built that is named UNIVAC? (1980’s. In the first generation computer. Ada 20. JAVA e. True or false? ____. Explain the concept of a byte? 9. and then the binary number becomes ______. 4. Each printed symbol has its own and only one ASCII code. 7. 16.Chapter 1 Overview 3. Macintosh computers are not IBM-compatible. 22. FORTRAN b. Explain the concept of software. Who is called the world’s first programmer (first name)? 6. True or false?______ 18. Bit maybe include 0. 1930’s. 1. CPU is made of __________ (a) LSIC (large-scale integrated circuits) (b) integrated circuits (IC) (c) transistors (d) vacuum tubes 19. Machine language consists of reserved words form English.13 - . Fortran b. Binary number 0111 is increased by 2. Bit is the abbreviation of ________________________. 1890’s). C++. True or false? ____. 1910’s. 12. True or false? _____ 11. Which high level language is used basically for business filed before? _____ a. FORTRAN is abbreviation of ________________________________________. Convert the binary numbers to decimals: (Binary 10000 = __________ Decimal) . C d. 8. CU is the abbreviation of ______________________ 14 ALU is the abbreviation of ____________________ 15. COBOL c. Which is the world’s first high level programming language? _____ a. 21. 5. 1950’s. 1KB is 1000 bytes. What is the highest (decimal) value that a single byte can have? 13. Cobol e. True or false? ______. 10.

Fill the answers for the following binary additions: 0 1010 1010 + 101 = ____________ Binary) Hexadecimal) . Convert the hexadecimals to binary numbers: (Hexadecimal 15 = _____________________________ 7 = _____________________________ 51A = ___________________________ 1000 = ___________________________ AA = _________ 101 = ________________ 1011 = _______________ 25.Chapter 1 Overview 100101 = __________ 101= __________ 100111 = __________ 1000 = _________ 10010 = __________ 23.14 - . Convert the binary numbers to hexadecimals: (Binary 1101 0100 = __________ 0111 1011 0011 = __________ 1110 0000 1111 1010 = __________ 1001 = _______ 10 = _______ 1010 = _________ 101010 = ____________ 24.

Compaq. True or false? _____ Each printed symbol has its only one binary representation. . IBM. _____ Dell.15 - . HP. ____ 1st generation computer uses vacuum tubes. and Gateway computers are IBM-compatible computers. _____ COBOL was commonly used in business area in1960s.Chapter 1 Overview 1 1111 1111 + 11 = ____________ 1 1011 0111 + 10101 = ____________ 26.

etc. ALU: do operations: +. data bus .). *. memory. etc. OR. and storage devices. AND. There are three types of system bus: control bus. ) performed in ALU. CU: control operations (+. -. -. System bus: connect all components of computer (CPU.Chapter 2 Hardware Chapter 2 Hardware Computer architecture (a) System Bus CPU RAM I/O Devices Computer architecture (b) The Basic Components of CPU CPU consists of control unit (CU) and arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) and other components (registers.). /. etc. clock and internal cache.16 - . address bus.

very expensive. Hold frequently used information VRAM: video RAM. Cache: vary fast RAM. RAM (random access memory): also called primary memory or volatile storage. Improve graphics on monitor.Chapter 2 Hardware Data bus: transfer data. System clock: synchronize all operations in computer. Memory If computer reboots. keep its data even the power is off. 266MHz ~= 266 000 000 cycles/s CPU diagram Memory: contains the instruction for computer to work on.17 - . require power to keep the data. Measured in Hz: cycle per second. data in RAM will change while data in ROM not. . ROM (read only memory): one of the non-volatile storages.

printers. USB port Network adapter card: used to connect a computer to a LAN (local area network). monitor. . Stored in ROM. such as flash drives. Used for flash memory or USB flash drive. Flash drives USB (Port): Universal Serial Bus. Support high-speed I/O devices.18 - . It is the software contains control routines for booting. and digital camera. keyboard. mouse. etc.Chapter 2 Hardware VRAM Virtual memory: (use) a part of hard disk as memory. BIOS: basic input and output system. EEPROM: Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.

Formatting: process of organizing the disk for storage Floppy disk: 1. Magnetic disks: hard disk and floppy disk Magnetic tape: sequential access data. ~650MB. Similar to a cassette tape. one of the non-volatile storage devices. zip disk. CD-ROM (Compact Disc – ROM. floppy. access data fast.19 - . It includes: hard disk. 3. Spinning magnetic disk: hard disk and floppy disk. Related magnetic technology. slow access. DVD: 4.7GB Input Devices Keyboard is the primary input device. etc.44MB. flash drive/memory. tape. . the device can store data permanently. Large capacity and used for data backup.5-inch disk CD-ROM: non-magnetic storage. related to laser beam technique).Chapter 2 Hardware Network cards Modem card: used to connect a network over phone line Long-term storage device: also called secondary memory.

then n for New… Alt-e: Edit menu. Enter: LF (line feed) + CR (carriage return) Special function keys Page – Up Page – Down Print Screen/SysRq: copy whole screen (desktop). then p for Paste Ctrl – Alt – Delete: show CPU processes or reboot. Alt + PrintScrn: copy the selected object Lab – Print Screen Use Print Screen key to copy the present screen to a MS-Word document.20 - .Chapter 2 Hardware Keyboards and mouse Short-Cut and Special Function Keys: Ctrl – c: copy Ctrl – x: cut Ctrl – v: paste Ctrl – s: save Ctrl – z: undo Ctrl – y: redo Ctrl – *: show all Alt-f: File menu. . Mouse: move the cursor over long distance and click on icons fast. Then copy an object on your Desktop to the same document.

