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Sc. (Hon. 250 FOURTH AVENUE IMC.) Professor of Physics in the Iowa FOURTH I'RIXTIXG D..D.D. University of PH. . NEW YORK VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY.Introductory Acoustics BY GEORGE WALTER STEWART.

Special Edition. February 1933 Reprinted. S. March 1932 Reynfar Edition Published. November 1940 June 1946 PRINTED IN THE U. by D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY. INC. 1933. A. .Copyright. 1932. may not be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publishers. All Rights Reserved This book. or any parts thereof. February 1937.

including culture. The student will secure an acquaintance that will not only serve as a background for any professional work involving acoustics. The historical aspects of the subject are largely omitted to make room for the detailed explanations and analyses which are regarded as more important. The number of students who need such a background and yet idly who cannot increasing. the viewpoint of the book is utility in the broadest sense. but also as valu- As a matter able information that can be applied with success. the amount of acoustics in the usual elementary course in physics is so small that students with and without previous preparation in elemenBut it is preftary physics can use this text in the same class. Thus at many points the writing is necessarily condensed a(ffd If the student will arfrequires careful reading and re-reading. Moreover. and senior years . and utilizes very few mathematical expressions.PREFACE The accompanying text is an elementary treatise that under- takes to consider the most comjpon phenomena in acoustics. yet it is evident that the book can also be used in intermediate courses in physics. erable that the course be offered in the junior rather than in the first year of college. The absence of mathematics places an increased responsibility upon language in presenting a clear analysis of all the phenomena. The text does not survey the field rapidly as most elementary texts do. of fact. afford the time for mathematical studies is rap- While these have been prominently in the author's mind. The content assumes no previdtfs preparation in physics. ticipate this type of effort he will have no serious difficulty. preparation of the student is^met by the insertion in the text of the meaning of each technical term at the point where it is first The limitation in employed. it endeavors to study each topic with a thoroughness some- what unexpected in a nonmathematical text.

6. who has examined the entire manuscript. will These and others which can be introduced by the instructor prove invaluable. C. P.vi PREFACE Numerous demonstration experiments are suggested through- out. and Dr. Lapp. in The preparation of this text has extended over several years connection with classes consisting for the most part of students and psychology. take pleasure in acknowledging my indebtedness to the students who have from time to time given excellent criticism and especially to my colleagues. critically J. speech attitude they have shown toward acquiring a clear understanding of acoustics and the pleasure they have derived from the nonmathematical The analyses of sions I phenomena have supplied the incentive for the revi- final preparation of the manuscript. Director of and Music. who prepared Section 14. G. Clapp. specializing in music. GEORGE WALTER STEWART . Dr.

io \l^i i U) A Velocity Variation of Velocity 8 Frequency and Wave-Length Doppler's Principle " Particle 20 10 1^2 Velocity of the Questions " of the Medium 21 21 CHAPTER 2.6 35 36 37 38 39 3.1 I SOUND WAVES PAGE Acoustics I . 27 2. i II REFLECTION AND ABSORPTION IN AUDITORIUMS Reflection at a Plane Surface 2.7 Different Aspects of a Wave Gas as a Medium for Sound Waves Representation of a Sound Wave 10 10 15 1 /.3 Waves Properties of 3 Waves 4 7 8 .4 ^5 3T.6 .4 .7 3.3 Echo Reverberation .2 . i III ACOUSTIC REFLECTORS 3.9 Absorption Coefficients .8 2.3 Nature of Interference Huyghens* Principle A Beam of Sound Acoustic Plane Reflector Acoustic Parabolic Mirror Interference in Auditoriums Selective Property of Reflectors The Pinnae as Reflectors 3.5 A "Wave" in a Helix .^^T Absorption Coefficients and Frequency Other Effects in an Auditorium .8 i.6 Absorption Reverberation in a Room"!^ Modern Absorbing MaterialsS^T . 23 25 4.7 2.2 2.8 40 42 46 .2 3.5 2. Questions 30 32 32 34 34 \ CHAPTER 1.4 2.CONTENTS CHAPTER . .

5 4.7 4.8 4. 1 1 Principle of Least Time 4.3 5.9 Acoustic Horns as Reflectors Questions 47 47 CHAPTER ^.viii CONTENTS PAGE 3.9 Diffraction about the Head of a Speaker Diffraction about the Head of an Auditor 4.2 0.9 Phase Change Reflection without Change of Phase Reflection with Change of Phase Interesting Cases of Reflection in Gases The Image in Reflection without Change of Phase The Image in Reflection with Change of Phase Reflection at a Change in Area of a Conduit Cause of Reflection Reflection at an Open End of a Pipe 65 65 66 68 70 71 71 5.6 5.4 5.6 Variations of Velocity in the Atmosphere Effect of Temperature Effect of the Wind Speaking in the Wind Silence Areas 49 49 52 53 55 56 57 58 61 Refraction and Scattering of Airplane Noises Diffraction 4.12 Passage of Aerial Waves about the Earth Questions 63 63 63 64 CHAPTER V PHASE CHANGE AT REFLECTION 5.7 5.4 6.1 VI RESONANCE 6.3 6.10 Change of Quality by Diffraction 4.12 Absorption Along a Conduit Questions 73 75 77 77 78 78 CHAPTER 6.4 4.5 General Phenomenon of Resonance Plane Stationary Waves Stationary Waves in a Cylindrical Pipe Closed at One 80 81 End Resonance Emission of Sound Increased by Resonance 84 86 87 .8 5.2 5.1 5.11 Total Reflection at an Interface 5.10 Reflection at a Closed End of a Pipe 5.5 5.i IV REFRACTION AND DIFFRACTION 4/2 >^3 4.

9 6.14 Resonance in Buildings Questions 92 94 94 95 95 96 CHAPTER 7.2 8.5 Questions CHAPTER IX CERTAIN PHYSICAL FACTORS IN SPEECH $.8 Resonance in a Volume having an Resonance of the Voice Resonance in Cylindrical Pipes Orifice 88 90 90 91 End Correction of an Open Pipe 6.2 Energy Distribution Useful Energy Distribution Speech Energy Questions 117 119 121 1 9.2 Energy Required for Limits of Audibility Minimum Audibility 1 123 24 .3 The Nature of Speech Sounds The Vowels Used Characteristic Regions are Resonance Regions Clearness of Enunciation of Vowels Variation in Vowel Sounds 106 106 in 114 114 116 8.6 104 105 CHAPTER 8.1 to.10 Resonance in Conical Megaphones 6.1 9. 1 1 Megaphones not Conical 6.CONTENTS 6.5 Overtones Instrumental Quality Sounds from Various Instruments Recognition of Phase Differences of the Components Questions 7.7 6. i VII MUSICAL SOUNDS ^7.4 7.3 22 CHAPTER X AUDIBILITY 10.6 6.12 Stationary Waves in General 6Tfj Resonance in Musical Instruments 6.1 VIII THE NATURE OF VOWEL SOUNDS 8.2 Musical Tones The Vibration of a String 97 97 Intensities of 7^3 Measurement of Relative Fundamental and 99 101 101 7.4 8.

10 10.2 1 2.9 10. 149 151 12.19 Intermittent Tones 10.4 Deafness Defined in Dynamical Units Types of Deafness fO5 10.3 1 1 1 1 1 1. .5 1 2. i Transmission of Energy from One Medium to Another .6 11.11 Fechner's Law Sensation Units Perceptible Difference in Intensity Audibility of a Tone Affected by a Second Tone: Effect Hearing in the Presence of Noise 125 125 127 128 Minimum 130 Masking 130 132 133 133 134 135 135 135 136 137 138 138 139 139 Minimum Time for Tone Perception Minimum Perceptible Difference in Frequency The Vibrato Sounds 10.14 Combinational Tones 10.2 .13 Loudness of Complex 10.8 12.5 1.6 10.8 Loudness Weber's Law 10. XI BINAURAL EFFECTS 1 1 1.12 10.7 10.3 1 2.3 10.20 Intensity and Pitch of a Blend of Sounds Questions CHAPTER 1 1 . .i8 Pressure of Sound Waves 10.9 15* 153 1 54 155 155 156 158 .4 1.17 Use of Combinational Tones in the Organ <6.6 Architectural Acoustics Machinery Noises Case of Three Media Constrictions and Expansion in Conduits 151 The Stethoscope Non-reflecting Conduit Junctions Velocity of Sound in Pipes Decay of Intensity in Pipes Questions 12.15 Frequencies Introduced by Asymmetry 10.7 Binaural Intensity Effect Binaural Phase Effect Phase Effect with Complex Tones Utilization of the Binaural Phase Effect Complexity of Factors in Actual Localization Demonstration of Binaural Phase Effect Binaural Beats Questions 140 142 146 146 146 147 148 148 CHAPTER 1 XII ACOUSTIC TRANSMISSION 2.x CONTENTS PACB 10.4 12.7 1 2.16 The Ear an Asymmetrical Vibrator 10.

3 14.5 The Diatonic Scale Mean Temperament Frequency Nomenclature Musical Intervals Production of Music Questions in the 14.3 13.1 14.17 Vibration of Bells 15.6 Natural Scale 172 173 1 74 175 176 176 176 CHAPTER XV MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.4 14.8 15.2 1^. Peculiirity of Action of Several Instruments Emission of Sound from the Clarinet Production of the Voice Frequency of Pipes 15.16 Tones from Membranes Sound Waves in a Solid 190 191 15.19 Acoustic Power Output Modern Loud Speakers Questions 192 193 193 194 .13 Singing Tubes 15.3 15.6 Moving Nodes Questions 170 171 IAPTER XIV MUSICAL SCALES 14.4 13.5 177 177 179 180 181 15. 1 5 15.4 15.12 Singing Flames 15.CONTENTS CHAPTER XIII SELECTIVE TRANSMISSION xi PAGE 13.1 13.18 Carillons and Chimes 15.11 Aeolian Harp 183 185 185 1 86 1 86 187 187 188 188 15.7 15. General of Sound by Strings of Sound by Reeds 5.5 Interference Tube of Herschel and Quincke Theory of a Closed Tube as a Side Branch Helmholtz Resonator as a Side Branch Action of an Orifice Acoustic Wave Filters 159 164 165 166 168 13.9 1 10 5. THE VOICE AND OTHER SOUND SOURCES 15.2 15.2 13.14 Sensitive Flames and Jets 1 5.1 1 Development of Musical Instruments Production Production Production Production of Sound.6 of Sound by Air Blasts Harmonics and Overtones 182 15.


but one which.To the Student who uses this Textboo\: This textbook represents many years of learning and experience on the part of the author. Unquestionably you will many times in life wish to refer to specific details and facts about the subject which this book How covers and which you may forget. You many The Publishers. It does not treat of an ephemeral subject. times in the future. you must feel will have a use to you in your future life. later you find this information than textbook which you have studied from cover to cover? better could in the Retain will use it it for your reference library. . since you are studying it in college.


trial and error The The important fact for the readily understood by the novice. and. in general. all forms of acoustic reproduc- and transmission. They are not the of scientific research. then speech should travel equally well in the reverse direction and should be heard just as easily from shore to boat. Acoustics. of them. results have been achieved knowledge and its application which would have been unattainable by a straightforward. but upon the most careful use of reasoning power. the location of airplanes and guns in war. has scientific research made invaluable contributions to development in acoustics. and what might be termed "common sense. or the ability to reason correctly. one might surmise that if speech could be heard and understood from a boat to shore. reception money expended annually in research in this one field probably exceeds half a million dollars.CHAPTER I SOUND WAVES Interest in acoustics has been increasing the past two decades. This has not occurred very rapidly during because of advances made in musical instruments or in our use i.i. This has usually required the aid of mathematics not perimental. radio loud speakers. When phenomena occur that appear inexplicable. but of countless experiments in making sounds in every possible manner. a gradual development over result The instruments used today are largely the result of many centuries. Today tion. have been made in a carefully reasoned applications manner. we lack either the necessary information concerning them. This surmise arises from many common experiences in calling to also from one another across open spaces or in a building. For example. ex- By many the extension of scientific method. student to bear in mind is that progress has depended generally not upon chance discoveries." But these . Only with the advent of the telephone.

that the It is phenomena involved be understood with great clearness. Acoustics is a particularly satisfying branch of physics because one can visualize the details of the matter and with vibrations therein. it is all the more important detailed mathematics. but also of arriving where the mind alone could at correct conclusions even in cases But. because of this fact that. In such cases. full comprehension must be obtained as one progresses. This relatively simple problem is illus- trative of the necessary procedure. mission and in clear in its alteration in any manner. the attitude of mind should be precisely the same. for the transmission is The wise way to proceed to an understanding of the transmission of sound from boat to shore is to study carefully what is actually involved in sound trans- not the same in both directions. emphasis will be placed upon clear understanding. are essential. omission thrusts upon him a correspondingly greater care in understanding and reasoning. When a problem is compli- cated. The meagerness of the mathe- is an advantage to the nonmathematical student.2 SOUND WAVES suffice to give the correct do not answer. Not until these are mind can the student consider with profit the transmission of sound in this case. Therefore. and logical reasoning based thereon. crete phenomena which are concerned with Both of these seem con- and understandable. like the perfect reproduction of all sounds in a talking A picture. in the more simple situations in the mind can follow the reasoning without the use of acoustics. in this text. In the reasoning. The well-known processes that have been demonstrated the in human mind much mathematics are capable not only of saving complicated thought. careful understanding of all the phenomena involved. not secure a solution. Every aspect considered in the matics used this but early part of the text will be used repeatedly. A . mathematics is indispensable. clear knowledge of the elements of acoustics is becoming increasingly important to any profession depending in any manCivilization is becoming acoustically conner upon acoustics. The language must be concise and accurate and the reader because of this fact must follow no more rapidly than he can comprehend.

A study of water waves discloses that the water itself moves neither horizontally forward with the velocity of the wave just mentioned.WAVES scious. To repeat. It is a wave of low temperature and is said to be a wave because this physical condition has a velocity in a definite direction across the country. No one thinks that there is an actual movement * of the same cold air from one point of the country to is Reference in made to the case of waves that are not too great in magnitude and that are deep water. ments one recognizes visually as the Yet these are the two movemost likely. Acoustics is an old subject. ing in the direction of motion of the wave. Kveryone understands that he may expect the thermometer to fall. Everyone has witnessed the movement of water waves and is has recognized that they have a definite speed. and studio rooms must possess proper acoustic qualities.2. all 3 studying the effects of noise. . nor vertically upward and downward. The Weather Bureau announces that a "cold wave" coming. to be grasped It Waves. but with 1. This shape certainly moves with a horizontal velocity. is new responsibilities of everyday importance. the nature of sound It is said to travel in waves. It is found that itself any particular portion of the water circular motion. Acoustic effects satisfactory in the past will not be permitted in the future. listening to all manner of sounds does not help us to understand what meant by a sound wave. Our long familiarity with actually consists of waves in matter. But carry the ordinary use of the term "wave" a little is further.* the plane of the circle being vertical has an approximately and extend- If this is the case. It is more critical of acoustic effects whether in speech. will not be tolerated today. the term "wave" is used to refer to the physical shape and not to any portion of the water itself. The most fundamental concept itself. music halls. The phonograph of yesterday Auditoriums. then if one says the wave has a definite velocity forward he does not refer to the water itself but rather to the physical shape of the surface of the water. music or sound transIt is mission.

They were produced by the continuous vibration of a thin wire projecting into the surface and i. The surface is brightly illumi- nated and the photograph shows the condition of the surface at one instant. similar It SOUND WAVES It is the movement of a physical condition. is noticed that in the above the word "wave" has acquired a definite technical meaning. W. 1930. There are found numerous physical changes that have at any point a directional velocity. This section will not be concerned with this difference. First. and the other. no further difficulty is experienced. for the active agency in the propagation of the one is the tension or pull in the surface film. and are known as "gravity waves. Properties of Waves. In a manner we may have a wave of atmospheric pressure. the different parts of the wave have had the same val. i. There are two facts to be noticed. an instantaneous photograph taken of a series of Figure such ripples on a water surface. Berlin. speed of propagation at the same time." They are quite different from what are termed "ripple waves. Julius Springer. These alterations in physical relationships which are propagated ally referred to as through the medium concerned with a definite velocity are usu"waves. the previous section are caused by the action of gravity. is small the motion of the water the gravitational attraction of the earth. Is there any evidence form concentric *The photographs shown in Figs. but rather with the use of ripples as an * illustration of the action of is waves in certain respects. If the ripple very thin stretched membrane. the waves circles.i vibrating perpendicular to it.3. . This vibrator is located at the center of the concentric rings. When once clearly understood." The latter are caused surface film of oriented molecules which acts very by a curious much like a waves are very vertically upward and downward." The water waves mentioned in 1.i to 1.6 are reproduced by the permission of the publishers of "Einfuhrung in die Mechanik und Akustik" by R.4 another. Pohl. Evidently the different parts of any one wave have travelled equal radial distances in the same time interThat is. Thus very small waves and the large wind waves on water are different in detail.

.2 may be described as bending around the edges of the hole. These FIG.5 FIG.3 FIG." What occurs at reflection is shown in Fig. 1. A more definite understanding of the geometrical symmetry of the location of these two centers can be obtained from the discussion of reflection of acoustic waves in Section 2.5. 1.1.6 is are again circular.4 pect the effect shown in Fig. 1. Here there seems to be a new set of waves issuing from the reflector.6. 1.6 SOUND WAVES more to the ripple waves seem more and hole itself. 1. This would lead one to ex- Fio. having a center as far behind the reflector as the original source of the waves in front. Here the bending prevents the obstacle from casting what might be termed a "sharp shadow. 1. have their origin in the The spreading of the waves in Fig. 1.

The properties of acoustic waves must be appreciated at the outset. but nearly so. From the propagation in one direction the observer be developed the phenomena occurring when near the source. We see that the waves are not propagated in fairly * straight lines like light. with the properties shown. and that they are not reflected as would be a tennis ball from a wall. t "Velocity" is the distance passed over per unit of time. will is 1. having a velocity or speed of propagation f that depends ahead. The properties of the ripple waves as described are similar to those of acoustic waves. The next section introduces the reader to the nature of acoustic waves by the consideration of waves travelling in but one direction. * helix and the physical nature Light does not travel in lines that are exactly straight. producing compression Thus a "wave of compression" will travel along the helix. though of course the reader cannot visualize in detail an acoustic wave.7 suspended as it is accompanying he sees that For if several of the turns at possible to produce a wave. . but the nature of the waves themselves is entirely But this need not prevent one from gaining a better different. shown in the If one considers a helix of wire Fig. even though not strictly like sound waves.A "WAVE" IN A HELIX 7 These ripple waves. as shown by the action of the small hole in a wall. A " Wave " in a Helix. conception of acoustic waves by studying the properties of ripple waves. has a different direction of propagation at different points. travelling radially. As he becomes more familiar with the properties of such waves there will be less need for analogies and visualization. Technically it differs from "speed" in that the former includes the direction as well as the amounf or magnitude. are fairly When one first besatisfactory as an analogy to sound waves. Indeed. the compressed part will at once expand. 1.4. and the sound. comes interested in the physics of acoustics he has need for something concrete. upon the dimensions of the wire and of the material in the wire. one end are pressed together and then the inside turn is released. they spread out in all directions from a point on the wave. For our present purpose the straight line propagation of light will be assumed.

has just been described. unaltered. In fact. Suppose the compression to be travelling along the helix. one can observe in this experiment that the progress of the wave will cause any given turn to oscillate or vibrate to and fro during the passage of the wave at that point.5. consider a helix a wave that has been established by giving the sudden compression at the end and then restoring that its original position of rest. So a wave of compression in the helix must be associated with a wave of rarefaction. placement has travelled along the * helix. What other physical alterations are there in this wave? First it is to be observed that a wave of compression is always accompanied by a wave of rarefaction.7 For. FIG. These are indeed two aspects of the same wave. Different Aspects of a Wave. or magnitude of the displacement is the actual distance from its position of rest. 1.8 SOUND WAVES A wave of compression 1. is The word "displacement" . where the helix is elongated. both ends of which are in their The actual length of the helix is original undisturbed positions. Again. wire. it can be The amount sufficiently defined by its use here. and this displacement is first in one We may say that a wave of disdirection and then in another. This vibration is readily shown to the eye by tying a bit of string at the bottom of one of the turns of Each and every point of the helix suffers a displacement * from its position at rest. although there is a portion where the helix is com- end to If the total length is unaltered there must be a portion pressed.

referred to is But one can see at a glance that the velocity the helix. demonstration but not one proposed for the student. this It is sufficient for the present purpose to check thought with the helix. It is the distance covered per unit of time. there are four different aspects of this in a helix. This is. This is true of the Indeed. Without elasticity this would not occur. the helix experiences a velocity (not that a constant or uniform) first in one direction and then in another. any force would produce an effect instantly. It refers to a possible . not imaginable because we have never experienced anything without inertia and yet with ability to exert a force. As the wave of displacement passes. but must be. We could consider this aspect of the wave and call it a wave of impressed velocity. elasticity of compression and inertia. which are called ''elasticity" and "inertia. displacement There is an analogy in the acoustic wave in a gas. As a turn of the helix is displaced. There not the velocity of the wave. compression. coexistent. true of the helix and it is also wave and velocity. required to set it in motion. A gas. having these two qualities. Velocity is the rate of movement in a given direction. A gas resists compression and will return to its former volume after compresSo does the helix. of course. elongation.4 and a wave of velocity considered in this section. The wave of up moves forward because the compression at one point compression exerts a force attempting to compress another point just in front. it has a definite velocity in that direction. The fourth aspect of the helix wave is somewhat more abstract.DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF A WAVE shown * 9 wave of displacement and a wave of compression not only are." make possible the existence of a wave and its is. A gas has inertia. will transmit a wave of compression with a definite veloc* The phrase "it can be shown" will be frequently used. time is movement at a definite speed. sion (cf. if the helix were without inertia. This would result in an infinite velocity of the wave. but of a given portion of is then a very definite distinction between the velocity of the wave described in Section This is 1. these two qualities. Moreover. automobile tire). true of a sound wave. As above shown. that helix.

6. is That substance which transmits a sound wave transmission. inquire as to what these individual atoms and crystals are doing. called a In the case of the helix "medium" or means of the medium is a continu- ous one. Gas as a Medium for Sound Waves. on the average. but to a small portion. In -the case of most vibratory bodies producing aerial sound waves. In a similar manner we will neglect any consideration of the molecular constitution of a gas. A sound wave may But in the last two. very much detail.io ity of propagation. wave of condensation and rarediscussion in this text is The lim- ited practically to that kind of a wave. or fluids. called a "particle. greater than the diameter of one of them. the wave will be so designated even if it cannot be detected by the human ear. as already described. the wave takes only the form of a faction. that is. a liquid or a gas. of the No were continuous. SOUND WAVES wave. occur in a solid. it should be stated that these molecules are To add moving to the to and fro in every direction. just as therefore it dium. these motions corresponding to the heat the gas possesses. This substitution of imag- ined continuity will be a great convenience^ 1. and will act acoustically as an imagined continuous mereference will need to be made to the motions of the if it individual molecules. Hereinafter it is medium" is used when the phrase "a particle understood that this does not refer to a molecule. such as a vibrating . Representation of a Sound Wave." of the medium imagined to be continuous. the helix is a continuous piece of wire. separated from each other. Upon closer examination the wire is found to be made of fragments of crystals and in each of these fragments an orderly array of atoms. are to be satisfied with the fact that the We gas has elasticity and inertia.7. We will not go further than to appreciate the four aspects of the wave in the helix as previously described. one another. but nevertheless exerting forces upon A force is required to compress or elongate such a But for our present purpose we will not crystal in any way. Such a wave is called an acoustic or sound For the purposes of this book. 1. The separation of these molecules is.

like pressure. But this is not the case.8 as drawn actually represents me ELAPSED FIG.REPRESENTATION OF A SOUND WAVE string or a vibrating air u column in a wind musical instrument. for its velocity changes constantly as it swings from its mean to its extreme positions. Being so different they could But with the penbe simultaneously described in a simple way. each positive and negative value being respectively an excess and a shortage of pressure when compared with the mean pressure. of the air at any point changing with time in an One may graph a series of such waves of 1. position. approximately the variation in displacement with time possessed by a vibrating pendulum. Here the changing value of the pressure at a point O is represented by distances above and below the horizontal line. waves of compression and rarefaction produced in the air the and reaching the ear follow one another in succession. but with the pressure * interesting manner. changing pressures as in Fig.8 a type of variation with time that has been found to be the simThis variation may be that of a quantity plest in every respect. one a uniform velocity and another an not abruptly changing velocity. but it also may be one of displacement from a mean is. It might seem that a simpler motion would be one of uniform speed everywhere except at the ends of the arc where the pendulum could be stopped suddenly. 1. force per unit area "Pressure" in a gas technically means the would exert upon any containing wall. dulum the * velocity changes progressively in a manner that ptr In its most condensed mits a relatively simple specification. which the gas . Figure 1.8. because two entirely different kinds of motion are assumed. On first It in fact. thought one would scarcely refer to the motion of a pendulum as simple.

