1 - INTRODUCTION............................................................................................ 2 2 - AIMS AND OBJECTIVES .............................................................................. 2 3 - THESIS PROPOSAL AND PROBLEM FORMULATION.............................. 2 4 - SUPERVISORS ............................................................................................... 4 5 - RESEARCH PERIOD...................................................................................... 4 6 - WRITING YOUR THESIS .............................................................................. 5 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 6 Build-up of the argument ................................................................................... 6 Conclusion(s) .................................................................................................... 7 Bibliography...................................................................................................... 7 Quotes and Annotations..................................................................................... 9 7 - STYLE AND FORMAT ................................................................................ 10 8 - GENERAL ADVICE ..................................................................................... 10 9 - CRITERIA FOR JUDGING A THESIS ......................................................... 11 10 - PLAGIARISM ............................................................................................. 12 11 – HANDING IN YOUR THESIS AND THE GRADUATION ....................... 12 12 - EXTRA READING FOR GOOD TIPS ON WRITING ................................ 13 DISCLAIMER: ................................................................................................... 14


You are therefore strongly advised to also check the course description for a thesis in your specific programme. Different programmes have different aims. whereby sound methodological principles and research techniques are • To creatively use theoretical insights relevant to the problem at hand. • To independently conduct social-scientific research targeted to a certain problem. Also. It may seem that way. objectives and rules for thesis writing and the content of your thesis.THESIS PROPOSAL AND PROBLEM FORMULATION The Thesis Proposal The thesis proposal forms the basis of your thesis and should be written with extreme care. • To be able to draw conclusions from your own research. Moreover. 2 .coursecatalogue. Students often think they cannot write a proposal before they have read a lot of literature.uva. it will give you the opportunity to practise one of the skills that will be of great importance for your later career: setting up and writing a clear. and difficult part of a Master’s study. These course descriptions are published in the digital course catalogue (http://www. Your thesis should show your ability to carry out research in your field of study. challenging. a thesis has the following aims and objectives: • To formulate and limit a research question and independently set up a research plan. • To report the research. but the scope is quite different. don’t hesitate to contact your programme director/manager and/or academic advisor if you have questions regarding your thesis. so that the reliability and validity of the research are guaranteed. This makes the thesis the most important. For some people that may be true. • To be able to phrase the theoretical-scientific and the practical-social meaning (and relevance) of the research results. There is no one-way of writing a good thesis. that is the generation of new knowledge about the issues addressed. clearly and systematically. it must reflect a thorough understanding of the theories relevant to your topic and be based on original research. Writing a thesis is a way to enhance and display your knowledge of and insight into a particular area. Next to academic skills it will take self-discipline and good planning to complete your thesis in a satisfactory way. but for most students it turns out to be a personal project as well. including a clear research strategy and time planning. 2 .INTRODUCTION The thesis is not just a long paper. Writing a thesis is the final process for the completion of your Master’s degree. and the results. In this information booklet we try to give a general overview of what a thesis should consist of and on how to write a thesis at the ISHSS. through writing you will clear your mind and get a much better idea of how your thesis project should be organised.1 .AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Generally speaking. systematic argument. Therefore. It is an academic project. but mostly. 3 .

Methods of analysis/sources. The Master’s thesis is not a dissertation for a PhD! Don’t try to solve world poverty or global migration in a master’s thesis. The questions should be phrased in a way that it is possible to answer them within the scope of the thesis. i. the social and scientific relevance of your thesis and/or research. . In your problem formulation you can also indicate why it is important to write a thesis about and/or research the topic of your choice.Time frame (please include planned graduation date) You have to hand in your thesis proposal and Thesis Proposal Form or Thesis Agreement to the registrar’s office at least three months before the planned graduation date.Brief introduction: why this topic? What is its relevance? .e. but you should be able at all times to formulate what you are looking for. Also keep in mind that some programmes also request a thesis contract attached to the thesis proposal form (for more information on the requirements for your programme please contact your programme manager).Provisional title.Short bibliography.Brief outline of the way you expect to develop your argument. . the easier the thesis writing process will be! You can pick up the Thesis Proposal Forms or Thesis Agreement at the ISHSS Information desk or download them from the ISHSS website.Data gathering methods. . The problem formulation entails a specification of the topic. Make sure your topic is specific and time bound. • Your research questions will often change during the writing process. . 3 .Problem formulation (see below). and makes clear exactly what your thesis will discuss or what you will be researching. Time is quite short to finish your (current students/thesis and graduation)) Problem formulation The crucial part of the proposal is the problem formulation. Remember: The better your proposal. Your research questions will become more concrete through researching and writing. . The thesis proposal must be approved by both supervisors and the academic advisor.ishss.A good proposal will not only help you to think about the structure of your arguments but also about the kind of information you need to gather before being able to start writing.Brief literature review. The problem formulation generally consists of a research question and a number of operational sub-questions that are derived from the research questions.uva. . .Provisional table of contents. (http://www. . • Make sure that you can cover the question you have asked. Never start writing your thesis without having your proposal approved and your thesis proposal form signed! Please take into consideration that different programmes have different proposal forms so make sure you fill in the correct one. The proposal should be around 10 to 15 pages and should include: .

