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在 F-1 美国学生签证过程中,有很多学生由于所学专业属于敏感专业因而会被使馆

check。F-1 签证并不难申请,普通学生只要简明地向签证官解释:学习动机、资金证明、
学习能力以及毕业去向。但是对于一些申请敏感专业的学生,比如物理、化学、EE 等专
业,这些专业容易引起签证官的怀疑并被 Check 一段时间,对于较高端的研究生或者博士
生,被 Check 的几率更大。以下简要地介绍一下。

(一) 敏感专业列表:
1、 Conventional Munitions—(与常规军火有关的专业)
-- Warheads and other large caliber projectiles (弹头和其他大口径弹丸)
-- Reactive armor and warhead defeat systems (反应装置和导弹防御系统)
-- Fusing and arming systems. 融合系统
-- Electronic countermeasures and systems (电子对抗系统)
-- New or novel explosives and formulations 新的炸药配方
-- Automated explosive detection methods and equipment 自动爆炸物检测方法和设备
2、Nuclear Technology—(与核技术相关的专业)
-- Enrichment of fissile material 浓缩的核裂变材料
-- Reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel to recover produced plutonium 辐射性核燃料
再加工回收生产钚
-- Production of heavy water for moderator material 重水生产的减速剂材料
-- Plutonium and tritium handling 钚和氚处理
-- Power reactors, breeder and production reactors 反应堆,育种和生产反应堆
-- Fissile or special nuclear materials 裂变或特殊核材料
-- Uranium enrichment, including gaseous diffusion, centrifuge, aerodynamic, chemical,
Electromagnetic Isotopic Separation (EMIS), Laser Isotope Separation(LIS)铀浓缩
-- Spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium, mixed oxide nuclear research Inertial
Confinement Fusion (ICF) 燃烧过的燃料处理,钚,混合氧化物核研究,惯性约束聚变
-- Magnetic confinement fusion 磁约束核聚变
-- Laser fusion, high power lasers, plasma 激光聚变,高功率激光,等离子体
-- Nuclear fuel fabrication including Mixed Oxide (uranium- plutonium) fuels
(MOX) 核燃料制造,包括混合氧化物燃料(铀钚)
-- Heavy water production 重水生产
-- Tritium production and use 氚的生产和使用
-- Hardening technology 淬火技术
3、Rocket Systems—与火箭系统相关专业
——(including ballistic missile systems, space launch vehicles and sounding rockets)
and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) (including cruise missiles, target drones, and
reconnaissance drones): Technologies associated with rocket systems and UAV systems.
The technology needed to develop a satellite launch vehicle is virtually identical to that
needed to build a ballistic missile.
——包括弹道导弹系统,太空运载火箭、探空火箭,无人飞行器(包括巡航导弹,靶机和
侦察机)
4、Rocket System and Unmanned Air Vehicle Subsystems—火箭系统和无人驾驶飞行器
子系统
-- Liquid and solid rocket propulsion systems 液体和固体火箭推进系统
-- Missile propulsion and systems integration 导弹推进系统集成
-- Individual rocket stages or staging/separation mechanism 单机火箭的分离机制
-- Aerospace thermal (such as superalloys ) and high-performance
structures 航天热(例如高温合金)以及高性能结构
-- Propulsion systems test facilities 推进系统试验设施
5、Navigation, Avionics and Flight Control Useable in Rocket Systems and Unmanned
Air Vehicles (UVA)—可用于火箭系统和无人驾驶飞行器子系统的航海、航空电子学和飞
行控制技术
-- Internal navigation systems 内部导航系统
-- Tracking and terminal homing devices 跟踪和末制导设备
-- Accelerometers and gyroscopes 加速度计和陀螺仪
-- Rocket and UAV and flight control systems. 火箭、无人机和飞行控制系统
-- Global Positioning System (GPS) 全球定位系统
6、Chemical, Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering—化学、生物技术和生物医学工

The technology used to produce chemical and biological weapons is inherently dual-
use. The same technologies that could be applied to develop and produce chemical and
biological weapons are used widely by civilian research laboratories and industry; these
technologies are relatively common in many countries. Advanced biotechnology has the
potential to support biological weapons research. In the biological area, look for interest
in technologies associated with:
-- Aerobiology (study of microorganisms found in the air or in aerosol form) 空气生
物学
-- Biochemistry 生物化学
-- Pharmacology 药理学
-- Immunology 免疫学
-- Virology 病毒学
-- Bacteriology 细菌学
-- Mycology 真菌学
-- Microbiology .微生物学
-- Growth and culturing of microorganisms 微生物的生长和培养
-- Pathology (study of diseases) 病理学
-- Toxicology 毒理学
-- Study of toxins 毒素的研究
-- Virulence factors 致病因素
-- Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology 遗传工程,基因重组技术
-- Identification of nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity 鉴定与病
理解剖相关的核酸序列
-- Freeze-drying (lyophilization) 冷冻干燥(冻干)技术
-- Fermentation technology 发酵技术
-- Cross-filtration equipment 交叉过滤设备
-- High "DOP-rated filters" (e.g., HEPA filters, ULPA filters) 高邻苯二甲酸二辛酯过

