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Prepared by:
Prepared to: Dr. Carmelo V. Ambut
Test your Understanding of Philosophies
Answer each with a Yes or No. If your answer is NO, explain your answer in a sentence.

1. Do essentialists aim to teach students to reconstruct society?
 No. Essentialist aims to transmit the traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge
to students in order to become model citizens.
2. Is the model citizen of the essentialist the citizen who contributes to the re-building of society?
 No. The model student is the one who shows mastery of the basic skills and that one who
lives by traditional moral values.
3. Do the essentialist teachers give up teaching the basics if the students are not interested?
 No. They teach subject matter even if the students are not interested. They are more
subject matter-oriented than student-centered.
4. Do the essentialist teachers frown on long academic calendar and core requirements?
 No. They need long academic calendar and core requirements for mastery of basic skills.

1. Do the progressivist teachers look at education as a preparation for adult life?
 No. They look at education as life.
2. Are the student’s interests and need considered in a progressivist curriculum?
 Yes.
3. Does the progressivist curriculum focus mainly on facts and concepts?
 No. They focus more on problem-solving skills.
4. Do the progressivist teachers strive to simulate in the classroom life in the outside world?
 Yes.

1. Are the perennialist teachers concerned with the student’s mastery of the fundamental skills?
 No. They are more concerned with the study of the Great Books. If ever, they are
interested in the fundamental skills; it is because these skills are needed to study the
Great Books.
2. Do the perennialist teachers see the wisdom of ancient, medieval and modern times?
 Yes.
3. Is the perennialist curriculum geared towards specialization?
 No. It is geared towards general or liberal education.
4. Do the perennialist teachers sacrifice subject matter for the sake of the student’s interest?
 No. Like the essentialist, subject matter is foremost to the perennialist.

1. Is the existentialist teacher after student becoming specialist in order to contribute to the society?
 No. They are more concerned in helping students appreciate themselves as unique
individuals who accept responsibility over their thoughts, actions and life.
2. Is the existentialist concerned with the education of the whole person?
 Yes.
3. Is the course of study imposed on the students in the existentialist classroom?
 No. Students are given a choice.
4. Does the existentialist teacher make heavy use of the individual approach?
 Yes, to allow each student to learn at his own pace.
1. Are behaviorists concerned with the modification of student’s behavior?
 Yes.
2. Do behaviorist teachers spend their time teaching their students on how to respond favorably to
various environmental stimuli?
 Yes.
3. Do behaviorist teachers believe they have control over some variables that affect learning?
 Yes.
4. Do behaviorist teachers believe that students are the product of their environment?
 Yes.

1. Do linguistic philosophers promote the study of language?
 Yes.
2. Is the communication that linguistic philosophers encourage limited verbal language only?
 No. Linguistic communication takes place in three (3) ways –verbal, nonverbal, and
3. Do linguistic philosophers prefer the teacher who dominates discussion to save time to the
teacher who encourages dialogue?
 No. Teachers are the one who facilitates dialogue among learners and between him/her
and his/her students.
4. Is the curriculum of the linguistic philosopher open to the learning of as my languages, like
Mother Tongue, as possible?
 Yes.

1. Does the constructivist agree to the teaching methodology of “telling”?
 No. Constructivist applies the method of constructing.
2. Do constructivists believe that students construct knowledge?
 Yes.
3. Do constructivists approve of teaching learners the skill to learn?
 Yes.
4. Do constructive believe that meaning can be imposed?
 No. knowledge isn’t a thing that can be simply deposited into empty minds but rather
constructed by learners through active, mental process of development.
Test Your Mastery.

To which philosophy does each theory of man belong?

Behaviorism Is a product of his environment
Existentialism Has no universal nature
Essentialism & Perennialism Have rational and moral powers.
Behaviorism Has no choice; he is determined by his environment.
Existentialism Can choose what he can become.
Behaviorism Is a complex combination of matter that responds to physical
Behaviorism Has no free will.
Perennialism Has the sum essential nature with others.
Essentialism & Perennialism Is a rational animal
Existentialism First exists then defines him/herself
Progressivism Is a social animal that learns well through an active interplay with
Linguistic Philosophy Is a communicating being.
Constructivism Is a maker of meaning
Constructivism A constructor of knowledge

III. Synapse Strengtheners

A. We are interested in what is true. Our teaching methodologies are based on our quest for truth.
Likewise, our teaching-learning goals are based on what we value or what we cherish as good.
Identify what each philosophy considers as good and valuable and true. Complete the table given
below. The first one is done for you.

Philosophy Theory of truth Methodology to Theory of what Goal of teaching-

arrive at the truth is learning
Progressivism The universe is We must relate to the Values differ To help develop
real and is in universe and interact from place to students who can
constant change. with either place, from time adjust to a changing
intelligently, to time, from world and lice with
scientifically and person to other in harmony.
experientially. The person; what is
curriculum stresses considered
on science and good for one
experiential learning may not be
such as “hands on- good for
minds-on-hearts-on” another
Linguistic The world is the We will connect to the
Philosophy very essence of world and must
man develop
communication skills
to articulate and
voice out the
experience we have.
Constructivism It is an approach We must let the Every one’s The students
to learn and students construct view of the construct new
suggesting that knowledge from their external world understanding using
the child must experiences. It is differ from what they already
construct their focus on student- others because know and prior
own centered learning. of their unique knowledge influences
understanding of experiences. what new learning
the world in experiences.
which they love.
Essentialism Natural kind of Believe that there is a The gradually Learning requires
knowledge can common core of moves towards students should be
be an innate knowledge that needs more complex taught hard work,
structured of to be transmitted to skills and respect for authority,
individual students in a detailed effort and discipline.
person. systematic, knowledge.
disciplined way.
Existentialism We are created who emphasized The ability to Encourages
by individual nature and the basic accept individual creativity
differences; The goodness of humans, ourselves for and not to be
physical world understanding what we are— Judgmental.
has no inherent through the senses, without
meaning outside and education as a exaggeration—
of human gradual and is the key, since
existence. unhurried process in the chief value
which the of human life is
development of fidelity to
human character ourselves,
sincerity in the
most profound
Perennialism Humans are The focus is to teach Learning Good characters
rational beings, ideas that are should be developed through
and their minds everlasting, to seek universal, let training and
need to be enduring truths which the students practices.
developed. are constant, not discovers
changing, as the his/her interest.
natural and human
worlds at their most
essential level, do not
Behaviorism Behavior can be Provide appropriate Motivation to Repetition of a
acquired incentives or learn is the meaningful
through rewarding system in satisfying connection results in
environmental order to capture their aftereffect, or learning.
influences. attention. reinforcement.
B. With which philosophy do you associate the following quotations?

1. “Education is life not a preparation for life”, - Dewey --- Progressivism

2. “Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself…” –Sartre --- Existentialism
3. “Gripping and enduring interests frequently grow out of initial learning efforts that are not
appealing or attractive.” ---Essentialism
4. Give me a dozen healthy infants, well informed, and my own specified world to bring them up
in and I’ll guarantee to tale anyone at random and train him to become any type of specialist I
might select ---doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant---chief; and yes, even beggar-man and thief,
regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his
ancestors.” Watson ---Behaviorism
5. “Existence precedes essence.” Sartre --- Existentialism
6. “Life is what you make it.” William Thackeray ---Existentialism
7. “Listening in dialogue is listening more to meaning than to words… In true listening, we
reach behind the words; see through them, to find the person who is being revealed.
Listening is a search to find the treasure of the true person as revealed verbally and non-
verbally…” – John Powell --- Linguistic Philosophy
8. When a relationship is working the act of communicating seems to flow relatively
effortlessly…:- Chip Rose --- Linguistic Philosophy

C. Upon which philosophy/ies is each program/practice anchored?

1. Back-to-the Basics movement --- Essentialism

2. Conduct of National Achievement Test to test acquisition of elementary/secondary learning
competencies --- Essentialism
3. Use of the Great Books --- Perennialism
4. Use of rewards and incentives --- Behaviorism
5. Us of simulation and problem-solving method --- Progressivism
6. Leaners learning at their own pace --- Existentialism
7. Mastery of the 3r’s – reading, writing and ‘arithmetic --- Essentialism
8. The traditional approach to education --- Essentialism
9. Subject matter- centered teaching --- Essentialism & Perennialism
10. Authoritarian approach to teaching --- Essentialism & Perennialism
11. Student-centered teaching --- Progressivism and Existentialism
12. Non-authoritarian approach to teaching --- Progressivism & Existentialism
13. Making meaning of what is taught --- Constructivism
14. Understanding message through verbal, Non-verbal and Para-verbal means
--- Linguistic Philosophy
15. Asking learners to draw meaning from what they are taught --- Constructivism
D. Draw a symbol for each of the 7 philosophies. Explain your symbol.

This symbolizes progress or growth development from one’s great innovation.

Being creative and to see the output

Linguistic Philosophy
A conversational communication between two persons.
Control student’s behavior

This symbolizes direction or choices we make as an individual

Generates education little by little.
Woman’s essence to bear a child.

A. By means of a Venn diagram give the:

1. Similarities between Essentialism and Perennialism

Essentialism & Perennialism

 Both are educational

concepts applying to a
society as a whole.
 Both believe that there are
certain aspects of the
culture that must be learned
by all included in it.
 Each one wants to preserve
the historical basis of the
affected culture.

2. Differences between Behaviorism and Existentialism

Behaviorism Existentialism
 Behaviorist creates environment  Students create their environment
for students  Existentialist gives students
 Believes that good environment freedom to define their own essence
shapes student’s behavior  Existentialist encourages individual
 Teachers provide appropriate creativity and learning
incentives to reinforce positive  Teachers remain non-judgmental in
responses for students imposing values to students
3. Differences between the perennialism and essentialism combined and progressivism

Perennialism  Contemporary educational philosophy
 Traditional educational Philosophies  Direction in time is growth,
 Direction in time is preserving the past reconstruct present, shape future
 Education value is fixed, absolute  Educational value is unchangeable
 Educational process focus on  Educational process focuses on active
teaching self-learning
 Intellectual process engage in
 Intellectual focus is training and
problem-solving, social tasks
disciplining mind
 Curriculum is composed of 3’Rs
 Composed of 3’rs (arts, sciences and vocational)
 Grouping of students is homogenous  Grouping of students is heterogeneous,
 Teacher dominates instruction culturally divers
 Students received knowledge  Teacher facilitates, coaches students
 Student engages discoverer, construct

4. Similarities between linguistic philosophy and constructivism

 Teachers facilitate process of learning

 Learners are taught how to learn
 Develop learning skills of students to be
able to voice out and construct
knowledge and make meaning of them
 Classroom is interactive that promotes
dialogical exchange of ideas among
learners and teacher

E. You will be grouped into the seven philosophies. Explain how you will react to the given
situation. What advice will you give?

1. For the essentialist group. Students are not interested in the lesson
 Teachers must encourage the students to be more active in classroom. As an essentialist,
teacher has a responsibility in keeping their subject fun and interactive. They must develop
an effective teaching strategy to sustain student’s academic interest in school.

2. For the perennialist group. Students want to become skilled in certain fields of specialization
 Perennialist is a teacher-centered philosophy. Teacher facilitates everything inside a
classroom. They don’t believe in specialization but they rather think on a general one.
Students would not be able to attain their skill in a certain fields unless the teachers will
allow them to become what they want. Perennialist must also allow their students to
specialize themselves because learning is a two-way process that involves the two parties.
Students should be allowed to decide what is good for them in accordance to their own
perspective and interest.

3. For the progressivist group. Parents question students’ community immersion for it poses certain
 Progressivist teachers focus on student’s interest and provide hands on learning. It is the
responsibility of the teachers to maintain student’s security in conducting such activities. In a
situation like this risk is inevitable that gives uncertainty. Schools community immersion
should be organized that could offer great assurance both to students and parents.

4. For the behaviorist group. Teacher tells students from the slum areas this: “If there’s a will,
there’s a way. Poverty is not a hindrance to success.
 I agree that poverty will never be a hindrance to success for as long as everyone has
capabilities. Poor people are sometimes deprived from opportunities in school. Behaviorist
believes that shaping student’s behavior will come up with a favorable result. Schools and
teachers in a behaviorist philosophy should encourage all students with financial instabilities
to attend school meetings. Education must be equally granted to all the students that persist
interest in doing so.

5. For the existentialist group. A colleague asks you to decide for her fear that she may make the
wrong decision.
 Existentialist believes that life is a choice. Our destiny depends on our own choices. As an
existentialist she needs to learn on embracing her own self. To be mature enough in doing
his/her choices. There has nothing to be fear if you have made the right choice. You can give
advices but at the end of the day it is she/he the one who will decide.

6. For the linguistics philosophy group. A teacher insists on his reasoning and does not give a
chance to an erring student to explain his/her side.
 Linguistics philosophy develops a good communication skill between the teacher and students.
Everyone has the right to voice out his/her side no matter what consequences may appear.
Teacher and students should practice a balance of exchanging ideas. There must have an open
communication of expressing oneself that accepts diverse perspective.

7. For the constructivist. Teacher claims, he will be able to teach more if he goes straights to his
 Constructivist teachers allow students to be more constructive in a performance-based learning.
They consume so much time and effort in creating and performing ideas that set them apart from
a traditional way of teaching. They tend to neglect basic type of lectures that students usually
practice. However, constructivist must need to learn how to balance academic need of students
inside the classroom. Behaviorist is sometimes underestimated but it has always been the source
of student’s knowledge.

