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Swagat Kumar

July 11, 2005

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 1

Topics to be covered

• Frequency response of a linear system

• Bode plots

• Effect of Adding zero and poles

• Minimum and Non-minimum phase

• Relative stability: Gain Margin and Phase margin

• Lead and Lag compensator Design

• PID compensator design using bode plot

• Summary

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 2

Frequency response of a linear system

Consider a stable linear system whose transfer function is given by

G(s) =

Y (s)

U(s)

For a sinusoidal input u(t) = Asinωt, the output of the system is given by

y(t) = Y sin(ωt +φ)

where

Y = A|G(jω)|

φ = ∠G(jω) = tan

−1

¸

Im[G(jω)]

Re[G(jω)]

**A stable linear system subjected to a sinusoidal input will, at steady state, have a
**

sinusoidal output of the same frequency as the input. But the amplitude and phase

of output will, in general, be different from those of the input.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 3

Graphical tools for frequency response analysis

• Bode Diagram

• Nyquist plot or polar plot

• Log-magnitude versus phase plot

In this lecture, we will only study about “Bode Diagram” and its application in

compensator design.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 4

Bode Plot

A Bode diagram consists of two graphs:

• a plot of 20 log |G(jω)| (in dB) versus frequency ω, and

• a plot of phase angle φ = ∠G(jω) versus frequency ω.

Advantages of Bode plot:

• An approximate bode plot can always be drawn with hand.

• Multiplication of magnitudes get converted into addition.

• Phase-angle curves can easily be drawn if a template for phase-angle curve of

(1 +jω) is available.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 5

Construction of Bode plot

Any transfer function is composed of 4 classes of terms

1. K

2. (jω)

±1

3. (jωτ + 1)

±1

4.

(

jω

ω

n

)

2

+ 2ζ

jω

ω

n

+ 1

±1

The gain K:

• Log-magnitude curve is a straight line at 20 log K and phase angle is zero for

all ω

• The effect of varying the gain K in the transfer function is that it raises or lowers

the log-magnitude curve by a constant amount without effecting its phase curve.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 6

Construction of bode plot

Integral and derivative term (jω)

∓1

: The logarithmic magnitude of 1/jω in

decibel is

20 log

1

jω

= −20 log ω dB

The phase angle of jω is constant and equal to −90

◦

.

• Octave: A frequency band from ω

1

to 2ω

1

• Decade: A frequency band from ω

1

to 10ω

1

For (jω)

±n

term,

- slope of log-magnitude curve = ±20n dB/decade or ±6n dB/octave.

- phase angle = ±(n ×90)

◦

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 7

Construction of Bode Plot

|G(jω)|

Slope = -20dB/decade

20

10

−10

−20

0.1 1 10 100 1000

(a) Magnitude Plot

∠G(jω)

−90

o

0.1 1 10 100 1000

(b) Phase Plot

Figure 1: Magnitude and Phase plot of G(jω) =

1

jω

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 8

Construction of Bode Plot

|G(jω)|

Slope = 20dB/decade

20

10

−10

−20

0.1 1 10 100 1000

(a) Magnitude Plot

∠G(jω)

−90

o

90

◦

0.1 1 10 100 1000

(b) Phase Plot

Figure 2: Magnitude and Phase plot of G(jω) = jω

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 9

Construction of Bode Plot

First order factors (1 +jωT)

∓1

: The log magnitude of the ﬁrst order factor

1

(1+jωT)

is

20log

1

(1 +jωT)

= −20 log

1 +ω

2

T

2

dB

The phase angle is φ = −tan

−1

ωT. The log-magnitude curve can be

approximated by two asymptotes as given below:

For ω <<

1

T

, −20 log

√

1 +ω

2

T

2

≈ −20 log 1 = 0 dB

For ω >>

1

T

, −20 log

√

1 +ω

2

T

2

≈ −20 log ωT dB

Phase curve

ω 0 1/T ∞

φ 0 −45

◦

−90

◦

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 10

Construction of Bode Plot

Corner frequency

Asymptote

10

0

−10

−20

1

20T

1

10T

1

2T

1

T

2

T

10

T

20

T

|G(jω)|

Slope = -20 dB/decade

(a) Magnitude plot

30

◦

0

◦

−30

◦

−60

◦

−90

◦

1

20T

1

10T

1

2T

1

T

2

T

10

T

20

T

∠G(jω)

(b) Phase plot

Figure 3: Magnitude and phase plot of

1

(1+jωT)

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 11

Construction of Bode Plot

Corner frequency

Asymptote

30

20

10

0

−10

1

20T

1

10T

1

2T

1

T

2

T

10

T

20

T

|G(jω)|

(a) Magnitude plot

90

◦

60

◦

30

◦

0

◦

−30

◦

1

20T

1

10T

1

2T

1

T

2

T

10

T

20

T

∠G(jω)

(b) Phase plot

Figure 4: Magnitude and phase plot of (1 +jωT)

Error at corner frequency ≈3 dB and slope is +20 dB/decade.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 12

Construction of Bode Plot

Quadratic factors [1 + 2ζ

j

ω

ω

n

+

j

ω

ω

n

2

]

∓1

: The log-magnitude curve for

1/(1 + 2ζ

j

ω

ω

n

+

j

ω

ω

n

2

) is given by

20 log

1

1 + 2ζ

j

ω

ω

n

+

j

ω

ω

n

2

= −20 log

1 −

ω

2

ω

2

n

2

+

2ζ

ω

ω

n

2

The asymptotic frequency-response curve may be obtained by making following

approximations:

For ω << ω

n

, log-magnitude = −20 log 1 = 0 dB

For ω >> ω

n

, log-magnitude = −20 log

ω

2

ω

2

n

= −40 log

ω

ω

n

dB

At corner frequency ω = ω

n

, the resonant peak occurs and its magnitude depends

on damping ratio ζ.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 13

Construction of Bode Plot

The phase angle of

1

1+2ζ

(

j

ω

ω

n

)

+

(

j

ω

ω

n

)

2

is

φ = tan

−1

2ζ

ω

ω

n

1 −

ω

ω

n

2

¸

¸

¸

The phase curve passes through following points

ω 0 ω

n

∞

φ 0

◦

−90

◦

−180

◦

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 14

Construction of Bode Plot

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 15

Frequency domain speciﬁcations

• The resonant peak M

r

is the maxi-

mum value of |M(jω)|.

• The resonant frequency ω

r

is the fre-

quency at which the peak resonance

M

r

occurs.