but your choice should always be in agreement with your academic advisor or programme director. It is important to discuss openly with your first supervisor your expectations about the thesis supervision. Remember to ask for his/her schedule (specially if (s)he is planning to travel during the time you will be working on your thesis). be found in recent editions of relevant journals. You can choose your supervisor(s) yourself. 4 . If you expect to graduate with honours make this clear to your supervisors. or can be. Depending on the programme that you are following. always contact your academic advisor and/or programme manager. They will also be able to help you to find a suitable supervisor(s). or second reader. 4 . you are expected to collect data following one or a combination of research methodologies. for example. will participate mainly in the approval of the thesis proposal and the final grading of the thesis.SUPERVISORS Your supervisor(s) will guide you through the process of conducting your research and/or writing your thesis. Generally speaking.RESEARCH PERIOD During the research period you gather all the necessary information and empirical data that you will need in order to write your thesis. A research question can be for instance explorative. 5 . you will be able to conduct your research in the Netherlands or in a foreign country.• • • It should be clear what the aim of the thesis is: what topic will be dealt with? And why it is worth dealing with? Which specific question will be answered? Special attention should be paid to the delineation of the topic and problem formulation on the one hand. Your first supervisor will be the one responsible for working with you throughout the process of research and writing the thesis. and the broader framework within which these should be seen on the other. It can be of significance to check whether the theories dealt with have been. For that purpose it is important to inform oneself well about research that has already been done on the topic at hand. Make sure your research and thesis fit the type of research question you have chosen. Depending on your programme. The second supervisor. If your programme requires empirical research/fieldwork. you will meet your supervisor at least once every three weeks. relatively high standards will be demanded of the thoroughness and originality of the study and the precision and creativity with which you have processed the literature. How often will (s)he read your preliminary chapters and what kind of comments will (s)he give you? Generally speaking. a student has two supervisors. If any problems arise. This information can. Each type of question asks for a different approach within your research and thesis. used in empirical research. In the case that your thesis is mainly based on literature research. you will either have to conduct a literature research or carry out research during fieldwork. descriptive or explanatory. or related topics.

• Bibliography. Take into consideration whether you have the necessary information and if there are any holes in it.Successful research depends mostly on good planning. Before starting. your name. you will start writing your thesis. you should always pay attention to three central issues: • The translation of theoretical insights and concepts into research steps (the operationalisation of concepts. the research method is explained.coursecatalogue. • The nature of the empirical material (defining and delineating the research population.WRITING YOUR THESIS After your research period. date and place of submission). • References (footnotes. endnotes or references in the text). but also (if possible/necessary) alternative methods for gathering information including interviews. • Table of contents. discuss with your supervisor the main findings and ideas that you have developed during your research.uva. Your choice will always have shortcomings or problems related to their nature and these should be accounted for as good as possible. In case you find it difficult to start writing. • The nature of the research techniques. and if applicable subtitle. health insurance. questionnaires. Please make sure you check the requirements for a thesis within your specific programme in the course descriptions. the name of the programme. UvA ID number. • Possibly. The length of a thesis and amount of credits to be obtained vary per programme. • Introduction. 6 . representativeness of the data). Before doing so. the selection of cases. the name of your supervisors. problems of validity and reliability). • Conclusion (where your theoretical and empirical findings come together). In the case that your program includes the requisite of fieldwork. vaccines. the more time you will have for your research. 5 . It is central to set a clear calendar in which you include not only the amount of time invested in doing literature research. It is also very important to have a clear idea of the possible dangers or difficulties that you may face in the country you are visiting. visas. through focus groups or observations among many others. • Body of the thesis (divided into chapters. A thesis should include at least the following elements: • Title page (title. one or more Annexes. make sure that you plan well in advance practical issues like housing (both in the country you are going as well as in The Netherlands when you come back). local supervisor. If so. discuss with your supervisor possible alternatives to overcome this problem. The more prepared you are. go back to your proposal and try to start building your thesis from there. These course descriptions are published in the digital course catalogue (http://www. in which the theoretical framework is presented. the argument is elaborated and the research results are analysed).