F. Students will be asked to research further on the following:

1. John Dewey and Progressivism

 John Dewey is one of the most popular advocates of progressivism. He believes that
people learn best from social interaction in the real world. He also believes that book
learning is no substitute for actual experience.

2. John Watson and Behaviorism

 John Watson is an American psychologist and the principal originator of behavioristic
psychology. He first claimed that human behavior consisted of specific stimuli that
resulted in certain responses.

3. William Bagley and essentialism

 William Bagley popularized essentialism in 1930s. He is a founder of essentialist
education theory. He believes that essentialists hope that when student leave school, they
will possess not only basic skills and an extensive body of knowledge, but also
disciplined, practical minds, capable of applying in schoolhouse lessons in the real

4. Jean Paul Sartre and existentialism

 Jean Paul Sartre is best known as leading philosopher of existentialism. He is an
atheistic essentialist. He agrees that existence precedes essence and man is condemned to
be free. He said that man is nothing else but he makes of himself.

5. Jürgen Habermas, Hans Georg Gadamer and Linguistic Philosophy

 Jurgen Habermas is a German political philosopher/sociologist. A student of Frankfurt
School of critical theory.

G. Students will be asked to research further on the following:

1. John Dewey and Progressivism

 John Dewey is one of the most popular advocates of progressivism. He believes that
people learn best from social interaction in the real world. He also believes that book
learning is no substitute for actual experience.

2. John Watson and Behaviorism

 John Watson is an American psychologist and the principal originator of behavioristic
psychology. He first claimed that human behavior consisted of specific stimuli that
resulted in certain responses.

3. William Bagley and essentialism

 William Bagley popularized essentialism in 1930s. He is a founder of essentialist
education theory. He believes that essentialists hope that when student leave school, they
will possess not only basic skills and an extensive body of knowledge, but also
disciplined, practical minds, capable of applying in schoolhouse lessons in the real

4. Jean Paul Sartre and existentialism

 Jean Paul Sartre is best known as leading philosopher of existentialism. He is an
atheistic essentialist. He agrees that existence precedes essence and man is condemned to
be free. He said that man is nothing else but he makes of himself.

5. Jurgen Habermas, Hans Georg Gadamer and Linguistic Philosophy

 Jurgen Habermas is a German political philosopher/sociologist. A student of Frankfurt
School of critical theory.

They will pretend to be John Dewey, John Watson, etc. in class and the class will interview them in their
philosophies. The key informants (John Dewey, etc.) will answer questions using the first person “I”.
Research work – Research on the following philosophies. Those marked with asterisk (*) are a must.
Give the gist of each philosophy. Cite those thoughts with which you agree and also those with which
you disagree.

1. Christian Philosophy- is a development in philosophy that is characterized by coming from

a Christian tradition. The Philosophy of Christianity is a way of life. It involves the reason for
human life, why human life was created and sustained by God and nourished by His Spirit, and
lastly, to where our human life is destined to lead us in the future. Christianity holds that
knowledge is revealed by God. Christianity is propositional truth revealed by God, propositions
which have been written in the 66 books of the Bible. Divine revelation is the starting point of
Christianity, its axiom. The axiom, the first principle, of Christianity is this: "The Bible alone is
the Word of God."

2. Rationalism - is the philosophy that knowledge comes from logic and a certain kind
of intuition—when we immediately know something to be true without deduction, such as “I am
conscious.” Rationalists hold that the best way to arrive at certain knowledge is using the mind’s
rational abilities. The opposite of rationalism is empiricism, or the view that knowledge comes
from observing the outside world. However, in practice almost all philosophers and scientists
use a combination of empiricism and rationalism.
3. Pragmatism- is a philosophical movement that includes those who claim that an ideology or
proposition is true if it works satisfactorily, that the meaning of a proposition is to be found in
the practical consequences of accepting it, and that unpractical ideas are to be rejected. An
approach to philosophy, primarily held by American philosophers, which holds that the truth
or meaning of a statement is to be measured by its practical

4. Reconstructionism - is a 20th century branch of Judaism that focuses on modern changes to

traditions and observances. An example of Reconstructionism is the branch of Judaism that is
more modern thinking than Reform Judaism. It is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of
social questions and a request to create a better society and worldwide democracy.
Reconstructionist educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reforms as the aim of

5. Confucianism- is often characterized as a system of social and ethical philosophy rather than a
religion. In fact, Confucianism built on an ancient religious foundation to establish the social
values, institutions, and transcendent ideals of traditional Chinese society.

6. Hindu Philosophy- is one of the world's oldest religious traditions, and it is founded upon what
is often regarded as the oldest surviving text of humanity: the Vedas. It is a religion practiced the
world over. ... The label “Hindu philosophy” will be reserved for the philosophical elements
of Hinduism.

7. Buddhist Philosophy- Buddhism is a philosophy, a moral code, and, for some a religious faith
which originated 2,500 years ago in India. It offers a diagnosis of the suffering of mankind and
provides a formula for individuals to resolve that suffering. It offers a moral code based on
compassion and non-violence, and through meditation a way to achieve spiritual insight.
Buddhism provides a path to reach a deeper understanding of the nature of reality.

8. Paolo Freire’s Philosophy- Brazilian Philosopher and the father of pedagogy. He wrote the
Pedagogy of the Oppressed in 1970 arguing that the oppressed had the capacity to know the
processes of social domination and overcome them. Freire was concerned about using the
imagination to produce new possible ways of naming and acting in the world when working with
people around literacy.
9. Socrates’s Philosophy- Teacher and philosopher who developed the Socratic Method of
questioning people in order to: establish the truth about life, to get people to think for themselves
instead of relying in superstition, gossip and tradition.

10. Platos’s Philosophy- The first Western Philosopher and Socrates student who founded the
Academy, the first institution for higher education. Agreed with Pythagoras that Mathematics
were essential in understanding the world.

11. Rousseau’s Philosophy - A French philosopher who published Social Contract theory in 1762.
He said that everyone must agree to be governed by the general will, what’s good for the
people. He believed that human being were naturally good but corrupted by society.

12. Stoic Philosophy - the stoics presented their philosophy as the way of life, and they thought that
the best indication of an individual’s philosophy was not what a person said but how he behaved.

13. Epicureanism - Epicurus founded the school of thought called Epicureanism that taught that the
universe as composed of atoms and ruled by God who had no interest in humans. He believed
that the only real objects were those that came from virtuous acts and the absence of pain. One
should pursue pleasure in moderation.

14. Philosophical Analysis - It is common for philosophers to offer philosophical accounts or

analyses, as they are sometimes called, of knowledge, autonomy, representation, (moral) goodness,
reference, and
Even modesty. These philosophical analyses raise deep questions.

15. Phenomenology - everyday life is interpreted through a stock of knowledge (meanings,

categories and constructs). Object of the world are accessible to people but they mean
differently to one another. According to George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, “the force of mind is
only as great as its expression; its depth only as deep as its power to expand and lose itself.”

16. Logical Positivism -Logical positivists were all interested in science and skeptical theology and
metaphysics. They proposed that all knowledge is based on logical inference from simple
“protocol sentences” grounded in observable facts. Many endorsed forms of materialism,
metaphysical naturalism, and empiricism.
H. One of you will volunteer / be assigned to obtain the vision and mission statement of the
Department of Education and present the same in class. Which philosophies of education are
reflected in the DepEd vision-mission statement?

The DepEd Vision

We dream of Filipinos
who passionately love their country
and whose values and competencies
enable them to realize their full potential
and contribute meaningfully to building the nation.
As a learner-centered public institution,
the Department of Education
continuously improves itself
to better serve its stakeholders

The DepEd Mission

To protect and promote the right of every Filipino to quality, equitable, culture-based,
and complete basic education where:
Students learn in a child-friendly, gender-sensitive, safe, and motivating environment.
Teachers facilitate learning and constantly nurture every learner.
Administrators and staff, as stewards of the institution, ensure an enabling and supportive
environment for effective learning to happen.
Family, community, and other stakeholders are actively engaged and share responsibility
for developing life-long learners.

Philosophies reflected in the DepEd vision-mission statement are Essentialism, Behaviorism,

Constructivist and Progressivism.

I. The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum envisions a Grade 12 graduate who is:

 Holistically developed
 With 21st century skills
 Ready for:
 Employment
 Entrepreneurship
 Middle level skills development
 Higher education

On which philosophies education of education is the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum anchored?

Explain your answer/s.
 For me the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum is anchored to essentialism and progressivism
type of philosophy. The new curriculum aims to develop competency to ASEAN Integration. This
is to cope up with the other school because of the lacking years. It trains all teachers assigned in
this curriculum to practice the mastery of his/her subject. It also provides organized and clear
instructional materials given to the students. This promotes teachers autonomy agency in the
process of classroom delivery and also empowers them to allow supervision of student’s
progress to learning issue.
Activity 1:
Analyze the given example in your small groups, then answer the following questions:

1. Which of the philosophies studied in Lesson 1 are reflected in the given philosophy?
 Existentialism, Behaviorism, Linguistic

2. What are the teacher’s concept/s of the learner?

 the teacher’s concept/s of the learner are:
 Every learner:
 has a natural interest in learning and is capable of learning
 is an embodied spirit
 can be influenced but not totally his/her environment
 is unique and so comparing a child to other children has no basis
 does not have an empathy mind, rather is full of ideas

3. Who, according to the Grade school teacher’s philosophy is the good and educated person?
 A good and educated person consistently practicing good values to serve as a model to every
child. S/he strengthens the value formation of every child through “hands-on-minds-on-hearts-
on” experiences inside and outside the classroom.

4. What is the teacher’s concept on values?

 There are unchanging values in changing times and these must be passed on to every child by
modeling, value inculcation and value integration in their lesson.

5. What does the teacher believe to be her primary task?

 To facilitate the development of every child to the optimum and to the maximum.

6. Do her concepts of the learner and the educated person match with how he/she will go about his/her
task of facilitating every child’s full development?
 Yes, because s/he is consistent on how s/he will go about his/her task of facilitating every child’s
full development in accordance with his/ her belief or concepts about a learner.

7. You notice that the teacher’s thought on the learner, values and method of teaching begin with the
phrase “I believe”. Will it make a difference if the Grade school teacher wrote his/her philosophy of
education in paragraph from using the third person pronoun?
 Yes, because if she use third person pronoun, there wouldn’t be greater impact to the reader or a
more personal relationship to the reader.

8. Why is one’s philosophy of education said to be one’s “window” to the world or “compass” in life?
 One’s philosophy of education said to be one’s “window” to the world or “compass” in life
because this is how the person view the people, things or everything around him which can serve
as his guide in dealing with his everyday life.
Activity 2

Formulate your personal philosophy of education. Do it well for this will form part of your teaching
portfolio which you will bring along with you when you apply for a teaching job.

 I believe that learning can and should be fun and that students who are active participants learn
much more than those whose participation is largely passive. Teaching and learning involves an
inherent contract. Students must agree to take responsibility for their learning in order to
engage, and teachers must be willing to be engaged, as well. When students are so engaged,
their learning is not solely dependent upon the rate of the delivery of lectures, so a mix and
match of pace and teaching strategies designed to meet the needs of a range of learning skills
need not be debilitating to the progress of any students. I welcome a group of students who are
actively involved, thinking and questioning the material presented to them whether presented by
me or by another student

Activity 3
A. Reflect on your own philosophy using the following questions as guide:

1. With that educational philosophy:

 How will you treat your student?
 I will treat my students in the way they should be treated. In that case, I will try what I can
to teach them and bring out the best of them.

 How will you teach?

 I believe that a teacher is not a giver of knowledge but rather a facilitator or a guide for
the student. As a guide, it is my responsibility to find or create alternate presentations of
the material that I feel help clarify key points and to design class contacts.

2. From which philosophies that you have studied and researched did you draw inspiration as you
formulated your own philosophy of education?
 From my own experiences and experiences of others and from the good teachers I encountered
and shared their insights of being an educator.

3. Does this education philosophy of yours make a difference in your life?

 Yes, because it is my belief in life that can guide me in everything.

4. What if you do not have a formulated philosophy of education at all?

 I will be like a teacher that just teaches and doesn’t care, touch and empower life. A teacher
with no purpose and direction at all.

5. Is your educational philosophy more of an abstract theory than a blueprint to daily living?
 No, because I saw teachers who treat a child in the way what I believe. So if they can be a
good teacher, why couldn’t I?

6. Do you think your philosophy will change as you grow in knowledge?

 No, this philosophy will be enhanced. It will branch out to better philosophies.
Test Your Understanding
A. Direction: Answer the following with a Yes or No. If your answer is No, explain your answer in a

1. Is morality for persons or animals? No, animals have no morals

2. Is the natural law learn only by the learner? No, everyone at a right age have a sense of good or evil
3. Did the primitive people have sense of the natural law? Yes
4. Is an animalistic act of man moral? No. -an animalistic act can never be human and to be moral is to
be human
5. Is it right to judge a dog to be immoral if they defecates right there in your garden? No, animals have
no morals
6. Is the foundational moral principle sensed only by the believer? No, because even unbelievers have
sense of good or evil because this natural law is written in every human heart
7. Is the foundational moral principle very specific? No, it is in a general statement
8. Is the foundational moral principle the basics of more specific moral principles? Yes
9. Is the foundational moral principle so called because it is the basis of all moral principles? Yes
10. Are the Ten Commandments for Christians more specific moral principles of the foundational moral
principle? Yes
11. Is the natural law literally engraved in every human heart? No, not literally, for human have a the
sense of good or evil
12. Are the Five Pillars of Islam reflective of the natural law? Yes
13. Is the Buddhist Eightfold Path in accordance with the natural law? Yes
14. Are the Golden Rule for Christians basically the same with Kung-Fu-Tzu’s Reciprocity rule? Yes

Synapse Strengthens
A. Direction: Answer the following in a sentence or two.