-- Microencapsulation
-- Aerosol sprayers and technology, aerosol and aerosolization technology 气溶胶喷雾
器和技术
-- Spray or drum drying technology 喷雾或滚筒干燥技术
-- Milling equipment or technology intended for the production of micron-sized
particles
用来生产微米大小微粒的研磨设备及技术
-- Technology for eliminating electrostatic charges of small particles 消除静电的小颗
粒的技术
-- Flight training 飞行训练
-- Crop-dusting, aerosol dissemination 喷洒农药,气溶胶传播
-- Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology 无人空中飞行器(无人机)技术
-- Fuses, detonators, and other munitions technology 保险丝,雷管,和其他弹药技术
-- Submunitions technology
-- Computer modeling of dissemination or contagion
-- Chemical absorption (nuclear-biological-chemical (NBC) protection)
7、Remote Sensing, Imaging and Reconnaissance—遥感、成像与侦察
Satellite and aircraft remote sensing technologies are inherently dual-use; increasingly
sophisticated technologies can be used for civilian imagery projects or for military and
intelligence reconnaissance activities. Drones and remotely piloted vehicles also augment
satellite capabilities. Key-word associated technologies are:
-- Remote sensing satellites 遥感卫星
-- High resolution multi-spectral, electro-optical and radar data/imagery 高分辨率多光
谱,光电和雷达数据/图像技术
-- Imagery instruments, cameras, optics, and synthetic aperture radar
systems 图像仪器,照相机,光学,以
及合成孔径雷达系统。
-- Ground receiving stations and data/image processing systems 地面接收站和数据/图
像处理系统
-- Photogrammetry 摄影测绘学
-- Imagery data and information products 图像数据和信息产品
-- Piloted aircraft 驾驶飞机
-- Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) 无人飞行器
-- Remotely-piloted vehicles; and drones 远程车辆和飞机
8、Advanced Computer/Microelectronic Technology—高级计算机/微电子技术
Computers and software play a useful (but not necessarily critical) role in the
development and deployment of missiles and missile systems, and in the development and
production of nuclear weapons. Advanced computer capabilities are also used in over-the-
horizon targeting, airborne early warning targeting, Electronic Countermeasures (ECM)
processors. These technologies are associated with:
-- Supercomputing, hybrid computing 超级计算,混合运算
-- Speech processing/recognition systems 语音处理/识别系统
-- Neural networks 神经网络
-- Data fusion 数据融合
-- Quantum wells, resonant tunneling 量子威尔斯,谐振隧穿
-- Superconductivity 超导性
-- Advance optoelectronics 光电子学
-- Acoustic wave devices, 声表面波器件
-- Superconducting electron devices 超导电子器件
-- Flash discharge type x-ray systems 闪光放电型 X 射线系统
-- Frequency synthesizers 频率合成器
-- Microcomputer compensated crystal oscillators 微机补偿晶体振荡器
9、Materials Technology—材料技术
The metallic, ceramic and composite materials are primarily related to structural
functions in aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, undersea vehicles, and propulsion devices.
Polymers provide seals and sealants for containment of identified fluids and lubricants for
various vehicles and devices. High density graphite is used in missile nosetips, jet vanes
and nozzle throats. Selected specialty materials (i.e., stealth and the performance of these
materials) provide critical capabilities that exploit electromagnetic absorption, magnetic,
or superconductivity characteristics. These technologies are associated with:
-- Advanced metals and alloys 先进金属和合金
-- Non-composite ceramic materials 复合陶瓷材料
-- Ceramic, cermet, organic and carbon materials 陶瓷,陶瓷金属和碳材料
-- Polymeric materials 高分子材料
-- Synthetics fluids 合成液体
-- Hot isostatic 热等静压
-- Densifications 浓缩技术
-- Intermetallic 金属间化合物
-- Organometals 有机金属
-- Liquid and solid lubricant 液体和固体润滑剂
-- Magnetic metals and superconductive conductors 磁性金属和超导体
10、Information Security—信息安全
Technologies associated with cryptography and cryptographic systems to ensure
secrecy for communications, video, data and related software.
11、Laser and Directed Energy Systems Technology—激光和定向能系统技术
Lasers have critical military applications, including incorporation in guided ordinance
such as laser guided bombs and ranging devices. Directed energy technologies are used to
generate electromagnetic radiation or particle beams and to project that energy on a
specific target. Kinetic energy technologies are those used to impart a high velocity to a
mass and direct it to a target. Directed energy and kinetic energy technologies have
potential utility in countering missiles and other applications. Look for technologies
associated with:
-- Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) 原子蒸气激光同位素分离
-- Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS) 分子法激光同位素分离
-- High Energy Lasers (HEL) (i.e., laser welders) 高能量激光
-- Low Energy Lasers (LEL) 低能量激光
-- Semiconductor lasers 半导体激光
-- Free electron lasers 自由电子激光器
-- Directed Energy (DE) systems 定向能量系统
-- Kinetic Energy (KE) systems 动能系统
-- Particle beam, beam rider, electromagnetic guns, Optoelectronics/electro-oPtics
(Europe)
-- Optical tracking (i.e., target designators) 光学跟踪 (例如目标指示器)
-- High energy density 高能量密度
-- High-speed pulse generation, pulsed power 高速脉冲,脉冲电源
-- Hypersonic and/or hypervelocity 高超声速和/或超高速
-- Magnetohydrodynamics 磁性铃动力学
11、Sensors and Sensor Technology—传感器和传感器技术
Sensors provide real-time information and data, and could provide a significant
military advantage in a conflict. Marine acoustics is critical in anti-submarine warfare;
gravity meters are essential for missile launch calibration. Look for technologies
associated with:
-- Marine acoustics 海洋声学
-- Optical sensors 光感测器
-- Night vision devices, image intensification devices 夜视设备,图像增强装置
-- Gravity meters 重力仪
-- High speed photographic equipment 高速摄影器材
-- Magnetometers 磁强计
12、Marine Technology—海洋工学
Marine technologies are often associated with submarines and other deep submersible
vessels; propulsion systems designed for undersea use and navigation and quieting
systems are associated with reducing detectability and enhancing operations survivability.
Look for technologies connected with:
-- Submarines and submersibles 潜艇和潜水器
-- Undersea robots 海底机器人
-- Marine propulsion systems 船舶推进系统
-- Signature recognition 签名识别技术
-- Acoustic and non-acoustic detection 声学和非声学探测
-- Acoustic, wake, radar and magnetic signature reduction
-- Magnetohydrodynamics 磁性铃动力学
-- Stirling engines and other air independent propulsion systems
13、Robotics—机器人技术
-- Artificial intelligence 人工智能技术
-- Automation 自动化技术
-- Computer-controlled machine tools 计算机控制的机床
-- Pattern recognition technologies. 模式识别技术
14、Urban Planning—城市规划
Expertise in construction or design of systems or technologies necessary to sustain
modern urban societies. (PLEASE NOTE: Urban Planning may not fall under the
purview of INA section 212 (a)(3)(a), U.S. technology transfer laws, or any other U.S.
law or regulation. However, Urban Planning is a special interest item and posts are
requested to refer such visa application requests to CA/VO/L/C for further review.)
Look for technologies/skills associated with:
-- Architecture
-- Civil engineering
-- Community development
-- Environmental planning
-- Geography
-- Housing
-- Landscape architecture
-- Land use and comprehensive planning
-- Urban design