But now . this description is simple. At each wheel the side rod bears upon a crank pin which is made a part of the wheel itself. fastened above the wheel and at the rim. however. Suppose. that the observer were standing at the track. he is yet able to see moving end of the side rod or the crank pin itself. This shadow of the ball will moves apparently in a horizontal straight line. It is not surprising to learn that when the motion of the it shadow of the ball is described it is mathematically proves to be very simple indeed. but that they are slipping on the track without any forward motion of the Let the observer. It spins about in a circular tion upon the pin on the wheel. Moreover. who is standing alongside. A horizontal beam of light issues from a lantern and falls perpendicularly upon the screen. The motion of the shadow is also a visual description of a pendulum's motion. with the entire movement appearing to occur in praca straight line. being maximum at the center of its vertical path and zero at the extremities. fix his attenengine.ia SOUND WAVES this form statement is entirely mathematical. in itself a very simple kind of motion. In this apparent motion. But a visual de- scription can be obtained by observing certain actual motions. Assume that these wheels are being driven by the side rod. As be surmised from an earlier statement this motion of the to and fro. shadow has the same kind of varying velocity as that of a pendulum ball. In the lecture room an experiment can be arranged as follows. The three driving wheels on >ne side of a steam locomotive are connected and driven by a "side or parallel rod which in turn is attached to the piston. The shadow of rotating If a ball is the wheel rim or tire appears as a horizontal line. motion. for it involves only a projection of a uniform motion in a circle. the velocity of tically the pin will vary. a distance of perhaps fifty feet from the engine and yet alongside Suppose also that although he is standing practically in the plane of the revolving driving wheel. He will observe now not a circular motion of the pin but one upward and the downward. its shadow remains on the screen during the rotation of the wheel. In its path is placed a bicycle wheel at constant speed about a vertical axis.

by a piano string or by almost is any vibrating mechanism.9. must now be admitted that its motion is not strictly simple harmonic.REPRESENTATION OF A SOUND WAVE 13 necessary to revise the conditions of the experiment to conform exactly with the mathematical statement mentioned. Let there be a compressional wave along A the cord similar to the one previously in the helix. represent the same kind of a wave by considering a row of little masses joined by an idealized weightless elastic cord as in line of Fig. 1. precisely of the same character. On the other hand. Now it happens that the simplest made by a tuning fork. the variations of displaceare also simple harmonic. Then line B will represent what is happening at a certain instant to the row. With this alteration it can now be said that the motion of the ball's shadow is the kind of vibration or oscillation used throughout the of acoustics. the shadow has exactly the same dimensions as the wheel itself. ment and larly we will It is the building unit out of which construct or describe complex tones." and subject is the simplest type known. Clearly one may similarly refer to a simple harmonic variation of pressure. 1. or any other quantity. As the wave travels. for example. pressure at a point in the medium can be represented graphically by a continuous curve. One could } however. This is a wave of pressure. when its variation is like that of the displacement of the shadow of the ball from a vibration mean position. a simple pure tone does consist of a simple harmonic varia- Moreover. It is called "simple harmonic motion. It has just been stated that the time variation of the excess concerned in acoustics. but approximates very closely to that condition. as is that of the shadow of the ball moving in a circle. of masses. from left to right (just as .8. The usual musical tone consists of a number of such simple tones. The light Then falling on the ball must be parallel and not at all divergent. In the foregoing discussion It the motion of a pendulum was selected because it is familiar. A simple musical tone is a simple harmonic variation of pressure such as indicated in Fig. This type particle velocity of variation or vibration is the kind with which we are particution of pressure as stated.

is represented by a vertical of the same length. would the direction of the cord. in their actual directions. because up. by a comparison of and B. A A cord with equidistant loading. lines proportional but perpendicular to this actual displacement are drawn.e. 1. but drawn from the undisturbed position as in A. perpendicular to the horizontal line in C. Displacements placements to the left and right have been represented by displacements the ends of these lines down and This is an awkward method. for these line. An C. i. a curve drawn through may be regarded as representing the disof the masses at the given instant. The graph in C nevertheless is said to represent the dis- placements of the row of masses at a given instant. compressional wave in the cord. as shown line If the actual horizontal displacement of a given mass. the positions they would occupy had the displacement been up and down. then. from the mean positions of the particles. the undisturbed i\\\\\l///// 1 \\SM77 FIG. the masses suffer a It is this horizontal line. without confusion. to represent the displacements of all these masses by drawing lines in the helix). /?. through the ends of these lines may be said to represent the displacements at that given instant. The solid circles . respectively. a curve all lie in the same straight But the displacements can a somewhat arbitrary method. For example.SOUND WAVES to and fro displacement along not possible. elastic graph showing displacements from mean positions of these loads. at a chosen instant. and if this representation is A repeated for each particle. the graph does not truly represent the direction of a displacement.* * The masses on curve C represent the pseudo-positions of the masses. be represented clearly by selecting If. But if a longitudinal row of masses. is the position of these same masses may be indicated by the draw- passing along this ing in B.9 A. position of the small masses wave is shown in A..

the velocity of a As already suggested by a statement in rewave depends upon the medium It is possible to is which it is propagated. they refer to variations of different quantities.9 then gives a visualization of what transpiring in a compressional wave in a gas. There is a certain similarity between Fig. gard to the in helix. Having in mind the cor- respondence between the displacement to the right and the repdrawn upward. but the former refers to the variation at a point as time elapses. the vertical distance will happen line above the horizontal represents a displacement to the right. and Fig.9.8 and 1. a displacement to the left. at that instant. 1.9 and a gravity wave at the surface of water. 1. is compressional or sound wave in a gas at any instant. prove that in a gas the velocity of a sound wave . though. while the latter two differences is an instantaneous picture. The graph of displacement is to be regarded as referring to the "particles" of Curve C in Fig.VELOCITY and the elastic cord 15 can now be replaced in imagination by a gaseous medium. 1.8. so to speak. In curve C. it is observed that the displacements in the neighborhood of the point "a" are directed toward that resentation Consequently "a" is a point of maximum point from both sides.9 is then a representation of a the medium. The "crest" of a water wave is not the same shape as the "trough" and this is caused by the fact that the motion of the water particles is circular. If the wave can be considered as moving from the left to the right with a definite speed. in point of fact. Velocity. 1. of the condition of a row of particles lying in the direction of the passage of the wave. and the one below or downward. There are "" Not only do in the graphs in Figs. 1. the two are not of the same shape. is observed By similar reasoning pressure to be the point of minimum pressure at that instant. one can prophesy just what to a given particle at a certain time.

but merely with in * "Density" is the amount of the gas per ccm. In liquids it is any material. mass per ccm. and k is a quantity depending upon what are called the specific heats | of a gas. seems to be in accord with the variation just suggested. The formula states that the greater the denThis sity. we can with some satisfaction notice that the equation is in accord with the following considerations. and if the wave is moving to the right.16 SOUND WAVES where p and p are the undisturbed pressure and density * under normal conditions. It is the speed with which the physical alteration in a definite direction. for when a gas is compressed it is heated thereby and when expanded it is cooled. for acoustic waves can be transmitted in Formula to (i. the less the velocity. 1. it is measured t The exact definitions of "specific heats" need not concern the reader. A gas at high pressure recovers from a compression quickly just as a stiff spring under high pressure will. if Fig. if released.9. respectively. . the velocity is the speed to the right which one must travel in order always to be at this point of maximum displacement. Technically. The reader will not be asked to become familiar with this technical definition. the recovery cannot be so rapid. customary employ a slightly different form. A definition of "velocity of a sound wave" has been inferred.i) states But if one increases the mass of the spring. pressure remaining constant. the more massive the body the more slowly it can be set in motion. that v is proportional to Vp. mum propagated one represents a maxidisplacement as at the point midway between b and a in is For example. as follows: *-\~' vl-a) Here is a symbol representing what is technically called the volume elasticity of the medium. and the formula (i. Obviously heat enters into the situation. It is necessary to refer to the velocity of sound in liquids and solids. or grams per ccm. for with the same force acting. in a high velocity of the sound wave.i) applies to gases only. While it is not proposed to examine the reasons for the form of this equation. return to its original position speedIt appears reasonable that a quick recovery would result ily.

so that there in is no way in which one can compute the velocity one liquid from In gases. but this variation is known to be caused slight variation in ".VELOCITY the statement that volume elasticity is a measure of the force required to reduce the volume of the material by a fixed amount. cules are close together but in both there is an In a solid. that the nature of the vibrations in is gases and liquids In both. molecules can change positions relative to one another freely. It will resist compression and expansion and there is possible the propagation of an acoustic wave in a given direction in the same manner as in a gas or liquid. The value E must be obtained for each liquid. opposition to compression or expansion. There is also in a solid resisting Table I . there is a the knowledge of the velocity in another. the mole- and are fixed in relative positions." by differences in the It is number of atoms the same. in a molecule. however. evident.

.1 8 SOUND WAVES motion such as a is force to other kinds of twist. discussed. the ratio between p and p is determined by the temperature. But this sound. is found by experiment that p is doubled also. the transmission of sound in solids more complicated than that In a wave of compression such as already in gases and liquids.i) that we have \lk doubled. keeping the volume and hence the density constant and yet increasing the pressure. This is discussed in Section 1. Hence we generally add 273 to the reading of the Centigrade scale to get the absolute temperature. 1. the temperature of a gas may be increased by heating. A Variation of ^ P Velocity. and 100 C. is It will be noticed in (i. is true only if the temperature remains constant.9 but practically I all sounds herein discussed travel with the same velocity. is 273 absolute. it is If a gas compressed so that p y the pressure. The accompanying Table gives selected values. Therefore the velocity of sound in a given gas depends only upon the temperature and not at all upon the values of pressure and It can be shown both experimentally and theoretically density.9. these temperatures being written o C. In the Centigrade scale water freezes at o and boils at 100'. For example. as is evidenced by experiments with explosions wherein velocities have been found considerably in excess of the normal sound velocity. i ) states no alteration in the velocity of conclusion would be reached for The same an expansion of the gas. with pressure changing. In fact. any mention of sound transmission in solids will refer only to longitudinal waves. but o C. the ratio of the two remains the same and consequently ( I that there is Hence . constancy of the ratio. The velocity of a sound wave is not wholly independent of the nature of the wave. Until then." Such vibrations are At a later point reference will be called technically "longitumade to waves other than longitudinal that can be transmitted by a solid. Consequently. dinal. that the velocity * is proportional to the square root of the absolute* Degrees on the absolute scale are very nearly the same size as on the Centigrade scale. the vibrations are in the same direction as the progress of the wave. called the normal velocity.





o C.
/ t;



C. rise in temperature the
velocity at o

must be -^3
/277 /J

mes tne

and at




must be \> \


times the velocity at o C. or y




\ +

/ 3






VQ is

the velocity at o C. and



If a gas is under very great pressure, an exception must be made to the statements in the preceding paragraph. While it
is true as stated that for a change of pressure under ordinary conditions the velocity changes but a negligible amount, yet at high pressure there is a marked change, especially at low tem-


This change is not only one of magnitude but is sometimes positive and sometimes negative. At 103.5 C-> the with one hundred times the atmospheric pressure, or velocity
is, according to Koch (1908), 293.2 meters with 150 atmospheres it is 346.9 and with 200 per second, while atmospheres it is 406.5 meters per second. Witkowski (1899)

"100 atmospheres,"

found that, at the same temperature, the velocity decreased from 260 to 245 meters per second when the pressure was increased

from one to forty atmospheres.

at the

velocity in free air will change with humidity, because

same pressure the presence of water vapor will alter the But this change is always less than one per cent if the density.
atmosphere is saturated with moisture at ordinary temperatures. Yet another exception will need to be made to the statement
that the velocity of a wave in air depends only on the temperaIn the mathematical study of the passage of waves of ture. condensation and rarefaction in a fluid, it has been proved that
the velocity

but only if that waves of abnormally high velocities can be produced. This has been repeatedly accomplished by explosions. Even the waves
near a large gun travel at a higher speed than the normal ones.

independent of the magnitude of the displacements, these are small. It might be anticipated, therefore,


review of earlier experiments


described by Professor A. L.

of the waves produced by sparks has been Foley.* studied by Foley and reported in the article just cited. He found that the speed close to the source depended upon the intensity and that in the case where he was able to obtain twice the normal velocity at a distance of 0.32 cm. from the source, the velocity had decreased to the normal value at 2 cm. from

The speed

the source.
1.10. Frequency and Wave-Length. The frequency of a sound vibration is usually the number of complete, or double,

vibrations of the particles of the


per second.




sometimes designated in cycles/' Yet some manufacturers mark on their tuning forks the number of single vibrations.

The pitch of a musical sound is determined by the frequency. The higher the frequency the higher the pitch. The wave-length

the distance the sound travels during the time of one complete vibration. Thus the distance travelled in one second would be

the length of one wave repeated that number of times which corresponds to the frequency. Hence the relationship between
velocity, frequency

and wave-length


as follows:









In passing from one


to another the frequency


boundary of the two media must vibrate together. But the velocity of the wave is not in If the frequency is constant general the same in the two media. the wave-length must also be different. but the velocity different,
stant, for adjacent particles at the
1. 1 1.

Doppler's Principle.



now be made
in the



common phenomenon.

If the source





in a certain direction, then, though the frequency of the source remains unchanged, the wave-length measured in the medium will be altered. On the side of the source which is in

on the other

the direction of motion the wave-length will become shorter and side longer. To a stationary auditor, standing near
Foley, Physical Review, 16, p. 449 (1920).



the path of motion, the frequency at the approach of the source This is a common experiwill be greater than at the recession.

ence with a train whistle or an automobile hornT
to see that frequency heard will
ity relative to the
left to



not difficult

depend upon

the auditor's veloc-



Illustrations of both aspects are

the reader.

" Particle " of the Medium. It is easy Velocity of the to confuse the velocity of sound with the velocity of a particle The former is large, as has been shown in Table in the medium.
1. 12.


but the latter
will notice



The reason


that the


readily appreciated displacement in a sound



an exceedingly minute fraction of a millimeter. Even the particle oscillates several thousand times a second, it though can be shown that the velocity at its mean position is usually of
the order of a small fraction of a millimeter per second. Thus these two velocities mentioned above differ not only in meaning

but enormously in magnitude.
the velocity of the particle.


velocity of the








"displacement" necessary

in a


of condensa-


Indicate in Fig. 1.9 the positions where the following conditions
is is


The displacement The displacement



to the right, to the left.

approximately the same for neighboring par-


The displacements differ the most widely for neighboring particles. 3. Show that the maximum pressure and maximum displacement
do not occur simultaneously

in a sound wave. frequency with temperature because (as hereinafter shown) its length (assumed to change inappreciably with temperature) must remain one-fourth of the length of the wave. What will be the change in frequency if the room is heated from o C., where the frequency is 256 per second, to 20 C. ? a 5. Will the change in velocity of a sound wave in air caused by

at a given point


organ pipe changes

change of temperature have any
or violin?

direct influence

on the pitch of a piano



water wave and a sound wave in the water travel horizonWhat difference can you point out in the vibrations of the water in the two waves? 7. In what respect does the following expression seem misleading:
tally to the right.

"Sound travels in waves"? 8. Assume in Fig. 1.8 that the wave


travelling to the right.


you had an instantaneous picture (drawing) of the wave of pressure in a row of particles, how would it differ from the drawing of Fig. 1.8? Consider the drawing to represent the condition at the time indicated by o in Fig. 1.8. 9. What is the difference between the velocity of a sound wave and
the velocity of a particle of the


According to Eq. (i.i), what can produce a change in v if the concerned is open to the atmosphere? gas 11. Both the p and p of the atmosphere change from time to time. How would you determine the velocity at any one time if you knew the velocity for at least one condition of pressure, density and temperature?
(It is suggested that a review of Chapter I be made before proceeding with Chapter II since a clear understanding of these fundamental concepts is necessary for the comprehension of the remainder of the text.)

Take a specific case.1. O'. But a study of the reflection O of a sound all wave must include what Obviously the situation is quite complicated and hence the physical action at the wall is perhaps too difficult to So the physicist seeks an indescribe in detail. if the wall were absent. be placed on an extended line FIG. Reflection at II REFLECTION AND ABSORPTION IN AUDITORIUMS a Plane Surface. instructive to follow the demonstration of interesting and truth. Fig. is At the wall at a point between O and O'. direct method. impinges upon the wall in a direction perpendicular At no other point along the wall does this perpendicularity exist. O. represented in cross section by a It is desired to ascertain the effect of the wall upon the incident sound. or like a tennis ball. By the method referred to. the sound from thereto. 2.1 drawn from O perpendicular to the wall. which. % o' o. . a remarkably simple deIt its is scription of a complicated physical action. A source of sound is placed at line. the distance of O and O' from the wall being the same. permits him to describe the reflected wave without the occurs at necessity of detailing the action of the reflection points of the wall. Sound is not reflected like light. as will be found. The purpose of this section is to describe what occurs as a result of reflection and that without the use of any analogy.CHAPTER 2. it will be shown that the sound coming from O will be reflected from the wall in such a like that manner as to produce a reflected wave precisely which would have come from a similar source. like that at O. 2. over the entire wall. Let an imagined source.1. placed This is at O'. which the same distance from the wall on the other side. in front of a wall. It is a wave of pressure and of displacement.

the arrows as shown give the and O'P of the displacements. Since the resultant occurs. is not easy to prove Applying the foregoing to the two equal displacements at the point P. few words. the resulting condition on the right is Hence the and 0' without the wall. it will be true at any other instant since the two component dis- placements are always equal and always make equal angles with the plane. This is true at the instant chosen. But P is any point in the plane. But if 0' is a like source. parallelogram with the two arrows representing the given displacements as sides and to regard the diagonal as the resultant R. It is correct directions OP now necessary to consider how one can ascertain the resulting displacement. and hence the condition of zero displacement just stated is true everywhere. equivalent to the two sources reflected wave from the wall is the same as if it origi- . The waves emitted by and 0' are spherical. but at first without the wall. This is precisely the same condition stated above when the wall is absent and there are the two like sources and 0*. we can substitute a real motionless wall for the imaginary plane without modifying the resulting wave motion on the right of that plane. then there is arriving simultaneously a wave from O' with a positive displacement of the same magnipoint tude. Select any P on the plane between and 0' and consider the sound wave arriving from at the time it has a positive displacement. this means the displacement which actually that there is a displacement in the plane is mentioned but none perpendicular to this plane. the rigid wall and the reflected wave. we can have no motion perpendicular to the plane. with the wall absent. Thus with the source 0. in a A well-known method is to complete the This method. is clearly in the plane which indicates the position of the wall when present. while apparently reasonable.24 REFLECTION IN AUDITORIUMS Assume the sources and 0' as stated. /?. and hence will be assumed. the resulting displacement. Inasmuch as the displacement and hence the motion perpendicular to the plane at any point are always zero. For with the wall present and assumed to be rigid. Since a positive displacement is in the direction of the wave motion.

as a variation of pressure is created at the wall. But the indentations in the plane must be not large in comparison with the wave-length of the sound used. The echo as commonly known is merely the sound from the "image" we have described. 1.ECHO REFLECTING FROM A ROUGH SURFACE 25 nated at 0'. Imagine this to is Fig. Echo Reflecting from a Rough Surface. on a line It is evident from the preceding that it is not difficult to obtain the result of reflection accurately. for the acoustician will in his computations treat the effect of the wall as that of an image at the point 0' equally distant from the plane. The experiment in Fig. a rough surface may be used.6 was shown the reflection of a series of ripple waves from a small plane reflector. which is called the image of 0. . leaving little to be reflected. such as the edge of a grove of trees.2. wave propagated therefrom. Nevertheless. If one desires to con- template the act of reflection. the best effects are found with plane surfaces of considerable dimensions. 1. 1 . In Fig. there will be a 2. For exact equality of phase demands that P.6 thus illustrates the discussion in this section. plane containing the reflector as the source the two lie as far behind the in front. This phenomenon called diffraction and will meet our attention at a later point. which is any point in the plane. But being able to compute the result is not the same as understanding precisely what occurs at the reflecting plane itself. then there can be no single image 0' that always is at this prescribed distance from any point P.6 that the phantom is is source of the reflected wave. In the production of echoes. Then it is easily appreciated that. for then the argument which has been given in the preceding paragraphs. must be equidistant from and 0'. is The is chief reason for the failure of an echo with a small surface virtually that the sound bends around is it. If the reflector really not a plane. or the image. depending upon equality of phase at the surface. he should avoid thinking of the displacements and consider rather a wave of pressure. and that perpendicular to that plane. Then it be a part of an infinite plane as used in easily seen in Fig. 2.1. will not hold good.

a heavy rug will produce absorption. physicist This is occasioned by the fact that if the adjacent portions of a gas are compelled to slip past one another heat is developed. " " of sound the Absorption. Thus. Obviously a method of producing sound absorption in a gas is to let the sound pass into a large number of small channels where the slippage already mentioned will occur.26 2. absorption Usually by means the transfer of acoustic energy to heat energy. to move *" volume Intensity" refers not to loudness but to the amount of energy per unit in the sound wave. though the displacement is a microscopic disand hence that there will be an additional absorption of tance. If a source of sound is placed in a the walls reflect and consequently make the magnitude all of the sound greater than if the walls were absent. there would be no limit to the intensity of sound in the room. evidencing an absorption of energy. because of its physical construction." There is viscosity in solids and in liquids as well. in a The repeated reflection of sound room is is called "reverberation" reverberation" inaudible after the source the time required for is discontinued. The absorption is quickly appreciated if the source is discontinued. ceiling and floor. the resulting intensity there were no absorption of the sound energy. REFLECTION IN AUDITORIUMS Reverberation. The waves room are reflected not once but again possible to continue to trace the and again and it becomes imwaves originally sent out from is the source. If a sustained if sound continues to increase and * used.3. This property of resistance to "slip" is termed "viscosity. internal friction.4. . Then it is observed that the intensity does not remain constant but decays gradually. all and the "time of the sound to become It should be observed that reflection occurs from the objects in the room as well as from the walls. Also. 2. it is to be noted that the small fibres of the material will be caused slightly. In considering the flow of fluids in a pipe at the wall does not is it is customary to assume that the is fluid move but that the viscosity of the fluid itself It the cause of the resistance to flow. In a large empty auditorium the residue of sound may continue for several seconds.

