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Sociology- PRELIM

Chapter 1

Sociology- deals with the study of group

Socius- means groups or partners
Logos- means science or study

Joseph H. Fichter- a sociologist, “Sociology is the scientific study of patterned, shared human behavior”
Auguste Comte- first used the term sociology, a Frenchman
Rodney Stark- a sociologist, “Sociology deals with the study of the patterns and processes of human

Microsociology- looks at group life in close-up

Macrosociology- larger view of society

Lundberg (1939)- sociology is a body of scientific knowledge and it has theories that are based on
scientific investigations and observations and not on speculations.

Science- is a systematized body of knowledge or facts.

Social scientists- study the social world

Areas of Sociology - SSS HP

Hauser (1974)- presented the areas in the study of sociology for purposes of research and teaching.
1. Social organization- covers the study of the various social institutions, social groups, social
stratification, social mobility, bureaucracy, ethnic groups and relations. Topic like the family,
education, politics, religion and economy are studied in the area. (SSS SBER) (FEP RE)

2. Social psychology- study human nature as an outcome of group life, social attitudes,
collective behavior and personality information. (H-GSC P)

3. Social change and social disorganization- study of change in culture and social relations and
the disruption that may occur in the society. (CSD)

4. Human ecology- study the nature and behavior of a given population and relationships to
the group’s present social institutions. Prevalence of mental illness, criminality,
delinquencies, prostitutions, drug addiction in urban centers and other highly developed
place. (MCD PD)

5. Population or demography- study of population, number, composition, change and quality

as they influence the economic , political and social system. (PNC CQ) EPS

6. Sociological theory and method- applicability and usefulness of the principles and theories
of group life.
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7. Applied sociology- utilize the findings of pure sociological research in various fields such as
criminology, social work, community development, education, industrial relations, marriage,
ethnic relations, family counseling. (CSC EIM EF)

Anthropology- is a discipline of infinite curiosity about human beings

Anthropos- means man
Logos- means science or study

Branches of Anthropology
1. Physical Anthropology- also known as biological anthropology.
-it deals with a man’s biological foundations, race evolution, racial
classification and differentiation. (BRR D)

a) Racial history- study of nature of races

b) Paleontology- deals with origin of man
c) Human genetics- study of various ways of inheritance that take place in man.

2. Cultural anthropology- also known as social anthropology

-deals with the study of culture
*Social or cultural anthropologist- also known as ethnologist/ ethnographers

a) Ethnography- pure description of the culture of a people or an ethnic group.

b) Ethnology- is the analysis, comparison and contrast of culture of people. (ACC)
c) Social anthropology- is a higher level of abstraction than ethnology.

3. Archaeology- branch of general anthropology concerned with the study of man’s culture and
society in the past as far back as prehistoric times, that is million years ago.
*Fossils- are remnant of the past that have organic life
*Artifacts- man made and man-conceived remains of prehistoric times
*Historical archaeology- study the remains of recent people who left written records

4. Linguistics- branch or subdivision of sociolcultural anthropology

-study of recorded and unrecorded languages all over the world.
*Historical linguistic- study of how languages change over time and how they may be related
*Descriptive/Structural Linguistic- how contemporary languages differ especially in language
*Sociolinguistic- study of how language is used in actual speech

Relationship of Anthropology with Other Social Sciences

1. Psychology- concentrates on the processes occurring within an individual
*Skinbound organism- deals with what takes place within
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2. History- is a social science. It focuses on the study of the past.

3. Economics- concerned with the study of single social institution.
4. Political science- study of politics and government.
5. Sociology-similar to anthropology that focuses on the study of culture.

Method of Inquiry in the Two Science- EOE S

1. Empirical investigation- experience must be obtained through direct experience or observation
2. Objectivity- is the ability of a researcher to give an account of things as they are and not what
they ought to be.
3. Ethnical neutrality- one must remain neutral in the interpretation of one’s findings
4. Sociological imagination- espoused by C. Wright Mills
-set of mind that enables the individual to examine his/her own
experience by locating himself.

Pure science- search of knowledge for its own sake

Applied science- use scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.

Procedures of Scientific Investigation

1. Identification of the problem- problem must be clearly identified and defined. Hypotheses may
be formulated. A theoretical or conceptual framework will be useful.

2. Gathering of data- more immediate goal to provide a simulation of a model

a) Observation- very common in the field of sociology and anthropology. It can be direct
observation, ocular observation or participant observation.
b) Participant observation- involves staying and living in the community being studied.
c) Interview- may be structured or unstructured. Questions may be open –ended or close-
d) Historical method- may be applied when the person is in need of background information
about past events of the people of social phenomena.
e) Comparative method- method involves noting the similarities and differences between
f) Archival research- utilizes old records and documents in archives.
g) Content analysis- systematic technique for analyzing message context and message

3. Analysis of data- researcher makes inferences about certain social phenomena.

*Participatory research- one of the most trends in sociological and anthropological