(二)敏感专业处理办法
大部分理工专业都是和敏感专业相关的,遇到这种情况不要太担心,按照以下方法可以
解除签证官对于敏感专业的疑虑

(1)尽可能明白浅显地向签证官解释该专业的学习内容;
不要详细地描述你去到美国的学习和研究内容的前沿性、尖端性,用通俗易懂的语言向签
证官解释你这个专业是学什么的,做什么的,体现出通俗、易懂、有益、无害,消灭敏感
度。

(2)明确自己的学习计划;
如果你能够清晰地向签证官阐述你的赴美的学习和研究计划,这就好像把专业敏感度放在
阳光底下一样,可以很大程度上打消签证官的疑虑。

(3)准备好充足的材料;
如果签证官对申请者的专业敏感度存在疑虑的话,那么他一般会重点查阅申请者的几样材
料:包括:简历、Study Plan、导师的个人信息介绍。因此准备好这些材料,方便在签证
官需要的时候及时提供。

(4)做好被 Check 的心理准备;


如果知道自己的专业是敏感的,那么最好在去签证前做好被 Check 的心理准备,然后以一
个平常心的去争取不被 Check 而当场获得通过。避免由于过于害怕被 Check 而最终造成被
拒的情况出现。

其实,只要做好以上几点,即使由于这个专业敏感度被 Check, 那最终的结果往往都意


味着获得签证。在此祝所有拿到录取的学生的签证都能顺利通过。