CRT (cathode ray tube). Touch screens. UPC reader Other popularly used input devices: Digital camera. Digital camera. scanner and touch screen Output Devices The primary output device is monitor. 3. LCD (liquid crystal display for portable computer).21 - . 3.7.8 . Printer is the secondary output device. Used in every shopping store.Chapter 2 Hardware Two-button mouse and three-button mouse Bar code reader: scan UPC (universal product code). Monitor and printer Monitor: output data to screen as images (soft copy) Other names for monitor: VDT (video display terminal). Fig. Scanner.

the better the image. expensive. Printer: output data to papers as hard copy. Used at home. Screen resolution The higher resolution. inkjet printer and laser printer Dot-matrix printer: oldest. It is the unit to measure the resolution for a monitor.Chapter 2 Hardware Pixel: the dot or element to compose an image. black and white. 15”. Local printer: directly connect to the computer. Voice output devices . Its technology is similar to photocopy machine. Similar to typewriter. cheap. Network printer: the printer is connected to local network with a specific IP. Slower than laser printer.cartridge contains (color) ink – at high speed onto paper. Pixels on screen Monitor size: diagonal length of viewing screen. Used at office. Laser printer: sharpest and high quality (high dpi: dots per inch) and fast.22 - . 17”. Dot-matrix printer. simple. Inkjet printer: spray tiny droplets of ink -. … Resolution: number of pixels in the horizontal and vertical lines. cheap.

44MB (d) 64 KB 11. True or false?______ 5. the better the image.44MB (d) 64 KB 12. What is the primary output device of a computer? 9. The lower resolution.7GB (c) 1. Data in RAM will change. the information in ROM will be gone. When the computer is shutdown and reboot. True or false? ________ 2.Chapter 2 Hardware Speaker is connected to computer via sound card. Pixel is the unit to measure the size of a monitor. What is the primary input device of a computer? 8. Lab – MS Word 2000 Statistics and Password to Open a) Count how many words for the current documents: Tools → Word Count … b) Set up a password to open a document: Tool → Options… In Option window.44MB (d) 64 KB 10. then fill the password. memory and I/O devices. What is the short-cut key for save? 3. RAM stands for ____________________________. Which type of printer whose technology is similar to a photocopy machine? (a) local printer (b) Dot-matrix printer (c) Inkjet printer (d) Laser printer 13. Which type of printer whose technology is similar to a typewriter? (a) local printer (b) Dot-matrix printer (c) Inkjet printer (d) Laser printer 14. True or false?_______ 4. True or false?______ . 7.7GB (c) 1. click Save tab. System bus is used for transferring information among CPU. What is the capacity of a CD-ROM? (a) 650MB (b) 4.7GB (c) 1.23 - . Plug-in and play. Chapter Exercises 1. What is the capacity of a floppy disk? (a) 650MB (b) 4. 6. ROM stands for ____________________________. What is the capacity of a DVD? (a) 650MB (b) 4. True or false?______ 15.

Chapter 2 Hardware 16 BIOS stands for ______________________ .24 - .

files. and Red-hat Linux MS-Windows: MS-DOS. device driver. and run applications.). Console OS (nongraphical).). etc. Application Software. Including operating system (OS). communication. Windows 3. But later version Microsoft Windows operating systems are based on MSDOS and still include the fundamental DOS features. Two types of software: System Software. provide user interfaces. and virus protection software. memory. . OS: managing computer resources (CPU. MS-DOS and Windows 98 MS-DOS (Microsoft disk OS): OS used for 1st IBM-PC/XT. etc. Mac OS. and computer language translators. Mac OS. UNIX/Linux Window XP. etc. disk defragmenter. Popular OS: MS-Widows. Widows 95/98/Me.Chapter 3 Software Chapter 3 Software Also called computer program. utilities (scandisk. System Software System software controls the computer system. Widows NT/2000/XP. Computer program is a set of instructions for computer to follow.) and operations (booting.1: GUI (graphical user interface) based on DOS. not a real OS.25 - .

Widows NT/2000/XP: server OS. Microsoft Office or WordPerfect. Communication software: Internet browsers (IE. Lab – Internet Search . Command Prompt. Linux: UNIX-like OS run on PC as server. communication. WebPages editors. Lab – DOS Feature Run the Command Prompt. OS/2: IBM replacements of DOS. scandisk.1 Windows 95/98/Me: integrates GUI with DOS and becomes a graphic OS. etc. Console OS. Commonly used application software: IE. etc. McAfee viruScan. Application Software The software that does a general task (application). spreadsheet. such as defragmenter. Provide C/C++. word processing. Utilities: perform system maintenance services. Personal OS. Free software. email programs. Provide a similar interface with MS-DOS: MS-DOS Prompt. MacOS: OS used for Apple Macintosh computers. UNIX: run on most mainframes and supercomputers as server OS. etc. Viruses’ protection software: Norton. Microsoft Excel. Fortran language compilers for free. etc. Written with C. Written with C.Chapter 3 Software Windows 3. such as. Can’t separate GUI from DOS for Window 95 or later versions. Netscape). High security. Provide GUI for personal desktop.26 - . such as MS-FrontPage. type help to list some commonly used commands. database. Owned by AT&T.

and state name (Virginia.anywho. Exercise What are the two popularly used DBMS? Lab – Single-click on Desktop How do you set up your desktop with single clicking an icon to open the program? Chapter Exercises 1. Cobol e.11 is a real OS.Chapter 3 Software How do you find your father’s phone #. Two popular used DBMS are ____________________ 6. last name. C++ . The three most popularly used operating systems are _________________________________ 3. Java b. GUI stands for ________________________________ 2. 9.com Exercise True or false? a) MacOS is the application software Apple Macintosh computers. such as word processing. c. UNIX is written with _____. c) DBMS (database management system) is system software. Fortran True or false. etc. spreadsheet.27 - . d) Internet explore is an application software. DBMS stands for _____________________________ 5. _____ System software does a general task or application. MS-DOS stands for ____________________________ 4. 8. C d. a. database. Type in ONLY first name. 7. _____ System language is C++. …) http://www. _____ Window 3. b) UNIX is written with C.