1. To be moral is to be human. What does this mean? This means that any act that is moral makes a
person more of being a human which what is intended to be.
2. Why is morality only for persons? Morality is only for persons because only humans are with intellect
and will where they can think, reason out, analyze and has free will which they are given the privilege to
choose by their own.
3. What do the following tell about the natural law? Ancient philosophers and dramatics had already
mentioned the natural law. Sophocles, for instance, in the drama of Antigone’ spoke of the “ unwritten
statutes of heaven which are not of today or yesterday but from all time an no man knows when they
were first put forth.”
Ciero wrote: “True law is right reason in agreement with nature; it is of universal application,
unchanging and everlasting…”
“Lawless licensed of promiscuity is not common among primitive people. According to Fr.
Vanoverberg, a Belgian anthropologist of the CICM congregation, the Negritos of Northern Luzon have
excellent moral standards especially with regard to honesty and sexual matters although their power of
abstractionist so low that they can be hardly count beyond 5.” (Panizo, 1964). The quotes tell that the
natural law is written in every heart of a person. They are unchanging amidst changing times. This is
true to all and no one knows when it was installed to us. This natural law will never be taken to us.
B. Journal Entity

1. “Do good; avoid evil” is the foundational moral principle. List at least 5 good things that you have
to do as a teacher and 5 evil things you have to avoid doing.
1. Display Understanding 1. Being Judgmental
2. Being honest 2. Involving in any form of Corruption
3. Maintain Just 3. Favoritism
4. Extend my patience 4. Harassment (Physical Abuse)
5.Hold on my temper and watch my words 5. Bad / Unpleasant Words

2. The Golden rule for Christians is: “Do to others what you would like others do to you.” Give a
concrete application of it as you relate it to a learner, to a fellow teacher, parents, community, and
to your superiors.

 I will show love to anyone as much as I can. In every little things I can do to show love, I
won’t hesitate. By simply smiling amidst negative thoughts, I would like to display. Being
positive when everything goes wrong.

D. By means of a song, a poem or an acrostic (on the word MORALITY), show the importance of

M- Makes a person moral

O- Opportunity is given to a person to think twice before doing an action
R- Rationalized a person to reason out logically
A- Appreciate good things around
L- Let love conquer hatred
I- Imposes the natural in our heart
T- To do good and avoid evil
Y- You are accountable of your actions

Test your Understanding

1. Do we have such a thing as unchanging values in these changing times?

 Yes
2. What do we mean when we say transcendent values are independent of time, space, and people?
 Transcendent values do not depend on the period of history and place when and where
people live/d. They are values true to all time in all places and for all people.
3. Should values be taught? Why?
 Yes, because they have a cognitive domain that concerns with the understanding of values.
4. What are the three dimensions of value and value formation? Explain each.
 Cognitive - concerned with the rational understanding of the value, ho it should be lived
and why it should be taught.
 Affective - it is where the development of feeling for the value take place
 Behavioral – the outward manifestation of the value
5. Value formation is training of the intellect and the will. What does this training consist of?
 Training of the intellect consist of training in conception, judging and reasoning.
 Training of the will is strengthening the will to desire and act upon that which is valued.
6. What is the effect of good habit (virtue) and bad habit (vice) on the will?
 Virtue strengthens the will while vice weakens it.
7. Which is the lowest value in Scheler’s value hierarchy? Highest?
 The lowest value in Scheler’s value hierarchy is pleasure values while the highest are the
values of the Holy.
8. Based in Scheler’s hierarchy of values, what is a life well lived?
 A life well lived is one that observes subordination of values in accordance with Scheler’s
hierarchy of values.
9. According to advocates of value clarification, how can you test if a value is really your value?
 I can test my value by asking the following questions:
 Did I choose it freely?
 Did I choose it from among the alternatives?
 Did I choose it after thoughtful consideration of the consequences of it?
 Do I cherish it?
 Do I affirm it publicly?
 Do I act on it?
 Do I act on it repeatedly/ habitually?
Synapse Strengtheners

1. Present Scheler’s hierarchy of values by means of an appropriate graphic organizer. Each level of
values must be explained and must be given an example

Holy Values

Spiritual Values

Vital Values

Pleasure Values

 Pleasure values- the pleasant against the unpleasant; the agreeable against disagreeable,
e.g. sensual feelings, experience against pleasure or pain
 Vital values- Values pertaining to the well-being either of the individual or of the community
e.g. health, vitality, capability, excellence
 Spiritual Values- values independent of the whole sphere of the body and of the environment,
grasped in spiritual acts of preferring, loving and hating.
e.g. aesthetic values, values of right and wrong, values of pure knowledge.
 Values of the Holy- appears only in regard to objects intentionally; given as “absolute objects”
e.g. belief, adoration, bliss

2. In the modern parable “The Little Prince” written by Antonic Exupery, the Little Prince in his visit
to one planet, met an alcoholic. The following was their conversation:

Little Prince: “What are you doing?”

The alcoholic: “I am drinking!”
Little Prince: “Why are you drinking?”
Alcoholic: “To forget!”
Little Prince: “To forget what?”
Alcoholic: “that I am a drunkard!”

Based on the above conversation, is the alcoholic (or any alcoholic for that matter) happy for being
one? What lessons can you learn from the life of an alcoholic or of a gambler?
 No, the alcoholic is not happy for being one. Negative deeds are not the solution for another
negative problem.
3. In his book “Morality and You”, James Finley wrote: “look at modern advertisements. Commercials
for deodorants, mouthwashes, skin blemish removers and other cosmetics have a basic assumption
that man is a creature who must be physically attractive to have much worth in the eyes of his
fellowman. They try to sell… the following concept of a person: to have a good breath and white
teeth is to be a good person; to have bad breath is to be socially undesirable.”

Reflect if this thought on man as sold by the media in a very subtle manner has in a way influenced
your value orientation.

 Yes at some point, especially when I was young. But I realized that those things are just
pleasing others and we must be reminded that we are here on earth to please God and not
 Basically it is for personal hygiene, but if it is more than that to the extent of being so
conscious of yourself and obsess of it, something’s wrong.

For Research

 Which Filipino values pose obstacles to your value formation? How do they block your value
 “Utang na loob” – because of it I’m feel obliged to do a favor that I’m hesitant of doing
 “Filipino Hospitality” - I used to welcome visitors I hate to have because of their unpleasant

 Are there times when the will refuses to act on what the intellect presents as good? How does a
person feel?
 Yes, it feels confusing and unfulfilled.

 The atheist denies God’s existence. Will he lack the values of the Holy, the highest level of value
according to Scheler? How will this affect his/ her way of life?
 Yes, because the highest level pertains to a supreme being and the atheist doesn’t believe in a
supreme being. He will not be guilty of wrong deeds because he/she doesn’t believe on a
supreme being. At the end, he will realize what he did and strike by his conscience.

Journal Entry

1. Read the Following and in the context of value formation, write down your response/ action plan
to each as a proof that you accept continuing personal value formation.

 Take care of your thoughts, they become your actions; take care of your actions, they become
your habit; take care of your habits, they become your character, take care of your character, it
becomes your destiny!
 What you think is who you are that leads you to your destiny.

 What does it profit a man if he gains the whole world buy loses his “soul”?
 This world is not our home. Invest our treasures in heaven and not on hearth.

 …store up treasures in heaven neither moth nor decay destroys, nor thieves break in and steal.
For where your treasure is, there also will your heart be”. (Matthew 7:20)
 Real treasures are not found here on earth but it is in heaven.
 Try not to become a man of success but rather try to become a man of value.” –Albert Einstein
 A man of success with no values is nothing.

 “It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essential is invisible to the eye”. –The
Little Prince by Antoine Exupery
 What you see is not what you need. “Focused in what you cannot see!”

 “Di baleng mahirap, basta’t may dangal.”

 Magtiyaga sa hirap, mas maganda ang isang tagumpay na nagmula sa malinis na kalooban.

2. It is observed that beginning teachers somewhat lack emotional stability. What are some of its
causes? What should you do to counteract it? Write your answers here.

 Beginning teachers lack experience and still on the process of adjustment. They need more
trainings for confidence. Passion and acceptance of the profession is also important to deal
with the teacher’s instability. Guidance of co-teachers and openness of the teacher’s struggle
is helpful to cope up with it.

Synapse Strengtheners
A. An Exercise on Metaphor/Simile- Compare teaching as a vocation/mission/profession to something
by completing this statement; TEACHING IS LIKE….

 Teacher is like noble profession. The teacher is the most/important person. In any civilization,
as on he depends the molding of the nation. There are not born teachers, but there are those
who love teaching, and there are those who enter it as an occupation. The chief qualification
for a teacher is his or her love for children; from there they can follow the training by good
teachers and professors of techniques and principles. Good teacher-student relationship is
very important. Teaching is a vacation, a calling. It is not the profession that you train for
much as you learn how to train a dog. It is the job that may feel driven to do and one that can
be edifying and as the voices in Teachers Who Change Lives at test, deeply satisfying. The
enduring memorable pedagogues- those who have changed your life just a little bit take risk.
Great teachers are those who have X-factor, are not beholden to the conventions of the
classroom. They do not have power dress or slog away at higher degrees to shinny up
promotions slippery pole. They instruct but they also touch hearts and minds while leading
children to believe they can see things and go places they’ve never experienced before. Unlike
any other profession, teaching requires dedication and service in order for an individual to be
considered as a real teacher. That’s the reason why teaching should not just be treated as
simple profession but also a serious vacation.
B. For Small Group Discussion

1. Does it make a difference if teaching is simply regarded as a profession, not a vocation and a

 Yes, because teaching is not only considered as a profession but also a vocation and a
mission. Not all professionals have a strong desire towards something. Vocation refers to
your passion on doing things your love as well as having the mission to pursue everything
related to teaching.

2. Within the 5 qualities of a professional in mind, cite other Filipino traits that work against the
making of a true Filipino professional. Propose some remedial measures.

 Appearance. A professional is neat in appearance. Be sure to meet or even exceed the

requirements of your company's dress code, and pay special attention to your appearance
when meeting with prospects or clients.
 Demeanor. Your demeanor should exude confidence but not cockiness. Be polite and well-
spoken whether you're interacting with customers, superiors or co-workers. You need to keep
your calm, even during tense situations.
 Reliability. As a professional, you will be counted on to find a way to get the job done.
Responding to people promptly and following through on promises in a timely manner is also
important, as this demonstrates reliability.
 Competence Professionals strive to become experts in their field, which sets them apart from
the rest of the pack. This can mean continuing your education by taking courses, attending
seminars and attaining any related professional designations.
 Ethics Professionals such as doctors, lawyers and public accountants must adhere to a strict
code of ethics. Even if your company or industry doesn't have a written code, you should
display ethical behavior at all times.

3. Of the 5 qualities of a professional, which to you is the most important? Why?

 Ethics. Ethical behaviors are important at all times. Moral values reflect an individual’s
character. It helps build good relationships in personal as well as professional lives.

4. Once more, read the letter to the teacher given above, then state the mission of the profession

 The mission of the Professional Teacher is to empower teachers through relevant learning
experiences that improve student’s achievement through leadership and talent development,
and professional support, with the goal of strengthening pedagogical content knowledge
through comprehensive. Research-based and job embedded learning experiences.
C. Research on:
 The other elements of profession. Does the teaching profession fulfill all the elements?
a. Professionalism’s Nine Elements
b. Initial Professional Education
c. Accreditation
d. Skills Development
e. Certification
f. Licensing
g. Professional Development
h. Professional Societies
i. Code of Ethics
j. Organizational Certification
k. Teaching profession should fulfil all these elements to be called professionals.

 The meaning of Eichmann as used in the Letter to Teacher found in this lesson.
 One who willingly participates in immoral or destructive actions without ethical qualms
because the actions are acceptable to society

D. Journal Entry

Conrado de Quiros of the Philippine Daily Inquirer once wrote: “Being world-class does not
mean going internationally and showing our best out there. Being world-class is passion and
commitment to our profession; being world-class is giving our best to teaching. Being world-class starts
right inside the classroom.” Write what you resolve to START doing and STOP doing NOW as you
embrace teaching as your vocation, mission and profession.