• The bandwidth BW is the frequency at

which M(jω) drops to 70.7% (3 dB)

of its zero-frequency value.

1

0.707

M

r

0

ω

r

|M(jω)|

ω

BW

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 16

Frequency domain speciﬁcation

For a second order system, following relationships between frequency and

time-domain responses can be obtained.

Resonant Frequency:

ω

r

= ω

n

1 −2ζ

2

Resonant Peak:

M

r

= |G(jω)|

max

= |G(jω

r

)| =

1

2ζ

1 −ζ

2

for 0 ≤ ζ ≤ 0.707. For ζ > 0.707, ω

r

= 0 and

M

r

= 1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

2

4

6

8

10

0.707

M

r

i

n

d

B

ζ

Bandwith:

BW = ω

n

[(1 −2ζ

2

) +

(ζ

4

−4ζ

2

+ 2)]

1/2

= [ω

2

r

+

ω

4

r

+ω

4

n

]

1/2

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 17

Frequency domain speciﬁcation

• M

r

indicates the relative stability of a stable closed loop system.

• A large M

r

corresponds to larger maximum overshoot of the step response.

Desirable value: 1.1 to 1.5

• BW gives an indication of the transient response properties of a control system.

• A large bandwidth corresponds to a faster rise time. BW and rise time t

r

are

inversely proportional.

• BW also indicates the noise-ﬁltering characteristics and robustness of the

system.

• Increasing ω

n

increases BW.

• Increasing ζ decreases BW as well as M

r

.

• BW and M

r

are proportional to each other for 0 ≤ ζ ≤ 0.707.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 18

Examples

Effect of adding a zero to the forward path transfer function

Consider following open loop transfer function

G(s) =

1

s(s + 1.414)

Adding a zero to the forward path transfer function leads to

G

1

(s) =

(1 +Ts)

s(s + 1.414)

The closed loop transfer function is given by

H

1

(s) =

1 +Ts

s

2

+ (T + 1.414s) + 1

The general effect of adding zero to the forward path transfer function is to

increase the bandwith of the closed loop system.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 19

Examples

−5

−4

−3

−2

−1

0

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−1

10

0

−180

−135

−90

−45

0

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Frequency (rad/sec)

T = 0

T = 0.2

T = 0.5

T = 2

T = 5

Figure 5: Effect of adding a zero

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 20

Examples

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Step Response

Time (sec)

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

T = 0

T = 0.2

T = 0.5

T = 2

T = 5

Figure 6: Effect of adding a zero: Step response

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 21

Example: adding a zero

Observations

• A zero provides a phase lead to the transfer function.

• For very low values of T, bandwidth decreases.

• For higher values bandwith increases and hence faster rise time.

• For very high values of T, zero (s = −

1

T

) moves very close to origin, causing

the system to have larger time constant and hence longer settling time.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 22

Example

Adding a pole to the forward-path transfer function

Reconsider the previous open loop system

G(s) =

1

s(s + 1.414)

Adding a pole to the forward-path transfer function leads to

G

1

(s) =

1

s(s + 1.414)(1 +Ts)

The closed loop transfer function is given by

H

1

(s) =

1

Ts

3

+ (1.414T + 1)s

2

+ 1.414s + 1

The effect of adding a pole to the forward path transfer function is to make

the closed-loop system less stable while decreasing bandwidth

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 23

Example

−10

−5

0

5

10

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−1

10

0

−270

−225

−180

−135

−90

−45

0

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Frequency (rad/sec)

T = 0

T = 0.5

T = 1

T = 5

Figure 7: Effect of adding a pole

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 24

Example

Step Response

Time (sec)

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 5 10 15 20 25

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

T = 0

T = 0.5

T = 1

Figure 8: Effect of adding a pole

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 25

Example: Adding a pole

Observation

• For smaller values of T, BW increases slightly but M

r

increases.

• For higher values of T, BW decreases but M

r

increases.

• In step response, the rise time increases with decreasing of BW.

• Peak overshoot and settling time increses with increasing value of T.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 26

Minimum and nonminimum-phase system

Minimum-phase system Transfer functions having neither poles or zeros in the

right-half s plane are minimum-phase transfer functions.

Nonminimum-phase system Those having poles and/or zeros in the right-half s

plane are called nonminimum-phase system.

Consider following two systems

G

1

(s) = 10

s + 1

s + 10

G

2

(s) = 10

s −1

s + 10

|G

1

(jω)| = |G

2

(jω)|

∠G

1

(jω) = ∠G

2

(jω)

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 27

minimum and non-minimum phase system

0

5

10

15

20

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−2

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

0

45

90

135

180

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Frequency (rad/sec)

10(s−1)/(s+10)

10(s+1)/(s+10)

In a minimum-phase system, the magnitude and phase-angle are uniquely related.

This does not hold for a NMP system.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 28

Relative Stability

Phase Margin It is the amount of additional lag at the gain crossover frequency ω

g

required to bring the system to the verge of instability. At gain crossover

frequency, the magnitude of open loop gain is unity, i.e., |G(jω

g

)| = 1. The

phase margin γ is given by

γ = 180

◦

+φ

where φ = ∠G(jω

g

).

Gain Margin It is the amount of additional gain at phase crossover frequency ω

p

that can bring the system to the verge of instability. At phase crossover

frequency, the phase angle of open loop transfer function equals −180

◦

, i.e.,

∠G(jω

p

) = −180

◦

. The gain margin is given by

K

g

=

1

|G(jω

p

)|

or K

g

dB = −20 log |G(jω

p

)|

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 29

Stability analysis using bode plot

• The phase margin and gain margin must be positive for a minimum-phase

system to be stable.

• Negative margins indicate instability.

• For satisfactory performance, the phase margin should be between 30

◦

and

60

◦

and gain margin should be greater than 6 dB.

• Either the gain margin or the phase margin alone does not give a sufﬁcient

indication of the relative stability. Both should be given in order to determine the

relative stability.

• For ﬁrst order and second order system, gain margin is always inﬁnity.