_____ Red wavy line represents a grammar error in MS-Word 16. _____ The short-cut key for paste is Ctrl-P in MS-Word. . _____ Application software manages resources. McAfee viruScan. 14. 17. _____ MacOS is the application software for Apple Macintosh computers. _____ System software includes operating system (OS). 12. _____ Norton. 11. device driver. etc. utilities.28 - . _____ DBMS (database management system) is system software. 15. _____ Internet explore is an application software. and computer language translators.Chapter 3 Software 10. are application software. provide a user interface and run applications 13.

Fortran. For example. also called coding. High-level language: C/C++. Word by word to look at: sequential search. CS100” to monitor: . that is. Use divided and conquer (binary search) algorithm. FORTRAN. symbols. Find a word from a dictionary? It is sorted. How to program? a) Find/create the procedure (algorithm) to solve the problem. b) Convert the algorithm to the corresponding computer code. find the best algorithm. SQL. Phase II: implement. the algorithm to calculate the area of a circle is: A=PI*R*R. Program is the special code or instruction for computer to follow. here A represents area and R represents radius. A mathematical language Here is a Fortran code example (file named hello. Java. Java.Chapter 4 Programming Concepts Chapter 4 Programming Concepts Programming What is programming (coding)? Process to make a program (code).29 - . Find a word in a page of the newspaper? It is hard because it is not sorted. etc. such as C/C++.f) to print “Hello. Algorithms What is algorithm? The step-by-step procedure or method for solving a problem in a limited time. Easy to use FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation): the first high-level compiled language (1950s). and special words to construct a computer program. You (programmer) have to know the (computer) programming language(s). Programming Languages What is the (computer) programming language? A language including strict grammar (rules). PDLC – Program Development Life Cycle: Phase I: problem solving. SQL. Phase III: maintenance. Machine independent.

Machine dependent. COBOL (common business oriented language) was a major programming language in business area.*) 'Give radius r:' read (*.Chapter 4 Programming Concepts program hello c This program outputs greetings write (*. CS100\n"). UNIX Shell Compilers translate the entire program and create an executable file.*) r area = 3.c) to calculate the area of a circle: . area c This program reads a real number r and prints c the area of a circle with radius r. CS100' stop end Following is an example of Fortran code (file named area. Hard to use Machine language: native language with binary code that can be executed directly by CPU. SQL (structured query language) C (1970s) is called system language.30 - . CS100” to monitor: #include<stdio.*) 'Area = '.f) to calculate the area of a circle: program circle real r. Here is a C code example (file named hello.h> main() { printf("Hello.c) to print “Hello.14159*r*r write (*.*) 'Hello. Now Java. UNIX/Linux is written with C. Assembly language: symbolic version of machine language. area stop end Low-level language: machine language and assembly language. Interpreters: translate each statement into machine code and executed. QBASIC. C++. } Following is an example of C code (file named area. write (*. DOS Shell.

in) ). System. scanf("%f". mouse move on). cin >> r.out. cout << "Give radius r: ".java): import java. in = new BufferedReader( new InputStreamReader(System. &r). return 0.parseFloat(str). area = 3. HTML: HyperText Markup Language. printf("\nArea = %f\n".readLine(). BufferedReader in. area. area = 3. JAVA Following is an example of C++ code (file named area.html or *htm files.31 - .14159*r*r.cpp) to calculate the area of a circle: #include<iostream> using namespace std. . } Object-oriented programming (OOP): based on object (data and operations). Example: Visual Basic/C++/J++. area).*.io. Example: smalltalk.println ("Area = " + area). area = 3. String str = in. } } Event-driven language: based on interactive events (click.out. } Here is the corresponding Java code (Area.Chapter 4 Programming Concepts #include<stdio. System.14159f*r*r. Used to design web pages that are *. r = Float.h> main() { float r.14159*r*r. int main() { float r. cout << "Area = " << area << endl. area. area. class Area { public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException { float r. printf("Give radius r: "). Most GUI based programs are produced with event-driven language.print("\nGive redius r: "). C++.

and repetition Sequence: one statement after another statement.Chapter 4 Programming Concepts Programming Techniques Flow charts: use charts/graphics to describe the procedure of a program.32 - . else (the condition is false). else grade = ‘F’. char grade. Pseudo-code: use simple English statements to describe the procedure of a program. 1. 2. Example (C++/Java): int a = b = c = a. b. Repetition (iteration or loop): While the condition is true. a + b. c. action II Condition False True Action I Action II Flow-chart for selection Example (C++/Java): int score. the action will be executed again and again until the condition is false. Three basic program structures: sequence. selection. // comments: declare three integer variables Selection (if-then-else): If condition is true. … if ( score > 60 ) grade = ‘P’. then action I. .

Chapter 4 Programming Concepts Condition False True Action Flow-chart for repetition Example (C++/Java): int x. etc. MS-SQL Server. Enterprise DBMS – Oracle. and retrieve data in different ways. MY-SQL. for ( x=1. . Database Concepts Database: a collection of related data. SQL (structured query language) is used to build. network. x<10. Relational database: stores data in the form of tables. All modern database systems are relational. Personal DBMS . organize. x=x+1 ) sum = sum + x. and modify a database. destroy.bat files are batch files. relational Hierarchical or tree database represents data as a hierarchy or tree. In UNIX. There are three organizational structures of database: hierarchical or tree. and then print that data in a report.33 - . In DOS. A child can only have one parent. script files are batch files. A child can have several parent records. Network database: data items can be linked in more than one way.MS-Access. the *. Batch processing: process vast amounts of similar data without human interference. The table is called a relation. format. DBMS (DataBase Management System) is used to enter. int sum = 0.