1. Start looking for problems to solve, actions to take, and beauty to create.
 If we were to do something that really mattered to ourselves, our classrooms, our
schools, and our community, the potential for impact would be at once local and global.
Start finding ways to engage students in understanding real-world problems, and then
support them in solving those problems. Every student should experience the joy that
comes with being a unique and positive force in the world

2. Start teaching with new discoveries about the brain in mind.

 There is emerging evidence that where there is no emotion, there is no learning. Let's
bring a full spectrum of positive emotions to teaching and learning. A good place to start
is by sharing your passion, personal mission, and the questions and problems that are
important to you. Bring all this to your students. And have them bring theirs to you

3. Start seeking out authentic, high-stakes audiences for student work

 We often ask students to spend many hours solving problems or creating things that are
never shared beyond the teacher or the classroom. Partner with businesses,
organizations, and your larger community to showcase innovative work produced by
your students

1. Stop teaching as if we have the answers.

 Nothing could more powerfully demonstrate an inquiry-based approach to learning,
becoming, and doing than to design ways of engaging students with questions to which we
ourselves do not know the answers. In this way, students may contribute to both their own
understanding and also to ours

2. Stop rushing
 We need to slow down the race to cover content. We need to get more creative about
ways to focus on key conceptual understandings, and about designing ways to
demonstrate evidence of applying these conceptual understandings. Deep learning takes

3. Stop talking.
 Even with the most experiential, project-based approach, it would be good to figure out
how much time any one person spends talking compared to listening. How much silence
is there after any member of a group of learners poses a question? In a classroom
setting, what would happen if we reduced teacher talk by 50 percent and increased the
pause time between question and response by 50 percent?

E. Keep interested in your own career, however humble; it is a real possession in the changing fortunes
of time, says Desiderata. How can you keep your interest in your own career? Write your reflections

 Achieve the always. Keep interested in your own humility. Time is a real possession; change
fortunes with your plans. Enjoy your achievements as well as your plans. Keep interested in your
own career, however humble; it is a real possession in the changing fortunes of time.
Synapse Strengtheners

A. Form 8 groups. Each of the 7 groups will focus on one assigned domain of the NCBTS. The 8th
group will work on the graphic organizer for the Code of Ethics for professional teachers.
B. For the 7 groups: Prove that the NCBTS Framework and Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers
reinforce each other. Show that the Articles in the Code of Professional Teachers also state basically
the same things that are found in the NCBTS Framework by accomplishing the Table given below:

NCBTS Domain#1/ Strand Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers (Which Article
Domain 1 - Social Regard for Learning and Sections in the Code of Ethics for Professional
Teachers state basically the same thing as stated in the

Article XI - The Teacher as a Person

Strand 1. Acts as a positive role model for
Section 1. A teacher shall live with dignity in all places at
all times.
Section 3. A teacher shall maintain at all times a dignified
personality which could serve as model worthy of emulation
by learners, peers and others.
Article III - The Teacher and the Community
Section 3. Every teacher shall merit reasonable social
recognition for which purpose he shall behave with honor
and dignity at all times and refrain from such activities as
gambling, smoking, drunkenness and other excesses.
Article X - The Teacher and Business
Section 2. A teacher shall maintain a good reputation with
respect to financial such as in the settlement of his debt,
loans and other financial affairs.

Domain 2 - Learning Environment

Strand 1. Creates an environment that Article III - The teacher and the Community
promotes fairness Section1. A teacher is a facilitator of learning and of the
Strand 2. Makes the physical environment safe development of the youth; he shall, therefore, render the
and conducive to learning best services by providing an environment conducive to such
Strand 3. Communicates higher learning learning and growth
expectations to each learner Section4. Every teacher shall help the school keep the
Strand 4. Establishes and maintains consistent people in the community, and shall, therefore, study and
standards of learners’ behavior understand local customs and traditions in order to have a
sympathetic attitude, therefore, refrain from disparaging the

Domain 3 - Diversity of Learners

Strand 1. Is familiar with learner’s Article VII - The Teacher and Learners
background knowledge and experiences Section 1. A teacher has the right and duly to determine the
Strand 2. Demonstrates concern for holistic academic marks and promotion of learners in the subjects
development of learners they handle. Such determination shall be in accordance with
generally accepted producers of evaluations and
Section 2. A teacher shall recognize that the interest and
welfare of the learners are his first and foremost concern,
and shall handle each learner justly and impartially.
Domain 4 - Curriculum

Strand 1.Demonstrates mastery of the subject Article IV - The Teacher and the Profession
Strand 2. Communicates clear learning goals Section 2. Every teacher shall uphold the highest possible
for the lessons that are appropriate for standards of quality education, shall make the best
learners. preparation for the career of teaching, and shall be at his
Strand 3. Makes good use of allotted best at all times in the practice of his profession.
instructional time
Strand 4. Selects teaching methods, learning
activities and instructional materials or
resources appropriate to learners and aligned
to the objective of the lesson
Strand 5. Teacher recognizes general learning
processes as well as unique processes of
individual learners
Strand 6. Teacher promotes purposive study.
Domain 5 - Planning, Assessing and Reporting

Strand 1. Communicated promptly and clearly Article IX The Teacher and Parents
to learners, parents and superiors about the Section 1. A teacher shall establish and maintain cordial
progress of learners relations with parents and shall conduct himself to merit
Strand 2. Develops and uses of appropriate their confidence and respect
assessment strategies to monitor and evaluate Section 2. A teacher shall inform parents, through proper
learning authorities, of the progress or deficiencies of learners under
Strand 3. Monitors and provides feedback on him, exercising utmost candor and tact in pointing out
learner’s understanding of content learner’s deficiencies and in seeking parents’ cooperation
for the proper guidance and improvement of learners.
Section 3. A teacher shall hear parent’s complaints with
sympathy and understanding and shall discourage unfair

Domain 6 - Community Linkages

Strand 1. Establishes learning environments Article III - The teacher and the Community
that respond to the aspirations of the Section1. A teacher is a facilitator of learning and of the
community development of the youth; he shall, therefore, render the
best services by providing an environment conducive to such
learning and growth.

Domain 7 - Personal Growth and Professional


Strand 1. Takes pride in the nobility of Article IV - The Teacher and the Profession
teaching as a profession Section 1. Every teacher shall actively help insure that
Strand 2. Builds professional links with teaching is the noblest profession, and shall manifest
colleagues to enrich teaching practice genuine enthusiasm and pride in teaching as a noble
Strand 3. Reflects on the extent of the calling.
attainment of professional development goals Section 2. Every teacher shall uphold the highest possible
standards of quality education, shall make the best
preparation for the career of teaching, and shall be at his
best at all times in the practice of his profession.
Section 3. Every teacher shall participate in the continuing
professional education (CPE) program of the Professional
Regulation Commission, and shall pursue such other studies
as will improve his efficiency, enhance the prestige of the
profession, and strengthen his competence, virtues, and
productivity in order to be nationally and internationally
C. For Group #8: By means of four (4) separate graphic organizers, show the different groups with whom
the teacher relates and write down the key word/s that describe/s how the teacher should relate to each
group. See the graphic organizer below.


*Promotes obedience to
the laws of the state
*committed and devoted
to duty

Higher authorities
in the Phils.
Professional Community leader
*understands and
supports the Teacher Behaves with honor
legitimate policies of and dignity at all
the school and the time

Teaching Community

*Understands and respect the

values and traditions of the
diverse cultures represented
in the community and in
his/her classroom

D. For Group 1-7 (Maintain the same groupings in #1): Your teacher education curriculum consists of
three (3) parts, namely; General Education, Professional Education and Specialization. Examine if the
teacher education curriculum you are presently undergoing adequately prepares you for competencies
contained in the NCBTSs. Pay specific attention to the Professional Education component of the
curriculum. To do this, a Table like the one below can be of help. An example is given for you.

NCBTS Domain # 1 Subjects in the Teacher Education Curriculum

Domain 1. Social Regard Gen Ad Prof Ed Specialization
for Learning
1. Act as a positive role 1. Teaching profession
model for students
NCBTS Domain # 2 Subjects in the Teacher Education Curriculum
Domain 2. Learning Gen Ad Prof Ed Specialization

NCBTS Domain # 3 Subjects in the Teacher Education Curriculum

Domain 3. Social Regard Gen Ad Prof Ed Specialization
for Learning

NCBTS Domain # Subjects in the Teacher Education Curriculum

Domain 4. Social Regard Gen Ad Prof Ed Specialization
for Learning

NCBTS Domain # Subjects in the Teacher Education Curriculum

Domain 5. Social Regard Gen Ad Prof Ed Specialization
for Learning

NCBTS Domain # 6 Subjects in the Teacher Education Curriculum

Domain 6. Social Regard Gen Ad Prof Ed Specialization
for Learning

NCBTS Domain # 7 Subjects in the Teacher Education Curriculum

Domain 7. Social Regard Gen Ad Prof Ed Specialization
for Learning

E. For Group # 8: Study the following criteria *used by DepEd in evaluating applicants position in the
public schools. Then explain if your pre-service education in the College of Education or teacher
education institution is relevant and increases your chance to be hired as a teacher in the public school.
Write your comment on the space provided.

Criteria Points
Education (Applicant’s academic achievement indicated by General Weighted Average)** 20
A. Teaching Experience 15
B. LET/PBET Rating 25
C. Specialized Training and Skills 10
D. Interview 10
E. Demonstration Teaching 15
F. Communication Skills 15

*For the complete details of the hiring guidelines for Teacher 1 positions, refer to DepEd Order No. 7,
s.2015. You may visit
**Applicants with non-Education degrees shall be rated by using their General Weighted Average in
their baccalaureate degrees and the 18 professional units in education.
1. Tell something about the teacher in the classroom and in the community by completing this

T- Teaches

E- Everything

A - Affects every

C- Child, A

H- Hero in disguise

E- Endures anything just to

R- Render service to every human being

2. Reflect on the teacher as she goes about her task in the classroom and in the community. In what
way is she/he……

A piece of iron?
A teacher is a like a piece of iron, hard at times for they want their students to learn
A well?
A well is deep, so as teachers. They have deep concern on students and to their community
A planter?
Teachers plant good seeds which are the students. They plant good things in the students’ minds
A gardener?
A teacher is a gardener because he plants, nurtures and takes care of his plants which are his
A door?
He opens opportunities to students and closes things that are not necessary for students’
development as a person
A wakeup call?
Teachers are wake up calls. They wake our sleeping minds and teaches us the knowledge needed
for our own growth
A potter?
A teacher is a potter. He molds the students to become better individuals
A mirror?
Teachers are mirrors. They are the reflection o what their students will become in the future
An assessor?
They evaluate their students whether they have learned or not
A nurse?
They take care of students. In school, they act as the students’ second parents. So it is their
responsibility to take good care of them

3. Read this poem “You Are Teacher” then answer the following questions on page 84:

If I speak interestingly, effectively, and well,

But do not understand my students
I am a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal.
If I know all of the methods and techniques of teaching,
If I have complete faith that they will work,
So that I use them completely,
But think only of materials of techniques
instead of how they can help my students,
I count for nothing.
If I go the second mile in my teaching,
Give up many activities,
But do it without understanding,
It does no good,
Love is very patient, very kind;
Love is not jealous, it does not put on airs;
It is never tyrannical, never;
Yet does insist on truth;
It does not become angry;
It is not resentful,
Love always expects the best of others;
It is gladdened when they live up to these expectations,
Slow to lose faith when they do not.
It will bear anything,
Hope anything,
Endure anything.
This kind of love will never fail
If there are teaching methods, they will change;
If there are curricula, they will be revised.
For our knowledge is imperfect
And our teaching is imperfect,
And we are always looking for the better ways
Which an infinite God has placed ahead of us,
When I began to teach, I fumbled and failed;
Now I have put away some of my childish ways,
At present I am learning bit by bit;
But if I keep on seeking, I shall at last understand
As all along I myself have been understood.
So faith, hope and love endure.
These are the great three
But the greatest of them is love.
 Which line of the poem do you like most? Why?

“At present I am learning bit by bit;”

 This line talks about persistence in learning. Everyone makes mistakes because no one is perfect.
What is important is how you rise above it despite the failures.

 What mental portrait of the teacher in the classroom and the teacher in the community is painted
by the poem, “You are a Teacher”?
 The poem describes how the teacher endures his/her profession through faith, hope and love.

4. Read your name through the poem like this: Brenda, You are a teacher.

If Brenda speaks interestingly, effectively and well

But does not understand her students
Brenda is a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal.

Call on other students to read their names through the other lines of the poem.

Reflection question:
How did you feel when you read your name through the lines of the poem? Describe and explain why.

 I felt sad, because I was compared to a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal. It means no one
understands me. I speak with intentions to share but no one would care to listen.

5. Give the poem “You Are a Teacher” a tune then sing it. Choreograph it.

6. Conduct a meta-analysis of researches on the qualities of a good teacher. Between the professional
qualities and personal qualities of a teacher, which ones are perceived to be more important?

 Teacher quality matters. In fact, it is the most important school-related factor influencing student
achievement. They must adjust to world of learner to be able to rich them and taught them.
Teacher must possess the skill in communication, learning and innovation, information, media
and technology and life and career. In this century teacher is the guide for the learner’s new
learning. Not only the learner learns but also the teacher learns from his student. Because its
technology based learning, the teacher must critically analyzes and evaluate information’s from
various sources. Some resource is not applicable to use and some information is not accurate for
Synapse Strengthener
1. By means of a graphic organizer, describe the 21st century teacher by completely presenting the 21st
century skills.

Communication skills
Highly collaborations
Use technology for

Learning and
21st Century
innovation skills
Teacher Innovative and a
lifelong learning

Collaborates and
interrelates with
Life and career
others from all Critically analyze skills
walks of life and evaluate

2. Develop a questionnaire that makes use of a Likert scale to determine the extent to which a teacher
possesses the 21st century skills. The first is done for you.

Direction: To what extent do you do each of the following? Check the column that corresponds to
your answer.

