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MOSQUITO

Objective: Students can identify of mosquito’s eggs, larvae and adult mosquitoes

Mosquito is member of Class Insecta, Ordo Diptera and Family Culicidae. The body of
Class Insecta is segmented, consist of head, thorax and abdomen. There are a pair of antennas
(sensory organ), compound/simple eyes and mouthparts at the head. There are various types of
mouthparts of insecta such as chewing (orthoptera), sucking (mosquito, blood sucking fly) and
attached-sucking (non blood sucking fly).
Order Diptera consists of fly and mosquito, have a pair of wings for the second wing pair
reduce into a halter as a tool the balance. Thorax consists of prothorax, mesothorax and
metathorax. There is a pair of wings on each mesothorax and metathorax. Most of thorax
covered with fine hairs. The abdomen is a unity of body segment (10-11segments) and the last
segment are modified into genitalia, ie hypopygium in males and ovipositor in females.
Mosquitoes are small and delicate, sized 4-13 mm. On the head there are compound
eyes, a mouth with smooth and long proboscis for piercing and sucking. Female mosquitoes
suck blood for cooking eggs, while the male mosquitoes suck liquids plant as a source of food.
On the left and right of the head, there is a pair of palpi and a pair of antennas. Antenna bushy-
haired male mosquitoes (plumose) while females rarely hairy (pilose). It has complete
metamorphose (holometabola) which consist of egg-larvae-pupae-imago stadium. Eggs, larvae
and pupae live in water (aquatic), whereas the adult fly in the air (aeratic).

Family of Culicidae consist of 3 Tribus:


1. Tribus Anophelini; Genus: Anopheles
2. Tribus Culicini: Genus Aedes, Culex, Mansonia
3. Tribus Megarrhini: Genus Toxorrhynchites

The shape and nature of the egg, larvae, pupae and adult (imago) is easily recognized and
identified.

IDENTIFICATION KEY OF FOUR MOSQUITOES GENERA THAT IS IMPORTANT IN


HEALTH

OVUM
1. Ova laid one on one ………………………………………………………………….……………..2
Ova laid in groups, each without a floating device ...........................………………………............3
2. Ova with floating device ………………………….…….………………….………….. Anopheles
3. Ova without floating device ………………………….……...………………........................Aedes
Arranged like a raft.. ……………………………..………...……………………………………….Culex
Arranged with one end, stuck at one point leaves floating aquatic plants …...................Mansonia

LARVAE
1. Larvae have a siphon (trumpet) on segment VIII of abdominal …….......…………………...2
Larvae have no siphon, when it was resting parallel to the water surface ……............Anopheles
2. Tip of trumpet has penetrators attached to the roots of aquatic plants ….................Mansonia
Tip of trumpet without penetrators and not stuck on aquatic plant, while resting form an angle
position with the surface water ............................................................................................3

3. Trumpet with one bundle of hair at accross of distal pecten ………................................Aedes


Trumpet with more than one bundles of hair at accross of distal pecten ……....…...............Culex

PUPAE
1. Trumpet with penetrators and attach to the aquatic plant ..........................…….......Mansonia
Trumpet without penetrators and not attach to the root of aquatic plant ........ …..……................2
Trumpet is short and blunt....……………………………………………….………………Anopheles
Trumpet is long and slight......... …………………………………….....…..............Aedes or culex

IMAGO (ADULT)
1. Scutelum rounded, patchy wing, palpus in females is almost equal in length to the
proboscis. Proboscis and bodies at rest are in one axis ……...............………...…….Anopheles
Scutelum trilobi, palpus in the female shorter than the proboscis. Proboscis and body at rest are
in two axes ……………………..……………………………….......................................………..2

2. Patchy wing. Wing scales alternating dark and light ………………….…….............Mansonia


Wing without patch, transparant...…….....……………………...…………………………………..3

3. Postpiraculer hair are present, tip of female abdomen usually runcing, protrude of cerci, dark
of body color, thorax with white spot ...................................... ……...………………………..Aedes
Postpiraculer hair are not present, tip of female abdomen usually tumpul, cerci is short (retract),
body without white spot ....................... …………………………………………....…………….Culex

Role in health :

1. Mosquito is nuisance because of its “ringing” sound or its bite can lead to dermatitis and
urticaria for sensitive people.

2. Mosquito is vector diseases. In Indonesia, mosquito is the important vector of some


transmitted diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis and dengue.
a. Anopheles as vector of malaria.
Sporozoite in salivary gland of mosquito will enter into human body when it was sucking
the blood.
b. Some species of mosquito as vector of lymphatic filariasis.
There are some species of genus Culex, Aedes, Mansonia and Anopheles can transmit
lymphatic filariasis. The 3rd larvae of filaria at proboscis will enter into human body
through the mosquito bite wound.
c. Aedes as vector of dengue. Dengue is the important virus disease in tropical area that is
transmitted by mosquito’s bite. Dengue virus was transmitted by biting of Aedes,
especially Aedes aegypti (primary) and Aedes albopictus (secondary).

TASK:

1. Observe the morphological characteristics of mosquitoes that have been provided.


2. Observe and define the species of larvae mosquito that taken from field and show
distinctive characteristics!