Disadvantage of Bode plot:

Bode plot can’t be used for stability analysis of non minimum-phase system.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 30

stability analysis using bode plot

−100

−50

0

50

100

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−2

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

−270

−225

−180

−135

−90

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Gm = 9.54 dB (at 2.24 rad/sec) , Pm = 25.4 deg (at 1.23 rad/sec)

Frequency (rad/sec)

Gain crossover frequency

Phase crossover frequency

Stable System

+ve gain

margin

+ve phase

Margin

Figure 9: Bode plot of

10

s(s+1)(s+5)

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 31

stability analysis using bode plot

−100

−50

0

50

100

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−2

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

−270

−225

−180

−135

−90

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Gm = −10.5 dB (at 2.24 rad/sec) , Pm = −23.7 deg (at 3.91 rad/sec)

Frequency (rad/sec)

Unstable System

−ve gain margin

−ve phase

margin

Figure 10: Bode plot of

100

s(s+1)(s+5)

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 32

Lead Compensators

A lead compensator is given by following transfer

function

G

c

(s) = α

Ts + 1

αTs + 1

0 < α < 1

We see that the zero is always located to the right

of the pole in complex plane.

× •

−

1

T

−

1

αT

σ

jω

The maximum phase angle contributed by a lead compensator is given by

sinφ

m

=

1 −α

1 +α

at a frequency ω

m

=

1

T

√

α

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 33

Lead compensator

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

0

5

10

15

20

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Frequency (rad/sec)

20 log 1/a

20 dB/decade

a < 1

Maximum phase angle

Figure 11: Bode plot of G

c

(s) =

1+s

1+0.5s

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 34

Lead compensator design

Consider following second order system

G(s) =

4

s(s + 2)

Design a compensator for the system so that the static velocity error constant

K

v

= 20 sec

−1

and phase margin is at least 50

◦

.

Design steps:

• The open loop transfer function of the compensated system is given by

G

c

(s)G(s) = K

Ts + 1

1 +αTs

G(s) =

Ts + 1

1 +αTs

KG(s)

where 0 < α < 1 and K = K

c

α. K

c

is a gain constant. The attenuation

factor α is assimilated into constant gain factor K. Determine gain K to satisfy

the requirement on given static error constant.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 35

Lead compensator design

K

v

= lim

s→0

sG

c

(s)G(s) = lim

s→0

s

Ts + 1

1 +αTs

K

4

s(s + 2)

= 20

This gives K = 10.

• Using the gain K, draw a Bode diagram of KG(jω). Evaluate phase margin.

The phase margin is about 18

◦

.

• Determine the necessary phase lead angle φ to be added to the system.

For a PM of 50

◦

, a phase lead angle of 32

◦

is required. However, in order to

compensate for the shift in gain crossover frequency due to the lead

compensator, we assume that the maximum phase lead required

φ

m

= 32 + 6 = 38

◦

.

• Using equation sinφ

m

=

1−α

1+α

, Determine the attenuation factor α.

For φ

m

= 38

◦

, α = 0.24.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 36

Lead compensator design

Bode Diagram

Gm = Inf dB (at Inf rad/sec) , Pm = 18 deg (at 6.17 rad/sec)

Frequency (rad/sec)

−50

0

50

System: untitled1

Frequency (rad/sec): 8.95

Magnitude (dB): −6.24

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

−180

−135

−90

System: untitled1

Frequency (rad/sec): 6.13

Phase (deg): −162

System: untitled1

Frequency (rad/sec): 1.68

Phase (deg): −130

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

New

Gain crossover

Frequency

Figure 12: Bode plot of gain adjusted but uncompensated system KG(jω)

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 37

Lead compensator design

• Determine the frequency ω = ω

m

where

20 log |G

c

(jω

m

)G(jω

m

)| = 0dB

20 log |KG(jω

m

)| = −20log

jω

m

T + 1

jαω

m

T + 1

= −20 log

1

√

α

(∵ ω

m

=

1

T

√

α

)

Get this frequency from the magnitude plot of KG(jω). This is our new gain

crossover frequency and maximum phase shift φ

m

occurs at this frequency.

Here, −20 log

1

√

α

= −6.2 dB which occurs at ω

m

= 9 rad/sec.

• Determine the time constant T from the equation ω

m

=

1

T

√

α

.

Here, T = 0.2278 seconds.

The compensated open loop transfer function is given by

G

c

(s)G(s) =

(0.2278s + 1)40

s(s + 2)(0.0547s + 1)

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 38

Lead compensator design

−80

−60

−40

−20

0

20

40

60

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

−180

−135

−90

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Gm = Inf dB (at Inf rad/sec) , Pm = 50.6 deg (at 8.92 rad/sec)

Frequency (rad/sec)

Figure 13: Bode plot of compensated system

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 39

Lead compensator design

Step Response

Time (sec)

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Figure 14: Closed loop step response of the compensated system

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 40

Lead compensator design

Discussion

• Lead compensator is a high-pass ﬁlter.

• It adds more damping to the closed-loop system.

• Bandwidth of closed loop system is increased. This leads to faster time

response.

• The steady state error is not affected.

• In lead compensator design, the phase of forward-path transfer function in the

vicinity of gain crossover frequency is increased.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 41

Lag Compensator

A lag compensator is given by following

transfer function

G

c

(s) = α

Ts + 1

αTs + 1

α > 1

We see that the pole is always located to

the right of the zero in complex plane.

× •

−

1

αT

−

1

T

σ

jω

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 42

−15

−10

−5

0

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−2

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

−60

−30

0

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Frequency (rad/sec)

20 log 1/a

−20 dB/decade

a > 1

Maximum phase angle

Figure 15: Bode plot of G

c

(s) =

1+s

1+5s

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 43

Lag compensator Design

Consider following open loop transfer function

G(s) =

1

s(s + 1)(0.5s + 1)

Design a compensator so the velocity error constant is K

v

= 5 sec

−1

, the PM is

at least 40

◦

and GM is atleast 10 dB.

Design steps:

• The open loop transfer function of the compensated system is given by

G

c

(s)G(s) = K

Ts + 1

1 +αTs

G(s) =

Ts + 1

1 +αTs

KG(s)

where α > 1 and K = K

c

α. Determine forward path gain K so as to satisfy

the requirement of steady state performance.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 44

Lag compensator design

K

v

= lim

s→0

sG

c

(s)G(s) = lim

s→0

s

Ts + 1

1 +αTs

K

s(s + 1)(0.5s + 1)

= K = 5

• Plot the bode diagram of KG(jω).

• Assuming that the PM is to be increased, locate the frequency at which the

desired phase margin is obtained, on bode plot. To compensate for excessive

phase lag, the required phase margin is the speciﬁed PM + 5 to 12

◦

. Call the

corresponding frequency new gain crossover frequency ω

g

.