He found in existence the widespread belief that the stringing of wires greatly assisted in reducing reverberation. at that the country were strung time. tain the opinion of musical experts in regard to the most desirable time of reverberation. scientific study of architectural acoustics. Professor Wallace C. Sabine. Sabine in regard to music rooms will illustrate the point. Reverberation in a Room.REVERBERATION IN A ROOM material. who agreed to undertake an An important part of the problem was to ascerinvestigation. A similar undesirable confusion occurs with music. A of the conservatory and four to assist in the experiments. Reverberation it is not wholly undesirable. 27 energy in these vibrations on account of the viscosity of the These facts will receive attention in a later paragraph. rials present. An interesting experiment performed by Dr. But if the sound of one syllable enunciated by a speaker lasts long enough. numerous auditoriums throughout each with several miles of wire. it will interfere with a clear understanding of the succeeding syllable. the amount of absorb- ing material present in each case being made variable by the insertion and removal of theater cushions. Indeed. The appreciation of the significance of the reverberation in a room and the methods of diminishing it to a desired degree marked the beginning of the 2. ascertained effect committee consisting of the director members of the faculty was asked The opinion of the committee was each member pass judgment upon the by having of piano music in the various rooms. It was found that . Indeed. Sabine found very quickly that the time of decay of the sound to inaudibility was caused by absorption of all matetained. to resonance the reason for the From a later section devoted inadequacy of wires can be ascer- Dr. as previously shown. The optimum (or most favorable) time of reverberation must be determined by the auditor. augments the intensity. An appeal was made to Dr. Sabine in 1895 began the study of the relation between reverberation and the properties of the materials present in the room.5. When the New England Conservatory of Music was com- pleted. the piano rooms were found quite unsatisfactory.

in general.8 small auditoriums and seconds for large auditoriums are ap- proximately near the satisfactory figures.50.08 or The rooms varied in size practically i.o second for 1. In fact. that is. The furniture differed considerably. and that a general statement for piano music would require further experiments in auditoriums of all sizes. Perhaps i. to express it in the terms of the unit used. and at a later time Dr.28 REFLECTION IN AUDITORIUMS the committee agreed remarkably well. If an effort is made to reduce the measurement of the time of reverberation to a basis whereby the time can be computed in advance of the construction of an auditorium. One might conclude that the correct time of rever- seconds. three times.i seconds. If sound from within passes through an open window. never returns. as to the best time of reverberation. the intensity continues to increase until the absorption . the "absorption coefficient" of hair felt is 0. Before any reflections take place. But the waves strike the walls and other objects and these reflections multiply. the sound reaching an auditor will have the same intensity as were the source and the auditor not surrounded by walls and other materials. the preference for an optimum time depends upon Even orchestral directors differ the experience of the individual. making due allow- for the ance for the number of persons originally present. Assume a source of sound emitting acoustic energy at a fixed rate. when amount of sound energy absorbed by an equal area of open If a piece of hair felt. Sabine actually measured the time of reverberation with the same amount of absorbing material. one must have a standard for a perfect absorber. The result optimum time of reverberation for a piano is 1. of the example. All the rooms were tested. for placed against a plaster wall absorbs 50 per cent window. very little is reflected and practically all absorbed. from one to Yet the fig- ures for the various rooms agreed to within the error produced by one cushion.i for. It would be possible then to determine the absorbing quality of other materials in terms of an open window of the same area. they agreed as to the proper effect to within one theater cushion. But this conclusion must be modified beration for small piano rooms is i.

29 involved in There are two factors the continuation of the sound after the emission is First.. with the the/ If all dimensions are in feet.-2^. a The agreement * (. Second. W.t assuming that sound can reach any part of the room with ease and assuming a source similar to Sabine's. this then means that the rate depends upon the dimensions of the room. Sabine determined the time of reverberation experimentally with a certain source rial by its and found that it was. V y and also upon what is termed the "absorb- ing power/' hereafter referred to as "0. S. Inasmuch as the velocity of sound is fixed. it is found that the time of reverberation does depend made. the less the number of reflections per second." which is the sum of all products obtained by multiplying the area of each exposed mate- absorption coefficient.1) was true in auditoriums usually met in practice.. at each reflection.1).REVERBERATION IN A ROOM occurs at the same rate as the emission. upon the volume. 1903. A few years after this first work of Dr. all dimensions * being in meters. . Hence the rate at which the sound is absorbed will decrease as the volume of the room is increased. it is discontinued. the rate at which the sound obvious that. since absorption occurs is absorbed will depend upon the number of reflections per second. His experiments showed that (2. Franklin. W. Sabine. for the larger the room.) of the experimental equation (2. then = * a t Physical Review. Or the time of reverberation will in- crease with the tion will increase volume of the room. obtained the following: . C. Dr. a theoretical article by Dr. the rate of absorpand the time of reverberation will decrease with is When a careful study the absorption coefficients of the room.


it is absorbed equals the rate of emission. by architects ratios of the dimensions the results were claimed to be the same. Sabine of the Riberbank Laboratories and published in Acoustics by Stewart and Lindsay.7. 1930. Knudsen. Ball. 1930 and 1932 respectively. A standard audible. O. The United States Bureau of actively engaged in the measurement of absorption coefficients and is making these values as well as general information on the subject available to the public. is The reason a definitely de- scribed source necessary not be independent of the strength of the source. It would really depend upon the in the is that this time of reverberation could sound intensity existing room at the instant of the dis- initial intensity must therefore be adopted and these two equations were obtained for cases where the initial intensity is one million times that just continuance of the emission. both John Wiley and Sons. 380. Sabine in 1895 an<^ f subsequent contributions from him and others were but slowly appreciated and manufacturers. or interest in the subject is growing rapidly. t These are taken from a list compiled by Dr. quite inadequately represents the acoustic materials now available. Prejudice was apparent and many insisted that the excellence of auditorium acoustics was Given the proper really dependent upon the shape of the room. 1927. Slowly and inevitably scientific facts. Jan. the list from which it is taken. and Acoustics of Buildings by Davis and Kaye. Van Nostrand.* Standards is 2. particularly the relation between volume and absorbing power. Modern Absorbing Materials. London.2). cients have been measured. . C. The significance of the researches of Professor W. or the rate at which sound energy is emitted. A Numerous absorption coeffipartial f list is shown in Table II. spread and today active Even Table II. D. * See circular of the Bureau of Standards No. Absorption Coefficients. Architectural Acoustics by V. such that the intensity which is a million times that just audible does not appear very loud. the rate at which 2.6. Texts are Acoustics of Buildings by Watson. E. P. is 31 noteworthy.) In considering the phenomenon of reverberation it should be (The nature of the ear is noticed that the intensity of sound builds up to its maximum value The intensity increases until in the reverse manner to its decay.ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS oretical result (2. 4.

Here the variation of the

with frequency and with

arrangement of material are indicated. Formulas (2.1) and (2.2) assume that in determining and a y the meter shall be used as the unit of length. Hence the com-


puter must measure the volume in cubic meters and the areas of each kind of exposed surface in square meters. Each area must

be multiplied by the corresponding coefficient of absorption and all these products added. If the foot is used as the unit, then
the constant in (2.1) becomes .050, but the coefficients remain the same. An illustration in an actual case follows:


165, 200 cu.












The time of

reverberation in this auditorium was measured and

found to be 6.26 seconds.

Absorption Coefficients and Frequency.

If the absorp-

tion occurs in the air pores or channels in the wall of a


then the absorption coefficient should change with frequency, and the influence of viscosity can be shown to be greatest in

waves of short wave-length.f
* These values were taken from measurements by Professor W. C. Sabine and were the only ones in existence at the time the computations were made. \ Rayleigh, Theory of Sound, Vol. II, Chapter XIX.



In Table II the variation of the absorption coefficient is not always that of an increase with frequency. One concludes that

the effect of viscosity in the pores is not the only important In addition there may be viscosity in the material itself.
rate, the absorption coefficient

At any

can be determined only by


That painting a surface affects its quality is to be anticipated. The following * absorption Table III illustrates the effect of paint and of moisture.
Table III

The column marked I contains values originally obtained by Dr. W. C. Sabine for an unpainted 18" wall of hard brick set in mortar; column two is for a surface of gypsum plaster
with a so-called "putty finish" taken about three months after placing on an 18" brick wall and column three is for the same
surface a year afterward. The data of the last two columns were obtained by Dr. P. E. Sabine. The change in the coefficient
is doubtless caused by the evaporation of moisture. an interesting fact that a slight film of water or of any substance of great density as compared with air, will prevent the

with time

transmission of sounds.



because the sound striking such

a surface experiences practically total reflection. Thus it occurs that a thin film of water or vaseline will more effectually prevent
the transmission of sound than a surprising thickness of highly absorbing hair felt. An interesting experiment may be performed

by the use of cotton

in the ears.


great difference produced

* P. E. Sabine, Physical Review, 16, p. 514, 1920.


thin film of vaseline at the opening

by the additional use of a
can then be observed.

Other Effects in an Auditorium.

effects of

has been discussed only reverberation. importance, for example, resonance and the variation

In the foregoing there There are several other be men-

of intensity in various portions of the room. tioned in later paragraphs.





as there

your reason for the statement on p. 24 that, inasmuch no motion perpendicular to the plane, a wall can be subis

stituted therefor?
2. In the discussion of echo, it was stated that the "deviation from a plane must not be large." Justify this statement in your own words. 3. If the reflecting plane were corrugated, but still made up of small plane surfaces, could you find an image by treating each surface

separately? 4. In a given channel, where would the velocity of the air particles be the greatest, and where the least? 5. What is the relation between "reverberation" and "echo?" 6. Show, from a consideration of equation (2.1), that the time of reverberation must be less in an auditorium without sidewalls. 7. Why would the desirable time of reverberation in an auditorium depend upon the rapidity of speech? 8. Give one reason for the opinion that a fog does not have the same effect as a film of water in preventing transmission. 9. What objection would there be to a room in which all walls and objects are without absorption? 10. If a room has too much reverberation, what advice should be given to a speaker? 11. Show by assuming the walls large, that there is a multitude of images outside the walls of the room. 12. A piece of cheese cloth is known to stop the wind in a marked manner. Why is it not effective in stopping the passage of sound? 13. What phenomena in architectural acoustics have you observed that you can explain and that you cannot explain?

Nature of Interference.



In Chapter


we discussed the

nature of sound waves of displacement, pressure and velocity. The easiest manner in which to conceive of interference is by
regarding each wave as something that

propagated and that

produces at every point in its path its own displacement, pressure and velocity. Its effect must be independent of every other

two sound waves cross, then the air particles at the must have values of displacement, pressure and velocity crossing that are resultants, or combinations of the two waves. Thus the two displacements must be added, proper regard being given to If two waves of their directions as well as to their magnitudes. the same frequency are travelling in the same direction and if at a point their displacements reach positive maxima at the same If one reaches instant the two vibrations are in the same phase. its positive maximum displacement and the other its negative maximum displacement at the same instant, the waves are said At the point where two displacements to be opposite in phase. are equal and in the same direction, the resultant is twice either displacement. Where the two are equal and in opposite direcwave.
tions, the resultant


In both cases the



called "interference," for in both cases there



which interferes with the occurrence of either displacement. As an illustration of interference assume two tuning forks having almost the same frequency, one 255 and the other 256
If the two are now held near the ear, the vibrations per second. sound swells and diminishes to zero once each second, giving the phenomenon of "beats." This is explained in accord with the preceding paragraph, for if one has 255 vibrations in the same time as the other has 256 vibrations, then the latter gains one

vibration in one second.

Assume that

at the beginning of a

To the direction of propagation of a sound wave is perpendicular to the wave front. the exceptions of interest will in acoustics." . * wave and a future wave front be thereby determined. and in the latter case no intensity at This effect gives us the phenomena of "beats" to which reference has been made. we say that a 3. is proportional to the square maximum displacement.36 ACOUSTIC REFLECTORS two forks are in the certain second the vibrations of the same Then one-half a second later. every point on this sphere is vibrating in the Such a surface is called a "wave front/' Usually. See footnote to Section 2. There are many interesting phePrinciple. wave has a significant uniqueness.2. for since all points are equally distant from the origin. phase. same phase. during each second there occurs complete agreement in phase and exact opposition in phase. the displacements must be the spherical results. This maximum value of the is called the "displacement amplitude" or frequently the "amplitude. termed Huyghens' principle is that each point on any wave front can be assumed to be the source of a hemispherical is What illustrated effectively in Fig. be subsequently noted and the reason therefor given. they will be opposite in At the end of the first second they will be again in the phase. easy to designate a wave front and thus to determine the direction in which the wave is this understanding. but for the present purpose this direction of propagation will be assumed as correct. Thus phase. This is This principle is capable of a Technically. in the If these flisplacements are equal * magnitude we have former case/owr times the intensity of the sound from one fork all. In the next second the same cycle will occur. In the former case displacements add and in in the latter they subtract. in all directions from a simple source of sound. same. are explicable only when one examines the interIf sound travels with equal velocity ference of the sound waves. 1. same repeat. Huyghens' nomena which But a sphere drawn about this source At every point on this sphere the vibration is simultaneously in the same phase. frequency constant. the intensity.3. it is With propagated.4.

please from the upper point a' to the lower point a'.A "BEAM" OF SOUND 37 rigorous proof in acoustics. 3. Inspection shows that at the instant considered. but here the principle will be assumed. It is words. one sees that all points on this newly drawn curve cannot possibly be in the same phase.3.2. such as a'b'. . ab y in a plane wall as in Fig.* Assume we have a vibrating Assume that it is large area. semi-circle having the new wave front. Consider the spherical wave a a in Fig. it can be seen that there is destructive interference in these two directions. For. displacement produced by the element of area at a will be equal and opposite to that produced by the element of area one-half * This can be illustrated by means of a highly pitched whistle placed inside and at the closed end of a cylindrical tube. The open end may be considered approximately a wave front. point as a center draw a semi-circle. direction can be said to be in the 3. This introduces interference and ab is as long as many wave-lengths. 3. Then draw any other curve you pIO x same phase. Hence we cannot regard it as a wave front.1 and select a number of points along this cross-section of the wave front. at no other surface than a'a' can all the vibrations be in the same phase. later wave front a'V'. According to the previous paragraph we may now construct the readily seen that the hemispherical waves from all points along ab y travelling in the directions ac or In other bd> would not have a surface in common. For assume that the distance a'a' is between a a and "n" wave-lengths. equal to traversed by the waves in some the distance It is our task to ascertain the definite time. Remembering that only points an integral number of wave-lengths apart in the radial A " Beam " of Sound. consider the direction more nearly along the wall aA At a point P the if . in comparison with a wave-length of the frequency actually used. the hemispherical wavelets are not in agreement as to phase in the directions ac or bd. each With each same radius.

for similar reasoning will subseen that the resulting sequently occur. or a part of . approxiis true of is true of other than aa' or it bV . beam of light sent out by a searchOf course. ^*" mate annulment at P.3 is true because the Acoustic Plane Reflector. how- ever. similar r will .1. there will be as many elements producing a displacement of one phase as there are elements producing a displacement of opA ! posite phase. ** < ^^^ "** j | Xt not infinitely large compared to a wave-length.38 ACOUSTIC REFLECTORS wave-length further away from P and between a and b. the edge of this beam light.2. If. 1. Its reflected wave can be regarded as coming from O'. and this wave-lengths used are not sufficiently small. There is. Conis a source of sound in front of an infinite wall. a series of ripples reflected from the wall will be This section is a brief study of the influence of the size of an area upon the reflection of acoustic waves therefrom. If ab is comparatively large.4.4. 1. What the waves in the direction aP any direction if then. If reference is made to Figs. consider the direc- wave front becomes tive property of a megaphone. sider Fig. If the opening is large as in a large megaphone. 1. It is known that the surface containing the large opening is a wave front. for ab is produce a beam of sound demands care- pIG If at is 2 ful study. When ab is a point source. of sound a'fr . the wave is hemispherical. This explanation of the condition which will is not sharp. we are dealing with a reflector of ordinary size. 2. and noticed. now reduced in size. 3. as has been assumed. As an application of the above reasoning. the intensity produced is distinctly There is never a greatest along the axis of the megaphone. noticeably sharp beam of sound. it is readily more and more like a hemisphere. Thus to a ab is send out a 4 I "beam" comparatively large.

Certain conclusions are as from a point. Not only will a small reflector reflect a small amount because of its size but a small reflector will scatter sound in all directions.2 by the dotted lines. Acoustic Parabolic Mirror. Consider this hypothetical wave from at. The reflected wave will scatter not only in all directions on the same side as the reflector. passing through the circular area which has replaced the small reflecThis wave tor of the same size. thus further greatly reducing the sound reflected diverge from now evident. The section just preceding considers the divergence from a geometrical beam in the case of a plane wave gence front.ACOUSTIC PARABOLIC MIRROR the wall.3. will not remain in the conical volume indicated 1. 3. Consespherical quently the wave front in ab will spread outside of the cone. the smaller ab the more the waves will length. in the absence of the reflector. Fig. same as that coming must be of less inten- sity because According to Section 2. the image 0' in Fig. . It is shown light mirror called a * from a source located at a certain point within a parabolic " focus/' will be reflected from the mirror as a in optics that * The headlight. the reflected 39 wave cannot be the It from 0'. will p IG ~ ~ wave as well. r " has already illustrated an analogous action in the case of ripple waves. This shows that. 3.5. but also around the reflector itself. parabolic mirror has a concave shape similar to that of an automobile Its property of focussing is the important point and not its shape. Yet another influence should be mentioned. it Obviously this diveroccur with a portion of a backward. there is a much more rapid its effectiveness. jf less area.1 each area of the infinite wall will give a reflected wave which is just like the wave which would come from 0' through this same area in it is the absence of the wall. as the area of a small reflector increase in is increased. unless the distance across ab is long compared to a waveMoreover.

Huge mirrors 12 feet in diameter were constructed.6. the diameter of the focus would be i foot. acoustic parabolic reflectors were During tried as sound detectors. the arc being placed at this focal point. With a highly pitched whistle.v.v. or ii feet. The intensity is The disgreatest where all the waves are in the same phase. a parabolic mirror and a sensitive flame. the small- ness of the focus comparison with the wave-length. occurs that the focus of an acoustic mirror is not sharp when Thus it and may be regarded as of approximately the same diameter as a waveIf we have a plane wave of frequency 100 d.40 parallel ACOUSTIC REFLECTORS beam. the focus would have approximately the diameter of iioo -f. In an enclosed space there are innumerable reflections and at any point the resultant intensity may be regarded as produced by many sources (images). Also be brought to this focus. Even with a note of high frequency.. This can scarcely be said to be concentration. if sound waves may inter- . the war.100. This property of a parabolic mirror will is utilized in searchlights. since the waves from a distant source light from a distant source such as the sun are approximately "parallel" and should be reflected to a focus. 3. But. But it was found that the concentration of sound was very poor. tances from likeness of phase to opposition in phase is of the same order of magnitude as a wave-length as will later be shown discussing two waves travelling in opposite directions. Interference in Auditoriums. Moreover. Small parabolic mirrors are sometimes used behind public speakers. They produce a noticeable difference but are not very effective. or double vibrations per second) striking a 12 foot mirror. (complete length. the concentration of sound may be demonstrated. From our preceding explanations it is evident that sound will be reflected as will light only if the reflector is of dimensions very large in in light. is caused by interference. Our discussion of inter- ference of sound leads to an explanation of the well-known fact that the intensity of sound is not equal at all parts of an audi- torium. 1000 d.

W.INTERFERENCE IN AUDITORIUMS fere so that 41 displacements rather than sound intensities must be added. Fig.4 sity throughout an auditorium. Dr.4 is He has represented the variais tion in intensity in the manner that elevation of land taken from his work. shown in topographical maps. 3. Sabine was the first to explore the variation of inten- Fio. the intensity of sound will not be the same throughout. C. 3. In a pre- .

that a considerable area in an auditorium may be. 3.4* vious chapter it ACOUSTIC REFLECTORS was shown that the time of reverberation can be advance with considerable accuracy.5 be divided up into concentric circles. in general. The effect at will be due to the combined effects of all portions of the circular disc AE.5 and so forth. There will is a curious property of reflectors to which this section be devoted. the above successive contributions to a resultant amplitude must gradually decrease in phase. intensity at placement at will increase unless the added area produces a dis- Suppose the circular area shown in cross section by ACE in Fig. It is possible. but the above areas are at constantly increasing distances from 0.7. the location spots of such spots will vary with the frequency. same But the sound from as of the latter. and a point of obserFor the sake of simplicity the emission from only the right side of the disc will be considered. the third also adds an area equal to the first FIG. Then each successive addition may be thought of as contributing an equal amount to the resulting amplitude at 0. Fig. 3. the that nullifies a portion of the composite displacement already produced. Hence. how- computed in have not yet learned a simple way "bad" ever. Just at what size this will occur can be seen by the following discussion. It can be shown that every additional area adds to the resulting amplitude until . 3. Acousticians to ascertain the presence of or areas of small intensities. A will we sound from C. in such a manner that the second circle adds an area that first is exactly equal to the one drawn about C. Selective Property of Reflectors. Moreover. 3. a vibrating disc. Then the phase of the former If reach the point later than the will not be exactly the increase the size of the disc.5. Assume we have vation at 0. The whole area is vibrating in the same phase. a poor place for an auditor.

3.7 corresponding to that of shadow of the displacement of a ball on a screen. make a contribution to R is det but if more and more nearly approaches the .7. The resultant each equal in magnitude but differing is found by attaching the arrows end y to end and drawing Rt etc. /?. and the effects be added to determine the result According to Fig. such a variation was described as FIG. and r^ end to end and connecting the terminus with the origin. the the circle ball itself moving in a This a plane containing the direction of the light.7. This process may be continued with a third arrow. 3. FIG.7. when a decrease in the resultant begins. The r\ resultant may be regarded as obtained by ad- ding the two arrows. the following discussion is given.SELECTIVE PROPERTY OF REFLECTORS 43 the phase reached is opposite to that of the wave from C. as stated in Section in a complex sound is produced by each unit 1. 3.6. It is noticed that the last dis- / placement that makes a contribution to the length of y * to the initial efy is opposite R displacement Oa. the resultant.7. the last one to the areas are made smaller and smaller. For.6 Suppose one placements as in direction. That the reader may have a better picture of this effect. adds a series of dis- in Fig. de condition of opposition in phase. harmonic variation of displacement is the one treated in simple this section and throughout the text. the diag- onal. 3. * made up may of such units. 3. If one adds two equal displacements as is in Fig. This method of adding displacements may be justified by a consideration of the nature of the variation of a displacement having the simple harmonic variation vis- There ualized in Section 1.

then. which will have the value of this amplitude. Retaining the experi- ment with the ments ball in differing in mind.) These two displacements.6 and by an extension in Fig. This radial line can be proved to be the diagonal of the parallelogram having the two indicated radii as sides. their corresponding radii are drawn They have an angle between them of 1 80. is the manner of securing a resulting amplitude. as the case may be. 1 give the resulting displacement produced by the two components described. Thus merically a difference in phase may be designated as 30. The amplitudes are represented by arrows. It can be shown by geometry that there is a radial line. what was done in Fig. of reflection for a displacement having one frequency may be regarded as really of general application. 3. precisely 3.44 ACOUSTIC REFLECTORS Consequently the treatment occurring with the complex sound. The sum of the displacements at any instant can be found by adding the two values as found on the shadow on the screen. Assume the second displacement to have the same amplitude If the two displacealso indicated by the radius of the wheel. The two balls are placed at the rim with an angle of 90 between the radii. The addition can be made graphically by drawing the two radii in opposite directions. the difference of phase by the included This is angle. If the R . The resulting displacement evidently has a larger amplitude than the radius of the wheel. ments are opposite in phase. 3. drawn from the center of the wheel. 40 or 210. and equal in amplitude. Moreits shadow on the screen as the wheel rotates will always over. consider the addition of two displacephase but represented on the same wheel. will give zero if added.7.5 the displacements at from the successive areas do not differ appreciably in amplitude or in direction if CO is long compared with CA. In Fig. is customary to use such an angle as (It expressing nuthe difference of phase of the two displacements. and the resultant amplitude by the diagonal. is the resulting amplitude. when two displacements are in the same straight line. This. opposite in phase in opposite directions. of Assume that the difference in phase is 90 instead 80. But they do differ in phase.

adding successive portions of the enlarged area of *$*. 3. 3. if is intensity at 0. For a given frequency there is a certain diameter which will give the maximum effect at 0. 3. 3.7). This is specified it one-half wave-length. the amplitude.6 represents the phase difference and the equal lengths of the arrows. Three annular rings.7 then states that. The following unpublished experiment was performed by the writer out of doors. for the by the condition that AO-CO is latter may be considered as sending out a wave. This means that the action of the diaphragm is selective. the displacements at produced by the successive areas conspire to increase the resulting amplitude at that point until opposition in phase is reached (180 in Fig. the radius of the disc which will is always greater than zero. is This critical difference in the AC one-half a wave-length. beginning at the center area of the vibrating disc in Fig. will diminish from the above described maximum to a minimum. If this interesting effect occurs with a vibrating diaphragm. will of course occur with a reflecting surface as well. Additional areas decrease this amplitude at 0.5. then R is the correct resultant amplitude. A more extended study shows that the resulting paths gradually increased.8 was placed about a cylindrical tube.SELECTIVE PROPERTY OF REFLECTORS 45 angle between the direction of two arrows in Fig. When is increased beyond this critical distance the displacement at will diminish. The tube R had the length which caused 0. structed. in fact. were conThe dimensions were adjusted so that the sum of the distances from P to the edge of the screen and from the edge to . it to resonate with the frequency of the source placed at The observer compared the intensities in R and hence at P when the size of the screen was altered. R y from whose base a rubber tubing passed to the apparatus for measuring intensity. A nullification will begin to occur when the difference in the paths OC and OA will cause the displacements from C and A to be opposite in phase. the intensity always remaining noticeably less than the maximum is intensity occurring with the radius such that AO-CO one-half a wave-length. have a series of maxima and minima of less and less prominence. Figure 3. will again increase and. A circular screen S in Fig.

and (3) with the second and third annular rings it was more than onehalf wave-length greater than OP. front and then behind the head.46 ACOUSTIC REFLECTORS was as follows: (i) Without any of the rings this total distance was less than one-half wave-length greater than OP.000 d. This selective property. maximum reflection for a at present. the greatest intensity observed in R was with one annular ring or with the difference in total distance one-half wave-length.v. namely. Thus it In fact. less than the . expected from the preceding discussion. As already pointed out both the incident sound and the reflected sound bend around small obstacles. The wave-length is. it is. for the wave which is As would be reflected at S travels therefrom in all directions. (2) with one annular ring it was exactly one-half wave-length greater.8 regarded as a path of the sound wave.8. Nevertheless. obstacle does not begin to be very parable to a wave-length. The Pinnae as The reflecting power of the pinnae. the effect of an until its size is marked com- is seldom that one listens to sounds of high enough frequency to permit the pinnae to be very If one places a source of sound of 10. a given frequency. 3. or the auricles of the ear. in echoes. sometimes occurs Reflectors. in this case. The distance OS + SP is p O FIG. is not of grave importance. 3. first in effective. more of a curiosity than a utility. a marked difference in intensity can be noted.

assume the wall were made up of many small planes set in somewhat random orientations. used either to transmit or to receive. such as reflection unless all surfaces are very large in comparison with a directivity of a megaphone depends upon the wave-length. made in regard The reader may readily try experiments with the tick of a watch.3. or not a good beam of sound is obtained may be determined by a The discussion similar to that in Section 3. under what condition can the displacement at one point be in phase. Whether area of the large opening. Under what circumstances would this not materially affect the location or sharpness of the image. its advantage in increasing the sound intensity not to a would occur if the wall was silvered and was used instead of sound. at another point. 07 Could this construction. telephone posts. If two waves are travelling in the same direction. a megaphone. but rather to a resonating proplight In fact. when simultaneously. which contains tones of high frequencies. Acoustic Horns as Reflectors. the diserty which will be discussed in a later section. In the case of a conical megaphone the text does not state whether the wave front at the opening is a plane or a section of a What would be the difference in effect if such two surfaces sphere.9. QUESTIONS 1.1. Similar remarks 47 may be to the effect of cupping the hand at the ear. for example? 4. for this area is a wave front. or what difference is noticed and why? .QUESTIONS diameter of the pinnae. are the sounds reflected to the passenger similar to those one would hear were he standing nearby on the ground. under what condition are the two displacements at a given point in the same direction at all times? 2. and with ordinary sounds such as speech. did not differ in position by more than one inch. 3. Contrary to the com- mon owes view. cussion in this chapter shows that we cannot use the laws of light reflection effect. With a small reflector why does the amount reflected depend upon the wave-length? 6. they are opposite in phase? 3. if made of polished metal surfaces of an inch in diameter. In Fig. If two waves are travelling in the same direction. bridge structures. prove a satisfactory mirror for light? 5. When a train or automobile rushes by small objects such as tree trunks. 2.