assembly language.Chapter 4 Programming Concepts Lab – Shortcut on Desktop Build a shortcut icon on desktop that can invoke the calculator program: From Start Button Program choose Send to … Desktop Lab – Email Signature The communication information about the sender. fax #. HTML is the abbreviation of _____________________. low)-level language is machine independent. Chapter Exercises I. Step3: input your name. symbols and special words used to construct a computer program. _______ Accessories Calculator. Fill the blank with the best appropriate answer. fax #. which database structure does Oracle use? ___________ II. What is the earliest high-level language mainly used in business area __________ 6. _______ 10. machine language ) 5. ______ 9. Algorithm is a set of rules. right click it and then . mailing address. Fortran. Native computer language is _________ ( C++. email address and web URL.34 - . 3. Based on the last question. 8. phone #. phone #. etc. etc. Step 1: log in your webmail. True or false questions. such as email address. _____ (high. 1. Pascal. Three structures for database are _________________________________ 7. Assembly language can’t be translated to many different versions of machine languages. web URL. mailing address. Basic. Step2: click option buttons. 4. SQL is the abbreviation of _______________________.C is an object-oriented language. 2.

What is the world’s first compiled high-level language? . } 15. area = num * num3. _______ 12. List 4 high-level languages? 19. (b) _________________ int num1. num2. What is the difference between compiler and interpreter? 17. (c) _________________ while ( grade < 90 ) { work ++.Chapter 4 Programming Concepts 11. What is the so-called system language? 16. Compilers translate the entire program and create an executable file.0. What are the low-level languages? 18. else gpa = 0. which structure does the following code belong to? (a) __________________ if ( grade > 60) gpa = 3. Computer terminology. int area. Machine language can be executed directly by CPU. party --. What are the phases for PDLC? 20. Based on the last question.0.35 - . _______ III. What are the three basic program structures? 14. 13.

an Excel file and an Access file? 22.Chapter 4 Programming Concepts 21. What is the extension for an image files? . What is the extension for a Microsoft Word file. a PowerPoint file.36 - .

for example. Digital signals: discrete binary forms of information.Chapter 5 Information Technology Chapter 5 Information Technology Digital Information Analog signals: continuous or smooth forms of information. Modulation Modem: a device for modulation and demodulation. electrical signal. . Demodulation: conversion from analog signal to digital one.37 - . telegraph signals. and all traditional form signals. telephone line signal. Computer signals. Analog signal Discrete signal Digital signal Modulation: conversion from digital signal to analog one. for example.

coaxial cable (TV cable or LAN cable). Such as www. and fiber-optical cable. Domain Name and Internet Internet: interconnected network History: Began in the late 1960s. student. 500K ~ 54 Mbps Wireless or satellite connection: convenient. Connection Media: twisted pair cable (phone line). Domain name is the computer name. IP address: the numeric form of a domain name.Chapter 5 Information Technology Modems Most modems are designed for both data and fax (facsimile) transmission Modem speeds are measured in bits per second (bps) Dial-up (56K) modem: use traditional phone line.edu is the address of VWC web server computer. Any computer or network devices can become part of Internet by using TCP/IP.edu is the address of VWC student server computer.vwc. originally connected only four mainframe computers at large universities Protocol: communication rules.000 bps DSL (digital subscriber line): use phone line to transmit digital signals at high speed. DNS (domain name system): translates computer name to the corresponding IP address for the client computers in the domain (a group of computers). 56. alias name or its address.38 - .128K ~ 54 Mbps Cable modem: use TV cable. TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol): Internet protocol.vwc. . ~10Mbps.

etc. Star topology Server/Client Systems Ring topology Bus topology . Commonly used: google. such as. AOL. Internal IP address: the IP address inside an intranet. etc. such as email. Search engines are programs that search for Web sites based on categories or keywords that you provide. Internet explore. etc. URL (Universal Resource Locator): consist of a computer address preceded by a protocol. web browser. External IP address: the IP address on the Internet.vwc. web search. http://www.vwc. yahoo. ftp://facultystaff. Star. ring. NetZero. Network architecture or topology: how the computers in the network are connected.edu.com.com.39 - . A web browser is a software designed to help you use the web easily and efficiently. and bus are the three basic topologies of network. anywho.com. LAN (Local Area Network): share hardware and software resources.Chapter 5 Information Technology Intranet: a local network inside an organization with the firewalls to prevent illegal hackers from the Internet. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is the protocol of transferring files over the Internet HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol Hypertext refers to highlighted text (or an icon) that creates a link (called hyperlink) to other information ISP (Internet Service Provider) is a telephone-based company that your computer dials into and it provide some other Internet service.edu. Netscape. Most networks are mixed of the three.

type the command: ping www. and it is not for a general use (as a client). email server.vwc. A server computer can also be used as a client. A typical client computer is a PC. etc. Commonly used OS for servers: Linux/UNIX. type: .Chapter 5 Information Technology Server: a central computer that provides services.edu c) What is the IP address for VWC web server? Open the command prompt. database server. print server. web server. type command: ping student. For example. a web server may be running the Apache program or other web server programs. Lab – IP Address a) Check your computer TCP/IP settings: In Command Prompt (Start H:\> ipconfig /all b) What is the IP address for student server? Open command prompt. Server software identifies its function. the server computer can only be physically accessed by the administrators or super-users. Windows NT/2000/XP Client: an individual computer requesting services from a server. All Programs Accessories Command Prompt). To prevent the potential damage form viruses. a mainframe or a supercomputer is used as a server. A server may be a PC.edu Security Issues. update your computer OS or virus protection software frequently. File server. Commonly used OS for clients: Windows 95/98/Me.vwc. But in most cases. Server refers the computer’s hardware and software.40 - . But in most cases.