1 – Never
2 – Rarely
3 – Sometimes
4 – Often
5 – Always

21st Century Skill 1 2 3 4 5

Creativity and Innovation 
Collaboration and Teamwork 
Communication skill 
Information Literacy 
Creative Thinking 
Media Literacy 
Technology Literacy 
Flexibility 
Initiative 
Social skills 
Productivity 
Leadership 
Synapse Strengthener

1. Name some problems originating from the community experienced by teachers in the school,
regarding: In what way can the community help?

 Traffic and transportation

 Due to traffic and transportation teachers are experiencing delays in going to schools.
Community should help lessen the problem by assigning organization to have volunteers trained
to be able to regulate traffic

 Availability of water and lighting system

 The government officials under DepEd must be informed to check discrepancies in school
facilities to maintain good and proper accommodation to school faculty and students.

 Security measures for children

 The government officials shall strengthen security measures in assigning additional security
guards in every school. Government should also hold a regular drill to avoid disorder in times of
uncontrolled phenomenon.

2. Describe how school and community officials work together in each of the following events:

 Socio-cultural activities
 Both parties participate in celebrating town fiesta.

 Peace and order situation

-in peace
-outside the school
 Community official organizes checkpoints at school zone area to maintain peace and order.

 Projects
 Holding fund-raising programs or any activities that led benefit for both parties.

3. What are some learning resources existing in the community that school children and
Personnel can visit for mutual assistance and enjoyment.
Please check.
parks factories
museums industries
library shopping mall 
concert halls conference mall 
movie house  sport and recreational hall 
art gallery  others, specify____________

4. How is the community assisted by the school in return? Please check

 as resources person in town assemblies

 participants in town celebrations
 modeling desirable values
 helping in community projects Others, specify______
Lesson 4
For Discussion

1. What advantages are obtained by the students’ population brought about by a consortium arranged
among by universities and colleges?
 Eligible students can benefit from this cooperative arrangement that is designed to permit the
sharing of academic resources by member institutions. Students can enroll from courses that are
not available at their home institution and other institution to augment their program of study.
Students enrolled for classes at participating consortium institutions through the consortium
program can have the course count as resident credits at their home institution. Students pay
their home institution’s tuition rate for the courses they register for through the consortium
program. Students are responsible for paying these additional fees associated with certain
courses (e.g. studio fees, lab fees, books, study materials, etc.)

2. Do you recommend such networking projects among government schools only? Why?
 Networking is a matter of creating useful linkages, both within and among communities,
organizations, and societies in order to mobilize resources and achieve various goals. Example
of networking activities include attending trade or professional association, meetings,
volunteering for community work, visiting with other members of one’s social clubs or religious
group, posting messages on mailing lists, and talking with other people in one’s community.
Networking contacts are found through friends, extended family, alumni associations, former
bosses, and members of the various clubs, religious group or other organizations to which one

Do This
Surf the internet for other organizations and report on the educational services assistance given to out of
school youth, parents and other community members.

Networking with Government Offices

A. Literacy Coordinating Council (LCC) under the DepEd trains Trainor’s who handle literacy training
courses among the youth.
 The Alternative Learning System, which provides opportunity for out of school youths to use the
education services of DepEd and take the accreditation and equivalency test, paving the way for
further education.
 Open high school and night school opportunities.
 Establishment of schools in areas without schools.

B. The Dept. of science and Technology (DOST) supports undergraduate and graduate scholarships
program in science and mathematics in the Regional Science Teaching Centers which were selected
Centers and Excellence by the Technical Panel for Teacher Education (CHED).
 Provides scholarship for undergraduate students enrolled or accepted in the College of
 Recipients are selected on the basis of demonstrated financial need.
 Renewable if the recipients maintains satisfactory academic progress.
 Recipients are selected by the Office of Scholarship and Financial Aid.
 Awarded to undergraduate students in the College of Education.
 Recipients are selected on the basis of need and merit.
C. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) organizes Technical Panel for all professionals,
select institutions as a Centers of Excellence in their chosen fields regularly benchmarks the
curricula of all degrees with international standards.
 The Centered of Excellence (COE) are colleges/departments within, is offering distinct business
and management programs that have continuously exhibited an excellent ability to produce
quality business and management professionals relevant to the needs of industry, to conduct
research that attributes to the body of knowledge in the field, and to engage in extension services
that contributes to national development.

D. The Teacher Education Council (TEC) of the DepEd focuses its program on teacher education
policies and standards. This is the link between DEpEd and CHED.
 Training programs such as those conducted by the Teacher Education council (TEC) dubbed as
a Teacher Induction Program (TIP) set a good example of programs that make new teachers
aware of NCBTS and conscious of the competencies they should be equipped with to meet the
demands of the 21st century.

Networking in Media

A. Broadcasts ABS-CBN and GMA Foundation provide assistance to school children and teachers
through their educational broadcast, donations of instructional materials and school buildings and
conducting interviews of achievers in various professions.
 Bantay bata has also opened the door for educational opportunities for kids under its Bantay
Edukasyon initiative, which in the past ten years has provided scholarship for more than 1,66o
children from elementary to high school.
 The Educational TV (ETV) programs provide adopted public elementary schools with an audio-
visual educational library which helps augment the Philippine Department of Education’s
(DepEd) national curriculum. With ETV enhancing the learning experience, the grades of school
children have consistently improved- to as much as 70% in test scores in math, 57% in Hekasi (a
subject which teaches geography, history and civics), 40% in English and 35% in Science.

B. Government and private channels, likewise, include award winning entries to national
competitions in the fields of education, sports, and healthcare.
 History Channel, Ultimate Pinot Quiz, the Learning Channel, Knowledge Channel, Milo,

C. Historic and Cultural events and celebration brought to all homes promote the spirit of
nationalism and pride. Technical know-how and methodical procedures serve as welcome guides
in daily activities.

D. Publication and Prints

Publication through the daily newspapers, magazines and other reading materials are rich sources
of information for purpose. Important events, international, national and local are are recorded
filed future references. Outstanding speeches, papers read in conferences and literary pieces are
prints that provide valuable insights and enlightenment.
 Philippine Daily Inquirer and The Philippine Star

E. Project Materials
Education films and projected documentaries widen children’s knowledge and outlook for
growth and development. Videotapes on the overview of the K to 12 curriculum.
 News TV, iWetness, KAMPANYASERYE, KRUSADA, TV Patrol, Rated K
Possible Research Topics

1. Survey the organizations (civic and academic) that exist in a particular city province or town.
Discuss how they assist the school.
 1. NGOs- donated books, technologies and also they offered scholarship.
 2. School Alumni- they conducting a medical mission to the students in school.
 3. SM Foundation INC-donated a classroom/school buildings.
 4. Knowledge Channel- donated video materials.
 5. Aklat Sisikat Foundation, INC- donated books.
 6. FUSE via CONSTEL Program- donated computers, large LCD screen and Computer

2. Research on:
How the ABS-CBN and GMA Foundation assist schools and school children nationwide.
 The ABS-CBN foundation funds at least a couple of projects to help school.
 Bantay bata has also opened the door for educational opportunities for kids under its Bantay
Edukasyon initiative, which in the past ten years has provided scholarship for more than 1,66o
children from elementary to high school.Lesson 1- Self- check questions:

Instruction: Answer agree or disagree with the statements that follow.

1. A teacher has to earn prestigious award to be labeled as a global teacher. DISAGREE

2. To become a global teacher, on should be fluent in English and other languages. AGREE
3. A Filipino teacher cannot qualify to teach in other countries because in differences in
curriculum. DISAGREE
4. To be globally competitive, teachers should develop competencies in the use technology.
5. Global education provides the same standards for quality education worldwide. AGREE
6. Teachers, who embrace global education, must have a good understanding of the different
cultures of the learners. AGREE
7. For Filipino teachers, the NCBTS is a national standard that meets global competencies.
8. Teachers in far flung schools cannot be considered global teachers. DISAGREE
9. Your curriculum in teacher education prepares you to be global teachers. AGREE
10. A global teacher has wider view of what education is all about. AGREE

Lesson 1-take Action

As a group, go to school and ask the principal or school head for the Outstanding School Teacher.
Request an interview with the teacher. Among others, your interview protocol should include the
characteristics or qualities mentioned in your text. Write a report and share this with your classmates.
 Actually I was lucky enough to have several outstanding teachers. The best ones I had were the most
passionate and demanding. They were sharing their passion and lots of details during classes. I
couldn’t help but participate as much as possible! I am very enthusiastic and love to work and learn
with passionate people who are focused on doing their best.
Lesson 1-Make a reflection

 Can an outstanding teacher in the neighborhood school whom you have interviewed be classified as a
global teacher? Why? Why not?
 Yes, because she has these characteristics that an outstanding and global teacher must have. She’s
a global teacher that possesses good character. She masters her subject with excellent
competence. She has a correct mindset that develops critical thinking skills. She is a good
communicator and a person with sincerity. And most of all she develops love and passion to his
commitment as a teacher.

 Can one be a global teacher, without teaching abroad? Write your insights
 Definitely yes. Being a global teacher must not mean going out of the country and teach there. A
global teacher is the one who acts locally but thinks globally.

 Reflect on the statement: “As a global teacher, act locally but think globally.” Add this reflection in
your portfolio.
 It means that a teacher doesn’t necessarily need to go abroad to be consider as globally
competitive teacher. It depends on your ability to think with competence. Everyone has a chance to
be called such if s/he develops the essence of a global teacher.

Lesson 1: Take Action!

So you have traveled to some places of the world. You surveyed examples of educational systems that
have educated millions of citizens in one big classroom: the world. As future GLOBAL teacher, it is
best that you become familiar with some of these educational systems. Let us now find out how much
have you learned:

Make a matrix using the example below:

A. Title: Educational System of Selected Countries of the World

Name of the Description of Each

Level of Education Special Features
countries Level
Australia Primary school 1-4 years old -Free education in basic
Junior high school 5-6 years old education
Senior high school 12-13 years old Spiral education
College 16-17 years old -Government assistance enrolling
in senior high school in private

China Primary education 6 years Open door policy

Junior middle 3 years
school 3 years
Senior middle 6 years
Japan Elementary school 6 years -Students perform far better on
Lower secondary 3 years interactional examination than
school 3 years American do.
Upper secondary 4 years -Lack of crime
school -Respectful
University school

South Africa Primary school

Junior high school
Senior high school
United States of Pre-school 1-4 years old -Free education in basic
America Junior high school 5-6 years old education
Senior high school 12-13 years old -Spiral education
Graduate school 16-17 years old -Government assistance enrolling
in senior high school in private
New Zealand · Primary school Birth-5 years old -Early childhood
· Junior high 5-13 years old -Primary school
school 11-17 years old -Intermediate school
· Senior high 11-17 years -Secondary school
school 17 onward -Tertiary
· College

Philippines Kindergarten 6 years -Free education

Elementary 4 years -Spiral Curriculum
Junior high school 2 years
Senior high school 4 years

B. Search about the K to 12 basic Education Curriculum of the Philippines.

 K to 12 (also K-12) is an education system under the Department of Education that aims to
enhance learners’ basic skills, produce more competent citizens, and prepare graduates for
lifelong learning and employment. “K”stands for Kindergarten and “12” refers to the
succeeding12 years of basic education (6 years of elementary education, 4 years of junior high
school, and 2 years of senior high school). At present, the Philippines is the last country in Asia
and one of only three countries in the world with a 10-year pre-university program.

Lesson 2-Make a Reflection!

1. Based on your matrix of the various educational systems of the others countries, how would you
compare our Philippines educational system? In what aspects are we similar with other countries? Is
our educational system globally competitive? How do you see yourself in the K to 12 Curriculum as
a teacher?
 I learned that most of the countries that have mention in this topic are different in educational
system like when the children go to school. They vary the way they manage the school policies and
the numbers of year in every level, primary and secondary. Before can enroll in grade 1 level
without taking kindergarten but now Kindergarten in our country is compulsory because we have
a new curriculum the K to 12 program which means from kindergarten to twelve years of basic
education. We need to make Kindergarten as compulsory for the learners to have an adjustment in
school. So, when they enroll in the next level they will know how to handle themselves. I realized
that different counties as well as different educational system. We compare those counties and we
can notice that we are behind. Let us support the k to 12 program, though many of our parents
nowadays is complaining about this because they don't know the positive result of having this. As a
future teacher I will keep on reminding them of what is there in our new curriculum. I will gather
them and give them a positive look about this to enlighten them. I think that is possible to happen.
Each of the countries have similarities like the Philippines, now they follow the curriculum of the
United State. Also with Australia, their educational system is similar with the educational system
of Canada and England that they have the same basic education. Unlike China, they have k to 13
curriculum. I see that most of the countries right now are following the k to 12 curriculum. It is
good thing that most of the country has free basic education which is compulsory for all the
students. South Africa should follow the trends of education which is the k to 12 curriculum. Like
the Philippines before that they do not have senior high school. I think it is really important to
follow the k to 12 program to enhance the skills of the student.

2. If given an opportunity to experience teaching in another country listed above, where would you like
to teach? Why?
 If there would greater be opportunity then most probably yes. Working abroad can offer me a lot
of benefits. Aside from the personal gains it will.

Lesson 2- Self –check Questions
All the items refer to Lesson 2. Choose the correct answer from the choices given.