State the difference that occurs and why. If one talks through a megaphone rectangular in cross-section. Why should the bad spots in an auditorium vary in position with the frequency? 10. Experiment with cupping the hands at the ears in order to improve hearing and report the nature of the sounds when distinct improvement was and was not made. Can a blind man by hearing tell anything concerning the nature of the objects along the path upon which he is walking and why? 8. 13. which directions from the axis of the megaphone will the sound spread the most easily? 12. Assuming that clearness of enunciation depends upon the higher frequencies in the complex sounds.8 whether or not sound is reflected like light? show as to . One listening to a speaker talking through a megaphone will notice that there is a difference in the quality of voice caused by changing the direction of the megaphone relative to an auditor. Is the presence of the head any acoustic advantage in increas- in ing the intensity at the ear? 14. What does the experiment illustrated by Fig. which will a small reflector improve the more. 3. loudness or clearness of speech? 9. 11.48 ACOUSTIC REFLECTORS 7.

obviously the velocity of the sound wave is greater.i) IV REFRACTION AND DIFFRACTION Atmosphere.CHAPTER 4. Equation shows the dependence of the velocity upon pressure. perature velocities / v' to another stratum at temperature > giving and v. density and temperature.3) states that in discussing the velocity of sound in such a non-homogeneous medium at rest we need to consider only those variations in velocity of sound that are caused by If there is a wind having a direction variations in temperature. when the propof the sound is in the direction of the wind and less when agation In considering the propagathe sound travels to the windward.3).1. there are changes in pressure. (1. The change of direction of propaline represents the gation occasioned by a change in the nature of the 49 medium which . This is done in Fig. The initial plane wave front is AB and the final wave front after what is termed "refraction" is A'B'. density and the In equation (1. we have an expression for the velocity ir> which neither however. In the atmosphere. the greater the velocity of sound therein.1. therefore. to take careful account of both the temperature 4. Here the horizontal plane separating the two media. The influence of temperature may be studied by assuming the case of a sound wave passing from one stratum /'. Effect of and of the wind. ratio of the specific heats of a gas. parallel to the earth's surface. for example. which will here be assumed to have everywhere the same composition. relative to the earth. the pressure nor the density of a gas occurs. Equation shows that the higher the temperature of a gas.3) Temperature. tion of sound in the atmosphere we have need.2. But equation (1. /' at a tem/. 4. Variations of Velocity in the (i.

1. In general all the energy will not pass from the first to . AA' is perpendicular gation to the wave front. '. the atmospheric layer near the ground may become cooler than that above. It is thus seen that the direction of propaof the wave in the second medium. then A' B' refracted is the wave front. This effect of temperature produces an interesting result which is experienced usually in the early morning hours. When the layer adjacent to the earth has been cooled until * its temperature is There will also at this point. distance BB' the wave front must contain the and a point on the hemisphere about A with a radius If it is now assumed that the resulting wave front is plane. y 1 which a more extended discussion would justify. 4. in the absence of wind. the earth has been radiating heat rapidly and. If the night has been clear.50 REFRACTION AND DIFFRACTION sound is affects the velocity of is called "refraction" * is This term a change in velocity even if the direction of propagation remains unaltered. Such would be the case if BE' were perpendicular to the boundary in Fig. also used in cases where there The Since position at A'B' is obtained in the following manner. A'B '. but it is not discussed case of reflection (in gases) with perpendicular incidence is discussed in Section 5. The be a reflected wave in the first medium. This is just the reverse of the usual daytime condition when the heat from the earth causes the lowest layer to have the highest temperature.4. A' in the same time that it the sound will travel the distance A will travel the point B AA' . the second medium.

causing v' to become A' will approach the length AB'. Suppose the temperature of the upper medium be gradually increased. This accounts for the in the early great distances at which sounds In a similar manner ing hours. will variation tively. In the discussion of this figure it be assumed that the transition in temperature occurs sudIt can be proved that in the case of a gradual temperature denly. 4. in the foregoing paragraph. the stratum is may it be heard morn- can easily be shown that when in its usual daytime condition the influence of temperature is to decrease the range.EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE 51 lower than the stratum above. A further increased. As the temperature greater. we have sound refracted in a ture increasing manner similar to Fig. so far as our present acoustic interest Within the layer of temperais concerned. If the sound is propagated in a direction more nearly horizontal than shown in Fig. This . Attention should be called to the fact that. When AA' equals is the length AB f the direction of AA' becomes horizontal. one of them the earth. But one must not accept too literally the word "total. it may reach a horizontal direction and then be refracted tion is to downward before reaching the upper limit of the stratum of temperature increasing with elevation. with elevation." There will be sound diffused to some extent out through the layer. the sound will be retained within the stratum very much as if transmitted between two parallel walls. there has been described a case of what is essentially " total reflection" caused by the phenomenon of refraction. we is It are justified in using the above conclusion qualitatherefore seen that the effect of this type of refrac- bend the sound towards the earth. Thus A' B 1 will change its direction of propagation AA 1 will become more position and the nearly horizontal. The possibilities in Fig. irrespective of the direction of propagation of the transmitted sound. 4.1 may be examined more closely. At each increase AA' becomes longer while AE 1 and BB' will remain unchanged.1.1. the temperature in this lowest region will increase gradually with elevation until a level is reached where the temperature begins to decrease. 4. If so. At further elevations the decrease continues indefinitely.

though we do not commonly have such large temperature differences as would be required for the angle of incidence used in Instead of requiring the temperature of the upper Fig. then skims the surface and finally is totally So it appears that even a small difference in velocity reflected. Assume that in Fig. As this direction becomes more nearly parallel to the boundary the refracted wave also approaches coincidence with the boundary even more rapidly. But simultaneously .11. further that there is a plane sound wave represented by the cross-section of the wave front. Effect of the Wind. say /. AB y which is moving from the lower into the upper region. the wave front would move from AE to A'E' in a certain time.1. 4.51 REFRACTION AND DIFFRACTION wave no longer enters the second condition means that the me- dium is but skims the surface between the two.2 the line 00' air. one may change the angle at which the direction of propagation of the wave meets the boundary. enough. further increased the sound now If the temperature will be reflected at the bound- The reader must not think such a reflection is impossible ary. the cross-section of a plane which separates two regions of in the upper of which the medium is moving with a velocity is o' relative to the earth of u* #2 being greater than u\. 4. and in the lower Assume with a velocity of #1. 4. If the air everywhere were stationary.3. two media may. the grazing angle of approach is small This is further discussed in Section 5. medium to be raised. produce total in the if reflection.

4. AB and we discover that wave but is in the direction AA". Because of the fact that to 2 is not equal to the i.SPEAKING IN THE WIND with this propagation each portion of the wave front carried forward by the motion of the medium in which cated. to the direction of propaof sound as judged by an observer who judges wholly by gation As pointed out in a later chapter. in general. the movement of the wave front not perpendicular to itself. Thus we see that this peculiarity. It is cussion of the influence of the wind upon a simple step to the disthe propagation of sound . with the upper medium. or the wave front. varies from point to in any direction. perpendicular to the wave front. It is to be understood that the abrupt change of wind velocity with elevation. will 53 be it is lo- At the expiration of the time. and that refraction actually extends over a considerable depth in which medium. this peculiar movement of the wave front point may exist and may be correctly attributable to the medium itself. As will because equality of phase of vibration at the ears the deciding factor. cannot really occur. to A practical point naturally arises as come from a appear. We can conclude that in a gaseous medium having convection currents. and thus not be strictly an But if the velocity of the medium effect of the medium the wind velocity varies gradually. It is further easy to see that the direction of propagation from 00' is not perpendicular to A"B". as here supposed. the direction of sound propis not. agation But suppose an observer were moving with a velocity # 2 . that is. The direction of propagation relative to him could be drawn normal to the wave front. may be caused by the motion of the observer relative to the itself. A"B" is not parallel front has changed its angle with 00'. the sound appears hearing. this is is direction perpendicular to the wave front. it will actually be at A"B" for the distances A* A" = a/ and B'B" = u\t are the distances which the respective media have transported their sound waves in the same time. 4. when y the wave should have reached A'B'. He would notice nothing unusual in the upper medium. /. Speaking in the Wind.

therefore. or any other sound from S. air were But medium has moved in this time. The effect. the diagram of Fig. C'C" at the center and zero or a very small amount at the lower point. now a distorted spher.4 is illustrated the effect when the sound travels against the wind. The reader can follow reasoning similar to the . a distance A* A" at the upper. 4. is that the speaker's voice. wave. and assume the wave which has proceeded from it to be AB. and this is the case of out-of-doors speaking. In Fig. but. motion of the nil. the wave is bent or refracted The result of such refraction is the reduction of the spreading of the wave upward from the horizontal.54 REFRACTION AND DIFFRACTION In horizontally. Proceeding as before. In other words. the lines AA' y CC and DD' r are drawn as the distances that the sound wave would travel in the time the / if the 8 FIG.3 assume the source of sound to be at S and located in a wind having a velocity to the right that increases with elevation above the ground. 4-3 /. the assump- c tion made for the variation will give us results that are It is qualitatively correct. 4. the direction of propagation from A is not AA' but AA" toward the earth. The considerable variation in wind velocity that is here represented really exag- gerates the actual case. It is said his voice carries better in the direction of the wind. inasmuch as the wind velocity does increase with the vertical height. Moreover. seen that the wave has a FIG. 4.4 reached and ical is A"D' in the time /. is carried apparently along the earth.

5. In view of the influence of both wind it is and temperature upon sound refraction conditions may not surprising that obtain wherein the noise of an explosion may be distinctly heard in a distant place. 1922. for. The conclusion is that the sound wave is refracted upward. it is impossible for all the sound transmitted to leeward to be refracted toward the ground. it is entirely leaves the ground. Ele- vated church windward than can thus be heard more distinctly at points the bells are near the ground. sound pass "more readily" in one direction than in the opposite. the presence of obstacles on the ground is an additional justification for the elevation of bells and whistles. reflection will occur and the sound does not escape as in the case where the sound travels to windward upward. effects that at first The wind may cause thought seem curious. thus making it more difficult to be heard when speaking against the wind. In fact. assuming no obstacles. Of course. Silence Areas. for now. But if the observer to the leeward is elevated he will be able to will make the observer to the windward hear much better. The refraction toward the ground of the sound travelling leeward is not so serious a matter. 2. and yet not heard at all at a This phenomenon has been frequently obseve( As an illustration on October 28. so to speak. . For example. discussion in regard to the scattering or diffusion of sound showed that in acoustics we rarely deal with a "beam" The previous of sound. The effects as described are not complete.SILENCE AREAS 55 above without the necessity of its repetition here. Therefore mitted to windward incorrect to suppose that sound transLikewise. 4. Such would be the case with sound travelling from the source bells if in a somewhat downward direction.000 pounds were fired in Holland. The noise was heard within a nearer position. They find that while the individual leeward can hear and understand. the other to windward can scarcely hear any sound whatever. two persons may be attempting to communicate in a high wind between shore and boat. the sound may be refracted but will yet succeed in reaching the hearer.

in fact.56 REFRACTION AND DIFFRACTION from twenty to seventy kilometers. named were not in the character of the sound in the two cases may be described as the cutting off of the higher frequencies in the former and of the lower frequencies in the latter. and the most prominent component was the one of lowest ditions pitch. The difference was distinctly different. in connection the sound from the airplane at the greatest hearing distance was limited to the lowest frequencies in the emitted complex sound. probably of the order of 1. for example. But in a zone distant more than two hundred kilometers the sound of the explosion was again audible.. Vol. were most distinctly in evidence. with "poor listening" atmospheric conditions. 376. In lis- nomena. Refraction and Scattering of Airplane Noises. by reflection and quencies having the shortest wave-lengths. 270. 4. N. the difference in different No sound was heard bedirections being caused by the wind. 1 80.000. the fre- more effective in scattering.. Phys. That there may be a more rapid decay of intensity of the higher frequencies is readily understood by a consideration of differences in wave-length. up to a distance of nine hundred kilometers. tening to airplanes in flight one observes several acoustic pheThe one most quickly noticed is that the sound from the airplane is of an uneven character. For the irregularities in the planity of the strata. etc. 14.. The sound from the same airplane heard at the greatest possible distance under excellent night con- The lowest frequencies just noticeable and the sharp crackling sounds of the engine explosions with prominent components. During experiments * with airplane detection and location the observers noticed also that. 4. . p. 1919. These frequencies were for these particular airplanes approximately 90. No. * Sec Stewart. In general. the irregularities of the atmosphere would effect more the shorter wave-lengths.S. The reader can demonstrate this if he will make a drawing of a non-planar stratum and consider the refraction of waves in detail. Rev. would be refraction.6. tween seventy and two hundred kilometers.

If the intensity of sound varied inversely as the square of the distance from the source.7. . Diffraction. not By "intensity" is meant the energy per unit volume. If sound energy given off by the engine occurs at a constant rate. In the experiments to which reference is here made. at an elevation of one thousand yards could be heard airplanes only twice as far with the instrument as with the unaided ear. then the observer should hear an airplane at ten times the distance one could hear it with But on fair days. Under good night observing conditions with the airplane at an elevation of two thousand yards the maximum distance of hearing was increased to three times the distance possible with the unaided ear. then the amount of energy per unit volume or the intensity would vary inversely as the area of the expanding sphere. energy spreads out in a spherical wave. to 4. The word diffraction is is used when a change of direction of propagation of sound * occasioned. the observer used an instrument that amplified the sound intensity one hun- dred times. whether the intensities * are measured in mechanical units or in terms of the least audible intensity. On days when the atmosphere was obviously more irregular. cumulus clouds forming. the unaided ear. It is the latter unit of meas- urement that is of interest in the present case.DIFFRACTION The apparently of the in the second instance 57 better transmission for the higher frequencies is not to be explained by any influence medium but rather by the characteristics of audition. A further explanation will be given in a discussion of audition. The sense of loudness for the different frequencies is not the same. This means that the intenif this and sity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source. the decay of intensity was much more rapid. The other experimental fact worthy of record is the rapidity with which the intensity falls off with distance in the atmosphere. for the nature of the sound heard at a great distance from the source depends upon audibility. It thus appears that even when the atmosphere is favorable sound transmission there is sufficient irregularity to cause a surprisingly rapid decay of sound from an elevated source.

467-479. 4. Results concerning diffraction about the head will now be discussed.8. 33. significant role in self protection in the From our earlier discussion in 3. Everyone knows that the hearer need not see the source of the sound. frequencies to every corner and recess in the Fortunately the diffraction phenomenon is sufficiently all pronounced to make 4. It will be recognized also that our discussion of the reverberation in auditoriums assumed the free penetration of room.* assumes the problem to be the invesof the diffraction of sound about a rigid sphere. it can readily be judged that the longer the wavelength the less the reflection and the greater the diffraction produced by an obstacle. Bell System Technical Journal. Sound will pass around the corner of a building or over a partition or out of a window. I. 33. first begun by Lord Rayleigh and later continued by others. This tigation shape is necessary to make the mathematical solution possible. 1912. as a matter of fact.3 (with ripples) and 3. The in diffrac- tion about the head an important consideration two cases. The theoretical investigation.5 repre- Stewart. .4 in regard to the dependence of the efficiency of reflectors upon the frequency of the sound concerned. Diffraction this assumption approximately true. Physical Review.58 REFRACTION AND DIFFRACTION difference in the but by the introduction of obstacles or reflecting surfaces. by a medium itself previously been mentioned in Sections 1. that the sphere is The term "rigid" means simply bration tion at * not set in viis by any point on the incident sound and hence that there its no absorp- surface. about the is Head of a Speaker. causing the sound to bend or to diffract around such objects.4. inconvenience in the conduct of our daily Without we would be put to great Diffraction of sound must have played a evolution of the race. also an important phenomenon. speaking or singing and audition. Diffraction has. but without being so designated. In the former the source is at the head and in the latter it is removed at a distance. 1911. Let the circle in Fig. Obviously. diffraction is a very it common and affairs. Hartley and Fry.

the point y of sound on the sphere. method briefly stated is But The not without general interest.DIFFRACTION ABOUT HEAD OF SPEAKER 59 the source sent the cross-section of the rigid sphere.5 around the sphere. 4. The equa- tions describing the acoustic nature of the medium Then it is assumed that the correct solution must are set up. "satisfy" these all equations and also the condition of no radial motion at points . and P and P' positions of the observer. The sound will spread out and will FIG. the effect at any point may be considered to be caused not only by the sound being diffracted around and close to the sphere repeatedly. In fact. but also by the entire wave front passing the The phenomenon seems hopelessly complicated. glance at the problem shows that the solution is not easily obtained by physical reasoning or by utilizing any of the facts previously studied herein. The inquiry is now made as A to the intensity of sound from A observed at any point P '. Moreover the pass in every direction from or diffraction will not cease when the sound has gone bending half A way around the sphere. the former on the line A same radial line as A and the latter on a radial 1 making an angle 6 with OP. the mathematical solution is relatively simple in principle. sphere. There is no reason why the wave should not continue to diffract around the sphere to the front.

" .91. from the theory and expressed at In Fig. A.I cm.1 cm. in circumference.6 occurs the Greek letter "X.0 2 fel20cm. 3 &*120cm. Let us consider any point P f in Fig.6 are shown curves representing the results computed in the form of the ratio of intensity P. the ratio Curve .30 3 .6o REFRACTION AND DIFFRACTION The solution can then be of the sphere except at the source." . curve 2. 4. obtained." which represents "wave-length. 4. 9 As P' moves about the sphere in a plane the intensity at P LOO . at 6 = it is .1 meters from the center of the sphere.6 changes so that according to the curve is i 2. r.W. from the sphere.120 cm.5 to that at the fixed point. at 105 it is .18 10. The sphere is assumed 60 cm. 4. at 45 is it is . curve 4. is One of the inter- that the nearer the auditor to the speaker. for a discurves are for one frequency * only and tance of 19.to 79. * In Fig. the distance OP being equal to OP' and the angle 8 lying between them.76 and at 180 15..97.r1910cra. 4.6 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 * Degrtet FIG. r477cm.858. These show the variation of intensity experienced by the observer at for a very great distance the point P r as he travels in a circle about 0. the esting points more advantageous is a position directly in front of the latter. 4 X. Here P' is 19.

so in acoustics we may*speak of the variation of sound intensource at P'.7 wherein the range of three octaves is considThe curves indicate that the higher the frequency.9. is the same as the shadow at points on the sphere produced by the The term "shadow" is permissible. the ered. It will subsequently be shown in Chapter IX that. This fact should be given consideration in any use made of the results of the theoretical investigation. Diffraction diffraction about the head. That the change in diffraction with frequency is marked is shown by Fig. not a sphere 60 cm. On account of an important theorem in acoustics called the "reciprocal" theorem. 4.DIFFRACTION ABOUT HEAD OF AUDITOR 61 Another interesting point is that there is a maximum * of intenof the speaker and one also immediately sity immediately in front behind. in general. The lower frequencies are more important in securing volume and the higher frequencies in securing clearness of speech. but it is safe to conclude that the results of the investigation are applicable as an approximation It is true that the is head in any consideration of 4. for since in a shadow is a definite variation in light caused by an oboptics ject. in circumference as the above theory assumes." From the above mentioned curves we may reach the following conclusions: sity i. In such a case the source relative intensities at is assumed at the point P' and the A are calculated for various values of Figures 4.7 are correct for this case also. . clearness of enunciation depends more upon the high than upon the low frequencies in the voice. the conclusions of the foregoing theory can be transferred to the case of diffraction about the head of an auditor. When is less. listening to a distant sound of low frequency. produced by an obstacle as a "sound shadow. produced by the sphere at a distance OP' with a source on the sphere. 6.6 and 4. It can then be said that the sound shadow or variation in intensity. say * A "maximum" intensity But here the graph intensity occurs at a point if at all neighboring points the refers only to a variation in the angle 6. more the advantage of the front position. of about the Head an Auditor.

but further examination shows the conclusion correct for binaural hearing. 105 120 135 ISO 165 180 FIG. .7 4. is The closer the source at P'. there is but little to be gained by turning the head. that there is but one ear.) 2. The The closer the source the relatively more important beis comes the position of the head. the greater the shadow at A.62 less REFRACTION AND DIFFRACTION than 200. 3. for simplicity. 5. also in the lecture room by a highly pitched whistle. That obstacles do cast acoustic shadows can be demonstrated by using the tick of a watch and passing it about the head while one ear is closed. The shadow With 6 at 1 decreases with distance of source from the obstacle.14) and a small obstacle. (Here assume. 4. a sensitive flame (Section 15. This is indicative of the fact that an obstacle will cast a greater shadow the closer it is placed to the source. A and P' are on opposite sides of the sphere. or the less OP'. higher the frequency the relatively more important the position of the head. 80.