Search the web with appropriate key words to avoid some sensitive sites. use the computers inside of an intranet. politics. Don’t put your birth date to web page.41 - . Don’t put the illegal or impropriate information (religion. Back up files. If possible. etc) on the web or emails. Don’t steal others’ secret information on the Internet. A lot of spy-wares or ad-wares may be attached with the use of IE. Social Issues. Use other web browsers other than IE. Use different password for different account according to the security level. Copy right problem: download files legally. Register in a chat room with appropriate personal information.Chapter 5 Information Technology To prevent from the hackers. use password wisely. Download carefully: some programs may have viruses. . Watch for the web crimes. Save typed material frequently. and races.

7. (d) 1930s.42 - . (a) True. (c) Telephone line signal. Which connection media transfers data with highest speed? (a) Twisted pair cable (phone line). (b) Computer signals. (d) Fill a datum. (b) False. 5. (d) Digital system language. (c) Fiber-optical cable. 15. (b) Do calculation. Examples of Analog signals are ________. (d) Communication information about the sender. 17. 14. 10. (a) Copy data. (b) False. (c) Ethernet. (a) 1990’s. Modulation is conversion from digital signal to analog one. (b) Internet messenger. (c) Gas. (b) Food. 13. (d) Cable modem. (a) True.Chapter 5 Information Technology Chapter Exercises 1. Analog signals are discrete binary forms of information. Internet is ______. (b) Late 1960s. (a) Local network. Any computer or network device can’t become part of Internet without using TCP/IP. 16. (a) True. fill handle is used to ________. (c) TCP/IP. Dial-up modem uses traditional phone line to send digital data. B12 is the cell at 12th row and B column. (b) False. Modem can’t do fax (facsimile) transmission. In MS-Excel. Email signature is ______. 12. (b) Coaxial cable (TV cable or LAN cable). (b) Email address. Internet began in _______. (a) Bytes per second. 9. (d) Interconnected network. (a) Telegraph signals. 8. Protocol is _______. (a) True. (b) False. (b) Intranet. (b) Digital subscriber line. (c) Binary peer system. 2. True or False? _____ . (b) False. Modem is the device for modeling and demodeling. (b) Bites for second. (a) True. (b) False. (a) Digital symbolic locator. (a) A kind of liquid. (c) Data system language. (a) True. What is Internet protocol? (a) IP. (d) Image files. (c) Copy formula. (c) Early1980s. (d) Communication rule. (c) Sender’s handwriting with Email. 6. (d) Bites per second. 3. DSL stands for _______. BPS stands for _____. (a) A signature. (d) FTP. 4. 11.

.Chapter 5 Information Technology 18. DNS stands for (a) data network server. (d) Domain network service. (b) Domain name system.43 - . (d) Digital name service.

Normal. end_of_file marker Status bar. mouse pointer. View buttons.44 - .). print layout. Edit. Save. outline AutoCorrect Red wavy line indicates spelling error Green wavy line indicates grammar error Selection bar Single click – select the whole line Double click . Font. Toolbars: Standard (New.Microsoft Office Labs Microsoft Word 2000 Lab Program Interface Title bar -..File name. …) Ruler Workspace: insertion point. Font Size. Menu bar – File. Default settings – pre-defined settings. Formatting (Style.select whole paragraph Triple click – select whole document Exercises a) Format a document’s content with 2 columns b) Insert a table to the document c) Insert a image to the document d) Insert a hyperlink to the document Special Keys Home: starting point of a line . . Templates. View. web layout. Open.. . Program name.

Synonyms. b) Find the thesaurus for a word? Right click it . c) Insert current date to the document? Insert menu – Date and Time … d) Draw a graph (flow chart.edu/~zwang/word/ to your folder H:\cs100\. Exercises a) Move one paragraph from one place to another place? Cut/paste – this works even cross documents. or Drag/drop – this works only inside the document. Delete a hard page break: in normal view. then push Delete key. locate the insertion point to “Page Break” dash line. Soft page break is created automatically.45 - .vwc. square. Heading 1 Heading 2 . Advanced Features Print layout view: Click and type at print layout view Add footnotes: insert menu – footnote… Header/footer: view menu – Header and Footer − Insert Break Section break types Styles (at format toolbar): names with fixed formats. or other shapes) in the document.Microsoft Office Labs End: ending point of a line Ctrl-Home: starting point of a document Ctrl-End: ending point of a document Ctrl-Enter: create a hard page break. e) Insert symbols with superscript. Lab Preparation: Download the data files from http://zeus. and math formula. subscript.

46 - .Microsoft Office Labs … Normal You can change the setting. use promote/demote keys Document map: in Toolbar Table of contents: insert menu – index and tables … . Outline view Create or modify the styles: in outline view.

Clear an entry. Lab Procedures: a) Go to H:\cs100 folder. Insert row or column Copy/paste data/formula: from menu or use fill handle Using formula: +. b) Input your name as the author of the file. row # .A. All required data files should be located at this folder.1.vwc.1-10 Delete data.xls”. make sure that you save the modified file (named “Café Forecast. 3. B column Enter data to cell.xls” to folder H:\www\ c) Study and follow instructions from Page 1-25 to Page 1-63.xls”) and print it. /. … Example. B12: 12th row. P. C. *. -. Open the file named “café Budget. Also copy the document to your floppy disk.1-12 Select data/cells. Save it as “Café Forecast. Tutorial 2 . When you finished. ….Microsoft Office Labs Microsoft Excel 2000 Lab Tutorial 1 Worksheet: spreadsheet. P. EX1-3 Cell: column # .47 - . B. d) Hand in a folder or envelop with the document (called hard copy) and floppy disk inside before due date (declared in the class website). P. 2. ^ (exponent) (A2) = B2 + C2 – D2 Lab Preparation: Download the data files from http://zeus.edu/~zwang/excel/ to your folder H:\cs100\.