1. For the majority of sample countries given in this lesson, at what level is free-compulsory education
a. Primary level
b. Primary up to certain level in secondary level.
c. Both primary and secondary levels.
d. Post-secondary level only

2. From what educational system does Australia pattern its own?

a. England
b. United State of America
c. Japan
d. United Nations

3. Based on the curriculum requirement provided by the selected countries, the language which is
seemingly universal is____________.
a. Spanish
b. English
c. Chinese
d. French

4. Higher education in all countries presented can be described as___________.

a. selective and not compulsory
b. compulsory but selective
c. voluntary and very affordable
d. accessible and democratic for all

5. All of the example countries have basic education for_______________.

a. six years
b. ten years
c .twelve years
d. fourteen years
6. The unique feature of the current K to 12 is that the Filipino learner will become__________.
a. monolingual
b. multilingual
c. English speaking only
d. Tagalog speaking only

7. Philippine education now has become comparable to other countries, by

a. using English as a medium of instruction
b. adding two more years in basic education
c. using a spiral curriculum
d. returning back to the basic

Lesson 3 - Take Action!

By groups or cluster, choose only one of two actions.
1. Let us make observations if the concepts we learned are present in our classrooms. Secure the
necessary permit to observe in a classroom. Based on your observations, answer the following
1.1 How do the children differ from each other in one class?
1.2 Identify in what aspect do they differ? Describe the difference.
 Culture
 Ethnic origin
 Religion
 Gender
 Economic status
1.3 What behaviors of the children in the classroom indicate the diversity in the backgrounds?
2. Using the worldwide web, identify at least two three learners (elementary or high school) from other
parts of the world. Example: 1from Asia, 1 from America and 1 from Europe. Identify their
characteristics as an individual and as a learner. What are the similarities? What are the differences?
Share your observations with the class.

Lesson 3 - Make a Reflection

Situation 1:
Mrs. Rosa Rose a teacher born and raised in the Visayas married a Tausog in Jolo, Sulu. The marriage
necessitated her to transfer teaching in the place of her husband who is also a teacher. Coming from a
different family background in terms of religion, ethnic origin, and social background, Mrs. Rose has to
adjust to her present relocated residence. She was accepted to teach in one of the elementary schools in
the area where a mixture of different ethnic groups are enrolled. Reflect on the situation given.
1. What is teaching challenges will Mrs. Rose encounter with her diverse students?
2. How would she address these challenges as a multicultural teacher?
3. What personal dilemmas will she encounter? If you were in her place, what would you do?

Situation 2:
You are to teach in an international school in Indonesia. You graduated from one of the teacher
education institutions in the Philippines. The school curriculum is American-based, but your
students come from different countries but majority are Indonesian national.
1. What are challenges are seen in your classroom?
2. How would you prepare to meet these challenges?
Lesson 3-Self-check Question

1. Name at least five characteristics of a multi-cultural classroom.

 Delivery must acknowledge and address a diversity of learning styles while challenging dynamics
of power and privilege in the classroom.
 Content must be complete and accurate, acknowledging the contributions and perspectives of ALL
 Teaching and learning materials must be diverse and critically examined for bias.
 Perspective Content must be presented from a variety of perspectives and angles in order to be
accurate and complete.
 Critical Inclusivity Students must be engaged in the teaching and learning process—transcend the
banking method and facilitate experiences in which students learn from each other's experiences
and perspectives.

2. What are some guidelines for a teacher who handles children with diverse background?
 Learn about your own and student’s culture
 Understand your students
 dents’ linguistic traits
 Use this knowledge to inform your teaching
 Use multicultural books and materials to foster cross-cultural understanding
 Know about your students’ home and school relationships

3. List some cultural stereotypes that must be avoided.

To engage students effectively in the learning process, teachers must know their students and their
academic abilities individually, rather than relying on racial or ethnic stereotypes or prior experience
with other students of similar backgrounds.
 boys are more intelligent than girls
 girls are better at reading and writing
 boys don’t become nurses and girls aren’t engineers

Lesson 4-take Action!

1. Download from the internet more information about the teacher exchange program.
 The American English E-Teacher Program offers foreign English teaching professionals the
opportunity to take innovative, online university-level classes and online professional development
programming for teachers through FHI360.
American English E-Teacher Courses: Introduce and explore current methodological concepts and
issues in the English as a Foreign Language field. Provide an innovative distance-learning experience
that uses the latest technology. Connect participants with U.S. English language teaching experts and
creates a professional network of international colleagues

2. Write the Philippine-American Educational Foundation to inquire about the Fulbright Teacher
Exchange Program. Secure as much information as possible. Share your findings with your
 FULBRIGHT TEACHER EXCHANGE PROGRAM • since 1946, the Fulbright Teacher Exchange
Program has helped nearly 23,000 teachers and school administrators to promote mutual
understanding between the United States and countries around the world. For the U.S. teachers,
this opportunity involves a year or semester direct exchange with a counterpart in another country
teaching the same subject at the same level
3. Interview a member of your faculty or other teacher who has participated in any faculty exchange
programs or scholarship programs abroad. Make a brief report of your interview.
 Meet Ramil Buenaventura, the man who makes algebra look awesome at the Renaissance Charter
School in Jackson Heights, New York, USA
 Ramil Buenaventura was born and raised in Mandaluyong City, Metro Manila.
 He came to the US under the exchange teacher program by Mayor Michael Bloomberg.
 Buenaventura sings, raps and facilitate games (which is also applied in the subject) for students
to understand math in the most exciting way -- and as easy as karaoke.
 Buenaventura received the Daily News' Hometown Hero Award in New York because of his
energetic and creative approach to teaching.
 New York City also recognized him with the Big Apple Award, one of 12 recipients from over
3,000 nominees.

"It's an honor and it is also an acknowledgement of the Filipino workers here in the States, an
acknowledgement of the galing ng Filipino," he said.Lesson 4- Make a Reflection
Using the data that you gathered from item number 3 above, make a reflection. Focus your reflection
on the following items.

1. Personal gains or benefits derived from the exchange or scholarship program abroad
 He earned salary rate much higher compare here in the Philippines
 Learned foreign language
 Fantastic travel opportunities
 Builds friendships around the world
 Made lifetime memories

2. Professional development achieved from the experiences

 International work experience
 Experienced new cultural interest
 Gain highly marketable professional skills
 Gaining ability to adapt to a new environment

Lesson 4-Self- Check questions

1. What are the purposes of the Teacher Exchange Programs?
 Teacher exchange programs and/or services have been in existence since the first part of the
twentieth century. The first recognized program, the Fulbright Classroom Teacher Exchange
Program, was established in 1946 with the purpose of increasing mutual understanding of the
people of the United States and people of other countries (Fulbright, 2009). It was the flagship
international exchange program sponsored by the United States government and it still is the most
recognized teacher exchange program in the United States (Fulbright, 2009).

2. As a prospective Filipino teacher, what benefits will you derive from these programs?
 Engaging in these programs will help you to enhance professional development and broaden your

3. How will the teacher exchange programs develop you as a global teacher?
 It will broaden your teaching perspectives. Expanding your experiences beyond the confines of
your Classroom to the wider learning environment of the world is one of the many avenues in
order to achieve a level of global competitiveness. Opportunities for this endeavor can be achieved
through teacher exchange programs.
Lesson 5- Take Action!
This activity focuses on what a school is doing with technology. Try not to focus too much on the
technology itself (how many computers) but on what is happening with the computers. Write a short
narrative of your visit that includes your views on what is happening in the school and some ideas that
you would want to implement if you were teaching in that environment. To help you write your
narrative, use the observation sheet for your visit.

Technology Use in the Classroom

Directions: Do not use actual names of schools, teacher, administrators or students when using this

Observer’s Name:
Date: Sept 12, 2018
Grade level: Grade 11 (Senior High Students)
Subject: Empowerment Technology
Class size: more or less 20 students
Technology in the classroom: Their computer laboratory is an air-conditioned classroom. It is
filled with computer facilities like desktop computers, laptops, projectors and other important
facilities needed by them.
Location and Placement in the room: The room is located at the first building on the main area
near the entrance gate. Room is well ventilated and things (chairs, tables, facilities and equipment)
are properly arranged.
Background Information: Give a brief general description of the school. (Social, economic, school
population: teachers and students) Include the school’s goal for use of technology: The school is
located slightly distant from the town main area and is near the rice fields. It is a hillside structure
type of location. Students are needed to ride a tricycle or any vehicle that could reach the top main
entrance. The school is wide area. After passing the gate, you need to take a few steps up way the
stairs to reach the administration office. Admin’s office is located at the center of the front area of
the school. Sideways are classroom buildings. Great number of classrooms as well as the
gymnasium is located at the back portion of admin’s building. Like other schools students also
dominate hallways and side areas. They are courteous in a manner that they greet every visitor who
visits. Teachers are approachable and professionally well mannered. In general this is a good
example of an environment-friendly school for the teachers and students.

 During your observation, notice how many students use technology and how technology is being
used. Observation can be recorded in narrative form. You may include the information gathered
from the questions raised below?

1. How familiar are the students with the technology?

 Internet has been the main factor of increasing the interest of students to technology.

2. What kinds of software are the students using?

 Instructional software is being used by the students especially on working their activities and

3. Are the students really engaged in their activities?

 Yes, students enjoy their engagement with activities. Through the use of computers they are able to
make their work more fun and creative. Technology helps them boost their interest on their
subjects especially on computer fields.
4. How does the teacher interact with the students with the use of technology?
 Teachers were able to do their lectures through laptops and projectors. Visuals are very engaging.
All activities are done through personal computers.

5. What are the other materials used by the students along with computers?
 They are still provided with handouts on lectures and worksheets for activity use. Aside from that,
notebooks are still considered for note-takings.

Teacher Question:
Try to arrange for an interview with the teacher for a few minutes about her/his use of technology. Ask
questions such as the following:

1. What kinds of thing do you use technology for?

 Technology is used in preparing for lectures like making a PowerPoint. Activities and worksheets
are done through computer software like MS Word and Excel. In doing a research about a topic
internet makes it also more easy and efficient.

2. Do you think technology has been useful for your students?

 Absolutely, technology is very useful for my students. It makes our work more efficient and

3. What kinds of technologies would you like to have in your class?

 Access to internet will be one effective additional tool in transmitting some ideas to my students.

4. How good is the support that you get at a school, district or division level for working with
 It is good to feel that our school allows the classroom like us to be modernized in technology. It is
important that they know how it is necessary to provide such support to teaching and learning

5. What innovations have you introduced with the use of technology?

 As an ordinary and beginner in this school it is still early to provide innovation in this community,
however, for my own perspective I think I was able to inspire other teachers to engage in a
technology-based type of learning environment. I hope that through these practices other teachers
might be able to get ideas and inspiration from me to be more innovative in teaching strategies.
Students Questions
Ask permission from the teacher to interview one students from the class.
Ask questions such as the following:

1. Do you like using technology?

 Yes, of course. Technology makes our life more fun and easy.

2. What do you like to most with the help of technology?

 Through technology I enjoy my time surfing on internet and even browsing important
information needed in our subject.

3. What kinds of technology would you like to have in the class that you do not have now?
 If given a chance, I like to have my own laptop. It will be a great help in pursing my studies.

4. Does the technology make you learn? In what ways?

 Yes. Through the use of technology I was able to exercise my freedom for information. It also
widens my knowledge to new and various ideas today.

Make a record of the answer to the questions in your notebook as a basis of your narrative report.

Lesson 5 - Make a Reflection!

Based on your observations and interviews make a reflection on the following:

1. The level of technology used in the classroom

 The level of technology used in the classroom is sufficient enough to create an effective learning
environment for the students. Teacher and students easily adapt to the process. All learning tools
allow teacher to provide an innovative strategy in developing learning goals. They also encountered
less difficulty in dealing with lessons delivery that makes the process more effective.

2. The learning outcomes derived from the technology use.

 As technology continues to develop on its integration with teacher and students in a classroom, it
derives learning outcomes to the both recipient. For teachers, using of technology could open to a
lot of ideas and could also create more innovations in the future. And for the students, technology
won’t limit the possibility it could bring on their learning standards.

3. Your suggestions if you are the one teaching with the use of technology.
 If I will be given a chance to teach with the use of technology, my approach will be the same like
her. Like me, I am also fond of using technology and I won’t limit myself to bigger innovations it can
give. Technology is already dominating the world and I’ll be using it on the best way with the best
purpose as long as it causes no harm.

4. Your overall reflection on the technology and innovative teaching.

 With a global perspective, educational technologies and innovative teaching are imperative in
today’s time. The unlimited resource of available technology and its utilization for innovative
teaching promises challenging experience for prospective teachers. It clearly underscored that
technology can provide support to teaching in the resolutions of meaningful problems, act as a
scaffolding to learning, and promote independent learning and collaboration with experts.
Lesson 5 - Self – check Questions
Identify the following concept that you have learned in this lesson.

1. Outputs of discoveries and inventions which are utilized to improve teaching and learning such as
computers and all its software are referred to as Technology
2. Simulations or exploratory environments which allow actions and investigates right inside the
classroom through computer software are called Micro worlds.
3. The entire National Geographic is now kept in a data base called CD-ROM
4. A very popular hypertext system labeled as www is referred to as World Wide Web.
5. Which term is used when student participants are brought to a field trip without physically bringing
them to the site? Virtual electronic field trip

Read and make a decision based on your experiences and information. Write Agree or Disagree

AGREE 1. The introduction of technology is the classroom leads to teaching innovations.

AGREE 2. It is imperative for a teacher to learn and use technology in teaching.