12. Principle of Least Time.2. 63 Change it is of Quality by Diffraction. In fact. From the above discussion evident that the music of a band in a city street will not have the same quality irrespective of the position of the observer. Thus the shell wave of a swift projectile passing overhead will reach an observer on the ground from a certain point in the trajectory determined by this condition of least time. It was then reflected.PASSAGE OF AERIAL WAVES ABOUT EARTH 4. It is one of the possible deductions the shortest geometric path. positions may be quently. that the time required for sound to pass from one point to another is a minimum. Section 3. .11. Conseof the adjacent buildings. whence it returned in its original direction. Passage of Aerial Waves about the Earth. The more general statement of the principle described section is in this that the time is is either a maximum or a minimum. That is. latter But the phenomenon 4. the quality of any music can be changed through the reflection from and diffraction about obstacles. By "cosine" is meant the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypothenuse of a right angle triangle containing 6. The term " " quality is here used in a physical sense. because diminished. Krakatoa. from Huyghens' principle. was in violent eruption in 1883. travelling back to the volcano. the line drawn to the trajectory from the observer makes with this path an angle 6 such that the "cosine" of 6 is equal to v/u. found where the high frequencies are relatively exaggerated or For the same reason. a volcanic island between Java and Sumatra. if v is the velocity of sound. Sound does not always take 4. The higher frequencies are reflected more easily and are diffracted less easily than the lower frequencies. it can be shown that if u is the velocity of the projectile. wave of condensation which travelled out passed about the earth and apparently again met at the antipodes to Krakatoa. the usual case and consequently the usually bears the title given to the section. On August 27th there was a culminating paroxysm and from this issued a in all directions.10. sound will reach the ear from a source in the least time.

when the temperature earth. as compared with indoors. 4. and what effect would it have on the high and low frequencies? 12. sure.2. How does the quality of sound from an airplane change with its passage? (A report on actual observation desired. Explain why "irregularities in the planity of the strata would be more effective in scattering the frequencies having the shortest that u\ wave-lengths. If the medium is moving with a uniform velocity relative to the earth.64 REFRACTION AND DIFFRACTION The wave was detected by It the change in the barometric preswas observed issuing four times from the region of the volcano and three times returning.2 the magnitude of the exaggeration (in the drawing) of the wind effect? .2. 4." 8. Fig. 7. windward. What is the justification for a reflector behind a speaker in the open air. Show that. 4. but assuming for one zero and for the other that u% is zero. Does the refraction caused by wind or temperature vary with the frequency employed and why? 10. If the velocity of the wind. if a plane wave of sound with horizontal wave front is emitted at the surface of the earth. varied not suddenly at OO' but constantly with elevation. Assume that the velocity of the wind relative to the earth increases with elevation. would there be refraction and why? 3. QUESTIONS 1. Show by drawing the possibility of refraction of sound from a source on the earth back to the earth again. Is it possible to determine from Fig. As you stand on the street in a busy city. show by drawing what influence the wind will have upon the direction of propagation and the wave front. 15. 2. The actual velocity was of the same order of magnitude as the velocity of a sound wave in air. in general how does the character of the noises from nearby sources compare with that from distant sources and why? 14. 6. 4. Cite cases in your own experience where quality is modified 13. as observed from a stationary point on the earth? 11. Draw two diagrams is similar to Fig." of the air is highest near the 5. the influence of temperature is to decrease the distance at which sounds may be heard. Draw a diagram illustrating the effect of the elevation of church bells and justify the statement concerning the transmission by diffraction. By extending the discussion in the text prove more in detail the correctness of the statement that "the sound will be retained in this stratum very much as if transmitted between two parallel walls. what effect would this have upon the shape of a spherical wave from a point source.) 9.

7.7. Reflection waves from O would be wall. and the without change of phase.2. the resulting displacement zero. discussed "reflection with change of phase" and "reflection without change of phase.CHAPTER V PHASE CHANGE AT REFLECTION 5. This reflection everywhere at the wall surface can be simulated by removing the wall and substituting a plane J wave coming from the left that has (at the old position of the Vail) the same phase as the * another. posite The terms " same phase " and " opphase" were used in Sections 3. 3.2 and 3. This relationship always determines the phase." as in Section 3.7. 2. the without Change of Phase.1.1. if instead of a wave from O we have a wave front whose plane is parallel to the 5. they are said refers to But "phase. and 0' arriving at the point directly between these sources are in the same phase J( yet the resulting displacement is zero. is also to be opposite in phase. By an extension of the reasoning involved." The former refers to reflection wherein there is latter to a reflection a change of phase corresponding to half a period. The former Phase Change. In Fig. fNote that.1. although the displacements are actually opposite one 6$ . But if one vibration is one-half of a period behind the other. two vibrations of the same frequency in which the positive maximum displacements occur simultaneously. yet in each case the relation of the direction of the displacement to the direction of travel of its respective wave is the same. J A "plane wave" has a wave front that is a plane. The two vibrations are said to have a difference of phase or to be in Usually in acoustics only abrupt changes of occur and these are plus and minus half a complete vibraphase In this chapter will be tion or a difference of phase of 180.* different phases. The expression of phase in degrees is explained in Section 3. used to indicate any difference in simultaneity whatever.

may be considered to be rigid or Thus such a boundary may be a wall of solid mateIt is true that rial or it may be a liquid such as a body of water. the reflected wave must be considered as having that same original wave. Reflection with Change of Phase. Thus. Neglecting these for the moment. making a pressure variation at the reflecting surface. This reflection without change of phase apparently occurs at every boundary where the second medium may be said to have relatively infinite inertia. i. Such a reflection is called a reflection without the combination of reflected and incident waves gives zero displacement. same phase at the wall position as the incident wave from the right. but we are neglecting this wave in the claim that the displacement at the immovable. change This phenomenon can be illustrated by the helix of If a block of wood is placed at the end of the helix. 5.7. phase of phase. the inertia is not infinite and that there actually is a sound wave of small intensity passing into the second medium. displacements are actually in opposite directions. but the two pressures are simultaneously positive or negative.3. and this without change in phase as explained in the pre- . But the condensation of the incident wave at the block occurs simultaneously with the condensation of the reflected wave.66 PHASE CHANGE AT REFLECTION The substituted wave is equivalent to the wave Since the wave from the left has the reflected from the wall. an interface between a solid S and a gas G. the solid has enormous inertia compared to the gas and the pressures in the gas are able to cause only very small vibrations in the solid. when the reflected wave is in the same phase as the incident wave. case which which A is Figure 5. If the sound wave comes from the right to the left. meaning greater or less than normal pressure. it can be said that at the boundary we have total reflection. boundary is zero. The preceding sec- tion dealt with a reflection without change of phase. 1.1 represents just the reverse will now be considered.. the arriving wave does not give a displacement at the end but also. Fig. one in the reflector was assumed to have infinite inertia.e.

One might surmise.REFLECTION WITH CHANGE OF PHASE vious paragraph. because the gas has such a relatively small inertia and the vibration of S can occur approximately as if G were a vacuum. of course no sound energy could pass into it and there would be total reflection at the surface of S. the energy of vibration in the latter must FIG. G produces another condition. however. With G a gas. then. for. ?. that the wave It is from left to right. greater than that in the gas. is approxi- This can be appreciated by comparing the mass per unit volume in S with that in G. If G were really a vacuum. G for for a can be shown mathematically that the pressure amplitude in a wave of given intensity would be very much smaller than wave of the same intensity in S. or to the sum of the excess pressures of the two waves in S at that point. much and that the reflection may The It relatively small inertia of be regarded as approximately total. the vibration of S mately independent of the presence or absence of G. to assert that but little energy is transmitted to the gas. 5. At the surface the solid and the gas execute the same vibrations. as just stated. the energy in its vibration. but the energy in a sound wave depends not only upon the amplitude of the vibrations but also upon the mass in vibration. be very It is reasonable. very much smaller than that occurring in travelling to the right or the reflected S with the incident wave wave travelling to the left. Thus. 67 Assume. some energy passes into it but only a small amount. passing then seen that the vibration in S is not is impeded by G. indeed. that with this practically total reflection the pressure amplitude of the refracted wave in G would be relatively small. then. is the greater Since the density of the solid. is at least several thousand times the density of the gas. these two pressure . But the excess pressure in G is at all times equal to the excess pressure in S at the surface. and it cannot transmit to the gas a greater amplitude than the solid possesses.1 the greater the mass.

is by the swing helix with a free end. an opposition in phase causes the displacement amplitude at the surface to be twice the displacement amplitude of either wave. given.* 2. that is. Hence a mathematical study must be made. cm. . It is interesting to compare the displacements.68 PHASE CHANGE AT REFLECTION waves in S are practically equal and opposite. The results of such a study in several cases will 5. Computation by (5. When a reflection is with change or without change of phase of the displacements. of the reflected general possible to determine the actual intensity wave by a descriptive discussion. the above fraction is (0. * It can be shown that the energy of a plane wave is proportional to the square of the displacement amplitude. This. which meets the boundary perpendicularly. Hence. its and reflected back a half period after It is not in Cases of Reflection in Gases. If now we suppose the wave to be travelling in the opposite direction. The corresponding In the case of a wave from hydrogen to velocities are v air. the same description must apply to pressures.001276. in the first medium and and Pi in the second medium. If the two media concerned are gaseous. the ratio of the displacement amplitude of the reflected wave to that of the incident wave. p = . the theory shows. frequency constant. ' (c. there is a reflection with a change of phase of pressure also.i) ' vi where p Vi. is Ratio V Pl = -7= V^ v vl V P1 + p or v V^ + . In the preceding section it seemed easier to determine the nature of the reflection by the consideration of displacements. Reflection with change of phase may be illustrated Here the vibration completes its arrival. 2 In other words.1) shows that the amplitude of the reflected wave is about 0.00008837 incident wave.58 of the amplitude of the pi and = . from air to hydrogen. . the reflected energy is about or (0.58) negative. Since the waves in S are travelling in opposite directions. In this section the pressure also is discussed.34) of the incident energy. but of the same magnitude.4. Interesting now be 1. is the density in grams per cu.

A re- must either with or without change of phase. If the difference in the two media is one of temperature. Assume this conclusion applied to the case of a large stream of hot air from a furnace entering a room. or that this is reflection "with change of phase" It is to be understood. is there reflection. 4. example. of incident and reflected waves no longer holds. The change always be either o or 180. The latter is lighter .2 and 5.07 or 7 per The reflection occurs with change of phase and the recent. however. flected energy is only (.1).07) 2 or .3). he will observe tive. the reflection is with change in phase . that in the broader statements of this Section the earlier limitation of equality of intensities 3. the velocities can be calculated by using equaIf these two values of velocity be substituted in the latter part of equation (5. Then tion (1. but computation shows in it to be slight. suppose the change to 98 temperature to be from 18 C.3. There are no intermediate changes. It is a column of hot air seen that the reflection at perpendicular incidence from such is very small indeed. one fact that still lies hidden. For C. it is not descripIf one will consider Sections 5. that the conclusions therein would lead to the anticipation of the While one cannot extend the reasoning of those sections to gases of different density. It is to be observed.005 or one-half of one per cent of the incident energy. also. The effect of humidity may be considered by assuming sound passing from dry to saturated air. then. but that if results just stated with gases. flection There is is. conclude that a more dense to if reflection occurs with the wave travelling from a less dense gas. yet they give a physical reason for the conclusions just stated concerning gases. the ratio of the amplitude of the reflected wave to the incident wave is found to be . the reflection is without change of phase. the propagation of the sound is from the rarer to the denser gas. While the preceding discussion is accurate. that equation (5.1) will not only give the correct magnitude but will also state whether the reflection From this equation we can is with or without change of phase.CASES OF REFLECTION IN GASES is 69 to be interpreted to mean that now the displacements are opposite in sign.

yet two points are made clear by the discussion. with the image 0' in phase. the hemispherical wave is twice the total energy in the spherical may wave wave. Imagine the source in Fig. First.1) thousandth part of the incident intensity. A "constant" point source is one which injects and removes a fixed volume telephone diaphragm is a constant source if its motion remains constant. The Image in Reflection without is Referring to Fig. where reflection without change in phase occurs. While this discussion is correct. Hence the amplitude everywhere will alone. they will act like two equal and like sources 0' indefinitely near each other. though the motion of the if the source same. When the distance between and 0' is very small compared to a wave length of the frequency considered. . 2. it will. 2. The displacement one produces at any distant point (assuming the reality of 0' and the absence of the wall) is equal to and in the same phase as the displacement produced by the other.5. This means that if a source is constant. It can be shown by that the reflected intensity is only about one eight hundred in by about one part (5. that the source at remains "constant.1. the reader is phase with 0." * The requirement of the constancy of the source limits the application of the conclusion concerning the doubling of the emitted energy. double the amplitude and quadruple the intensity everywhere on its side of the wall. 5. * A of air. to be brought gradually closer to the wall. Therefore the source of sound placed near the wall is caused to emit sound energy at twice its previous rate. there is an assumption involved which is not made clear. The total amount of energy in the be twice that produced by hemisphere be compared with that in the sphere (for the The total energy in is spherical) when the wall is absent. reminded that the image 0' occurs without change of phase.70 PHASE CHANGE AT REFLECTION two hundred twenty. when placed very near a large reflecting wall. But reflection This effect can produce a curious result. the surroundings may influence the amount of energy emitted from a source of sound. Then must also approach the wall. namely. the energy emitted is not always the Second. is constant. in Change of Phase.1.

6. The reader can readily show that the effect of interference just described is more pronounced at a given short distance of the source from the surface than would be the case if the velocity there. 5. 5. one can readily see that if the two sources are in opposite phase each will annul the other's effect. the total flow of gas (in the vibration) is the same in the two branches.CHANGE IN AREA OF A CONDUIT 71 source. in air were that in air. The Image in Reflection with Change of Phase. Since reflection in trans- mission from water to air is with change in phase. From the preceding section and by similar reasoning. and second. the excess pressure at the point P is simultaneously the same for both parts of the junction. The detector is of course placed in the water because even with this interference the intensity is much greater The velocity of sound in water is about 4. produce a reflected wave. remain the same.7. But this is the case in reflection with change Thus when reflection occurs with change in phase and is the source dent medium near the surface the intensity of sound in the inciis greatly diminished by the reflection. But a change in the restrictions of the medium may left to in Fig.3 times that and hence the wave-lengths are correspondingly greater. For example. junction. Reflection at a Change in Area of a Conduit. . We have discussed the fact that a change in the character of the medium produces a reflected wave.2. the fulfillment of these two conditions requires the reflection of a sound wave at the For the moment this reflected wave will be assumed. may 5. Strange as it may seem. the right. such as a vibrating reed or a telephone diaphragm. it would cause a diminution of intensity in the water in the case of any subaqueous source. in phase. This effect came strikingly to the attention of the physicists at work on submarine detection during the war. and that at P there is an abrupt change There are two conditions at the point P which are fulfilled. First. assume a conduit in which sound is being transmitted also from the in area of the conduit.

y/\ 2 Y ) Then there will reflected Thus. These waves would not agree in phase. or the percentage reflection.2. Let the same total alteration now be made in a series of many small steps instead of in one step as in Fig. is correctly computed by the fraction. if reflection is to be avoided. it is essential either to maintain the area of a conduit constant or to make many the alteration gradually over a length of conduit containing a number of wave-lengths.2. the transmission is practically undiminished.2 fleeted wave divided by that of the incident one. a practical procedure. then there would be destructive interference among them and the resultant Thus it happens that if the reflected wave would be small. 5. If there are many of them ex- tending over a length long compared to a wave-length. and A the area of the larger tube in that of the smaller one. 5.72 PHASE CHANGE AT REFLECTION its In the following section an explanation of given. 5. in area is accomplished very gradually. if the S is three times Ay the amount reflected is 25 per cent. It appearance will be can be shown that Fig. the intensity of the reif is S FIG. be a reflected wave at each small change in area. extending over change As wave-lengths. In accomplishing the gradual altera- .

2 it was shown that a plane wave will be rewall. The existence of the reflected wave is thus shown to be a necessity. it is actually misleading for reflection in the case of acoustics is a very different matter. Yet it returns somewhat This is differently than an indoor base- ball or a ball of putty. It does not come from a vibrating surface. is zero at all resultant displacement at the But this is not the case times. elasticity. Cause of Reflection at a Junction. and specifically because of the condition required of the displacement at the wall. it is 73 not necessary that the inside surface of the conduit be without small abrupt changes in area. conacoustic conditions at the reflecting surface. in considering acoustic reflection. much One is entirely 5. but simply arises from the conditions at the wall. Thus a large number of small abrupt changes well scattered throughout a distance long compared with the wave length will eliminate of the reflected flow of energy. and consequently an incident wave only not satisfy this condition of zero displacement. Of course in considering reflection simpler to have in mind the approaching will produce a pressure at the wall. this a return wave. flected. after unless one a student of mechanics. is mentioned here to show that. a problem in mechanics and must It is include such considerations as momentum and all. That condi- tion can be satisfied by an additional reflected wave with the actual displacements of these two waves equal and opposite at the wall. It must be recognized that the cause of a reflection of a wave must rest in the For example. which . But the important considerapressure causing it is wave of pressure. the rebounding ball is of no assistance. Hence. wall. but with a wave of changing physical condition. Indeed.CAUSE OF REFLECTION AT A JUNCTION tion in area. sider the reflection of a plane wave incident normally on a rigid In Section 5.8. familiar with the reflection or rebounding of a tennis ball striking a wall. Here we are not dealing with an object. he is not familiar with the details of even this simple phenomenon with the tennis ball. The which is rigid. in the incident will wave.

P is that there is but one value of pres- then. for this was eliminated by assuming an infinite tube. and also a spherical one. but one wave entering and passing must retain its pressure amplitude un- For the wave at the right of P is similar to the incident wave at the left of P except that it has a larger wave front. Hence.74 tion at the PHASE CHANGE AT REFLECTION moment is that the reflection occurs because the con- ditions there require an equal reflected wave. * in the present case. varies with the square of the amplitude of the excess pressure. If. And it is not possible to assume a third additional wave on the right of the junction. It was stated in the previous section that one of from the left conduit infinite in length so there is the conditions fulfilled at sure. the assumption of but one wave is incorrect and some way must be found to meet the condition of one pressure value at the point P. But this cannot occur. in a plane wave. 5. With this explanation perhaps the reason for the reflection of a wave at the point P in the conduit shown in Fig. That would be a violation of a general principle called the "conservation of energy. Let it also be assumed for the purposes of trial that there is only the one wave present. It can be shown that the flow of energy per cm. per sec." Clearly crease in area. there is through the junction. . But two waves in opposite directions on each side of its boundary complete the possible assumptions even without the assumption of an infinite tube on the right. travelling to the left.2 may be understood. Assume the no return wave. As another trial assume that there is a reflected wave travelling to the left from the junction. the only additional wave possible to sq. The wave at the right of P must therefore contain not only as much energy * as the wave approaching from the left but also an additional amount corresponding to the in- But the mere presence of a change of area could not increase the flow of energy. It is well to notice that one cannot assume a second additional wave travelling to the right of P for there would then be two waves travelling in the same direction and these will be united becoming one wave. Let us first assume that there is one wave entering and one passing out toward the right. it changed.

The reflected wave at P must then reduce the pressure at the opening. when one plays the flute and when the wind howls about the corner. and this pressure may be reflected thought of as the source of the wave to the right. as shown Section 5. Assume this reflected in Then. an Open End of a Pipe.3 not cause the entire region outside at the end of the pipe to experience as great changes in pressure as occurred in the wave within the tube. 5. 5. Since they are not of equal amplitudes there is a residue of pressure amplitude. The fact that the wave has its origin without the vibration of a body need not disturb the student if he realizes that that is also the case when one whistles. Consider the At the point P we have the condition that the conduit opens out into the unconfined air where the pressure is normal.3.9. wave to occur and with change in phase. or it must furnish condensation for the rarefaction of the incident wave. Space has been devoted solid to this discussion in order that the student essential difference may appreciate the between reflections in acoustics and reflections of a ball striking a wall. The assumed wave can meet the condition of pressure at the junction. Reflection at end of a pipe as in Fig. 75 P The problem is to determine if this assumed wave can meet the condition of pressure at the junction. Another way of visualizing . as we have previously seen.REFLECTION AT AN OPEN END OF A PIPE assume is a wave beginning at the area containing the point and passing to the left. the pressures in the incident and reflected waves are opposite in sign. Obviously a wave passing to the right can- FIG.3. 5. excitation of the reflected The wave and the fulfillment of the condition of pressure are two aspects of the same phenomenon. This is reflection with change in phase.

A statement should be added to the effect that the theoretical investigation of the percentage dissipated assumes the open end of the tube to have a plane infinite flange. case. tried at the open end. the amount dissipated is approximately 3 per If R is i . the reflected wave increases the displacement and reduces the pressure amplitude. trumpet. . then the per- centage of the wave travelling toward the open end dissipated into the open air is computed by the fraction. 5. X2 Thus cent. A reflection from a wall is to be expected. But. Although this is not in accord with Fig. trombone and flute all depend upon the reflection of sound from This reflection builds up the intensity on the interior of these instruments and helps to make possible what is an open end.3 yet it is an approximation to the simple tube.76 PHASE CHANGE AT REFLECTION any point within the tube. The pressure ahead is thereby If this experiment is this result is as follows: at short length of the air increased and resists the motion. There is considerable interest in the amount of reflection at the open end of a tube and this has been theoretically determined. the action in such wind instruments as the cornet. the dissipation is approximately 19 per cent." Such a reflection is common in experience. the displaced air spreads readily out into the atmosThe open end acts like the free end of a helix. displace a column. If R is the radius of the tube and if the ratio of R to the wave-length X is small. so here. but that from an open seems at first end is not so easy to anticipate. as will be shown in later pages. but experimental data are lacking. One inherent difficulty in understanding why a reflection takes place at an open end of a pipe is that such a phenomenon thought not to be in accord with experience. As in that phere. R if is i . later described as "resonance. It is reflection with change in phase.

5. if but little sound leaves the tube." 0'. The minimum The reflected occurs angle of incidence at which total reflection not shown in Fig. It is re- an Interface. total reflection is ensues. If now be 0' is 90. 5. As explained if now one increases 0. . It is likewise a poor receiver. flaring why 5. a tube with a small opening does not supply a good means of egress of the sounds. increases even more rapidly until finally the refracted FIG. states that when a source of sound is sity at a given outside point has the placed in a tube with an open end P. This relation. the intensame value as would be observed were the positions of source and point of observation interchanged. but little would enter were the source on the exterior.TOTAL REFLECTION AT AN INTERFACE 77 In Section 4.1 1.* in Section 4. end of a pipe the reflection occurs just as from a flection without change of phase. 54. 4." the "angle of refraction. the "angle of incidence. which not drawn. the direction therein having a greater velocity v'. These considerations explain by the receptive qualities of a tube need to be improved the open end. 5. In fact.e. and * we have only wave is the reflected wave. still increased further. when applied to the case above.4 wave i. Reflection at a Closed End of a Pipe.. a as in Fig. of the wave is changed and a sound the angle measured between the perpendicular to the surface Assume that we have a second medium and and the direction of the to wave changes from larger angle 0'.4. there is no refracted wave. That is.9 a certain reciprocal relation was mentioned. just skims the surface. Total Reflection at At the closed wall.10.2. wave of velocity v passing into As in Fig.1.

In the light of the present chapter. in passing from air into In the case of a column of hot water. the angle 6 is large. this is a method used in preventing the sound passing through a large ventilating flue. Thus. If a conduit has a rigid 5.78 is PHASE CHANGE AT REFLECTION called the "critical angle. assuming a constant sound source? 2. the observer may think the sound is coming directly from the source and fail to recognize the fact of total reflection. and if these conditions constant.15. QUESTIONS 1. This phenomenon of total reflection can be reproduced in the laboratory and may often occur in experience. air such as that described in Sec- tion 5. non-absorbent wall obviously the wave passes along it without being scattered. sound wave the smaller the angle 0. The wave front will remain plane as the wave But it must not be thought that the wall of the tube plays no part in this transmission. Suppose it were made of felt. producing absorption. is approximately 60.4. with the velocities having a ratio of 1. what sharp variations in temperature. In a previous chapter was presented the phenomenon of absorption in the walls of a room. Absorption along a Conduit. or if there are someare not at any given point. It should be observed that the refracted wave the reflected may cease to exist. if Again. its presence or absence is not noted and the phenomenon of total reflection is not appreciated as such. but that wave is always present. Many reports have been made of apparent total reflection caused by unusual meteorological conditions.5. Then the wave of pressure travelling along the tube would cause motion of the air in the felt." It is clear that the greater the difference in velocities of the at which total reflection begins. . But if the refracted wave has a very small intensity as in the transmission from air to water. this angle has been computed to be approximately 13. Indeed. what effect would be had on the sound intensity If there are air currents in an auditorium. travels along the tube.12. It is observed that although the wave may be said to travel along the tube there is nevertheless a divergence into the walls and a marked absorption.