Question: giving the following table of data. P. Input source data as above (copy/paste) Select the data source Click Chart Wizard button from Standard ToolBar Select XY chart type … Chart types. (b) as an object (entity) in the present sheet. X Y ------------3 9 -2 4 -1 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 9 Draw the curve based on the points (X. Select first column of data. P. Lab Procedures: .Microsoft Office Labs Exercise: select two columns of data that are not next to each other. Y).48 - .2-3 Column chart Line chart XY chart Pie Chart … Chart elements. Open MS-Excel. push/hold Ctrl button and the select second one.2-4 Legend X-axis Y-axis X-axis title Y/Value-axis title Chart locations: (a) as a new sheet. Using MS-Excel.

When you finished.xls” to folder H:\cs100\ c) Study and follow instructions from Page 2-6 to Page 2-33 (NOT the last page -. Also copy the document to your floppy disk/CD. All required source files should be at this folder. and Sheet1.Microsoft Office Labs a) Go to H:\cs100 folder. Your work includes Chart1. b) Input your name as the author of the file. d) Hand in a folder or envelop with the document (called hard copy) and floppy/CD inside before due date (declared in the class website). Save it as “café Sales Chart. make sure that you save the modified file (named “café Sales Chart.49 - . .xls”. Open the file named “café Sales.xls”) and print ALL your work. Chart2.Page 43).

50 - . FIRSTNAME.Microsoft Office Labs Microsoft Access 2000 Lab MS-Access 2000 is a personal RDBMS (relational DBMS). the PK is STUID. The vertical column of the table is called a field. Select Text. Click the Description text box for the ID field and type Student ID. that is called the composite primary key. which characterizes the properties or functions for the table. GENDER. Open the Save In list box and click My Document from the drop-down list and then click CS100 from the list. which represents an entity according to the fields. in STUDENT table. the PK is a combination of CRSID and STUID. The horizontal row of the table is called a record. A RDBMS consists of a lot of related tables and each table is called a relation. replace the default value 50 with 4. Double-click Create Table in Design View.vwc. Open the Data Type drop-down list and observe the list of data types.edu/~zwang/access/ to your folder H:\cs100\. For example. Create Tables Start Access 2000. Type my_db in File Name list box. Press the Enter key or click the Create button. a STUDENT table may have ID. Lab Preparation: Download the data files from http://zeus. Type ID in Field Name column. The following are the STUDENT and REGISTRATION tables: STUID ----1001 1002 CRSID -----CS100 CS100 MAT105 FIRSTNAME ----------Josh Ann TEACHER -------701 701 602 LASTNAME ----------Smith Brown ROOM -------CLK125 CLK125 BL15 STUID ----1001 1002 1001 GENDER ----------Male Female The primary key (PK) of a table uniquely identifies the different entities. In REGISTRATION table. For example. Select Blank Access Database and click OK. LASTNAME. Click the Primary Key button from the Table Design Bar. In Field Size text box. . and other fields.

Microsoft Office Labs Press Enter button and type FIRSTNAME in Field Name; select Text in Data Type and fill 20 for the Field Size. Fill the same information for LASYNAME. For the GENDER field, set the data type as text and its size 6. Click Save and type STUDENT for the table name. Click Datasheet View or double-click student in database window. Enter the STUDENT table with the above records. Similarly you can design the REGISTRATION table with the following fields, data types, and descriptions:
CRSID TEACHER ROOM STUID Text Text Text Text (Field (Field (Field (Field Size Size Size Size 10) 3) 10) 4) course id faculty id room id or name student id

Here is the way to set the composite primary key: select the CRSID row, and then hold Ctrl key and select the STUID row, and then click the Primary Key button in the Table Design Bar. Save the table name as REGISTRATION. Enter the table with the above records. Save your work and close the Access 2000 program. Using a Form Start Access 2000. Select Open an existing file. Click OK. From Look in drop-down list box, select My Document, and then select CS100 folder. Select Employee Records.mdb file, and click Open. Click Open (Employee table should be selected as default) or double click the Employee table. Observe the table contents. Click the Design View and check the field settings. Click the Datasheet View, click a record in the Last Name field, click Sort Ascending/Descending button in the Table Datasheet bar. Try the Find button. In the Access program window, click Forms from the Objects list. Double click Create form by using wizard. In Form Wizard, select First Name from the Available Fields, click > button to transfer to the Selected Fields. In the same manner, select the following fields to the Selected Fields: Last Name, Street, City, State, Zip Code, Home Phone, Picture. Click Next.

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Microsoft Office Labs Columnar should be selected as the default for the layout. Click Next. Blends should be selected as the default for the style. Click Next. Type Employee Information Form for the title. Click Finished. Maximize the Form window. Check for the records in forms. From the View menu, select the Design View. In the Form Header, add a label and type in Employee Information Form. You may also add a label and type in Designed by xxx (your name). Save the work and view the form by selecting the Form View from the View menu. You may switch to the Datasheet View and sort the records according the last name, then view the form again. Print the form sheet for the record of Lisa Sutton.

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HTML – Web Page Design HTML - Web Page Design Your First Web Page HTML: Hypertext Markup Language Markup language is the language that its output (result or print-out) is controlled by some specific commands. Simple steps to create a HTML web page: Preparation: Create an H:\www\ folder if you don’t have. Step 1: Open H:\www\ folder, create a new html file and name it as index.html or index.htm (you may create a text file first, then rename it). Step 2: Edit your home page: open the IE file by clicking it. Then click the Edit pulldown menu and choose Edit with Windows Notepad Type the following text to the Notepad
<TITLE> My Web </TITLE> <BODY> <CENTER> <H1> Welcome To (your name)’s Home Page </H1> </CENTER> </BODY>

Step 3: Save it from the (Notepad) File menu or push both buttons Ctrl-s. Step 4: Refresh IE, then something happens. Then close it. Step 5: Your home page URL (universal resource locator) is: http://student.vwc.edu/~(your user name) It contents is the same as the above IE file. Go back to Step 2 – Step 5 to do more modifications to your home page when you learn more HTML tags.