Whatever your choices. s’accuse”. not in the shortcomings. as the Dutch would say. and then state the problem that you want to deal with. In this review you can express which problems arise from existing approaches or subscribe to one. Build-up of the argument You should strive for a systematically elaborated argument. “Qui s’excuse. Readers are interested in your achievements. Try to be creative. Always remember the larger theoretical framework which your particular research is part of. This is not interesting for the reader. a citation or anything else that leads to the subject. why it is relevant and how you are planning to develop your argument(s). The thesis should have a clear line of argumentation. This can also motivate the reader to go on. with explicit “thinking steps” and clear and logical transitions from one paragraph and chapter to the next. why it is a challenge and how you got interested in it. In the body of your thesis you should generally include a literature and theoretical review where you present what other researchers have said about the topic of your work.It will help the structure of the thesis and its readability if the body of the thesis is divided into chapters and sub-chapters. Everybody knows that in a piece of work that had to be written in a limited time and with limited space. In any case. the reader will find many more than you dare to mention in the introduction. Try to argue why you have chosen a particular approach and not an alternative route. theory and empirical results should be understandably and usefully related to each other. A thesis which has a heading or subheading on almost every page is usually the most pleasant to read. literature review. Why have specific aspects been left out? What does explain the focus of the thesis? How is it situated in the field? What are the central concepts? • Problem Formulation: State your questions and sub-questions clearly. the introduction should always have a clear statement of what your topic is. Forget the excuses. This can be done in many different ways. the originality of your arguments is crucial. • History: You can furthermore explain why you have chosen this particular topic. Always remember that your work should try to expand existing knowledge. and although it is not expected from you to develop a completely new theory. you cannot include everything. by starting with an anecdote. or you can do it in a more playful way. • The introduction should tell the reader straight away what the thesis is about. DO NOT use the introduction to describe in a lengthy way what you have not done and why. • Method: If you do not plan to have an extra “method-chapter”. In all 6 . Introduction • Always try to keep your introduction concise. if you only present other people’s ideas without critical thinking your work will be incomplete. • Central Concepts: Give a short explanation of your approach and try to argue why this approach has been taken and not an alternative route. You can immediately ‘fall with the door in house’. you can also describe the methods used in the introductory chapter although usually the methodology is presented in a separate chapter. Problem formulation.

Here the questions asked in the problem formulation are explicitly answered. but also how the data is gathered and analysed or processed. Conclusion(s) After the portrayal of the arguments and results of the research come the conclusions. Because you have been working on your thesis for a long time your arguments might seem very clear to you. theories have to be clearly portrayed in a way that shows understanding of your topic. where do they differ. Present your arguments in a cohesive and organised manner. but remember that you are writing for others. Although there is no ONE correct way of doing it. here we present some examples of complete biographical references according to different sources. Books: 7 .cases. You also need to clearly indicate how the data can be linked to the theoretical section of your thesis/research. Another important part of your thesis is the presentation of your findings and its analysis. it may also be valuable to provide an answer to (one or more) of the following questions: • What does the research say about the adequacy of the methods followed and the materials chosen? Can any methodological recommendations for future research be derived from this? How could future researchers do a better job? • Which policy recommendations can be made on the basis of the research? • Which predictions can be made on the basis of the research? Bibliography An academic work should always include a bibliography where you list all the sources of your secondary data. In the case that you posed hypotheses. you may consider to answer the following questions: • How far are the research results generalisable to other cases than those researched? • How do the research results relate to the findings and conclusions of other authors? Where do results match. and how is this explained? • What has the research added to the knowledge about the topic at hand? • What future line of research does your work open? Depending on the aim of the thesis. Always try to keep your reader interested and guided. An interested reader should be able to understand your work despite the fact that (s)he may not be a specialist in the subject. The list should be ordered alphabetically following the authors’ surnames. this is the place to present whether the research results confirm or refute these. Theoretical choices have to be accounted for. In the case that the document and/or web page comes from an organisation without listing the authors. Here you are expected not only to present the data you gathered during your research period. In addition. Articles from web pages without listed author should be included in the end. the name of the organisation is considered the author.