) . What is the one condition depending on the physical property of the incident medium that determines the possibility of total reflection at an interface? 6. that relating to Fig.QUESTIONS assuming the velocity of sound in the air. When the phrase "with change of phase" has been used in the text. (4.1) or that relating to Fig. (5. if the velocity were that in in a In discussing the effect of change of area etc. pressure. the reflection occurs with or without change of phase of displacements? 9. "That the effect of interference just described is more pronounced at a given short distance of the source from the surface than would be the case air. what is the relation between the displacements? Justify the answer. Which discussion is more general." 4. to what does it usually refer.4) ? Explain. 8. conduit the state- ment was made that "there would be destructive them." interference among Show why this interference occurs. Justify the statement. Can one hear a distant sound better if he listens at the surface of an "infinite" wall. When like waves are travelling in opposite directions and their pressures at a point are always equal. in the walls to 79 be much greater than what additional phenomenon would you note as occurring at the walls in a room ? 3. velocity or displacement? 10. 7. At a rigid boundary. and why? (Assume that the ear detects pressure and not displacement. 5.

refers to the excitation of a vibration in a body by a wave from another sound source.1. two not When the resonator or the resonataltogether different results. The term reso- nance. Or resonance may ac- tually succeed in causing a source of sound such as a vibrating reed> a vibrating string. or the vibrating vocal chords to emit more sound energy than would be the case in the absence of reso80 .CHAPTER VI RESONANCE 6. General Phenomenon of Resonance. In such a case there a difference in the intensity of sound given ofT body present. when used in a broad sense. ing body is at a distance from the original source such that the vibration of the latter can to no appreciable extent be affected . in general. It may succeed in storing up energy over a period of time and thus make the final effect more powerful. for is example. There is an impression that the phe- of resonance provides a method of multiplying or the flow of energy after it has become sound energy. But there are cases to be discussed later where the resonator affects the source.by the sound wave from the former. For example. sounds from the vocal chords. nomenon amBut Resonance accomplishes. This is true of a Helmholtz resonator described in Section 6.6. the air in an empty globuis may be made to speak loudly if its critical tone sounded in the same room. The phenomenon appears most striking when the frequency of initial wave equals the frequency of the natural vibration of body caused lar vessel the the to vibrate. plifying this is incorrect. then the total emission of sound from the original source is constant. In this instance the resonator does not increase the flow of sound energy or the flow of energy at the resonator. the flow of energy which is by the source when the resonating Hence one can say that resonance may increase is becoming available as sound but it never can multiply the flow of sound energy already present.

If two plane waves of the same amplitudes and frequencies are sent over the same path.2.PLANE STATIONARY WAVES nance.1.e. the motion of the hand is small in comparison with the motion of the spring. The waves sent out will be y reflected from and. the may be as in Fig. Plane Stationary Waves. they are other. What occurs is not easy to visualize for the waves are moving in opposite directions. If this text could remain stationary. nance" be used with sufficient freedom. i. (2) or (3) will be secured. As will be seen. If now a more rapid and yet appro- A is tried. the be a combination of the two A waves.. may 6. 81 In both cases the casual observer would claim that the amount of sound energy was increased. its meaning should be considered to embrace mechanical vibrations of all kinds. In (i) the spring vibrates between the position used at AaO and AbO. "stationary waves/' described in all elementary texts in acoustics. a long helical spring of small diameter at 0. the resultant effect cannot be either of those just specified. There is a phenomenon. in opposite phases they will completely annul one an- If. By resulting motion is properly adjusting the frequency of motion at A. One can understand the If one fastens horizontally result most quickly by an analogy. if the vibration at will resulting motion of the spring is maintained. . A and will remain at the spring will priate transverse vibration of and yet such that the other points along have motion. send a series of transverse waves from A to 0. and if in the same phase they will give a wave of twice the amplitude of either. resonance is not only of great practical imporIn order that the term "resotance but also of intrinsic interest. tions over the however. by moving the hand up and down. The A is reason an exact frequency must be that one must produce an interference such that rest. The point in the figure A represented at rest because when this exact frequency is secured. they will combine. 6. The reader is reminded that no "wave" in the sense first used in That the use of the word "stationary" is nevertheless appropriate will now be shown. the waves are travelling in opposite direcsame path. and grasps it at the end A he can.

1. 6.82 RESONANCE vibration is The appearance of the similar to that in (i). 6. The graphical left method must of shown necessity give the same resultant at succeeding instants as occurs with the spring in the actual experiment or as in Fig. method is essentially like the In the uppermost drawing in Fig. 1. Now the resultant variations as shown in Fig. It has just been stated that Fig.9 would by a graphical method . 6. 6. Consider what would need to be taken to determine the resultant of two steps longitudinal waves of equal amplitude and frequency travelling in opposite directions.1 could have been ob- tained graphically instead of by experiment. and then adding the displacements represented by the two graphs at different instants.1. First. 6. The dotted curves represent the positions of the spring at selected other intermediate instants.1 could have been obtained as well as by experiment. for the graphical itself. save that instead of one segment we have two and three respectively. The graphical method would have been x '9> causing one to superimpose two such drawings as in to move to the right and the other to the (1) Fio. the experiment curve a and the curve b of course represent the extreme positions of the spring which will occur at times differing by half of that required for a complete vibration.1 with the same speed. two curves similar to Fig.

c and These points of no motion are rarefactions. Another interesting fact should not escape attention. or d to O condensation. in air. and vice versa. Hence one will obtain similar final curves. But the preceding paragraph states that two such curves treated in that manner will give Fig. Fig. or c to d. This midpoint is called a in the these points "loop. 6. It will then be assumed that the above three figures. The distance from A to c .1 may thus be taken to represent longitudinal waves as well as transverse waves. zero displacement. 6. The medium is "staapproximately But consider the direction of the distionary.1. . Hence the medium at The same is true of A c and d experiences changes in pressure. The resulting curve for any instant would directions indicate the resultant longitudinal displacement at every point. now possible to discuss what is called a "stationary" sound wave there is y c y d and 0. the adjacent particles have virtually the same displacements and hence there is no change in condensation or pressure. is one-half wave-length. in but in one case having in mind transverse waves and the other longitudinal waves. At the midpoint between A and c the meare called "nodes. It is evident that at points A placements neighborhood ofc and d. (2) and (3).PLANE STATIONARY WAVES 83 be prepared. (i)." It has just been stated that when A is a d is also. In a stationary in one segment such as Ac is everywhere the same the displacements of the particles in this segment differing only in amplitude. may in each case represent two longitudinal waves of like fre- quency It is travelling in opposite directions." at those points. In an ordinary progressive sound wave at any instant the phase from point to point along the wave. Then these curves would be displaced in opposite and at each selected instant the two displacements everywhere added." dium has the greatest displacement. But the phase in one segment is at the same indiffers wave the phase stant opposite to the phase in the adjacent segment. and O. the vertical distances being proportional to horizontal displacements. the vertical distances now representing longitudinal displacements. When A and d in (3) are points of condensation. They are first toward and then away from them. At a loop.

/?j and its reflection at if the latter were equal to the former. We now realize that if it is one end for possible to have a stationary wave in a pipe closed at and open at the other.. we condition of two like waves travelling in opposite direction or the condition for stationary waves. waves Consider a cylindrical pipe AB> Fig. but goes out into space. would. or at one-fourth. So far we have assumed no reflection at A. five-fourths. there being no displacement but variation of pressure only. If we assume that this reflected wave B B FIG. The reflection at B will be without change of phase. B is therefore at a displacement node.2. and assume that plane waves 00' from a distant source of sound enter this pipe and are reflected at B. reflection with or without change of phase. as shown in Section 5. and between them. Stationary RESONANCE Waves in a Cylindrical Pipe Closed at One In the previous chapter it was shown that one can obtain End. will appear a loop. etc. Furthermore. form a station#2.3. The reflection at of a A wave travelling to the right. 6.2 to will A does not suffer a have in AB the reflection at //. three-fourths. which will not only pernit but exist. here called /?i. wavelengths. is with a change of called phase. in the distance from B to A there will be a node at each one-half wave-length.9. there may be a certain position A y encourage the stationary wave to the open end of the pipe.84 6. A . In the case of perincidence upon a wall where the reflected wave passes pendicular in a direction opposite to the incident wave. 6. and where the amplitudes of the two waves are equal the conditions for stationary exist.

for a portion of the wave from B does not pipe but trapped by energy within the pipe is reflection at A . Since the reflection at B is without change of phase. Thus all three waves at the point would have the necessary phase rela- A tions to The only other condition to be met for a stationary wave is that the combined amplitude of This /?2 and the incoming wave would equal the amplitude of R\. without any change in energy this is in the tube. or the energy of R\ less that of /? 2 > is equal to the energy flowing into the tube. The stationary state will not be attained at that once. but rather stored over a period of time. . of phase. It is to be observed that the agreement of the reflected wave at with the incoming wave indicates that A we are using the frequency which may be called a "natural" fre- . Then from an odd number of quarter wave-lengths. In fact they both conspire to this end. then from to B and A to B is A back be equivalent to a path of twice this length and the wave R\ when incident at would be an odd number of half to A would A an odd number of quarter wave-lengths) wave-lengths ahead of the incoming wave at A That is. Hence cutting off the pipe at the correct point for a we have a source and A Assume possible stationary wave. equal to the difference between the corresponding values of R\ and /?2 But this means that the flow of energy from the tube. get out of the Consequently the acoustic will increase with time until the rate the energy is dissipated is just equal to the rate of influx. of course a possible condition. it is out of phase with the incident wave.WAVES IN PIPE CLOSED AT ONE END 85 ary wave with a loop at A. By this process the region has been made much energy per unit volume within the pipe greater than if the pipe were absent. . 6. cause a wave from it to enter a cylindrical tube of the length above described. This suggests that we consider the idealized pipe in Fig. requires an entering wave that has a flow of energy precisely form a displacement loop. at one of the original loops places With a steady source. would be in phase with the incoming wave. But this energy has not been created by the pipe.2 cut off so that A will be at a displacement loop. This is clearly the condition for steady operation. Then R 2 because the reflection is with change (or twice .

is sus- pended by a spring. Fig. 6. equal to the natural frequency of the vibrating body. Then the vertical oscillation becomes evident. as the angular velocity decreases. the longer the time. is In any case of resonance the greatest effect obtained when the frequency of the stimulus is approximately 6.3 combined spring and suspended weight is approached. The building up effect can be illustrated by varying the drical jar in air which the volume of length of time the fork remains at the opening of the resonator. If the disc is "offcenter. the greater the intensity. accompanying D.3. Then the oscillation . The then released. but these do not succeed in giving the spring a marked oscillation until.4." or if there is added to the disc along a radius a small weight W> then in each revolution of the disc there will be an impulse given the spring both upward and downward. But we may also get an increased effect if the natural frequency is not so nearly matched. the disc given a spin. At each revolution the disc gives the spring the impulses already mentioned. so that its frequency is the same as that of the fork. increasing until it is very vigorous at the agreement of the frequency of rotation. For short intervals. the natural one. Resonance. as was stated at the beginning of this chapter. It is the frequency with which the interior would oscillate after the volume of air is given a sudden blow. The phenomenon whereby we build up the intensity by using the natural frequency is called "resonance. 6. A disc. The apparatus shown in the drawing.86 RESONANCE quency of the pipe. With its axis is held stationary. the simplest ways of showing such a case of resonance (see Fig. 6. will illustrate this point." though the term is not limited to such a case. the natural period of oscillation of the FIG. formed axis is in the following The experiment is permanner.4) by placing a vibrating tuning fork over a cylin- One of is has been adjusted by the water content.

that resonance does not create energy but may make possible a greater emission from the source. the emission of energy from the cylinder must be identical with the energy flowing into it from the fork. assuming no dissipation within. This illustrates an important fact not usually understood. 6.5. It velocity. the emission of sound is made less by the presence of the resonator near the source. 6. In such an event. may be remarked that cases may arise in acoustics where the phase relationship is unfavorable rather than favorable. effect is This shows that while the maximum obtained at a certain rotational frequency. Emission of Sound Increased by Resonance. If an is performed with a tube and a vibrating cylindrical experiment tuning fork as in Fig. This increase in output can be explained by the phase relationship of the velocity and pressure at the source. the phenomenon of resonance is apparent at adjacent frequencies also.4. But since the cylin- der cannot give out more or less energy than it receives. FIG. has for its maximum natural frequency that of the fork. Obviously the upon experiment.SOUND INCREASED BY RESONANCE decreases to a small value. Hence we must conclude that when placed above the resonating cylinder the fork emits energy at a greater rate than when alone. there occurs the emission of sound from the two. it is found that when the air column 6.4 An analogous case is setting a swing into vibration by pushing when at the midpoint of the arc or at the maximum The push and the velocity are in the same phase. . preceding experiment a fork has been caused to emit energy at a higher rate is based not only upon theory but in the That also The literature records experiments by wherein a fork sounded about 90 seconds without a resoKoenig nator and 10 seconds in the presence of one. namely.

that the motion inside is The volume thus acts like a cushion or a spring. Resonance in a Volume Having an Orifice. In fact.5 causing a compression (or rarefaction) throughout the interior. the motion is relatively violent and the mechanical forces arise not from condensation or rarefaction but from the rapid acceleration or rate of change of velocity of the mass of gas in the channel. k is the so-called "constant" is the frequency and T is the period. The phenomenon of a cylindrical pipe.5 (b). In short. 6. 6. An illustration will be made of a volume containing an orifice as in Fig. should not expect the same relative change in ments. the theory becomes very difficult. 6. .88 RESONANCE change that occurs depends upon the internal losses of energy in Thus one the fork and upon the dimensions of the resonator." If called a this its "Helmholtz resonvolume is set into vibration in maximum natural frequency. the particle velocity (see Sec- tion 1. n the mass of the weight. 6. all similar experi- of causing a vibrating source to give off energy more rapidly because of the presence'of resonance is shown in practically all musical instruments including the vocal chords. instead we have a changing cross section. the predominant physical factor in the V region is elasticity and in the region. In the chan- nel at the orifice. Such a volume and orifice is commonly ator. In mechanics that the frequency of vibration of such a spring is it is ' shown where m is or stiffness of the spring.5. intrtia.6. If. We can therefore make this resonator analogous to a spring and a weight as shown in Fig.12) will occur at 0. V is so large slight. the displacement at the orifice FIG. however. the method then utilized is only an approximation.

c is called the "conductivity" is the volume of the chamber. This is a more general value of the "c" which may be used in the formula for the frequency of a Helmholtz resonator. in order to have 200 as a natural frequency. 2 Its length would Fig. it is readily shown by the above formula that the height of this cylinder need be only 36 cm. All distances V measured in cms.9. The formula for conductivity of such a neck is as follows: where R is the radius and L the length of the neck. It is discussed in Section 6. the case of a cylinder closed at one end (as in formula.5 cm. the value of c is two times the radius. 6. The above example illustrates the possibility of securing low natural frequencies but with relatively small volumes of air. If the orifice a circular hole in a thin To illustrate the wall.4) of necessity be one-fourth that of the wave-length of 200 cycles or J (33200 -r. is If instead of a simple orifice for this Helmholtz resonator there provided a neck 2 cm. 6. Fig. . If a similar cylinder. This is the necessary height * of the cylinder resonating with a frequency of 200. having a top closed. compare and having a natural fundamental frequency of 200 with that of a Helmholtz resonator. long and 0. Let the cycles. excepting a circular orifice 0. and found to be n== wherein a r = ^W> is a [c is of the orifice and are the velocity of sound.5 cm. cross sectional area of the cylinder be 10 cm.5 cm. is used as a resonator.9 cm.200). An A illustration occurs also in the resonance of the human voice. in diameter.5. * this There is an "end correction" for every open pipe which is not considered in example. or 41. the natural frequency of 200 cycles will be obtained with a length of cylinder of only 4. in diameter.RESONANCE IN A VOLUME In acoustics an analogous equation as follows: i 89 is is derived.

The lowest frequency must have but one displacement node on the interior of the pipe. frequency one having a wave-length iL for a wave-length is the distance between alternate nodes or alternate loops. pharynx.7. and conseis quently the shape of the cavities a factor. shown that stationary waves may exist in a pipe and that there is a displacement loop at the open end and a displacement node at the closed end. The skill acquired by the individual in varying the resonance properties of the mouth. RESONANCE man would require a 10 foot open organ Resonance of the Voice. The preceding formula assumes that the resonating cavity and the orifice are well defined. The stationary waves formed in such a pipe must have a displacement loop at each end. Thus it is simple to show that the lowest resonating or natural 6. and the next -. pharynx.. In the case of the voice. To what extent the sphenoid sinuses and the right is and left antrums is is may enter into the resonance of the voice not known but vocal chords therefore its presumably small. four. etc. nodes. %j 2 . 6. mouth and nasal passages. This is the method used in producing different vowel sounds. the resonance cavities are found in the larynx. The successive higher frequencies must have two. So long as this is true the shape of the volume is not of any significance* But in the mouth and pharynx cavities the volumes and orifices are less clearly differentiated. Assume a pipe of length L open at both ends.90 deep bass note sung by a pipe to produce. The phrase "throwing the voice" can scarcely refer to anything other than the control of quality in the positions of the by modifying the resonance through changes tongue and palate.8. The trachea below the not in a position to emit sound successfully and is resonance not of serious moment except as it may influence the emission of energy from the source. In Section 6.3. nasal passages and larynx by variations in the two first named is indeed remarkable. it was Resonance in Cylindrical Pipes. three. The is y next highest frequency has a wave-length of L.

in terms of the fundamental. PIPE 91 frequencies as multiples of the lowest or funThus the natural frequencies of an i.66 times the radius of the opening and that the value is independent of the frequency. Philosophical Magazine 10. 1930. natural frequencies of the j pipe are thus.9. whereas the displacements in the graph are perpendicular thereto. The relationship be- tween the length of a pipe and the wave-length of a resonating The frequency as stated in the foregoing section is not exactly correct. 6.1 (3). at the opening. To the actual length of the pipe represented by L in Section 6.END CORRECTION OF AN OPEN The corresponding damental are quency.6. etc.3. The displacements are in the direction of the axis of the pipe.66 times the radius of the opening. 3. The natural frequencies contain only odd integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. E. One of the latest determinations of the correct value for the additional length is that of Bate. that the wave at this point cannot There is an additional equivalent length which is definitely related to the "conductivity" mentioned in Section 6.* He states that the correction for the open end of an open-organ flue-pipe 0. open pipe contain all integral multiples of the fundamental frecase of a pipe closed at one end is somewhat different. . the lowest frequency has a wave-length of 4^. in an acoustical sense. Z. one must bear in mind that such graphs do not pictorially represent the longitudinal stationary waves in the pipe. End Correction of an Open Pipe. 5.. 65. 1. * A. The reason is at once spread out into space.. 4. at least over the octave used in the is experiments. Bate. 6. is a node at the closed end and a loop at the other. pipe cannot be considered as ending. or Consequently The Here there four times the length of the pipe.6 must be added a length equal to 0. The The higher frequencies have wave-lengths of *j L. / etc. The difference in natural frequencies between an open pipe and a pipe closed at one end is of importance in wind instruments. etc. Z. 917. 7. In the construction of the nodes and loops as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. p. and that the intensity at the successive natIn point of ural frequencies. When the mega- phone is used as a receiver. the source of varying frequency being held near one end. 6. in the The frequencies are indicated as being I. "/. X/. 6. Oct.92 6. The conical horn has a very different effect. The latter will first be described. or 4 times the fun- damental frequency. XVI. 4. PAyjfVo/ Review. The vertical height graph indicates the intensity in the pipe. assuming the source of varying frequency always to produce the same quantitative changes in condensation and rarefaction at the opening. closed at one end. its resonating frequencies are not like a cylindrical pipe. RESONANCE Resonance in Conical Megaphones. but. 3. The fundamental of the conical horn is therefore twice the fundamental of a cylin- The resonance drical pipe of the same length closed at one end. in between each resonance frequency. decreases very rapidly.6 shows the effect IX-f 2Af FIG. strangely enough. Stewart. 313. .10. the intensities decrease much more rapidly than is here shown.7 is a similar experimental graph * by Stewart * for a conical horn. of a cylindrical of a conical horn differs very much from that pipe. 2. 6. but more exactly to no amplification. they are the frequencies that would be obtained in a cylindrical pipe having the same length but open at both ends. 3. Fig.6 3Xf of resonance in a cylindrical pipe open at both ends." It is to be observed that the intensity is reduced practically to zero. 1920. fact.

7. The conical horn is successful as a transmitter because of these two facts and because of the nature of its amplification as shown in Fig. the intensity does not become small at intermediate frequencies. . 6. but one can show by theory that the two curves would be alike. frequency constant. Sig- This is will the secret of the fact that a conical horn acting as a receiver amplify the emission of sound energy any frequency that is high compared with its fundamental. the minima increase with increasing frequencies.) These figures show a striking difference between resonance in a pipe open at both ends and a conical tube With the latter. Moreover.RESONANCE IN CONICAL MEGAPHONES 93 (Actually. the area of the large opening is a wave front and consequently the horn can direct the sound or partially concentrate it in a favored direction.9. in the construction of This is an important consideration trumpet receivers and reproducers. the experiments were performed with changing lengths. In considering the action of the conical horn as a transmitter. does not decrease rapidly with increasing frequencies but the maximum values are approximately equal. one should recall that a resonator can increase the emission of energy from a given source. nificantly. Thus a long conical horn will amplify all the tones existing in almost any sound and will therefore give a fairly faithful reproduction of the quality or timbre of the original sound. Moreover. as indicated in Section 3. the intensity at resonance closed at the vertex.

in a conical horn closed half wave-length apart. explained by an incorrect inference from the preceding The displacement nodes and loops were formed by two plane waves of equal frequency and amplitude travelling in opposite directions. but none are as marked as those occurring in the conical horn. be made in Chapter XV of the use of horns in loud Waves in General. The phonograph or loud speaker horn is not conical but may be considered as made up of fulcra of horns of different angles and lengths.94 RESONANCE In connection with the above. A very common shape is that of the exponential horn. Of course if the frequency becomes as is very high the sound can be reflected somewhat light.1 1.7. If one to the ear and listens to a sound having a fremegaphone quency half-way between the intensity is " i practically and "o. Here the diameter increases rapidly forming a flare. 6. 6. and. it should be emphasized that the megaphone does not ordinarily serve as a concentrator of sound but as a resonator. Hence it will have many resonating frequencies. Megaphones not Conical. the distance between this node and loop should be one-quarter of a wave-length. the fundamental vibration has a node at the closed end and a loop at the open end. but sounds usually encountered should not be considered as capable of concentration by a conical horn. No general statement can be made concerning the distance between a node . The fallacy in the concenholds a tration idea can be observed experimentally as follows. The apparent contradiction is discussion of stationary waves.12." Fig. according to the discussion of stationary waves in this chapter. will The harmonics can be computed. Other more complicated cases of nodes and loops will be later discussed. Stationary at one end. Mention speakers. It must not be supthat in all stationary waves the adjacent nodes are oneposed For example. he will find that the same with or without the mega- " phone. 6. Yet it has just been stated that the horn length is one-half of the wavelength of the fundamental frequency.

and the rate of emitted energy of each of these frequencies by the source. may be made in the explanation of the effect with any stringed instrument.. 95 For such plane waves the distance between a displacement node and loop is one quarter of a wave-length. 5 times that of the fundamental. is In stringed in- struments the effort made On to the atmosphere. 3. 6. a more complete presenta- Chapter XV. etc. The resonating frequencies are i. the tone is produced through resonance. the bridge which sets the to get the energy from the strings the violin this is done by the rocking of body of the violin in motion. 2. the oboe and the bassoon are conical tubes closed at the vertex by a reed. ciples. A difference in resonating frequencies and in the sources of the sound will merely be illustrated here. There may be found reso- nance frequencies in any small room or recess. 6. On the other hand. 5.13. The function of the sounding board on the piano is similar to the body of the The application of the two prinviolin as has been described. tion being reserved for cies are therefore. 4. The clarinet is a pipe Its resonating frequenpractically closed at one end by a reed. In wind instruments. Moreover. the air chamber within has a multitude of natural frequencies which in turn increase the emission of sound.14. The quality of sound produced when a wind instrument voices fre- any given fundamental depends upon the possible resonating quencies. Thus the surface exposed to the air is increased. the presence of these in the source of sound.RESONANCE IN BUILDINGS and a loop. Resonance in Buildings. Resonance in Musical Instruments. 3. This is not the case in a conical horn for there the waves are spherical. This phenomenon of increase of emission by resonance has already been discussed. The organ builder his is well aware of this difficulty and adjusts the intensity of . times that of the fundamental. i. (i) of increasing the area exposed and (2) of utilizing resonance. A consideration of the possibility of reso- nance in the solid body of the violin or of the sounding board is omitted at this point but will be subsequently mentioned.