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This is good: <CENTER> <H1> Welcome To (your name)’s Home Page </H1> </CENTER> This is not good: <CENTER> <H1> Welcome To (your name)’s Home Page </CENTER> </H1> Nested tags: a pair of the opening and closing tags can enclose other opening/closing tags. Paragraph tag <P> (text) </P> (this closing tag may be omitted) . The opening/closing tag should not intersect (or cross) with other opening/closing tags. Center tag: <CENTER> contents here </CENTER>: contents will be shown in the center of the IE page. </CENTER> Tags are case insensitive.HTML – Web Page Design HTML Tags For HTML.54 - . such as <TITLE>. <CENTER> Closing tag. (HTML) tags control the results. Heading tag: <H1>heading 1</H1> (largest) <H2>heading 2</H2> <H3>heading 3</H3> … <H6>heading 6</H6> (smallest) Title tag: <TITLE> title of the web page </TITLE>. use all capital letters for the tag to distinguish its contents. The title will be shown on the IE title bar. Most (HTML) tags are used in a pair: Opening tag. Traditionally. This means: <title> is the same as <TITLE>. such as </TITLE>.

#000000 is black. NOSHADE is optional: solid bar or not. #FFFFFF is white. cyan. black. #0000FF is blue. The following web page presents the details of the hex color names: http://www. or center. b stands for blue. silver. white. navy. <BODY BGCOLOR = “silver”> (Whole HTML code goes here) </BODY> Image Background <BODY BACKGROUND = ??? > Exercise What are the URLs of CS100 and your personal web page? . Or you may use the hex values for the colors: #rrggbb. teal. right. gray. The value for WIDTH may be value in pixel or percentage of the screen width. blue. green and blue produce different colors.w3schools. Closing tag </BODY> should be located at the end of HTML code Here color_name may be one of the following 16 predefined color names: red. #00FF00 is green. Here r stands for red. lime. yellow. Background Color Setting Use <BODY BGCOLOR= “color_name”> tag that should be put on the start of HTML code.55 - .com/html/html_colors. the value for SIZE is height of the horizontal line in pixel (dot or element of an image on screen). Value for ALIGN may be left. maroon. g stands for green.asp Example Change the background color of your home page to silver or other color except dark color. such as blue or black color. olive. For example: #FF0000 is red. Combining the red. purple.HTML – Web Page Design Horizontal line tag <HR width = 77% size = 5 > Line break <BR> Example <HR SIZE= “5” WIDTH = “80%” ALIGN = “center” NOSHADE> Here. green. magenta.

vwc. Then click the Edit pulldown menu and choose Edit with Windows Notepad Type the following text to the Notepad <TITLE> My Family Web </TITLE> <BODY BGCOLOR= “light green”> <CENTER> <H1> Welcome To (your name)’s Family </H1> </CENTER> </BODY> Page Review HTML tags. <BR> HTML Hyperlinks <A HREF = “(file name or URL)”> hypertext here </A> Here. <P> Click <A HREF = “paper1. browser will go to the specific file or URL. Click here to go to my Assignment 1. <HR>. <P>. Example: Write down the HTML to link the following underlined text to the file “paper1.htm Step 2: Edit your family page: open the IE file by clicking it.HTML – Web Page Design Example Create your family web page: display “Welcome to (your name)’s Family Page” and set the background color light green.html or family. </P> Example Write down the HTML to link the following text to CS100 URL: http://www. Step 1: Open the H:\www\ folder. tag A stands for Anchor and HREF stands for Hyper-REFerence.edu/~zwang/cs100/ Link to CS 100 web page. Clicking the hypertext.doc”> here to go to my Assignment 1 </A>. .56 - .doc” (which is at the same folder with the web page file). create a new html file and name it as family.

vwc.jpg” ALIGN = “right” ALT = “Me: John Wang”> </A> HTML Fonts Used to modify the part of the web page text to different font.vwc. bottom. etc. The corresponding closing tag is </FONT> that should be put to the end of the text to be modified. size or color.HTML – Web Page Design <P> <A HREF = “http://www. put it to the right side of the web page.jpg to your web page and link the image to your home page. ? may be right. Example Insert the image file me.jpg file. Here the value of the attribute COLOR may use hex value for colors or color name introduced as above. HTML Images <IMG SRC = “file name” ALIGN = ? ALT = “alternative text”> Here.edu/~zwang (or your screen-name)” > <IMG SRC = “me.57 - . .jpg” ALIGN = “right” ALT = “Me: (your name)”> Exercise Insert the above HTML to your web page. Default value is 3. <IMG SRC = “me. </P> Exercise Insert the above HTML to your web page. left (default).jpg to the web page. use “Me: (your name)” or other alternative text to describe the image. <A HREF = “http://student. top. The value of SIZE may be 1 (smallest) to 7 (largest). The alternative text is used to describe the image: who is he? Where? … Exercise Download a picture file from your MARSIS account and save it to H:\www\ folder as me.edu/~zwang/cs100/”> Link to CS 100 web page </A>. middle. Image Links Example Insert the image file me. Use <FONT COLOR=? SIZE=? FACE=?> tag.

<P> <FONT FACE= “courier new” COLOR= “blue” SIZE= “7”> I study hard in CS100. </FONT> Some other font tags: <U> (underlined text) </U> <I> (italic text) </I> <STRIKE> (stroked text) </STRIKE> <B> (bold text) </B> Superscript and subscript: Example: HTML for 23 is: 2 <SUP> 3 </SUP> HTML for A1 is: A <SUB> 1 </SUB> Lists How can we create the following lists? Fall’05 classes: • CS100-1 • CS100-2 • CS207-1 • INST110-17 • CS491-1 I am busy enough! . largest font size. I study hard in CS100. “Comic Sans MS”. blue font color.HTML – Web Page Design The value of FACE may be the font name found in MS-Word 2000 Formatting Bar – Font. A pair of double quotes should be used if the value name has spaces.58 - . Example Write down the HTML code to make the following text as courier new font. “Courier New”. Commonly used font face names are: “Time New Roman”. “Arial”.