http://www.” Example: The Hague Amsterdam Times (2007. 2. The Warrior’s Honour: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience.. first name or initials. http://news. “PvdA party leadership steps down. The last glacial maximum in the North Sea.). (1999) title of the article.Surname author. “Probing the successful application of leverage in support of Mozambique’s quest for peace”. “Early dry conditions cause widespread fears. “Title of article”.brookers. pp. complete URL and date you visited the site. place of publication). London). “Title of article”.au/health/story_13583. (1999). complete URL and date you visited the site. Title of book. T. Example: Ignatieff.” The Hague Amsterdam Times. (visited on 13 May 2004) Web page not listing the author: Title. “Title of the article”. year of publication. Wesport). 27 April). newspaper (and section) name) Example: Rijn. Leveraging for Success in United Nations Peace Operations. in Jean Krasno. Michael. Newspaper articles with author: Surname author. (2003).asp. Example: Global warming and its effects on Antarctic Coast. Example: Salomons. year of publication. year of publication. S. first name or initials. Example: Fogg. year and date of publication. Newspaper articles without authors: Newspaper (and section) name. first name or initials. 8 .” Web page with author: Surname.ninemsn. place of publication). (2003). Richard Donald Daniel and Bradd Hayes (eds. 29.J. first name or initials. (visited on 25 June 2004). (Greenwood Publishing Group. 27 April). in The Journal of Conflict Resolution. “Title of the article. (2007. (1985). Peaceful Approaches”. Example: Carr. (Random House. Vol. in Title of journal. Magazine articles: Surname author. “Dealing with Conflict: A Repertoire of Creative. year and date of publication. pages. Title of book (publisher. van. in name(s) of editors. Vol. 330358. year of publication. (publisher. date. No. Dirk. first name or initials. Book chapters: Surname author.

but keep indicating where your ideas have come from. Try to say things in your own words as much as possible. 1986 : 1). Example: World politics today is a matter of life and death … for the whole human race. Example: World politics today is a matter of life and death –not just for soldiers or citizens in the path of war. world politics has a daily impact on the lives of people [by modifying economic structures] throughout the globe (Keohane. world politics has a daily impact on the lives of people throughout the globe: political forces and decisions affect patterns of international trade. you can place it as part of the main body of your work. When using annotations and quotes in your papers and thesis make sure it is always clear to the reader who is speaking. a good written paper and thesis is not just a repetition and listing of quotes from others. year of publication. information or ideas. We prefer that you use the ‘Harvard Method’ of in-text annotation. complete URL and date you visited the site. investment and production (Keohane. in that case you do not have to use italics but start and finish the quote with inverted commas. As Keohane states in his work. (visited on 5 May 2007) Quotes and Annotations Annotation is the mentioning in your text of the source from which you have taken a quote. Even though you are required to use sources in your thesis it should be clear that in your thesis you need to state your argument! So. title (if known). 1987: 66). And if you want to cut some part of the quote you add three points. More than two authors: (Lyons et al. Nuclear holocaust remains a continual threat. If there are two authors: (Long & Jones. and page number(s) from which your quote or idea(s) came from. http://www. If you are referring to a text on a website from an organisation or another publication of an organisation without an author listed. At a less apocalyptical level. the organisation is generally considered to be the author: (UvA: website 2007) Generally a quote longer than three lines should have smaller margins than the general text and have italic fonts. “world politics today is 9 . the annotation should be: (Becker. In this style. Nuclear holocaust remains a continual threat. but for the whole human race.uva. If there is only one author.Web page from an organisation. Example: Neorealist analysts usually centre their explanations of international relations in the sphere of security and force. 2004: 89-94). you add between brackets the author’s surname. 2001: 45). If you want to add something or slightly modify the quote you can do it between brackets. Example: Universiteit van Amsterdam. At a less apocalyptical level. If your quote is shorter than three lines. 1986 : 1). you the writer or an other author you are referring to or are quoting. (date (if known)).nl. not listing the author: Name organisation.