What 10. Describe the conditions existing at one-fourth of a complete vibration later than in the preceding question. long.7. and why? 7. Why does it require time to build up the energy in a pipe closed at one end ? 12. what would you anticipate concerning the effectiveness of a hearing trumpet 30 cm. 9. Would it be possible for a man to play such instrument that a large steel bridge would be set into vibration and finally collapse? Construct the graphs verifying the resonance wave-lengths of cylindrical pipes as given in Section 6. The theory of resonators herein given does not discuss the nature of the material of the walls. and that if the length of the neck 14.4 what limits the intenIf the chamber were lined with absorbing sity of sound produced? material would the same intensity be produced? a note on a musical 15. What What What is is "stationary" in a so-called stationary wave? peculiar about "phase" in a segment of a stationary wave ? 5. Why? .1 what are the relative quencies? Give a broad meaning of resonance. are three conditions necessary for a stationary wave such fre- as discussed in this chapter? 6. In the experiment illustrated in Fig. In the three examples in Fig. the points of condensation and rarefaction. Compare the physical action with the graphs. Why is it possible to build up energy in a pipe open at both ends? 13. Show that in the resonator. 3. 8. Under what condition is the omission justified? 11. 2. From the discussion concerning conical horns. the frequency is increased. to 17. is increased. are the two possible fundamental accomplishments of resonance? Give illustrations of each. the frequency is decreased. 6. 6. If one fills his Jungs with hydrogen gas and then attempts speak in the usual way. Draw a curve representing a stationary wave at the time of maximum displacement.5 (a). 1 6.96 RESONANCE pipes to produce the correct proportion of intensity for the organ in its final position. 6. if the radius of the orifice is increased. a marked effect is produced on the voice. 4. QUESTIONS 1. Indicate the direction of the displacement. Fig.

The string may be rubbed by a sponge saturated with turpentine. in general. not the purpose to enter here into either a physiological or a psychological discussion of the requirements for a tone that is "musical/* It is a fact. illustrated which in general give tones 1:2:3:4:5. means bent Suppose a stretched wire. f to cause a given condensation and the density or mass necessary per unit volume of the material.000 meters per second. It is VII MUSICAL SOUNDS 7. will give a very high tone. This dependence has been discussed in Chapter I. is by some The tension in the form shown and then released. fastened at 0. another type o f vibration also. From a knowledge of the wave-length and the velocity. etc. if rubbed so as to excite longitudinal vibrations. It is true that longitutransverse vibrations. concerned with dinal vibrations can be set The up in a string or in any solid.1. ( 97 . that ratio is we demand for the most pleasing consonance a simple between the frequencies of a complex musical sound.2. This by the development of our musical instruments having the ratios of frequencies. 7. A piano string. In all string instruments the transverse and not the longitudinal vibrations are utilized. In a string we are usually Vibration of a String. in the wire will cause a return to its original position. The string is one-half wave-length long. Fig. fThe transmission of waves in solids involves.CHAPTER Musical Tones. the frequency can be computed. 7. however.1.* The longitudinal vibrations are displacements along the direction of wave- propagation and consequently possess condensations and rareThe velocity of such waves depends upon the force factions. In the case of a steel wire the velocity is about 5. But it can be shown mathematically that the wire can retain the form * in the The longitudinal vibration of a string is actually used in laboratory tests where a tone of high frequency is desired.

7. respectively. If a transverse it will waves is fulfilled for there will then be two waves of equal ampli- tudes and frequency travelling in opposite directions.1 wave of displacement travels along the wire. but this is one-half of the Wave-length in the wire. FIG.2 of vibration. The Successively higher frequencies that are possible have two. of the case one might expect the velocity in a perfectly flexible wire to depend only upon the tension of T. . That this is the case is stated in equation (7.2 FIG. 7. nodes will occur there. and the mass of the wire per unit length.1 without any constraint whatever the wire is moved to the left or right with a certain velocity v. three. The distance between two adjacent nodes is one-half wave-length. The length of the wave in etc. 7.. a wave of this transverse displacement described From the very nature will travel along the wire with a velocity v. additional nodes.1). 7. In other words. 7.3.98 MUSICAL SOUNDS same if position given in Fig. is what is called the fundamental or the lowest frequency Fig. Since the In wire is fixed in position at the ends. the wire is vibration of next higher frequency with which capable of has one additional node as in Fig. be reflected at a fastened end and return in the opposite The condition of stationary direction with the same velocity. the wire is obtained in the same manner as is the wave-length in the stationary waves described in the Chapter VI.

7.3." is Any one of these various frequencies easily brought out by producing a corresponding node after the string has been bowed or plucked. If length. for the L is is equal to one-half of the wave-length. then. m in grams per unit fundamental.3 It can be shown that the velocity of the transverse wave in is the wire IT . FIG. (7-0 where T is the tension and m is the mass per unit length.. 7. the fre- quency. by wave-length (see equation 1.2 and 7. . may second. Measurement of Relative Intensities of Fundamental and Overtones. since frequency velocity divided .4). X. "overtones. etc. The lowest of these frequencies is called the "fundamental" and the others. The nature of the aerial wave given off by a 7-3* The weight of one gram is a force of about 980 dynes. respectively the first. . may be expressed as follows: This is the formula for the computation of the frequency of the fundamental of the string of any instrument.FUNDAMENTAL AND OVERTONES A string 99 vibrate simultaneously with the frequencies shown in Figs. * In computations T is expressed in dynes and Let L be the length of the wire.

It is a curious fact in audition Av V A \ AV \ A \ \J \J V \J \J / N N N / f that P more prominent to the ear than is the same intensity of any overtone. This curve can subsequently be studied by an expert and the nature of the component vibrations obtained. The character of the sound from an organ pipe is shown in Figs.5 to 7. est amplitude.ioo string is MUSICAL SOUNDS of interest. and subsequently to aerial vibrations. is the fundamental The former shows * the resultant vibration produced by an organ Taken from Miller's "The Science of Musical Sounds. 7. But the diaphragm. There are three component mechanically produced vibrations having relative frequencies of i. 7. will distort the relative values of the amplitudes of the components in the sound wave and.4 shows such a tracing on the top line and below the analysis of it.5 and 7. Fig. such as the air. Fio. by no means smoked paper. " what is called the "pitch of a musical sound. From mechanical considerations it is real- ized that the vibrations of the string are body of the instrument. 7. 2. a curve will be obtained. which was used in the present true. because of its own resonance characteristics. but this is not always of the violin. obtaining falls upon a and the motion of the diaphragm be recorded on a diaphragm the relative intensities of the components.6. unless a correction can be made for such errors.4 and 37 In this particular the fundamental has the greatcase.12.*' Macmillan. the relative amplitudes of the sound waves cannot be * obtained. as are also Figs. . 7. either in the case Yet the fundamental determines case or of other instruments. This is If the sound is no direct method. A problem is to measure the easy for there communicated to the the violin. 1916.

curves as in Fig.5. Sounds from Various InstruIn Figs.7 to 7. Instrumental indicates that the overtones. tical lines indicate The ver- Fio.12 are pre- ments.4. Hence. are compositely very prominent in a musical tone. This 7. shows the relative intensities in the sound from . 7. Relative sound intensities are always proportional to the square of the product of the frequency and the displacement amplitude. That is.6 Along the horizontal on a piano. up to 12 times the fundamental. concerning frequencies and displacement amplitudes into values of relative intensity. 7. As a matter of fact the ear a very sensitive detector of overtones and the development of the various types of musical is instruments with their ensemble in an orchestra has depended upon just this sensitiveness. 7. The difference between the Quality. intensities the intensities would be equal. in obtaining relative from amplitudes the frequencies must always be conFig. al- though difficult to recognize by ear as such. 7.7 sidered. of an organ pipe and that of a violin must lie quality of a tone in the relative intensities of the fundamental and overtones. 7. if a tone of frequency 100 has an amplitude of 10 and a tone of frequency 500 has an amplitude of 2.. sound sented charts showing the relative intensities of the components of various musical sounds.4 by making corrections for the resonating characteristics of the recording device and by transposing the facts the relative intensities.SOUNDS FROM VARIOUS INSTRUMENTS 101 pipe and the latter the composition of it expressed in terms of the frequencies which have the ratios 1:2:3:4. equal distances signithe frequencies are distributed as These intensities have been secured from such fying an octave. etc.

the octave becomes the most prominent as shown in the third line. When the middle register is played forte y the Figs. 7. The second line from the bottom shows the middle register played pianissimo. the clarinet. Analyses of flute tones played forte. 7. When the lower register is composition of all 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 15 Fio.13 show Professor Miller's results for the violin. Distribution of energy in sounds from various sources the tones or the low register of the flute when played pianissimo.11. 7.8 shows an analysis of flute tones.102 MUSICAL SOUNDS a tuning fork.8. The lowest line shows the average TUNING FORK VOICE 7 2 3 4 56789 10 15 20 FIG. the fourth line results. 7. the flute. the voice.9.10. 7. 7. the oboe.7.12 and 7. . Fig. 7. when each is sounded on the fundamental tone. the violin and the French horn.

fc Analyses of tones of the horn I SOPRANO VOICE I ^ BASS VOICE FREQUENCY CYCLES PER SECOND 65 129 259 517 1035 2069 4188 FIG. CLARINET Analyses of violin tones a i ^ ^ ^ 09 -A. SPLIT Analyses of tones of the oboe and clarinet I ^ I fc I a - ^^t^aa.a CHORD I I 1 m - i ^ m J ROUGH SMOOTH AVERAGE '" | i+1 ^ 2 Uj Oc I J I m ^ .SOUNDS FROM VARIOUS INSTRUMENTS fc 103 E STRING 1 A STRING * $ Q ^ m. 7.12.9. I g "2 .- ^. 7. Analyses of tones of bass and soprano voices . _ ^ - a * ^ r ^ - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ . 7. I g D STRING G STRING FREQUENCY RELATIVE TO FUNDAMENTAL 2 3 4 56789 VIOLIN 10 15 FIG. - ____ ^ ^ a A ^ _ ^ m^^*.^ > ^ M a FREQUENCY RELATIVE TO FUNDAMENTAL 3 ^ !' HORN 20 } 4 5 6 78 ' ' 970 '75 30 FIG. I I FREQUENCY RELATIVE TO FUNDAMENTAL 2 3 7 456789 10 15 FIG.

7. It is a peculiar circumstance that the ear FIG. 7.13 are drawn two recognizes the combined tone as the relations among the components. 605-607. 7. Sound from a given instrument may vary in at least two respects. 7. The reader can readily see this from the accompanying drawings.* FIG. 7.14 is that the components are shifted in phase relative to one another. 7.13 and Fig.I04 MUSICAL SOUNDS The variations in distribu- horn and bass and soprano voices.14. In each * Barton. .13 and Fig. Recognition of Phase Differences of the Components. let us say). In Fig. tion are wide. "A Textbook of Sound.13 same irrespective of the phase But the trace of the resultant vibration differs widely with changing phase relations of the components. Fig. It is a note and its octave. the relative intensities of the components and the relative phases of the components. 7.6. The only difference between Fig. 7.14 dotted curves representing the displacements in two simple harmonic vibrations (of a diaphragm." pp. one having twice the frequency of the other.

invariably determines the pitch of a sound? 6. makes the appearance of the resulting vibra- tion curve very deceiving. This circumstance. 8. how long must a string fastened both ends be in order to give a frequency of 1. Indeed an inexperienced person would claim that the component vibrations could not be the same. Yet these two resultant vibrations give the same auditory sensation. is 105 sum of obtained by drawing the mean. Would the quality of tone of any instrument entire time of its rendition? Answer by a consideration of one or two instruments. Can phase relations of components be recognized? Upon what does the distinctive quality of sound Assuming that the velocity of of a musical instrument depend? a longitudinal wave in a steel at 5. string is dinal than with transverse vibration? 13. Why does the vibration of the string cause a vibration of the violin? body of the 5. What are the difficulties in detecting the components of a tone by eye inspection of the time trace of the vibration? 11. the two curves. or the resultant ampliThe mean value curves two cases. Why upon the box. QUESTIONS 1. that two dissimilar vibrations give are very different in the the same sensation.000 meters per second. In at least what two respects is there an opportunity of affecting the quality of voice by training? 12. upon the nature of the string? alter during the 15. What difference would be noticed if one was suddenly enabled to detect relative phase changes in components? would the difference in quality of two violins depend 14.000 per second? 10. Is there any difference in the perception of the fundamental and Which component tone almost an overtone? 7. . Why is the frequency of a string much higher with longitu9.QUESTIONS case one-half the tude. Of what two types used in music? of vibration is a string capable? Which one is 2. What frequencies are possible in a string in terms of the funda- mental? 4. Upon what factors does the velocity of a transverse wave in a perfectly flexible wire depend? 3.

obtained by Professor D. this chapter is practically limited to the composition of the sus- tained vowel sounds and even here the results are not at all com- instance the results presented will be those plete. when the hands are clapped over the frequencies. In an experimental test it is necesThis was done by the following groups of words: * Figs. over if a resonant chamber receives an impulsive change of pressure give a rapidly decaying response in its own natural For example.6 are taken with permission from Miller's "Science of Musical Sounds. Moreover the component sounds of a vowel would not be the same in magnitude and frequency with different speeds of enunciation of the syllable. quite beyond the physicist's deFor that reason the discussion in scription at the present time. then there is an approximation to a steady physical state of affairs at the middle of the time interval for the syllable. C. This is because of two The establishment of resonance requires time. The Vowels Used. the physical these three are almost constantly changing.2. During speech 8. 1916. it will mouth of an empty vessel itself.* whose work represents the beginning of modern physical research on vowel sounds." Published by Macmillan. the sound heard is characteristic of the is So it is easily realized that speech a very com- plicated acoustic phenomenon.1 to 8. resonance chambers and an egress for the acoustic waves. 1 06 . 8.1. sary to define the vowels tested. But the vowel is not usually defined as limited to this midpoint at the interval. It is well to observe mechanism producing speech. a vibrator. If one speaks a syllable slowly so that the vowel sound therein may be said to be sustained. jar. Miller.CHAPTER The Nature VIII THE NATURE OF VOWEL SOUNDS of Speech Sounds. first In the 8. Moreeffects.

bless. goal. cat. shows additional . 107 guard. mach/ne. fall. IN CYCLES PER SECOND in father Loudness of the several components of the vowel intoned at two different pitches is Here the vowel there is sounded on two different pitches and 922 cycles. smooth curves are drawn merely to indicate the general magnitude made of intensity in a frequency region. rode.2 indicate actual any selected frequency. 8.1. feather. are in each fre- greater intensity in the region of The are given by the quencies for which the measurements The circles. they. 8. maty pet. far. p/que. group. intensity for They do not Fig. one in mind that they have been secured through careful observation and the development of a technique in which all known corrections have been made. 8. add. the largest one indicating the fundamental tone. raw. no.1. ti 129 259 517 1035 2069 4/38 FREQUENCY FIG. haul. must bear In considering the results obtained by Professor Miller. bait. gloom.THE VOWELS USED father. The intensities of the com- ponents in the first vowel as in father are shown in Fig. hate. bee. moor.

In Fig. The reason that if one has a vibration that is periodic. recurs at fixed intervals of time.6. 8.2. 8. Returning to Fig. Hence in the analysis in any case only integral multiples of the frequencies are obtained.2 it is easily seen that we have here a remarkable verification of the dependence primarily upon frequency regions. its * component frequencies must all be integral multiples of the fundamental whose period is this interval of time. because it is a The curve pitches.e. .io8 THE NATURE OF VOWEL SOUNDS the components involved in this same experimental values of vowel.3 are shown the results with eight different voices sounding the vowel a in * The proof is entirely mathematical.. with a given fundamental. used as fundamentals and thus a distribution of computed values A 259 FREQUENCY FIG. is explained in Section 15. 5. Twelve different notes were composite of twelve such graphs. intoned at various pitches that. C and D are the results of intoning at three different deserves special attention. 517 IN CYCLES 1035 2069 4138 PER SECOND Distribution of energy among the several partials of the vowel in father. the indicated are integral multiples of the fundaonly frequencies mental. i. Briefly it may be stated were obtained. 8.

8. vowel Distribution of energy among the several partials of the in father as intoned by eight different voices Fig. the results with voices of the vowel in bee.4. 8. 5/7 IN /035 J069 4/36 CYCLES PER SECOND vowel bee. resonance peak is drawn as a mean result of all eight voices. 259 FREQUENCY FIG.3.4 snows Here the second It father on eight different fundamental tones. Distribution of energy among the several partials of the as intoned by eight different voices .THE VOWELS USED 109 4138 FIG. 8.

4. . This conclusion is verified by the use of an acoustic wave filter. 8. it becomes almost the same as the fourth vowel in the MA list or as in gloom. Stewart and Lindsay.5. Figs.5. In the Acoustics.6. IN CYCLES PER SECOND vowels of Class Characteristic curves for the distribution of the energy in II. wherein the latter vowel shown to have a characteristic region in the neighborhood of 326 cycles or practically the same as the lower one of the two regions in Fig. The reason therefor is MAT MET 129 259 517 1035 2069 413Q FREQUENCY FIG.6 show two different types of vowels. 8.no is THE NATURE OF VOWEL SOUNDS is a vowel with two resonance regions. having a single region of resonance lower and not the upper frequency region.000 cycles.* which will transmit the evident that this MA MA MAW MOW yv 259 577 7035 129 2069 4138 FREQUENCY FIG. If the vowel in bee is spoken through such a filter.5 * and 8. 8. one about 300 and one about 3. IN CYCLES PER SECOND vowels of Class Characteristic curves for the distribution of the energy in I. 8. 8. having two regions of resonance is readily seen in Fig.

8. & London. is by adjusting the mouth and lips for the sounding of a certain vowel and then by presenting before the true can be verified lips a vibrating tuning fork having a frequency in the characterregion of that vowel. in the shown accompanying Figs.. 8. p. The tuning fork will be strongly reenforced." vertical distances. The vowel in ma is shown in both.7 and 8. IV. Techn. and to the fact that the presence of this resonance increases the energy given off by the vocal chords in corresponding frequencies. the source of sound being the clapping of hands in front of the mouth. that the characteristic vowel frequenThat this cies would be produced by the resonance chambers. for sometimes it shows two characteristic regions close together. Sir has by practice been able to demonstrate in the lecture room these two simultaneous regions. In 8. It is to be expected. Moreover he spoken is also a verification of this point. in any one graph then represent what might be termed the relative "effective amplitudes" with that vowel.CHARACTERISTIC REGIONS former there in is only one characteristic region and in the latter two characteristic regions. 4 . therefore." Harcourt Brace Co. pharynx and larynx. produced in two cavities separated by the tongue.3. An are been made by Crandall elaborate investigation of the characteristic regions has The results f of the Bell Laboratories. The ordinates for one ear (see Chapter X). JL. 1930. . t Bell Sys. the discussion of resonance in a previous chapter attention was called to the resonance of the mouth. This splendid group of curves shows with remarkable clearness the difference in the vowel characteristics. The fact that the vowels can be whispered as well as istic Richard Paget's * results show that there are always two simultaneous resonances. Characteristic Regions Are Resonance Regions. The graph are not to be compared with those of another since it is not the intention to show such a relation between the vowel * "Human Speech. 586 (1925). In both of these figures the relative amplitudes at the different frequencies are plotted after taking into consideration the sensitiveness of the "ordinates.

8.7 .Ill THE NATURE OF VOWEL SOUNDS sounds. The results of the investigations of Miller and Crandall The differences in methods of measare in general agreement. urements are probably accountable for the differences in con- Fio.

This is the approximate description of the duration n m 64 yo 128 181 236 362 312 '724 1024 14482048 28^640^6 5792 Mais Frequency FIG.165 sec.04 sec.. differences would seem to involve crude limitations not fully justified. but the general relative magnitudes are retained. The and similarities of male and female vowel sounds are . There is first a period of rapid growth of 0.CHARACTERISTIC REGIONS elusions.. 8. He finds the average characteristics throughout its duraCrandall's tion. Crandall's results leave us with not so clear a distinction as to the number of resonance regions possessed by a vowel. second a middle period of about 0.8 of a vowel sound. a period of gradual decay lasting 0. with variations but with approximate constancy and third. It can- not be stated that any given vowel has only one or two resonance Indeed any classification as to number offrequency regions regions.09 sec. method of obtaining the amplitudes of the involves the entire record of the vowel from start to components finish. There is a variation with the individual and with the vowel.

a great effort to sing the vowels clearly affects the quality of tone to an appreciable degree from securing the best musical effect. and prevents the artist time Since vowel characteristics depend upon resonance and since is required in getting the maximum intensity. some claim that the One must expect largely impulsive. "resonance region" is an omnibus term and a description using it cannot be regarded as also to be noted. Professor Miller's records were made of sustained vowels only. It has often been observed that a child's enunciation of vowels is more It clear than a man's and presumably the foregoing is a reason therefor. impossible to enunciate vowels clearly in singing unless the fundamental tone is lower than the characteristic frequency is region of the vowel sounded. characteristic frequency region (or in all the characteristic regions as the case might be) the maximum clearness will be secured. motion of the vocal chords is 8.i 14 THE NATURE OF VOWEL SOUNDS As a matter of fact. Clear enunciation thus does not need the bass quality of voice. In the discussion in this chapter the inference has been made that a steady-state vibration of the vocal chords can be secured. it follows that vowel sounds must be sustained for a short period of time in order to be the most intense for a given effort on the part of a speaker. for the reason that the rec- .5. The sustained vowel sound probably enters into speech But it is certain that rapidly spoken in other respects as well. sufficiently specific. Indeed. vowels are detrimental to clearness. Clearness of Enunciation of Vowels. above have characteristic frequency regions that sounds shown are in the upper half of the ordinary piano scale. Variation in Vowel Sounds. All of the vowel 84. that a detailed study of the mechanism will bring out many details at variance with the more simple picture in this chapter. Moreover. clearness must depend upon the relative amounts of energy that go If all the energy is in a into these characteristic frequencies. Indeed. But practically this is not true. This is a well-known difficulty.

The reason for the formation of lower frequencies can be understood by noticing the changes in the mouth during the utterance of the vowel. tic. in meet was prolonged the e quality disappeared.900 which existed only temporarily while the vowel was being formed.900. by Stewart. heard the word practically as oot. The removal of frequencies above 2.. . * Am. there is in general a change in the components of any vowel when preceded by a consonant. the e heard consisted of frequencies below and near 2. for an m must now be opened wider Assuming that the interior of the mouth is correctly formed for an e. both electric and acousmade the variable character of the vowels demonstrable.2. In the case cited above the consonant / shuts off the vowel so quickly that no noticeable change in the vowel is produced. The following experiment tion 8.* briefly referred to in Sec. Review. Stewart. the changing of the lips will increase the area of an the orifice and raise the pitch of the resonance frequencies. shows the variable character of the vowel The word eat was spoken through an acoustic wave filter which prevented the transmission of all frequencies above 2. for The mouth formed e. Hence it had A listener beginning the same adjustment as for a sustained vowel. 1923.VARIATION IN VOWEL SOUNDS 115 ords of the vowels while they were being formed did not contain a sufficient number of like vibrations to make measurement possible.900 transforms the e into approximately 66. But if the vowel In other words. Phys. it was easily recognized for there was a distinct sound of e. But the mouth was formed from its for the vowel before it was sounded. has The recent development of filters. April. Soc. in the direction demonstrated in the Inasmuch as the formation of vowels fol- lowing consonants requires a change in the shape of the mouth. Abstract of paper at Washington meeting of Phys. But if the word meet was spoken through the filter. 1923. The group of high frequencies should therefore alter during the for- mation of the vowel and foregoing experiment. Similar considerations will apply to a vowel succeeded by a consonant.