The new gain crossover frequency for a PM of 40 + 12 = 52

◦

is ω

g

= 0.5

rad/sec.

• To bring the magnitude curve down to 0 dB at this new gain crossover

frequency, the phase-lag controller must provide the amount of attenuation

equal to the value of magnitude curve ω

g

. In other words

|KG(jω

g

)| = 20 log

10

1

α

α > 1

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 45

Lag compensator design

Bode Diagram

Gm = −4.44 dB (at 1.41 rad/sec) , Pm = −13 deg (at 1.8 rad/sec)

Frequency (rad/sec)

10

−2

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

−270

−225

−180

−135

−90

System: untitled1

Frequency (rad/sec): 0.637

Phase (deg): −140

System: untitled1

Frequency (rad/sec): 0.461

Phase (deg): −128

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

−150

−100

−50

0

50

100

System: untitled1

Frequency (rad/sec): 0.462

Magnitude (dB): 19.6

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

Figure 16: Bode diagram of KG(jω)

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 46

Lag compensator design

The magnitude of KG(jω

g

) is 20 dB and thus we have −20 log α = −20 and

this gives α = 10.

• Choose the corner frequency ω =

1

T

corresponding to the zero of lag

compensator 1 octave to 1 decade below the new gain crossover frequency ω

g

.

We choose the zero of lag compensator at ω =

1

T

= 0.1 rad/sec. This gives T

= 10.

• Plot the bode diagram of compensated system.

The compensated open loop transfer function is given by

KG

c

(s)G(s) =

5(1 + 10s)

s(1 + 100s)(s + 1)(0.5s + 1)

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 47

Lag compensator design

−150

−100

−50

0

50

100

150

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−4

10

−3

10

−2

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

−270

−225

−180

−135

−90

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Gm = 14.3 dB (at 1.32 rad/sec) , Pm = 41.6 deg (at 0.454 rad/sec)

Frequency (rad/sec)

Figure 17: Bode diagram of compensated system KG

c

(s)G(s)

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 48

Lag compensator design

Discussion

• Lag compensator is a low-pass ﬁlter.

• The gain crossover frequency is decreased and thus the bandwidth of the

system is reduced.

• The rise and settling time increases.

• The steady state error reduces.

• In phase lag control, the objective is to move the gain crossover frequency to a

lower frequency where desired PM is realized while keeping the phase curve

relatively unchanged at new gain crossover frequency. In other words,

phase-lag control utilizes attenuation of controller at high frequencies.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 49

PID control design

Consider following open loop system

G(s) =

(s + 1)

s

2

(s + 8)

Design a PID compensator such that the compensated system has a PM of 60

◦

and

a gain crossover frequency of 5 rad/sec and an acceleration error constant K

a

= 1.

The PID compensator is of following form

G

c

(s) = K

P

+K

D

s +

K

I

s

G

c

(jω) = K

P

+j(K

D

ω −

K

I

ω

)

= |G

c

(jω)|(cos θ +j sinθ)

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 50

design of PID compensator

−150

−100

−50

0

50

100

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−2

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

−180

−150

−120

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Gm = Inf dB (at Inf rad/sec) , Pm = 17.4 deg (at 0.365 rad/sec)

Frequency (rad/sec)

Figure 18: Bode plot of uncompensated system

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 51

design of PID compensator

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

System: h

Peak amplitude: 1.65

Overshoot (%): 64.9

At time (sec): 7.89

System: h

Settling Time (sec): 71.1

Step Response

Time (sec)

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Figure 19: Step response of uncompensated closed loop system

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 52

design of PID compensator

For the PID compensator, we can write

K

P

= |G

c

(jω)| cos θ

K

D

ω −

K

I

ω

= |G

c

(jω)| sinθ

We know that at gain crossover frequency, |G

c

(jω

g

)||G(jω

g

)| = 1. This gives

|G

c

(jω

g

)| =

1

|G(jω

g

)|

Substituting for |G

c

(jω)| from previous equation, we get

K

p

=

cos θ

|G(jω

g

)|

Similarly, we have

K

D

ω

g

−

K

I

ω

g

=

sin θ

|G(jω

g

)|

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 53

design of PID compensator

Now at ω

g

= 1 rad/s,

G(jω

g

) = 0.1754∠ −142.1250

◦

For the compensated system to have a phase margin of 60

◦

at ω

g

= 1 rad/sec, we

should have

−180 +φ

m

= θ +∠G(jω) (φ

m

= PM)

θ = −180

◦

+ 60

◦

+ 142.1250

◦

= 22.1250

◦

Hence,

K

P

=

cos 22.1250

◦

0.1754

= 3.9571

Lets choose K

I

= 0, then K

D

can be computed to be

K

D

=

sin22.1250

◦

0.1754

+ 1 = 3.1471

Hence we have a PD compensator G

c

(s) = 3.9571 + 3.1471s.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 54

design of PID compensator

−50

0

50

100

150

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

10

−2

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

−180

−135

−90

−45

P

h

a

s

e

(

d

e

g

)

Bode Diagram

Gm = Inf , Pm = 60 deg (at 1 rad/sec)

Frequency (rad/sec)

Figure 20: Bode plot of compensated systemG

c

(s)G(s) =

(3.9571+3.1471s)(s+1)

s

2

(s+8)

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 55

design of PID compensator

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

System: h

Peak amplitude: 1.26

Overshoot (%): 26

At time (sec): 3.24

System: h

Settling Time (sec): 9.89

Step Response

Time (sec)

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Figure 21: Step response of compensated system

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 56

Summary

Following topics were covered in this lecture

• Frequency domain speciﬁcations.

• Bode plot construction

• Relative stability

• Design of Lead and Lag compensators

• PID control design example.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 57

Topics to be covered

• Frequency response of a linear system • Bode plots • Effect of Adding zero and poles • Minimum and Non-minimum phase • Relative stability: Gain Margin and Phase margin • Lead and Lag compensator Design • PID compensator design using bode plot • Summary

July 11, 2006

Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur

Page 2

**Frequency response of a linear system
**

Consider a stable linear system whose transfer function is given by

G(s) =

For a sinusoidal input u(t)

Y (s) U (s)

= Asinωt, the output of the system is given by y(t) = Y sin(ωt + φ)

where

Y

= A|G(jω)| Im[G(jω)] Re[G(jω)]

φ = ∠G(jω) = tan−1

A stable linear system subjected to a sinusoidal input will, at steady state, have a sinusoidal output of the same frequency as the input. But the amplitude and phase of output will, in general, be different from those of the input.