DISAGREE 3. Only those who have access to the internet can use technology.

AGREE 4. Even with use of technology, the diversity of learners should be considered.

AGREE 5. Technology in the classroom should support learning, rather than hinder it.
Synapse Strengtheners
1. Is teaching your first choice as a career? Why?
 NO. I first took up Information Technology course.

2. What do you profess when you become a teacher?

 If I will be a teacher someday I will live up to the ideals of what a true professional is ought to
become. My goal is to obey their standards. I chose this profession and it is my obligation to follow
and stay true to my commitment.

3. What are expected of a teacher as a professional?

 Teachers are expected to be value-driven, guided by principles and a purpose bigger than
themselves. Teachers encompasses quality trait of a true professional.

For Research
Research on the operational definitions of:

 Profession - a paid occupation, especially one that involves prolonged training and a formal
qualification. It is a vocation requiring mastery of a complex set of knowledge and skills through
formal education and/or practical experience. Every organized profession (accounting, law,
medicine, etc.) is governed by its respective professional body

 Professional - a person engaged or qualified in a profession. A person formally certified by

a professional body of belonging to a specific profession by virtue of having completed a required
course of studies and/or practice. And whose competence can usually be measured against an
established set of standards

 Professionalism- The competence or skill expected of a professional, the practicing of an

activity, especially a sport, by professional rather than.
Synapse Strengtheners
1. Compare PD 1006 and RA 7836 along the following items then give your own observations.

Item PD 1006 RA 7836 Observation

Refers to all persons engaged Refers to all persons They have almost the
1. Definition of in teaching at the elementary engaged in teaching at the same definition of
Teacher and secondary levels, elementary and secondary teacher. RA 7836,
whether on full-time or part- levels, whether on full-time made the definition
time basis, including or part-time basis, of teachers brief.
guidance counselors, school including industrial arts or
librarians, industrial arts or vocational teachers and all
vocational teachers and all other persons performing
other persons performing supervisory and/or
supervisory and/or administrative functions in
administrative functions in all school in the aforesaid
all school in the aforesaid levels and legally qualified
levels and legally qualified to to practice teaching under
practice teaching under this this Act.
The examination shall consist The examination for the In PD 1006,
2. Teachers’ of written tests, the scope of elementary and secondary examinations for
Examination which shall be determined by school teacher shall be both elementary and
the Board, taking into separate. The examination secondary teachers
2.1 Scope of consideration the teaching for teachers in the were composed of
Examination plan of the schools legally elementary level shall written tests and the
constituted in the Philippines. consist of two (2) parts, scope was not clearly
namely: professional stated while in RA
education and general 7836, the
education. The examination examination for
of teachers in secondary teachers in the
level shall consist of three elementary level
(3) parts namely: shall consist of two
professional education, (2) parts, namely:
general education, and professional
field of specialization. education and
general education
and the examination
for teachers in the
secondary level shall
consist of three (3)
parts, namely:
education, general
education, and field
of specialization.
2.2 No applicant shall be No applicant shall be The qualification
Qualification admitted to take the admitted to take the requirements for
Requirements examination unless, on the examination unless, on the examinees in the PD
for Examinees date of filing of the date of filing of the 1006 and RA 7836
application, he shall have application, he shall have are almost the same.
complied with the following complied with the following However, there was
requirements: (a) Except requirements: (a) A citizen a revision on the
those who have been engaged of the Philippines or an qualification of
in teaching as herein defined alien whose country has teachers in
for at least five years in reciprocity with the Elementary and
schools in the Philippines not Philippines in the practice Secondary
organized exclusively for of the teaching profession; Education.
nationals of a foreign country (b) At least eighteen (18) In PD 1006
at the time of the effectivity of years of age; (c) In good Elementary
this Decree, the applicant health and of good Education, a teacher
must be a citizen of the reputation with high moral who holds a
Philippines; (b) That he is of values; (d) Has not been Bachelor's degree in
good moral character; (c) convicted by final judgment Elementary
That he is free from any by a court for an offense Education
physical and/or mental defect involving moral turpitude; (B.S.E.Ed.) or its
which will incapacitate him (e) A graduate of a school, equivalent can teach
to render efficient service; college or university kindergarten and
and (d) That he possesses the recognized by the elementary grades
following minimum government and possesses but in RA 7836,
educational qualifications: 1) the minimum educational teachers in preschool
For teachers in the qualifications, as follows: must be a graduate
kindergarten and elementary (1) For teachers in of bachelor's degree
grades, Bachelor's degree in preschool, a bachelor's in early childhood
Elementary Education degree in early childhood education (BECED)
(B.S.E.Ed.) or its equivalent; education (BECED) or its or its equivalent and
2) For teachers of the equivalent; (2) For for teachers in the
secondary schools, teachers in the elementary elementary grades, a
Bachelor's degree in grades, a bachelor's degree holder of a
Education or its equivalent in elementary education bachelor's degree in
with a major and minor, or a (BSEED) or its equivalent; elementary education
Bachelor's degree in Arts or (3) For teachers in the (BSEED) or its
Sciences with at least secondary grades, a equivalent. On the
eighteen units in professional bachelor's degree in other hand in PD
education; and 3) For education or its equivalent 1006, a holder of
teachers of secondary with a major and minor, or Bachelor's degree in
vocational and two-year a bachelor's degree in arts in Education or its
technical courses, Bachelor's and sciences with at least equivalent with a
degree in the field of ten (10) units in major and minor, or
specialization with at least professional education; and a Bachelor's degree
eighteen units in professional (4) For teachers of in Arts or Sciences
education vocational and two-year can teach in the
technical courses, a secondary schools
bachelor’s degree in the with at least eighteen
field of specialization or its units in professional
equivalent with at least (18) education but in RA
units in professional 7836, at least 10
education. units in professional
education is required
In order that a candidate RA 7836, the rating was not In PD 1006, in order
may be deemed to have inscribed in the act. that a candidate may
2.3 Rating successfully passed the be deemed to have
examination, he must have successfully passed
obtained a general average the examinations, he
of at least 70 per cent in all must have obtained a
subjects, with no rating general average of at
below 50 per cent in any least 70 per cent in
subject. all subjects, with no
rating below 50 per
cent in any subject.
But in RA 7836, the
rating was not
inscribed in the act.
The examination shall report The board shall, within one The report of results
2.4 Report of the ratings obtained by each hundred twenty (120) days in PD 1006 is 150
Results candidate to the Board after the examination, days after the last
within150 days after the last report the ratings obtained day of exam while in
day of the examination, by each candidate to the RA 7836, it takes
unless extended by the latter Professional Regulation only 120 days to
Commission for approval reveal the result.
and appropriate action.
There is hereby created a Board for Teachers
3. National National Board for teachers, National Board for
Board for hereinafter called the Board, Teachers (NBT) was
Teachers to be composed of the directly under the
following: supervision of the Civil
1. Secretary of Education Service Commission. The
and Culture --- (Co- NBT was the first board to
Chairman) exercise regulatory
2. Chairman, Civil Service exercise over the teaching
Commission profession. The regulation
3. Commissioner, and licensing of teachers
Professional Regulations was transferred to the PRC
Commission through the enactment of
4. Two members representing Republic Act No. 7836.
the private sector to be
appointed by the President
--- (Member)
There is hereby created
4. The Board under this Act a Board for
for Professional Teachers,
Professional hereinafter called the
Teachers Board, a collegial body
under the general
supervision and
administrative control of
the Professional Regulation
Commission, hereinafter
referred to as the
Commission composed of
five (5) members who shall
appointed by the President
of the Philippines from
among the recommenders
shall be from the list of
nominees selected by the
accredited association of
teachers , who duly possess
all the qualifications
5. Causes of Causes of revocation of The Board shall have the In PD 1006, causes
revocation of certificate/license were not power, after due notice of of revocation of
certificate/ included in this decree. hearing, to suspend or certificate/license
license revoke the certificate of were not included.
registration of any On the other hand,
registrant to reprimand or causes of revocation
to cancel the temporary of certificate/license
special permit of the holder were included in RA
thereof who is exempt from 7836.
registration, for any of the
following causes:
a.) conviction for any
criminal offense by a court
of competent jurisdiction;
b.) immoral, unprofessional
or dishonorable conduct;
c.) declaration by a court of
competent jurisdiction for
being mentally unsound or
d.) malpractice, gross
incompetence, gross
negligence or serious
ignorance of the practice of
the teaching profession;
e.) the use of or penetration
of any fraud or deceit in
obtaining a certificate of
registration, professional
license or
specially/temporary permit;
f.) chronic Eni briery or
habitual use of drugs;
g.)violation of any of the
provisions of this Act, the
rules and regulations and
other policies of the Board
and the Commission, and
the code of ethical and
professional standards for
professional teachers;
g.) unjustified or willful
failure to attend seminars,
workshops, conferences of
the like or the continuing
education program
prescribed by the Board
and the Commission.

Synapse Strengtheners
1. What amendments to RA 7836 were made by RA 9293 on the following?

 Number of units in professional educational required of non-educational graduates

Section 15. Qualification Requirements of Applicants - No applicant shall be admitted to take the
examination unless, on the date of filing of the application, he shall; have complied with the following

(4) For teachers of vocational and two-year technical courses, a bachelor’s degree in the field of
specialization or its equivalent, with at least eighteen (18) units in professional education.”
 Registration of those engaged in teaching without examination
Section 26. Registration and Exception. - No person shall engage in teaching and/or act as a
professional teacher as defined in this Act, whether in the preschool, elementary or secondary level,
unless the person is a duly registered professional teacher, and a holder of a valid certificate of
registration and a valid professional license or a holder of a valid special/temporary permit.
Upon approval of the application and payment of the prescribed fees, the certificate of registration
and professional teacher shall be issued without examination as required in this Act to a qualified
applicant who is:
A holder of a certificate of eligibility as a teacher issued by the Civil Service Commission and the
Department of Education, Culture and Sports; or
A registered professional teacher with the National Board for Teachers under the Department of
Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) pursuant to presidential Decree No. 1006.

 Required rating for para-teachers

Section 31. Transitory Provision. - Special permits, with a validity of three (3) and five (5) years,
issued to para-teachers by the Board for Professional Teachers before the effectivity of this Act shall
be allowed to expire based on the period granted therein: Provided, That only special permit with a
validity of three (3) years may be renewed upon expiration for a non-extendible period of two (2)

2. Other than para-teachers who else are entitled to a special permit?

A special permit may also be issued by the Board to a person who has excelled and gained
international recognition and is a widely acknowledged expert in his or her respective field of

3. What is required of teachers covered by Sec. 26 of RA 9293 who have not practiced their profession
for the past five years?
Professional teachers who have not practiced their profession for the past five (5) years shall take at
least twelve (12) units of education courses, consisting of at least six (6) units of pedagogy and six (6)
units of content courses or the equivalent training and number of hours; to be chosen from a list of
courses to be provided by the Board of the Department of education, before they can be allowed to
practice theory profession in the country.

4. Who can be issued a license without examination?

Those who have failed the licensure examination for professional teachers with a rating of not lower
than five percentage points from the passing general average rating, shall be eligible as para teachers
upon issuance by the Board of a two-year special permit, renewable for a non-extendible period of two
(2) years.

Synapse Strengtheners
1. Read carefully the provisions in section 3(2) of Article XIV on education. Explain the mandate that
the state shall “establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate and integrated system of
 It means that all educational institutions should follow or implement a curriculum which is
responsive with what the current society needs. All institutions must be able to deliver or produce
students who will perfectly suit to the demands of the industry they will soon work with.
Complete adequate educational needs should be address with no gap, materials/device and all
physical facilities that will help develop/enhance students learning must be attended without delay.

Integrated means all the learnings/skills shall be in line with the mandated laws. It should be in
coordination with what the society/industry needed. Skills by the students should meet the demands
of the society. Students who graduate can easily be hired without further or at least only little
training is needed for them to be able to contribute to what the society needs.

2. Based on your observation as I would– be teacher, what are the educational institutions doing to
prepare teachers who will help attain the goals stated in section 3?
 All educational institutions are working to attain these goals, but of course there are failures in
achieving all the goals. They might be able to attain some but no educational institution can fully
achieved these goals. Both public especially private institutions provide scholarships, vocational
training to adults, OSY and disabled, On the job trainings and the like, it’s just that some staff
maybe lacking in motivation or skills to implement these programs or they might not have enough
or not resourceful enough to attain these goals.

4. Is the use of the Mother Tongue as a medium of instruction from K to Grade 3 in the K to 12
Curriculum in accordance with Section 7?
 Yes, because it was mentioned in the section 7 that regional languages are the auxiliary official
languages in the region that will serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. "The use of the
same language spoken at home, in the early grades, helps improve the pupils’ language and
cognitive development in addition to strengthening their socio-cultural awareness," Education
Secretary Armin Luistro said in a statement.

5. What educational practices and programs are aligned to Sec.10, Sec.14, Sec. 17, Sec.18 and Sec.19?
 Arts, Culture and Sports

Synapse Strengtheners


With your small answer the following:

1. Who are referred to as “teacher” in R.A 4670? Who are not included although they are school
 As used in this Act, the term “teacher” shall mean all persons engaged in classroom teaching, in
any level of instruction, on full-time basis, including guidance counselors, school librarian,
industrial arts or vocational instructors, and all other persons performing supervisory and/or
administrative functions in all schools, colleges and universities operated by the Government of its
political subdivisions; but shall not include school nurse, school physicians, school dentists, and
other school employees.

