You are on page 1of 5


1. What is the definition of natural history of a disease?

The development of a disease without any medical intervention or any other form. Diseases
that occur directly natural.
(M.N Bustan. Pengantar Epidemiologi. Penerbit Rineka Cipta. Jakarta)

2. What kind of stage natural history of a disease?

 Stage prepatogenesis: At this stage the individual is normal or healthy. At this stage the
interaction between humans and germs but occurs outside of the body so as not affecting
the immune system.

 Phase pathogenesis is divided into 4 phases:

a. Incubation phase is the time between the entry of germs into the body
b. Early disease stage is the stage where the appearance of disease symptoms are still mild
c. More advanced disease stage is the stage where the symptoms intensified
d. End stage of the disease is divided into several stages:
- Recovers lost perfect that germs, body heal, and a healthy back
- Cured with disabilities the germs disappear, the disease does not exist, but the body
was not recovered fully leave permanent scars in the form of disability disorder
- Career in which the patient's body recovered but germs still present in the body
(M.N Bustan. Pengantar Epidemiologi. Penerbit Rineka Cipta. Jakarta)

3. How is infectious disease transmited?

Modes of transmission of disease:
A. Through physical contact (personal contact)
a. Through direct contact (direct contact)
For example, the mode of transmission by contact with body weight, for example,
venereal diseases, skin diseases and so forth
b. Indirect contact (indirect contact)
For example, infectious diseases with intermediate objects contaminated because it has
been in direct contact with the patient, for example via towels, clothing, broom-hand,
and so on

B. Through food and beverages (food borne infection)

Seeds of infectious diseases with intermediate foods and beverages that have been
contaminated, such as cholera, typhoid, dysentri and so on. so of cause of gastrointestinal

C. Through insect bites (Arthopoda borne infection)

Seedlings with intermediaries insect transmitted diseases (Arthopoda-Insecta)
For example: malaria caused by Plasmodium sp, sp transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito, and
so on

D. Over the air (water borne infection)

For example, through the dust in the air that contains the germs, for example, transmission of
the disease tuberculosa
(Entjang, Indan. Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat. Penerbit PT.Citra Aditya Bakti. Bandung)

4. What are the factors that can make infection disease?

There are three factors that affect a person's health, namely:

A. The cause of the disease

Divided into two groups, namely:
1. Group exogenous
That is the cause of the disease which are outside the human body that can attack the
individual and society
Divided into:
a) The real and alive
The cause of the disease is often called germs, such as bacteria, viruses, rickettsia,
fungi, protozoa, worms and so on.

b) The real nonliving

(1) Substances: toxins, acids or strong alkalis, metals etc.
(2) Trauma (Ruda forced)
- Electrical trauma: contact with electric current
- Mechanical trauma: hit, hit by
- Thermik trauma: burns
(3) food: lack some nutrients such as protein, vitamins or overall lack of food (hunger)

c) The abstract
1) economics: poverty
2) social areas: the nature of a-social, anti-social
3) the field of mental (psychiatric): distress, anxiety, fear

2. Type endogenous
That is the cause of the disease found in the human body that can attack the individual
and society. Infectious endogenous group consisting of complex nature of someone who
is basically determined at birth, which facilitates the onset of certain diseases
For example:
 Habitus (stature) example habitus asthenicus is high stature, thin and narrow
chested said to be susceptible to disease tuberculosa
 Derivatives such diseases: asthma, color blindness, haemophili

B. Humans as hosts
One of them is the immune system of the person. High endurance either physical, spiritual
and social where it can prevent people from various kinds of diseases.
The immune system can be enhanced by:
- Healthy food
- Vaccination to prevent certain infections
- Regular exercise

C. environmental
Is everything a good thing or situation that was around humans and society.
This environment can be divided into four groups, namely:
1) Biological Environment
For example: bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, worms and so on
2) The physical environment
For example: air, sunlight, soil, water, housing, garbage, etc.
3) The economic environment
For example: poverty, kwashiorkor, vitamin deficiency diseases and so forth
4) Social mental environment
Examples such as anti-social, self-serving and so on
(Entjang, Indan. Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat. Penerbit PT.Citra Aditya Bakti. Bandung)

Infectious agents (infecting)

1. Group viruses, such as influenza, smallpox and so on
2. Group rickets, for example typhoid
3. The group of bacteria, for example dysentery
4. Type protozoa, such as malaria, filaria
5. Group fungi, such as tinea versicolor, ringworm, etc.
6. Group worms, namely various stomach worms, such as ascaris (roundworm). Tapeworm,
(Notoatmodjo, Soekidjo. Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Prinsip-Prinsip Dasar. Penerbit Rineka
Cipta. Jakarta)

5. What is the five levels of prevention for communicable disease? And example

Health promotion

 The provision of healthy food is of sufficient quality and quantity

 Improved hygiene and environmental sanitation: clean water supply, improved waste
disposal, sewage and waste water to communities
 Health education to the community
 The mental health effort to achieve good personality development.

Specific protection

 Vaccinations to prevent certain diseases

 Isolation of infectious diseases
 Prevention of accident both in public places and in the work environment
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment

 Pengobatan yang setepat-tepatnya dan secepat-cepatnya dari setiap jenis penyakit shg terjadi
penyembuhan yang sempurna dan segera
 Pencegahan penularan kepada orang lain bila penyakitnya menular
 disability limitation

Disability limitation
 Usaha ini merupakan kelanjutan dari usaha C yaitu dengan pengobatan dan perawatan
yang sempurna agar penderita sembuh kembali dan tidak cacat
 Bila sudah terjadi kecacatan maka dicegah agar kecacatan tersebut tidak bertambah berat
(dibatasi), dan fungsi dari alat tubuh ini dipertahankan semaksimal mungkin

 Rehabilitasi fisik
 Rehabilitasi mental
 Rehailitasi sosial vokasional
 Rehailitasi asthetis

6. What are the diseases that include in communicable disease?

7. How is the mechanism of infectious disease that happen in our body?

The occurrence of diseases caused by the interaction between

1. The "agent" (factors that cause disease),

2. Human contact with vulnerable and
3. Supported by state of the environment.

Example of agents: viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites

Example of humans: If the man has a low immunity so susceptible to disease

Example of the environment: If the dirty environment as much waste dumped carelessly
misplaced so that it becomes a nest of germs

(Budiarto, Eko & Anggraeni, Dewi. Pengantar Epidemiologi Edisi 2. Jakarta : EGC, 2002. )

8. How is the treatment for people who has infectious disease?

1. Isolate the patient (patient), which puts the patient in a special place to reduce contact
with other people have had.
2. Quarantine is to limit the movement of people in a special place alongside other patients.
Usually in a long time. for example lepers.
(Notoatmodjo, Soekidjo. Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Prinsip-Prinsip Dasar. Penerbit Rineka
Cipta. Jakarta)
9. How is the communicable diseases spread?

10. What is the media transmission infection disease?

11. How to decrease communicable disease?


1. Prevention initial level (primordial prevention)

- Nutrition low in saturated fat

- Smoking Control

2. Prevention first

Carried out in the period before the illness can be:

- Health education

- Immunization

- Control environment / sanitation

- Consul genetics

3. Prevention of second level

Performed at the beginning of the illness:

Screening (screening)

The provision of early treatment

4. Prevention of third level

This work is done after the pain such as:


Women care homes / nursing

(M.N Bustan. Pengantar Epidemiologi. Penerbit Rineka Cipta. Jakarta)