July 11, 2006 Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur Page 3

Graphical tools for frequency response analysis

**• Bode Diagram • Nyquist plot or polar plot • Log-magnitude versus phase plot
**

In this lecture, we will only study about “Bode Diagram” and its application in compensator design.

July 11, 2006

Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur

Page 4

Bode Plot

A Bode diagram consists of two graphs:

**• a plot of 20 log |G(jω)| (in dB) versus frequency ω , and • a plot of phase angle φ = ∠G(jω) versus frequency ω .
**

Advantages of Bode plot:

• An approximate bode plot can always be drawn with hand. • Multiplication of magnitudes get converted into addition. • Phase-angle curves can easily be drawn if a template for phase-angle curve of (1 + jω ) is available.

July 11, 2006

Control Systems Laboratory, IIT Kanpur

Page 5

2. 3. K (jω)±1 (jωτ + 1)±1 jω ( ω n )2 + jω 2ζ ωn +1 ±1 The gain K : • Log-magnitude curve is a straight line at 20 log K and phase angle is zero for all ω • The effect of varying the gain K in the transfer function is that it raises or lowers the log-magnitude curve by a constant amount without effecting its phase curve. IIT Kanpur Page 6 .Construction of Bode plot Any transfer function is composed of 4 classes of terms 1. July 11. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. 4.

. • Octave: A frequency band from ω1 to 2ω1 • Decade: A frequency band from ω1 to 10ω1 For (jω)±n term.Construction of bode plot Integral and derivative term (jω) 1 : The logarithmic magnitude of 1/jω in decibel is 20 log 1 = −20 log ω dB jω The phase angle of jω is constant and equal to −90◦ . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.phase angle = ±(n × 90)◦ July 11. . IIT Kanpur Page 7 .slope of log-magnitude curve = ±20n dB/decade or ±6n dB/octave.

2006 Control Systems Laboratory.1 1 −10 −20 10 100 1000 −90o 0. IIT Kanpur Page 8 .Construction of Bode Plot 20 |G(jω)| 10 Slope = -20dB/decade ∠G(jω) 0.1 1 10 100 1000 (a) Magnitude Plot (b) Phase Plot Figure 1: Magnitude and Phase plot of G(jω) = 1 jω July 11.

1 1 −10 −20 10 100 1000 −90o 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Slope = 20dB/decade (a) Magnitude Plot (b) Phase Plot Figure 2: Magnitude and Phase plot of G(jω) = jω July 11. IIT Kanpur Page 9 . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.Construction of Bode Plot 20 |G(jω)| ∠G(jω) 10 90◦ 0.

Construction of Bode Plot First order factors (1 + jωT ) 1 : The log magnitude of the ﬁrst order factor 1 (1+jωT ) is 1 = −20 log 20log (1 + jωT ) The phase angle is φ 1 + ω 2 T 2 dB approximated by two asymptotes as given below: For ω For ω = − tan−1 ωT . IIT Kanpur . 1 T. −20 log −20 log Phase curve ω φ 1/T −45◦ −90◦ Page 10 ∞ July 11. The log-magnitude curve can be √ √ 1 + ω 2 T 2 ≈ −20 log 1 = 0 dB 1 + ω 2 T 2 ≈ −20 log ωT dB 0 0 << >> 1 T. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.

2006 Control Systems Laboratory. IIT Kanpur Page 11 .Construction of Bode Plot ∠G(jω) Corner frequency 10 Asymptote 30◦ 0◦ −30◦ −60◦ Slope = -20 dB/decade 1 10T 1 2T 1 T 2 T 10 T 20 T |G(jω)| 0 −10 −20 1 20T −90◦ 1 20T 1 10T 1 2T 1 T 2 T 10 T 20 T (a) Magnitude plot (b) Phase plot 1 Figure 3: Magnitude and phase plot of (1+jωT ) July 11.

Construction of Bode Plot ∠G(jω) 90◦ 60◦ 30◦ 0◦ −30◦ Corner frequency 30 |G(jω)| 20 10 0 −10 Asymptote 1 20T 1 10T 1 2T 1 T 2 T 10 T 20 T 1 20T 1 10T 1 2T 1 T 2 T 10 T 20 T (a) Magnitude plot (b) Phase plot Figure 4: Magnitude and phase plot of (1 + jωT ) Error at corner frequency ≈ 3 dB and slope is +20 dB/decade. IIT Kanpur Page 12 . July 11. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.

log-magnitude = −20 log 1 = 0 dB >> ωn . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.Construction of Bode Plot Quadratic factors [1 + 2ζ ω ω 1/(1 + 2ζ j ωn + j ωn ω j ωn 2 + ω j ωn 2 ] 1 : The log-magnitude curve for ) is given by ω2 1− 2 ωn 2 20 log 1 ω ω 1 + 2ζ j ωn + j ωn 2 = −20 log ω + 2ζ ωn 2 The asymptotic frequency-response curve may be obtained by making following approximations: For ω For ω << ωn . IIT Kanpur Page 13 . the resonant peak occurs and its magnitude depends July 11. log-magnitude = −20 log ω2 2 ωn ω = −40 log ωn dB At corner frequency ω on damping ratio ζ . = ωn .

Construction of Bode Plot The phase angle of 1 ω ω 1+2ζ (j ωn )+(j ωn ) 2 is The phase curve passes through following points φ = tan−1 ω φ 0 ω 2ζ ωn 1− ω ωn 2 ωn −90◦ 0◦ −180◦ ∞ July 11. IIT Kanpur Page 14 . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.

IIT Kanpur Page 15 . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.Construction of Bode Plot July 11.

quency at which the peak resonance Mr 1 0.7% (3 dB) of its zero-frequency value. • The bandwidth BW is the frequency at which M (jω) drops to 70.707 |M (jω)| 0 ωr BW ω July 11. • The resonant frequency ωr is the freMr occurs. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. IIT Kanpur Page 16 .Frequency domain speciﬁcations • The resonant peak Mr is the maximum value of |M (jω)|.