2. Discuss the safeguards in the disciplinary procedures in resolving cases of teachers.

 Every teacher shall enjoy equitable safeguards at each stage of any disciplinary procedure and
shall have: The right to be informed, in writing of the charges;

a. The right to full access to the evidence in the case;

b. The right to defend himself and to be defended by a representative of his choice and/or by his
organization, adequate time being given to the teacher for the preparation of his defense; and
c. The right to appeal to clearly designated authorities. No publicity shall be given to any
disciplinary action being taken against a teacher during the pendency of his case.
3. Explain the meaning of “exigencies of the service” referred to in section 6 of the Magna Carta as
regards transfer of a teacher from one station to another.

 Where the exigencies of the service require the transfer of a teacher from one station to another,
such transfer may be effected by the school superintendent who shall previously notify the teacher
concerned of the transfer and the reason or reasons therefore…

4. Are the provisions in Section 22 and 23 teachers’ rights or privileges? Brainstorm with your group.
 These provisions are teacher’s privileges. Individual rights are essential for freedom while some
privileges are essential for the safety of citizens. In Section 22 and 23 explains how the government
controls our right for medical examination and treatment and compensation for injuries.

Research on:
The latest DepEd policy on the recruitment and deployment of public school teachers.

1. What provisions in the Magna Carta are bases of the DepEd policy?
 In Section 3 Recruitment and Qualification.

2. The policy/provisions for the recruitment and deployment of private school teachers?

 Section 6. Minimum Qualifications of a Private School Teacher. The school teaching personnel in
pre-school, elementary and secondary level of basic education in all private schools must pass the
Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). For all levels of instruction, the following shall
constitute the minimum educational qualifications for teacher-applicants: a. Pre-school and
elementary. Holder of a bachelor’s degree in elementary education or its equivalent. Pre-school
teachers shall have at least six units of professional subjects relating to pre-primary education b.
Secondary, For Academic Subjects- Holders of a bachelor’s degree in secondary education or its
equivalent or a Bachelor of Arts or Science degree or its equivalent with at least 18 professional
units in education c. Secondary Vocational And Two Years Technical Courses- Bachelor’s degree
in the field of specialization with at least 18 professional units in education d. Collegiate Level
other than Vocational- Master’s degree with a specific area of specialization except when there is
a lack of applicants with Master’s Degree in which case a bachelor’s degree in specific area of
specialization will suffice subject to Regulation which the CHED will impose. e. Graduate School
Level-Doctor of Philosophy with a specific area of specialization except when there is a lack of
applicants with PhD in which case a master’s degree in specific area of specialization will suffice
subject to Regulation which the CHED will impose

3. The meaning of academic freedom cited in Sec.12 of the Magna Carta.

 Academic freedom, the freedom of teachers and students to teach, study, and pursue knowledge
and research without unreasonable interference or restriction from law, institutional regulations,
or public pressure. Its basic elements include the freedom of teachers to inquire into any subject
that evokes their intellectual concern; to present their findings to their students, colleagues, and
others; to publish their data and conclusions without control or censorship; and to teach in the
manner they consider professionally appropriate.
For Journal Entry
What are your realizations about the teaching profession after a study of the Magna Carta?
Do these realizations help you decide to pursue the teaching career?
 With all these provisions stated in the Magna Carta for public school teachers I have come to
realize that all the rights and privileges were all enacted in order to provide legal basis for their
profession in teaching. These provisions allowed teachers to practice their rights and privileges
as well as to promote proper ordinance of policies declared in this profession.

 Yes. My realization strengthens my desire and passion to pursue this type of career.

Synapse Strengtheners

List your rights and the corresponding duties and obligations as teacher.

Rights Obligations

Freedom from Discrimination Teachers need an aptitude for teaching.

Academic Freedom Teachers need strong organization skills.

Freedom of Expression Teachers need common sense and discretion.

Freedom of Association Teachers need to be a good role model.

Freedom of Religion Professionalism

Privacy and Rights Monitoring student progress and potential.

Synapse Strengtheners

1. Read carefully Section 5 on the principles of Shared Governance. Comment on:

 Responsibility inherent in the office
 Every education department and personnel have their own tasks to do, specific role and
responsibility. It is directly comes from the office to achieve the desired outcome, goals,
mission and vision.
 Accountability and transparency in the performance of functions and responsibility.
 Willingness to accept the obligation and responsibility. Open too share with others.

2. Based on the “authority, accountability and responsibility” of the school head/ principal, list down
your experience as a future teacher.
 Fully aware of the responsibility of a teacher.
 Create a positive classroom atmosphere.
 Keep your door open with others ideas, opinions, suggestions etc.
 Reach out to the other larger educational community.
 Teach and learn from each other.
 Adopt a team mentality.
 Create a personal learning community.

Synapse Strengtheners

The governance of Basic Education (RA 9155) declared the policy of the state to protect and promote
the right of all citizen to quality basic education and to make such education accessible to all.

1. Write your reflection the policy that “the school shall bathe heart of the formal education system.”
 School is the second home of both teachers and students. It is a place where the students
nurtured with the help of the teachers. They will develop their skills, socialized or interact with
other people. They will know the strengths and weaknesses. Teachers makes connections and
communications with their students through imparting knowledge, influence them and sharing
their experience.

2. Explain the principles of shared governance.

 Shared governance is a principle which recognize that every unit in the education bureaucracy
has a particular role, task and responsibility inherit in the office and for which it is principally
accountable for outcomes.

3. Study the organizational structures of the division and school levels. Locate yourself in the
organizational chart. What thoughts cross your mind as you see yourself in the future in the relation to
others in the educational system beginning with the school, the division, and the region? How do you
feel? Refer to the 2000 DECS Service Manual for further readings. Share your thoughts with your small
 I feel that the teachers and a students should have the actual involvement with regards in the
structural forms that exists.

4. What the significant relations do you see between the teacher’s education institution and the
Department of Education as far as pre-service education is concerned?
 There is a coordination that guides the teachers as to be aligned with the Department of

Synapse strengtheners:
1. Explain the meaning of “special parental authority and responsibility” over the minor child in Article
 The school, its administrators and teachers, or the individual entity or institution engage in child
care shall have special parental authority and responsibility over minor child while under
supervision, instruction and custody. Authority and responsibility shall apply to all authorized
activities whether inside or outside the premises of the school, entity/institution.
2. Cite violations of article 233.
 In no case shall the school administrator, teacher or individual engage in child care and
exercising special parental authority, inflict corporal punishment upon the child.

3. Is there any provision that strikes you? If yes, explain why?

 No

Synapse strengtheners:
1. What are acts and conditions prejudicial to the child’s development?
 Treat the child with the excessive harshly and cruelty.
 Gives the child corrupting orders, counselor example.
 Compels the child to beg.
 Subject the child or allow him to be subjected to acts of lasciviousness.
 Sexual harassment on the child.
 Using the child to do illegal activities such as selling of drugs, etc.

2. Discuss actions that constitute child abuse at home and in school.

 Suspension on the parental authority if the parents treats their child with excessive harshness
and cruelty.
 Termination of the parental authority if the parents abandoned the child and incapability to raise

3. Write your reflections on the duties and responsibilities of teachers in the DECS Service Manual as
they relate to “parental authority.”
 Teacher is considered the second parents of the child when they are inside of the school
premises. They will be the one who will help the parents nurtured the child’s character. They
must provide the child with moral and spiritual guidance, give them love and affection, give them
advice when they have doubtfulness and if feel down. Teachers also support child, motivates and
educate them.

Synapse Strengtheners
1. You have read many cases of sexual harassment field against teachers, and other employees. Explain
the provision that sexual harassment is committed when the act is “against one who is under the care,
custody or supervision of the offender…”
 The promulgate rules and regulations, should create a committee on decorum and investigation
and shall disseminate or post a copy of this act for the information of all concerned, there is a
penalties employer/head office who violates.

2. Cite other circumstances of sexual harassment in the education and training environment.
 If the teacher offer his/her sexual intercourse in exchange of higher grades.

3. When is sexual harassment committed in a work-related environment?

 Sexual harassment is committed in a work-related environment if the supervisor will sexually
abuse his/her employee in exchange of offering the higher position/salary.
Synapse Strengtheners
1. Which to you is the most important objective of the ECCD Act?
 To enhance the physical, social, emotional, cognitive, psychological, spiritual and language
development of young children.

2. Visit a day-care center and pre-school class for three days. Write a journal of your day to day
observation on the social and physical interaction and participation of the children in the activities.
Comment on the learning environment and the instructional materials used.
 The learning environment is conducive for the pupils to learn and the instructional materials are
colorful and very attractive to catch the pupil interest.

3. What further education and training do you need to become a pre-school teacher?
 Should be oriented through trainings for Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) and
its functions and roles.

Synapse Strengtheners

1. What is meant by the institutionalization of kindergarten?

 Kindergarten education is nearby institutionalized as part of basic education and for school year
2011-1012 shall be implemented partially, and thereafter, it shall be made mandatory and
compulsory for entrance to Grade 1.

2. What is the policy of CHED on the pre-service education and training of pre-school/kindergarten
 It is hereby declared the policy of the state to provide equal opportunities for all children to
avail accessible mandatory and compulsory Kindergarten Education that effectively promotes
physical, social, intellectual, emotional, and skills stimulation and values formation to
sufficiently prepare them for formal elementary schooling.

3. Which language is the medium of instruction in kindergarten?

 The mother tongue of the learner shall be the primary medium of instruction for teaching and
learning in the Kindergarten level.

4. Discuss the mandates in the law as regards:

 Teaching Strategies
 The Two-Tract Method ( storytelling and reading, listening story, oral communication
 Interactive strategies;
 Use of manipulative games; and
 Experimental, small group discussions and tool physical response (TPR) among others.

 Learning Materials
 Listening story
 Small books
 Big books
 Experience story
 Primer lessons
 Lesson exemplars
Synapse Strengtheners
As a group:
1. Relate the four (4) pillars of learning to the 3 domains of teaching-learning.
 Learning to know, by combining a sufficiently broad general knowledge with the opportunity to
work in depth on a small number of subjects; this also mean learning to learn.
 Learning to do, in order to acquire not only an occupation skill but also, more broadly, the
competence to deal with many situations and works in terms.
 Learning to live together, by developing an understanding of other people and an appreciation
of interdependence- carrying out joint projects and learning to manage conflicts- in a spirit of
pluralism, mutual understanding and peace.
 Learning to be, so as better to develop ones personality and be able to act with greater autonomy
judgment and personal responsibility.

2. By means of a graphic organizer, present the characteristics of a Child-Friendly School.

 A Child –Friendly School is gender sensitive, child centered. Promotes good health practices
and behavior, has the best interest of children in mind, and works closely with the children

Synapse Strengtheners

Group Discussion
1. Which provision(s) are most significant to you? Share and Discuss.
 The article 3 (1) in all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public/private social
welfare institutions, courts of law etc. the child shall be a primary consideration. The value of
the child, their well-being as to become the future hope of our country.

2. Which articles make provisions on children of indigenous groups? Explain the significance of the
 Article 30. It is significant in order to have the equal rights for their well-being and
opportunities to improve and enhance their capacities.

3. Read articles 1, 2, and 13. What Filipino traits run counter to the child’s right to expression of his/her
 The freedom of expression. They are given the chance to express their feelings and views.

4. What teachers do to promote children’s health?

 To integrate the subject to the class about health and guide them through discussions
Synapse Strengtheners:
1. Which provision/s are most significant to you? Share discussions.
 The Article 3 (1). In all action concerning children, whether undertaken by public/private social
welfare institutions, courts of law, etc. the child shall be primarily consideration. The value of
the child, their well-being as to become the future hope of our country.

2. Which articles make provisions on children of indigenous group? Explain the significant of the
 Article 30. It is the significant in order to have the equal rights for their well-being and
opportunities to improve and enhance their capacities.

3. Read articles 1, 2, 3, and 13. What Filipino traits run counter to the child’s right to expression of
his/her view?
 The Freedom of Expression. They are given the chance to express their feelings, views and

4. What can teachers do to promote children’s health?

 To integrate the subject to the class about health and guide them through discussions.

Synapse Strengtheners

What are the basic curricular reforms in:

Year Elementary Education Secondary Education

1946-1956 General Education Curriculum General Education Curriculum

Revised Elementary Education -College Prep Curriculum

Curriculum -Vocational Curriculum
Revised Secondary Education
New Elementary School Curriculum Program
(NESC) -Electives Offer
New Secondary Education
1989-2001 2002 Basic Education Curriculum
Curriculum (NSEC)

2002-2011 -2002 Basic Education Curriculum

R.A. 10157 Kindergarten Education Act -2010 Secondary Education
2. Research on the following:

 10-point Agenda on Education of President Aquino’s administration

 Expansion to a 12-year Basic Education Cycle
 Universal Pre-school
 Madrasah Education
 Tech-voh Education In Senior High School
 Every child a reader by Grade 1
 Proficiency in math and Science
 Assistance to Private School
 Multilingual Education
 Quality Textbooks
 Covenant with LGUs to Build More Schools

 Policies and Guidelines on the Implementation of the Universal Kindergarten Program

 R.A 10157 entitled An Act Institutionalizing the Kindergarten Education into the Basic
Education System and Appropriating Funds Therefor was approved on January 20, 2012.