HTML – Web Page Design Here is the HTML code: Fall’05 classes: <UL> <LI>CS100-1 <LI>CS100-2 <LI>CS207-1 <LI>INST110-17 <LI>CS491-1 </UL > I am busy enough! Unordered Lists Leading with disc: <UL> (lists here) Tag for each list item: <LI> Exercise insert the above code (use your courses) to your web page. CS100-1 2. Leading with circle or square: <UL TYPE = “circle or square”> (lists here) </UL> </UL> Example Write down the HTML code to create the following list in web page. CS207-1 4. Fall’05 classes: o CS100-1 o CS100-2 o CS207-1 It is fun! Here is the answer: Fall’05 classes: <UL TYPE = “circle”> <LI>CS100-1 <LI>CS100-2 <LI>CS207-1 </UL > It is fun! Ordered Lists Fall’05 classes: 1. CS100-2 3.59 - . INST110-17 .

must be number. CS310 It is fun! Answer (HTML code): Fall’05 classes: <OL TYPE = “A” START= “3”> <LI>CS100-1 <LI>CS100-2 <LI>CS207-1 </OL > . Example Write down the HTML code to create the following list in web page. Fall’05 classes: C. 1 is default. CS491-1 I am busy enough! Here is the HTML code: Fall’05 classes: <OL> <LI>CS100-1 <LI>CS100-2 <LI>CS207-1 <LI>INST110-17 <LI>CS491-1 </OL > I am busy enough! Ordered lists leading with Arabic numbers: <OL> (lists here) </OL> Ordered lists leading with letter: <OL TYPE = “X” START = “n”> (lists here) </OL> Here: X may be the following choices: A – capital letter a – lower case letter I – capital roman letter i – lower case roman letter 1 – number (default) n is the starting value.60 - . CS100-2 E.HTML – Web Page Design 5. CS207 F. CS100-1 D.

If the value of an attribute has no space. Write the HTML to link the following text to VWC URL. Value for attribute TYPE is “A” and value for attribute START is “3”. The default value for attribute START is “1”. they may be any order.61 - . In most cases. attribute may be optional. Don’t use comma. In most times. In the above HTML tag <OL TYPE = “A” START= “3”>. The value “1” for attribute TYPE is named as default. Example what is the default value for attribute TYPE in HTML tag <UL TYPE=?> Answer: “disc” Tag <UL TYPE = “disc”> is the same as <UL> If there are more attributes.HTML – Web Page Design It is fun! Some HTML tags have one or more attributes to modify its usages. Try this: <OL TYPE = “1” START= “1”> <LI> Smile <LI> Exercise </OL> Then try this: <OL> <LI> Smile <LI> Exercise </OL> The above two lists are the same. Section Exercises 1. value should be lowercase. there are two attributes TYPE and START. Using space to separate them. the double quote may be omitted. .

… } .62 - .doc.doc. colors and other layout issues for a web page. <TABLE> <TR> <TD> Datum 11 </TD> <TR> <TD> Datum 21 </TD> </TABLE> <TD> Datum 11 </TD> <TD> Datum 21 </TD> </TR> </TR> Example write the HTML code to create the following table: Friend Family Work Hobby The HTML code to create above code is as follows.HTML – Web Page Design Virginia Wesleyan College 2. CS100-1 Assignments Assignment 1 Assignment 2 Assignment 3 Tables Datum11 Datum 21 Datum 12 Datum 22 The HTML code to create above table is as follows. selector { attribute: value. CS100-1 Assignments Assignment 1 Assignment 2 Assignment 3 3. hw2. and etc). Write down the HTML code to create the following list in web page. Each rule has a selector and a declaration block: selector.doc. background. <TABLE> <TR> <TD> Friend </TD> <TD> family </TD> <TD> Work </TD> <TD> Hobby </TD> </TR> </TABLE> Styles CSS (cascading style sheet) is a language to format the fonts (text. Write down the HTML code to link each list item to the corresponding documents: hw1. It consists a set of rules. and hw3.

</div> <div class=class1> The second division code. or a group of code. </div> JavaScript It is a language embedded in HTML to achieve dynamic performance. } --> </style> Here. </H1> </BODY> </HTML> . CS100!") </SCRIPT> <H1> I am studying JavaScript. test the following code (enclosed by <body> tags): <h1> Here is H1 text. the following code is enclosed by the <head> tags: <style> <!-h1. <div> stands for division. font-family: “Arial”.HTML – Web Page Design The selector is just a HTML tag name to be modified. </h2> <div id=part1> The first division code. Based on the above style definition.class1 { color: red.63 - . Following is an example of using the JavaScript: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> Test JavaScript </TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <SCRIPT TYPE="text/JavaScript"> alert("Hello. h2 { color: red. </h1> <p> Normal text here. font-size: 10px} div. It has two attributes: <div class=class1 id=part1>. background: yellow } div#part1 { color: green. For example. <h2> H2 text goes here.

dynamicdrive. document. <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> Test JavaScript </TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <H1> <SCRIPT type="text/JavaScript"> name = prompt("Your name?"."). </H1> </BODY> </HTML> Copy JavaScript from the following web site and insert to your web pages: http://www.write("I am " + name + ". </SCRIPT> <p> I am studying JavaScript.HTML – Web Page Design The following code prompts user to input a name then output a message. "Type here").64 - .com/ .

QUE E&T.wikipedia. Technology Essentials 1999 edition.65 - . 1999 http://en.Bibliography Michele Bock and Michael Bock.org/wiki/Computer .

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