Whether or not you state your hypothesis explicitly. (1986). Avoid using sentences that are longer than three lines. If you are not an English native speaker. name of the programme. Use a readable.) Neorealism and its Critics. A digital version of your thesis needs to be handed in with the registrar of the ISHSS. student number and place and date of submission. which can be done at any copyshop. Be aware that a digital version of your thesis must always be available for your supervisors and/or registrar upon request. consistent and clear layout and letter type. Robert. Include page numbers. (ed. 7 . Also ensure that the build-up of your argument is structured and your argument is easy to follow.and paragraph headings is consistent. this thesis will present an alternative approach that will consider security and force as well as other variables including principles and values. In any case. the whole of your thesis should be geared towards • 10 . with sufficient margins to the left and right of the page. in principle even without quotes. Please ensure that you support all statements with arguments and evidence. Keep the principle focus of your thesis in mind at all times.5 line distance on A4-sized paper. In the case of our example the bibliographical note should be: Keohane. (Columbia University Press. New York). Check and re-check spelling.a matter of life and death” (Keohane. • • • • • • • 8 . figures and tables. Your thesis should be logical. in Keohane. Type with 1. Write for a reader. most students use Times New Roman. grammar or spelling errors. The final version of your thesis should be bound. Both supervisors must receive a bound version. Remember that your thesis demands the attention of another and that you will be responsible for someone's reading experience. Tahoma or Garamond 11 pt. 1986: 1). Make sure your typography with respect to chapter. Try to draw logical conclusions from your sources or theoretical reasoning. annotations. “Realism. While acknowledging the importance of Keohane’s argument.GENERAL ADVICE • • • Narrow the focus of your topic so that you will be able to devote careful attention to all aspects of your argument. Neorealism and the study of World Politics”. Try to formulate clearly and avoid making style. name of author. it might be a good idea to have your thesis read by one. grammar and punctuation. name of the supervisors. Arial. all kind of documents that have been sources of quotes for your work should be included in your bibliography.STYLE AND FORMAT • The thesis should have a title page which states: title. consistent and comprehensive. R.

etc.ishss. Scientific insight: how are scientific theories and methodologies used.uva. research techniques. Check the rules and regulations and the course descriptions of your programme for specific requirements regarding your thesis. Language: precision.uva. Style: layout. try to deal with various arguments and opinions. clear line of argumentation. make sure that you have not repeated points unnecessarily and that you have not left your reader uncertain of your purpose and direction. relating to common understanding of concepts. readability. visited on 08-01-08) Always keep your deadline in mind. clear structure. like length.coursecatalogue. literature list.htm. Build-up of argument: systematic elaboration of the problem formulation.ics. well-founded conclusions. clarity. This does NOT mean that you should leave out information that counters your hypothesis. does the research have scientific and/or social relevance. partly shown in the way and extent to which the literature is used. accounting for methods used and choices made. punctuation. spelling. Always remember that writing is re-writing. Measure of creativity in achieving points mentioned above. description and application of theoretical concepts (consistency in Instead. (source: Guidelines for writing an academic essay http://web. originality. headings. As the Guidelines for writing an academic essay state.purdue. Knowledge of the topic of the (current students/rules and regulations) and http://www. and explain carefully why you think some arguments are better than others. It is up to you to select structure and diction appropriate to your goal. and only select information that supports it. so even as you write your first draft. • • • • • • • • • 11 . empirical research requirements and deadlines! (http://www. choice of empirical field). analysis of data. logical consistencies.• • • • its elaboration and substantiation – towards answering the question(s) you posed in your introduction. compare them. unless there are pressing arguments not to). Quality of the research: way of material collection (operationalisation of concepts. interrelatedness of separate parts of the thesis.CRITERIA FOR JUDGING A THESIS • • • Problem formulation: clarity and precision. argumentation and delineation. be prepared to undertake genuine 9 . but these are unlikely to come together in a first draft. Policy and/or research recommendations: are the recommendations well formulated and sufficiently sustained? Controllability: precise references. justification of theoretical assumptions. When you revise. revise deliberately and fully. how is the problem formulation operationalised? Purpose and relevance of the research: is the purpose of the research clear. Measure of independence in achieving points mentioned above. correct quotation. try to be organised while doing your work and always keep backups.