IIT Kanpur Page 17 .707 Mr = |G(jω)|max = |G(jωr )| = for 0 ≤ ζ ≤ 0.2 0. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. following relationships between frequency and time-domain responses can be obtained. For ζ > 0.707.4 0.8 ζ 1. Resonant Frequency: 10 ωr = ω n Resonant Peak: Mr in dB 1 − 2ζ 2 1 2ζ 1− ζ2 8 6 4 2 0. ωr = 0 and Mr = 1 Bandwith: BW 0 2 (ζ 4 − 4ζ 2 + 2)]1/2 = [ωr + 0.6 0.0 = ωn [(1 − 2ζ 2 ) + 4 4 ωr + ωn ]1/2 July 11.Frequency domain speciﬁcation For a second order system.707.

BW and rise time tr are inversely proportional.5 • BW gives an indication of the transient response properties of a control system. • Increasing ωn increases BW. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. IIT Kanpur Page 18 .707.Frequency domain speciﬁcation • Mr indicates the relative stability of a stable closed loop system. • A large Mr corresponds to larger maximum overshoot of the step response. • A large bandwidth corresponds to a faster rise time. • BW and Mr are proportional to each other for 0 ≤ ζ ≤ 0. • BW also indicates the noise-ﬁltering characteristics and robustness of the system.1 to 1. • Increasing ζ decreases BW as well as Mr . July 11. Desirable value: 1.

414) The closed loop transfer function is given by 1 + Ts H1 (s) = 2 s + (T + 1.414s) + 1 The general effect of adding zero to the forward path transfer function is to increase the bandwith of the closed loop system.414) Adding a zero to the forward path transfer function leads to G1 (s) = (1 + T s) s(s + 1.Examples Effect of adding a zero to the forward path transfer function Consider following open loop transfer function 1 G(s) = s(s + 1. July 11. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. IIT Kanpur Page 19 .

Examples Bode Diagram 0 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 0 −45 −90 −135 −180 10 −1 T=0 T = 0.5 T=2 T=5 10 0 Frequency (rad/sec) Figure 5: Effect of adding a zero July 11. IIT Kanpur Page 20 .2 T = 0. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.

4 T=0 T = 0.6 0.5 T=2 T=5 0. IIT Kanpur Page 21 . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (sec) 12 14 16 18 Figure 6: Effect of adding a zero: Step response July 11.Examples Step Response 1 0.2 T = 0.8 Amplitude 0.

1 • For very high values of T . IIT Kanpur Page 22 . July 11. causing the system to have larger time constant and hence longer settling time. bandwidth decreases.Example: adding a zero Observations • A zero provides a phase lead to the transfer function. • For very low values of T . • For higher values bandwith increases and hence faster rise time. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. zero (s = − T ) moves very close to origin.

414) Adding a pole to the forward-path transfer function leads to 1 G1 (s) = s(s + 1.414T + 1)s2 + 1. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.Example Adding a pole to the forward-path transfer function Reconsider the previous open loop system G(s) = 1 s(s + 1. IIT Kanpur Page 23 .414s + 1 The effect of adding a pole to the forward path transfer function is to make the closed-loop system less stable while decreasing bandwidth July 11.414)(1 + T s) The closed loop transfer function is given by 1 H1 (s) = T s3 + (1.

Example Bode Diagram 10 Magnitude (dB) 5 0 −5 −10 0 −45 Phase (deg) −90 −135 −180 −225 −270 10 Frequency (rad/sec) −1 0 T=0 T = 0. IIT Kanpur Page 24 . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.5 T=1 T=5 10 Figure 7: Effect of adding a pole July 11.

2 0 0 5 10 Time (sec) 15 20 25 Figure 8: Effect of adding a pole July 11.8 0.4 T=0 T = 0.6 0. IIT Kanpur Page 25 .2 1 Amplitude 0.5 T=1 1.4 0. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.Example Step Response 1.

BW decreases but Mr increases. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. • In step response. • Peak overshoot and settling time increses with increasing value of T . the rise time increases with decreasing of BW. July 11. • For higher values of T . IIT Kanpur Page 26 .Example: Adding a pole Observation • For smaller values of T . BW increases slightly but Mr increases.

Nonminimum-phase system Those having poles and/or zeros in the right-half s plane are called nonminimum-phase system. Consider following two systems s+1 s + 10 s−1 G2 (s) = 10 s + 10 |G1 (jω)| = |G2 (jω)| G1 (s) = 10 ∠G1 (jω) = ∠G2 (jω) July 11.Minimum and nonminimum-phase system Minimum-phase system Transfer functions having neither poles or zeros in the right-half s plane are minimum-phase transfer functions. IIT Kanpur Page 27 . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.

IIT Kanpur Page 28 .minimum and non-minimum phase system Bode Diagram 20 Magnitude (dB) 15 10 5 0 180 135 Phase (deg) 90 45 0 10 −2 10(s−1)/(s+10) 10(s+1)/(s+10) 10 −1 10 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 1 10 2 10 3 In a minimum-phase system. July 11. This does not hold for a NMP system. the magnitude and phase-angle are uniquely related. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.

Relative Stability Phase Margin It is the amount of additional lag at the gain crossover frequency ω g required to bring the system to the verge of instability... At gain crossover frequency. i.e. ∠G(jωp ) = −180◦ .e. The γ = 180◦ + φ where φ = ∠G(jωg ). The gain margin is given by 1 Kg = or Kg dB = −20 log |G(jωp )| |G(jωp )| July 11. the phase angle of open loop transfer function equals −180 ◦ . IIT Kanpur Page 29 . Gain Margin It is the amount of additional gain at phase crossover frequency ω p that can bring the system to the verge of instability. i. |G(jωg )| phase margin γ is given by = 1. At phase crossover frequency. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. the magnitude of open loop gain is unity.

Disadvantage of Bode plot: Bode plot can’t be used for stability analysis of non minimum-phase system. • Either the gain margin or the phase margin alone does not give a sufﬁcient relative stability. • Negative margins indicate instability. indication of the relative stability. July 11. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. • For satisfactory performance. IIT Kanpur Page 30 . the phase margin should be between 30◦ and 60◦ and gain margin should be greater than 6 dB.Stability analysis using bode plot • The phase margin and gain margin must be positive for a minimum-phase system to be stable. gain margin is always inﬁnity. Both should be given in order to determine the • For ﬁrst order and second order system.

24 rad/sec) .23 rad/sec) 100 Magnitude (dB) 50 Gain crossover frequency 0 Stable System −50 +ve gain margin −100 −90 −135 Phase (deg) −180 −225 −270 10 −2 +ve phase Margin Phase crossover frequency 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 10 Figure 9: Bode plot of s(s+1)(s+5) July 11.stability analysis using bode plot Bode Diagram Gm = 9. Pm = 25.4 deg (at 1. IIT Kanpur Page 31 . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.54 dB (at 2.

Pm = −23.24 rad/sec) .stability analysis using bode plot Bode Diagram Gm = −10. IIT Kanpur Page 32 .5 dB (at 2.7 deg (at 3. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.91 rad/sec) 100 Magnitude (dB) 50 0 −ve gain margin Unstable System −50 −100 −90 −135 Phase (deg) −180 −225 −270 10 −2 −ve phase margin 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 100 Figure 10: Bode plot of s(s+1)(s+5) July 11.

IIT Kanpur Page 33 . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. 1 − αT × 1 −T • σ The maximum phase angle contributed by a lead compensator is given by sin φm at a frequency ωm 1−α = 1+α = 1 √ T α July 11.Lead Compensators A lead compensator is given by following transfer function jω Gc (s) = α Ts + 1 0<α<1 αT s + 1 We see that the zero is always located to the right of the pole in complex plane.

Lead compensator Bode Diagram 8 7 6 Magnitude (dB) 5 4 3 2 1 0 20 20 dB/decade a<1 20 log 1/a 15 Phase (deg) Maximum phase angle 10 5 0 −1 10 10 0 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 1 10 2 Figure 11: Bode plot of Gc (s) = 1+s 1+0. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.5s July 11. IIT Kanpur Page 34 .

The attenuation factor α is assimilated into constant gain factor K .Lead compensator design Consider following second order system 4 G(s) = s(s + 2) Design a compensator for the system so that the static velocity error constant Kv = 20 sec−1 and phase margin is at least 50◦ . July 11. Design steps: • The open loop transfer function of the compensated system is given by Gc (s)G(s) = K where 0 Ts + 1 Ts + 1 G(s) = KG(s) 1 + αT s 1 + αT s < α < 1 and K = Kc α. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. Determine gain K to satisfy the requirement on given static error constant. IIT Kanpur Page 35 . Kc is a gain constant.

IIT Kanpur Page 36 . we assume that the maximum phase lead required For a PM of 50◦ . compensate for the shift in gain crossover frequency due to the lead compensator. • Using the gain K . July 11. However. in order to φm = 32 + 6 = 38◦ . a phase lead angle of 32◦ is required. • Determine the necessary phase lead angle φ to be added to the system.24. • Using equation sin φm = For φm 1−α 1+α . = 38◦ . The phase margin is about 18◦ .Lead compensator design Kv = lim sGc (s)G(s) = lim s s→0 s→0 Ts + 1 4 K = 20 1 + αT s s(s + 2) This gives K = 10. draw a Bode diagram of KG(jω). 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. Determine the attenuation factor α. α = 0. Evaluate phase margin.

IIT Kanpur Page 37 .95 Magnitude (dB): −6. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.68 Phase (deg): −130 −1 0 System: untitled1 Frequency (rad/sec): 6.13 Phase (deg): −162 −180 10 10 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 1 10 2 Figure 12: Bode plot of gain adjusted but uncompensated system KG(jω) July 11. Pm = 18 deg (at 6.17 rad/sec) 50 Magnitude (dB) 0 System: untitled1 Frequency (rad/sec): 8.Lead compensator design Bode Diagram Gm = Inf dB (at Inf rad/sec) .24 New Gain crossover Frequency −50 −90 Phase (deg) −135 System: untitled1 Frequency (rad/sec): 1.

T α • Determine the time constant T from the equation ωm = Here. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. 1 √ .2278s + 1)40 Gc (s)G(s) = s(s + 2)(0.Lead compensator design • Determine the frequency ω = ωm where 20 log |Gc (jωm )G(jωm )| = 0dB jωm T + 1 20 log |KG(jωm )| = −20log jαωm T + 1 1 1 ( ωm = √ ) = −20 log √ α T α Get this frequency from the magnitude plot of KG(jω).2278 seconds. IIT Kanpur Page 38 . 1 Here. The compensated open loop transfer function is given by (0.2 dB which occurs at ωm = 9 rad/sec. T = 0. This is our new gain crossover frequency and maximum phase shift φm occurs at this frequency. −20 log √α = −6.0547s + 1) July 11.

Lead compensator design Bode Diagram Gm = Inf dB (at Inf rad/sec) . IIT Kanpur Page 39 .6 deg (at 8.92 rad/sec) 60 40 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 20 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 −90 −135 −180 10 −1 10 0 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 1 10 2 10 3 Figure 13: Bode plot of compensated system July 11. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. Pm = 50.

IIT Kanpur Page 40 . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.1 0.6 0.2 0 0 0.3 0.2 1 Amplitude 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.Lead compensator design Step Response 1.4 1.4 0.5 Time (sec) 0.7 0.9 Figure 14: Closed loop step response of the compensated system July 11.

the phase of forward-path transfer function in the vicinity of gain crossover frequency is increased. July 11. • Bandwidth of closed loop system is increased. • In lead compensator design. • The steady state error is not affected.Lead compensator design Discussion • Lead compensator is a high-pass ﬁlter. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. • It adds more damping to the closed-loop system. This leads to faster time response. IIT Kanpur Page 41 .

2006 Control Systems Laboratory. 1 −T • 1 − αT × σ July 11.Lag Compensator A lag compensator is given by following transfer function jω Gc (s) = α Ts + 1 α>1 αT s + 1 We see that the pole is always located to the right of the zero in complex plane. IIT Kanpur Page 42 .

IIT Kanpur Page 43 . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.Bode Diagram 0 a>1 −20 dB/decade Magnitude (dB) −5 −10 20 log 1/a −15 0 Phase (deg) −30 Maximum phase angle −60 −2 10 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 15: Bode plot of Gc (s) = 1+s 1+5s July 11.

Lag compensator Design Consider following open loop transfer function G(s) = 1 s(s + 1)(0. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. Determine forward path gain K so as to satisfy the requirement of steady state performance. July 11.5s + 1) = 5 sec−1 . the PM is Design a compensator so the velocity error constant is Kv at least 40◦ and GM is atleast 10 dB. IIT Kanpur Page 44 . Design steps: • The open loop transfer function of the compensated system is given by Ts + 1 Ts + 1 G(s) = KG(s) Gc (s)G(s) = K 1 + αT s 1 + αT s where α > 1 and K = Kc α.