to plagiarise is to take the work or an idea of someone else and pass it off as one’s own. you are committing plagiarism. The digital version of your thesis will be uploaded into the thesis archive of the UvA library (DARE). On the ISHSS website you can download more information on the rules and regulations regarding plagiarism and academic fraud (http://www. If you do not want your thesis to be published here (due to the privacy or sensitivity of the data in your thesis). You will then still need to hand in a digital version. Please concur with your supervisors when they need the thesis be submitted in order for them to have enough time to assess the thesis since the thesis grade needs to be handed in at the Registrar’s Office by your supervisors at least three weeks before the graduation date. but it will not be made (current students/rules and regulations)) 11 – HANDING IN YOUR THESIS AND THE GRADUATION On the ISHSS website you can find the planned graduation dates per academic year. The date you hand in the final version of your thesis at the ISHSS information desk will be the ‘closing’ of your studies. Make sure when writing your thesis and planning your graduation to keep in mind when you need to deliver your thesis in order to be in time for the next graduation session.10 . magazines or any other source in your thesis without giving full and proper credit to the original author(s). The fair use of evidence from primary and secondary sources is the basis of academic discourse. you should have delivered a digital copy of your thesis at the Registrar’s Office on USB-stick or CD-rom (the USB-stick can be returned to you). Each of your supervisors should receive a paper copy of the thesis from you. You still need to hand in a bound copy of your thesis with your supervisor(s).ishss.PLAGIARISM According to the Oxford Dictionary of English. paraphrase or translate materials from websites. not to mention having to live with the reputation of dishonesty. books. For a detailed description of the graduation procedure. Plagiarism is a form of theft and fraud and should be avoided at all costs. you may be facing the possibility of expulsion from your programme and the Universiteit van Amsterdam.uva. The abuse of this fairness undermines the very nature of scholarly research. Approximately 3 weeks before the graduation. it is always a good idea to provide full information. please check the ISHSS website (current students/ thesis and graduation) Make sure when handing in the final version of your thesis to hand in at least one digital copy of your thesis with the ISHSS registrar. This means that if you copy. Your supervisor or academic advisor can help you if you have doubts. Always make sure you have a digital copy of your thesis available upon request. If you do so. please inform the Registrars. If you find yourself in doubt about quotation or correct use of a source. Please note that the payment of tuition fees is related to the date that we receive your final grade (either the thesis grade or the grade for your final course) and not to the actual 12 .

pictures will be taken. (1986). Chicago) Elbow. H. Writing with power. your supervisor gives a speech.EXTRA READING FOR GOOD TIPS ON WRITING • • • • • Becker.purdue. During these sessions you sign your diploma. About eight to six weeks before your planned graduation date the registrar will inform you of the upcoming graduation and of the administrative procedures that need to be taken care of before you can graduate. (1982). or article. If you cannot attend your own graduation session your diploma can also be picked up at the Registrar’s office or can be sent via courier mail. (Hackett Publishing Company.. (1998).ics. The costs of sending your diploma (€ 25) need to be paid in advance with the ISHSS registrar. If you have any questions regarding your graduation please contact the registrar of the ISHSS. Upper Montclaire NJ) Guidelines for writing an academic essay on http://web.htm (visited on 04-05-07) 13 . (1981). (Oxford University Press. please check with the Registrar’s Office because of the limited amount of space available). Graduates are cordially invited to invite their relatives and friends to their graduation session (up to five of your graduation ceremony. P. The registrar will inform you about the procedure to get a (partial) refund of your tuition fees. 12 . (Boynton/Cook Publishers.S. G. (The University of Chicago Press. Writing for Social Scientists. Indianapolis) Schultz. The ISHSS organises about 5 graduation sessions per academic year. Writing with sources: A guide for students. Techniques for mastering the writing process. The registrar of the ISHSS organises the graduation sessions. How to start and finish your thesis. Writing from start to finish. New York) Harvey. If you want to bring more people. and then you are officially graduated from your programme. John.

DISCLAIMER: We have tried to make the ISHSS Manual for Writing a Thesis as accurate as possible. The ISHSS cannot be held responsible for the contents of the information in the Manual for Writing a Thesis or for any consequences from its use. No rights can be obtained from the information in the Manual for Writing a Thesis. Date of printing January 2008. but nevertheless the information may not be exhaustive. 14 .

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