5 • To bring the magnitude curve down to 0 dB at this new gain crossover equal to the value of magnitude curve ωg . IIT Kanpur . The new gain crossover frequency for a PM of 40 + 12 rad/sec. In other words frequency. Call the = 52◦ is ωg = 0. • Assuming that the PM is to be increased. To compensate for excessive phase lag. on bode plot. the phase-lag controller must provide the amount of attenuation |KG(jωg )| = 20 log10 July 11. locate the frequency at which the corresponding frequency new gain crossover frequency ωg . 2006 1 α>1 α Page 45 Control Systems Laboratory.Lag compensator design Kv = lim sGc (s)G(s) = lim s s→0 s→0 K Ts + 1 =K=5 1 + αT s s(s + 1)(0. desired phase margin is obtained. the required phase margin is the speciﬁed PM + 5 to 12◦ .5s + 1) • Plot the bode diagram of KG(jω).

Lag compensator design Bode Diagram Gm = −4. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.461 Phase (deg): −128 System: untitled1 Frequency (rad/sec): 0.8 rad/sec) 100 50 Magnitude (dB) 0 −50 −100 −150 −90 −135 Phase (deg) −180 −225 −270 10 −2 System: untitled1 Frequency (rad/sec): 0.6 System: untitled1 Frequency (rad/sec): 0.637 Phase (deg): −140 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 16: Bode diagram of KG(jω) July 11. Pm = −13 deg (at 1.462 Magnitude (dB): 19.44 dB (at 1.41 rad/sec) . IIT Kanpur Page 46 .

1 rad/sec. = = 0. IIT Kanpur Page 47 . This gives T • Plot the bode diagram of compensated system. = −20 and • Choose the corner frequency ω = 1 T corresponding to the zero of lag 1 T compensator 1 octave to 1 decade below the new gain crossover frequency ω g . 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. The compensated open loop transfer function is given by KGc (s)G(s) = 5(1 + 10s) s(1 + 100s)(s + 1)(0.Lag compensator design The magnitude of KG(jωg ) is 20 dB and thus we have −20 log α this gives α = 10. We choose the zero of lag compensator at ω = 10.5s + 1) July 11.

6 deg (at 0.Lag compensator design Bode Diagram Gm = 14.454 rad/sec) 150 100 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 50 0 −50 −100 −150 −90 −135 −180 −225 −270 10 −4 10 −3 10 −2 10 Frequency (rad/sec) −1 10 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 17: Bode diagram of compensated system KGc (s)G(s) July 11. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.3 dB (at 1.32 rad/sec) . IIT Kanpur Page 48 . Pm = 41.

• In phase lag control. the objective is to move the gain crossover frequency to a lower frequency where desired PM is realized while keeping the phase curve relatively unchanged at new gain crossover frequency.Lag compensator design Discussion • Lag compensator is a low-pass ﬁlter. In other words. • The steady state error reduces. July 11. IIT Kanpur Page 49 . phase-lag control utilizes attenuation of controller at high frequencies. • The rise and settling time increases. • The gain crossover frequency is decreased and thus the bandwidth of the system is reduced. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.

KI s KI ) Gc (jω) = KP + j(KD ω − ω = |Gc (jω)|(cos θ + j sin θ) Gc (s) = KP + KD s + July 11. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. IIT Kanpur Page 50 .PID control design Consider following open loop system (s + 1) G(s) = 2 s (s + 8) Design a PID compensator such that the compensated system has a PM of 60 ◦ and a gain crossover frequency of 5 rad/sec and an acceleration error constant K a The PID compensator is of following form = 1.

2006 Control Systems Laboratory.design of PID compensator Bode Diagram Gm = Inf dB (at Inf rad/sec) . IIT Kanpur Page 51 .365 rad/sec) 100 50 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 0 −50 −100 −150 −120 −150 −180 −2 10 10 −1 10 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 1 10 2 10 3 Figure 18: Bode plot of uncompensated system July 11.4 deg (at 0. Pm = 17.

4 1.65 Overshoot (%): 64.2 Amplitude 1 System: h Settling Time (sec): 71. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.1 0.design of PID compensator 1.6 0.6 1.89 Step Response 1.8 System: h Peak amplitude: 1. IIT Kanpur Page 52 .2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (sec) 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 19: Step response of uncompensated closed loop system July 11.8 0.9 At time (sec): 7.4 0.

This gives We know that at gain crossover frequency. 2006 KI sin θ = ωg |G(jωg )| Page 53 Control Systems Laboratory. |Gc (jωg )||G(jωg )| 1 |Gc (jωg )| = |G(jωg )| Substituting for |Gc (jω)| from previous equation. we get Kp = Similarly.design of PID compensator For the PID compensator. we have cos θ |G(jωg )| K D ωg − July 11. IIT Kanpur . we can write KP KI KD ω − ω = |Gc (jω)| cos θ = |Gc (jω)| sin θ = 1.

1471s. G(jωg ) = 0.design of PID compensator Now at ωg = 1 rad/s.1250◦ cos 22.1250◦ + 1 = 3.1754 = 3.9571 KP = 0.1250◦ For the compensated system to have a phase margin of 60◦ at ωg should have = 1 rad/sec.1250◦ = 3.1471 = 0. then KD can be computed to be KD sin 22.1754∠ − 142.1754 θ Lets choose KI = 0.1250◦ = 22.9571 + 3. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory. we −180 + φm Hence. = θ + ∠G(jω) (φm = P M ) = −180◦ + 60◦ + 142. IIT Kanpur . Page 54 Hence we have a PD compensator Gc (s) July 11.

1471s)(s+1) s2 (s+8) July 11. Pm = 60 deg (at 1 rad/sec) 150 100 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 50 0 −50 −45 −90 −135 −180 −2 10 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 20: Bode plot of compensated system Gc (s)G(s) = (3. IIT Kanpur Page 55 .9571+3. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.design of PID compensator Bode Diagram Gm = Inf .

26 1.89 Amplitude 0.4 0.4 Overshoot (%): 26 At time (sec): 3.6 0.design of PID compensator System: h Peak amplitude: 1. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 Time (sec) 10 12 14 16 Figure 21: Step response of compensated system July 11.24 1.8 0.2 Step Response 1 System: h Settling Time (sec): 9. IIT Kanpur Page 56 .

Summary Following topics were covered in this lecture • Frequency domain speciﬁcations. IIT Kanpur Page 57 . July 11. • Bode plot construction • Relative stability • Design of Lead and Lag compensators • PID control design example. 2006 Control Systems Laboratory.

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