What reasons may be given for the differences in individual curves in Fig. 7. According to the reasons given for vowel production. What are the causes of unavoidable variations of a vowel sound. the importance of the diameter of a sound reflector behind a speaker was emphasized. If the vowel sounds were the only ones of importance. Is the clearness of vowel sounds dependent upon the speed with which they are voiced and why? 2. would it be possible to imitate speech by mechanical means only? 9. Discuss the possibility of a 8. Why does a highly pitched voice seem to carry relatively well addressing a crowd? " " monotone learning to speak. Why are the vowels sounded universally alike? 4. 8.3? 3.ii6 THE NATURE OF VOWEL SOUNDS QUESTIONS 1. Why may recognized as the same? 6. what would you say about the minimum size of such a reflector? a vowel sounded by a bass and a soprano voice be 5. In a previous chapter. What additional variconsidering the different parts of its duration ? ations can be introduced? in .

One of the inquiries arising in speech concerns the relative amount of energy in the various frequencies used by a speaker.1 shows in the first plot two composite curves.1.001 \ 1000 2000 3000 4000 1000 2000 3000 4000 FREQUENCY FREQUENCY FIG.003 . 117 Physical Review. 228. Energy Distribution.002 . 9. 9. * Fig. These measurements have been made by using a 5o-syllable sentence of connected speech and also a list . The results show that the energy distribution varied more with individuals than with the nature of the test material chosen. March 1922.002 \ .CHAPTER IX CERTAIN PHYSICAL FACTORS IN SPEECH 9. p. Energy distribution of 5o-disconnected syllables.1.004 -MALE ~ FEMALE . The recent development of amplifying tubes which can multiply electric power has enabled Messrs. The one marked "male" is the mean of four curves representing the results taken with men. . Crandall and MacKenzie to measure this frequency distribution of energy in speech. The curve marked "female" * is the mean of two curves taken with women.

9. in order will to give time for the instruments to be read for each syllable. The ordinates of the curve are arbitrary and need not concern us here excepting that they are proportional to flow of energy. The difference should of course be contained in the consonants.ii8 CERTAIN PHYSICAL FACTORS IN SPEECH In the second plot is drawn the mean of all six curves.2 are shown certain energy distributions. but this explanation appears to the above workers as not sufficient. 9.006 . The test sentence was the first sentence of Lincoln's Gettysburg address but with the addition of two words "quite" and "nice" to bring the total number of syllables to fifty and to "improve the balance between the vowel sounds." . It is evident that the difference may be explained qualitatively by the variable . In Fig. A was ob- tained by assuming Professor Miller's results for vowels.004 ( 7000 2000 3000 4000 FREQUENCY FIG. B was obtained experimentally by disconnected speech sounds. The curves A and C do not agree.2 The sentence was uttered slowly syllable by syllable. and C by connected speech sounds. This method was not wholly satisfactory and be subsequently improved.

do not give the relative importance of the different frequencies in clearness of speech. an important problem which is considered in the next section. Fig. represent the limit of the abscissae. frequencies used and the ordinates the percentage of correct judgments as to the sounds received.3 in lists of 50. first presented the * report on the Dr. 9. consonant-vowel. Useful Energy Distribution.USEFUL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION 119 character of the vowels and the incorrectness of assuming that the sustained vowels give the correct energy distribution. These results. while giving the actual distribution of energy. I.700 syllables were chosen. Harvey Fletcher has ability of the ear to interpret speech sounds under different conditions of loudness and of disThis tortion caused by the elimination of groups of frequencies. vowel-consonant. is Inasmuch a direct method of determining the useful energy distribution. the tests were made with selected syllables. . or the horizontal distances. July 1922. Vol.3 bles. These were which occurred a distribution of the prepared three types. as the actual pronunciation of a vowel occurs in sylla- EfFECT UPON INTERPRETATION OF EUMHUJING N*RK)US PORTIONS OF THC FREQUENCY RANGC 2000 3000 FREQUENCY FIG. 9. 9. in shows the The results of articulation tests in graphical form. In all 8. and consonantvowel-consonant. In the curve having its begin- * Bell System Technical Journal.2.

the limit of consideration being 5.000. The sounds /A. fricative consonants s not affected by the elimination of frequencies below 1. using the same curve. Bell Sys. 0. (2) At a frequency of 1. On of the syllables were understood if all the frequencies above 1. the practical applications of the information gained concerning speech sounds is in long distance telephony.500.000 cycles per second.000 were eliminated. 483 (1930). At the present time in America the range selected * is between 250 cycles and 2. the importance of the frequenthan this value is as great as that of the frequencies lower than this value. The The fricative consonants j. . have important elimi- characteristics carried 2. or in all which eliminates cies higher the third octave above middle C.000 were eliminated. 3. Tech. for the frequency of 1.950 were elimiinterpretation of the other curve is similar but the is elimination of frequencies above the limit instead of below. The the frequencies less than 1. Fletcher concerning the usefulness of speech sounds are as follows: 1. by frequencies below 1. 86% Again. it is found that 40% of the syllables were understood nated.550.000. 4.000 has as low a value of articulation as one which eliminates all frequencies below 1. The interpretation is that if all frequencies below 1. characteristics of these are carried principally by the very high frequencies. IX.000. The short vowels. In designing these telephone message circuits it is important that a One of frequency range be selected within which the transmission shall be made as excellent as possible.000 the articulation is 86%./ and v are the most difficult to hear and The are responsible for 50% of the mistakes of interpretation. z. and th are affected by and z are nation above 5. with the endeavor to make the transmission for these limits attain a * Martin. p. JL.120 CERTAIN PHYSICAL FACTORS IN SPEECH ning at 100%. and e are seen to . Several of the conclusions of Dr.750 cycles. if all of the syllables could be correctly understood. this second curve 40% A system frequencies above 3. From the two the following additional conclusions may be derived: (i) graphs.

E." The "peak power" is the maximum value for two speakers.750 more than that 1.SPEECH ENERGY certain standard. Sacia and Beck t have presented their results in the form shown in the accompanying Table IV. rated at 40 watts. As may be V . Rtv. technical reader can The non- compare this value with the lamp at his study table.000 cycles. y 22. improve the understanding of much more perfect station instruments are produced. 1923. Crandall and MacKenzie. t P. Jl. 19. * "mean power. in the future. cycles is 121 The loss in transmission at 250 and 2. But if. An acoustical output of 100 ergs per sec- ond would be 10 millionths of a watt or 10 microwatts. Interesting experiments have been performed to ascertain the relative amount of flow of energy or power occurring in conver- sational speech. p. Sabine f using a very different method obtains for certain vowels an output varying from 271 to 70 ergs per second. t toll System Tech. not strikingly noticeable to the ear. 221. 1922. The actual power output in speech is approximately two ten-millionths of that of a 40 watt lamp. p. Speech Energy. more naturalness will be at- tained and largely because of the better reproduction of the fricative constants. spoken in a Crandall and MacKenzie.3. 303. Rev. % (1926). the semi-vowels next and the consonants the lowest. p. 393. Phys. The power during and this is called the the existence of a given sound is averaged average of the seen the vowels rank the highest. Sabine. Phys. 9. materially shown telephone messages..* using fifty syllables normally modulated voice by six different speakers (four men and two women) give 125 ergs per second as the average acoustical output. as in the foregoing figure. The but by an amount that is extension of the above stated range by a few hundred cycles evidently cannot.

9.1 and 9. QUESTIONS a consideration of Figs. 2. What is a striking illustration of the fact that clearness of speech may depend upon very small sound intensities? 1.122 CERTAIN PHYSICAL FACTORS IN SPEECH Table IV * The dash indicates that observations were not available.2 that a man's clearness of enunciation of vowel is less than a woman's. What other factors are involved in the production of superior clearness of speech? 3. Show from .

positive. Rev. cm. lo. In expressing the dynes per sq. The number of ears used in these investigations were.. zero. 3. have been many observations made of the sensitivity of the ear and a summary of results ^nd methods would be impracticable. This gives a value proportional to the square root of the intensity and proves convenient. and 72. 97. Phys. At an octave above middle dynes per sq. the best values of minimum audible pressure. i.* Kranz f most though they differ and Fletcher and Wegel J are the by much more than can be accounted for in the difference of the observers. 553. 19. expressed in dynes per sq. cm. 123 . Phys. plane waves. it is customary to refer to the pressure of a sound wave as the square root of this mean square. The maximum pressure can be obtained by t multiplying this value by -^T. Kranz.001 a region of important frequencies and may be regarded as the most representative single value of the From these values and a knowledge of the sensibility of the ear. p. of a pressure that varies periodically. 1903. etc. 1923. are found to be: These values show that the threshold value of pressure (or the minimum audible pressure) is fairly constant above 1. C is cm. Energy Required for Minimum The results of reliable. This the pressure is approximately . But since the intensity of the sound varies with the mean square of the pressure. t Fletcher and Wegel.f..CHAPTER X AUDIBILITY There Audibility. * it can be shown that the minimum wave rate of energy is flow through a square centimeter in such a of the order Wien. p.. Rev. Wien. PhysioL.000 vibrations per second and increases rapidly at lower frequencies. 573. p. ges. negative.. 1922. 21. one cannot give the average pressure for that would be zero.i. respectively. Arch. 14. If the results are weighted by these numbers and the means taken.

The square VIP.i. The units at the right are explained in Section 10. and where E is the flow of energy in watts per sq. outlined here. This statement assumes that the sensation of feeling is approximately the same in abnormal ears. which varies with the nature of the abnormality.* 4 X 10.124 AUDIBILITY io~ 16 (or 4 divided by the number ten raised to the sixteenth l power) watts or 4 X io~ microwatts. Any sound that can be heard lies within the field Areas covered by the most prominent speech sounds represents experiments on 48 normal ears and is regarded as the "maximum" because at these pressures there is a sensation of feeling which limits the pressure used in The upper curve any hearing device. . i o. Fig. per sec. The ordinates represent the square root of the mean square of the pressure from the normal. and hence it can be only an approximation. 1922. cm. C. The limits of audibility can be best expressed in the form of graphs.6. 10. Bell System Technical Journal.. 2. 5 7 mean square of pressure in dynes can be shown to be equal to to V^o-5 XE X io X where . feeling * is It is interesting to learn that the intensity for tactile about equal to that required to excite the root of the t nerves in the finger tips. *304 FREQUENCY V FIG. E is the flow of energy in ergs per sq.1 is taken from the work of Fletcher and Wegel. The form t See Wegel. are indicated. being the flow of energy produced by a plane wave having this pressure. I. Vol. cm. Limits of Audibility.2. used in the figure is that suggested by J. Steinberg of the same laboratory. No.f The full-line portion of the lower curve is a plot of the observations of minimum audibility men- tioned in the foregoing paragraph.

Persons called slightly deaf" require a pressure of i/io dynes per sq. need artificial aids to hearing. the conclusions as to painful effect have been obtained by a study of those not deaf and hence the numerical limits here fixed are open to question.000. Deafness Defined in Dynamical Units. A person requiring I dyne per sq. varies distinctly with age. yet there is a limit to amplification because one cannot use an intensity great enough Hence only the deaf that have a range of pressure to cause pain. cm. of the Psychological Laboratory at the University of Iowa. cm. cm. 20 vibrations. The above comments do not consider the totally deaf who by definition cannot be made to hear. The upper limit.000. is really a high value audibility. .* 10. here represented as 20. The show the ranges of pressures and frequencies for the sounds indicated. who In this connection it is also interesting to note that even if sounds could be amplified indefinitely.000 dynes can be made to hear through artificial aids such as amplifying tubes and microphones.000 and 1/1.000 dynes " per sq. These authors 10. reports that the congenitally totally deaf as well as those who have lost their hearing and vestibular reaction due to cerebral meningitis. for audibility. experience the sensation of feeling at approximately the same sound pressure at various frequencies as do individuals with normal hearing.4. being higher for It has not been demonthe young and becoming lower with age.3. Types of Deafness. cm. Those require 10 dynes per sq. That deafness may have many causes has been well known to otologists but only in recent years have attempts been made to study types of deafness by actual * Reger. selected because there is not an agreement as to the smallest frequency that can be recognized as a tone. have found that in the region up to 4.TYPES OF DEAFNESS 125 The full-line curves have been extended as dotted curves and made to meet at approximate values of the frequency limits of The lower value. can usually follow ordinary conversation. Also. cross hatched areas strated whether this change is pathological or physiological. The important frequencies in voice timbre and sibilance are also shown. persons of normal hearing require a pressure variation of approximately 1/1. sensitivity between 1. He believes that the sensation arises from the stimulation of pain receptors within the tympanic membrane.


1. obtaining an equality of loudness for the seven frequencies shown in the accompanying Table V. 10. apparently of * 1923. intensity is 0. plotted as in the original data. sents in each case the actual intensity in terms of the minimum For a frequency of 64 the audible intensity for that frequency. flying first The near by and then at a distance.LOUDNESS measurement of hearing.7 that frequency.5. See "Speech and Hearing. 200. p. In the second column of this table for is shown an arbi- trary dividing the actual intensity by the minimum intensity required This column therefore reprefor audibility of that frequency. is to this field One of the most interesting contributions that of Professor Wallace C. in t Collected papers in "Acoustics. that there is an apparent change of 10 times the loudness. The upper and lower curves in each case correspond to A change of 10 in loudness means the similar curves in Fig. As will be The ordinates on the readily seen the four cases vary widely." D. number obtained each frequency at equal loudness by X io 6 times the minimum audible intensity for Table V application of these comparisons is perhaps not at once evident." p. 10. Van Nostrand Co. Loudness. Assume that when it is in the near position a number of frequencies are heard. Assume that one is listening to an airplane. Harvey Fletcher.2 are represented * four curves of ear tests. right represent the relative loudness change as observed by a normal ear. Sabine..f He used several different musical instruments. 127 In Fig. 10. These are from curves shown at Philadelphia by Dr. . 129.

diffraction and reflection are not discussed. not the only ones applicable masking sounds are present. Hence the quality of sound from the airplane will change. a clear explanation of the change of the quality and of sound with distance only.128 equal loudness.096 frequencies have fallen below the intensity of minimum If the fraction is 1/10. then. p. 2. 256 tion gets less and 2. There is a general law in psychological literature that evidently a law of the nervous system and is independent of the nature is of peripheral organs.000. when other Weber's Law Fechner's Law Sensation Units. The least Steinberg. As the frac- The less.6. assuming. 507 (1925).000 and to see that the 128. however.000. These considerations are. for the moment. sound can be heard no further than its most persistent component shown that if a it will can be heard alone.000. AUDIBILITY What will occur when the airplane recedes to a distance. We last frequencies to be heard will be in the region of 1. additional frequencies will disappear. Divide each number in the second column seen at once the intensity of the 64 and the 4. * It may be stated as follows. a complex Thus. have here. 26. that the intensity of each frequency will decrease inversely as the square or any other power of the distance? The intensity of each frequency will be cut down to the same fraction of its original intensity. it is by 100.048 cannot be heard. it is easy audibility in each case. As hereinbefore stated. They have independent influences in the variation of quality with distance. Suppose the fraction is 1/100. pressure. it can be heard further than the same energy distributed in any combination of frequencies whatever.024. This accounts for the apparently different carrying qualities of sounds from various sources. If this fractin is small enough some of the frequencies will be thereby cut down below audible intensity and cannot be heard. in harmony with Sabine's results just stated. 10. . Physical Review. Steinberg * has component tone has less than its own threshold not add to the loudness of the complex tone. It is obvious that if the entire energy avail- able be expended in a tone of just one frequency.

He found that c is a constant. logic 100 = 2.WEBER'S LAW FECHNER'S LAW 129 detectable change in any stimulus is proportional to the intensity of that stimulus. Rev. "SL. The sensation level is really units in decibels that are required to reduce the tone to the threshold limit.000 is logarithm Like3. p is the sensation or loudness." The sensation level. A new unit is desir- able and the literature sensation units . such as hearing. vision and feeling.000. This law of Weber has been verified in many directions. Also logio 10 = I. t 20. has performed experiments on the relative sensitivity of the ear the pressure and a and For frequencies varied from loo to 4. units of pressure. This logarithmic law expressed as follows: is usually known as Fechner's law and is S Here S c are is = r logi<. Although guide has been found in assuming the sensation of loudness * of the intensity in the to be proportional to the logarithm are interested to know stimulus. The logarithm of 10. constants for any one frequency. logio 10. f MacKenzie./> + a. S = gradually adopting as a definition of 20 logio p. It is noticed that the logarithm changes very slowly as compared to the number itself. The value of S is said to be in is "decibels. A difference of one decibel is number of sensation The logarithm power * is is a convenient measure of a number." of a tone is defined by SL = 2olog 10 p//>o. 1922. 331. 10. The number then 4. In acoustics we the relation between intensity and loudnot an exact statement. one cannot use for units of this sensation.000. p. if the 10 raised to the fourth be written. at different levels of loudness and his results confirm the correct- ness of Fechner's law. observed in the preceding equation that.000. Now It is loudness should be measured in units so that twice the sensation of loudness would be indicated by twice as many units. . Phys. a reasonably accurate ness. where po the the threshold pressure. since the sensation of loudness varies with the logarithm of pressure. logio 1000 = wise every number has a logarithm. MacKenzie \ c changes not more than 10%.

Knudsen now shows that at the same loudness or sensation level. Rev. Phil. t Macdonald and Allen. 1924. Rev.130 in a sensation level AUDIBILITY may be produced by approximately twice the minimum section. Wien in 1888 first showed that this could not be the case.. 827. The most comprehensive results of minimum perceptible difference have been presented by Knudsen * and may be expressed as follows: Here SL is the sensational level or the number of units as above is the defined required to reduce the tone to the threshold. . 10. minimum audible increment AE If Weber's law above stated were true. Audibility of ing Effect. almost painful. | Wegel and Lane. p. Phys. varying only 10% with frequencies of 100 to 3. in each case the number of decibels. Phys. 1923. p. is about 100 decibels.. 84. /i 10.8.200 cycles. Macdonald and Allen f is have recently published data showing a similar variation of A -U r< -=r with E. 1930. perceptible difference in intensity described in the next The range of speech sounds is usually from 40 to 60 an average whisper four feet away is 20 decibels.7. the ratio practically independent of frequency. and very loud sound. * a Tone Affected by a Second Tone MaskThe experiments in this subject at the Bell Tele: phone Laboratories \ have been very extensive and have an imKnudsen. decibels referring to the number required to reduce the tone to the threshold limit. 23. May 9. A in intensity. Minimum Perceptible Difference in Intensity. p.. 21. and E is the intensity. 266. a rustle of leaves in a gentle breeze is 10 decibels. -=r would be a constant.

as will be explained at a later point.3 the three curves refer to 1 4OO 800 1200 2000 3000 4000 FREQUENCY OF MASKED TONE FIG. and.3 the results with three intensities of the tone having a frequency of 1.000. A definite arbitrary measure for "masking" must be given in order to express the results quantitatively. and 10.200.200 cycles and observing its masking effect upon other frequencies. The phenomenon can be appreciated through a brief study of the results obtained by using a constantly sounding tone of 1. Wegel and Lane. There is a decided masking which increases as the fre- quency of the masking tone is approached. This indicates that those tones have been created by the ear itself. .AUDIBILITY OF A TONE portant bearing upon the theory of hearing. At higher intensities the masking occurs as tones of 2. 2.600 were present. 1. the threshold pressure of a given frequency is p\ y and with the masking tone it is />j.400 and 3.000 times its minimum audible intensity. The ordinates are ~ as already described. 10. namely. if the additional 3. this is actually the case. The investigators. 10. 160. have selected the following: If without the masking tone. then the measure of masking is pi In the accompanying Fig. The masking effect increases with the intensity of the masking tone. the same ear being used. Several points are to be noted: 1.

p. to discuss the 10. to the discussion are contained in the account of a symposium of the American Acoustical Society in 1929. It has been re- peatedly noticed that many people appear to hear better in the presence of a noise. The term used to describe this phenomenon is Knudsen and Jones * have removed much of the "paracusis.AUDIBILITY the study of masking just quoted have utilized in a consideration of the frequency regions on the basilar mem- The authors brane and their conclusions may As ear. 10.4 should not be regarded as final but only as representing a stage in the progress of the establishment of a correct theory of It may be well to remark that there is at present no hearing. Several recent contributions fully accepted theory of hearing. Fig. Helicotrtma 10 1S 20 25 S0 DISTANCE FROM OVAL WINDOW IN MILLIMETERS Distance from oval window (Millimetres) FIG. 1926. all persons of normal hearing and for all the partially Further. panying drawing. strictly speaking. the individuals with impaired hearing of the perceptive f type do not hear as well in the presence of a noise. They find that. 10. The former evidently refers to the usual means of hearing and the latter to the type where the vibrations reach the organ of hearing by bone conduction.9. other than in the figure no explanation will be offered Those who are not familiar with the ear are referred to the original article.4. terms "perceptive" and "conductive" are taken from the original paper." mystery in connection with the apparent better hearing of the "paracusic" in the presence of a noise.4. The results in Fig. fThe . noise for * Knudsen and Jones. 623. it is be represented in the accomnot the purpose of this text anatomy of the itself. the acuity of hearing is decreased by the presence of a deaf. Characteristic frequency regions on basilar membrane 10. "The Laryngoscope. Hearing in the Presence of Noise." 36.

0579 seconds. But the phenomenon is more significant than appears upon the surface. p.0627. found only in the individual And in these cases the phenomenon occurs not because of increased acuity. wherein the difficulty is the transmission through the bones of the ear. cycles. p.MINIMUM PERCEPTIBLE DIFFERENCE Paracusis is 133 having hearing of a conductive type and usually one having a marked bilateral lesion. 3. 1931. Another advantage rests in the fact the lower tones are more important in the masking effect is than the high ones.f Frequency.3 of one per cent of the frequency. The data available on the minimum time for tone perception are discordant. 325. the time is noticeably reduced. respectively. 384. when compared with the person having normal hearing.000 to 2.). Minimum Perceptible Difference in "Speech and Hearing" (D. but rather because of certain other advantages inherent in his impairments. such an individual would enjoy a advantage in listening to conversation.i i. the elimination of the low tones by the individual mentioned would result in a noticeable relative advantage in the presence of such a noise.1. Hence. Minimum Time Tone Perception. 1. II. In the pres- ence of a low pitched noise. For the energy of noise usually well below 512 cycles.6 correspond to the time intervals.10. i. . These and . Fletcher * states that at 128.000 the least perceptible difference in frequency is about 0. Van Nostrand Co. . whereas his acuity is good in the region of most importance relative to speech. For tones of medium strength. The minimum time for tone perception may not have even the same meaning for different individuals. his partial deafness is chiefly in low tones. and 512 cycles the values of the time required for the perception of weak tones are those correfor 1 sponding 2.000 cycles. 153t See Stewart. A tone is recognized as such only when it is identified as within a certain fre* quency range. for 10.0946. With one individual this range may be larger than it is with another. and 29. 24. * . For frequencies between 500 and 4. For example. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. in the case of a noise covering a large range of frequencies. 1 o.

004. Joseph. The range of the variation of the frequency of the tone is from a tenth to a whole tone. meeting December 13.003.134 /. M.12. and 70.5 to 8.! Evidently this is in part caused by the brevity of the time duration of the tones. Calling this difference A/. Now one of the interesting points concerning the vibrato is is that although the frequency alteration ear to detect under well within the ability of the here. AUDIBILITY is and fairly constant. I (1923). so than accountable by a direct intensity t Physical Review. the values are 0.* The method was These are reported by respectively. These results were obtained by tests made with the voices of over forty artists. Abstract. The interest of this paragraph is the audition of the vibrato rather than a report of present detailed knowledge concerning the vibrato itself. 0. 14. 120. The Vibrato. .5 times per second. and 0.006. then this A/ percentage is ~r = 0. XXI. It is fairly safe to opine that this time duration is a factor which should be considered. 1931. to sound one tone at a time. Just to what extent the least perceptible difference depends upon the length of time the tones are heard is not known.5 to 8. J Tiffin. 1930. Psychological Monographs . the ear cannot detect a change in frequency. Acoustical Society of America. 10. Metfessel.5 per second. Vibrato and tremulo refer to effects which can be produced by the voice and by some musical instruments. At 260. of frequency is from 5. Another curi- ous result indeed * is much more that the change in intensity seems to be marked. It occurs in the natural singing voice and Metfessel \ states that the vibrato is a cycle of frequency variation with an average rate of seven cycles per second and an average extent of a musical The ranges of variation of the number of alterations half-tone. with more favorable circumstances. yet the rapid alteration of about 14 times per second. The former appears to the ear to be a fluc- tuation of intensity of about 5.009 Knudsen. A greater variation of frequency and intensity than found with artistic vibratos may be called a tremulo.

tional tones.. 10. mathe- matical analysis shows that if the restoring force is made proportional to the square of the displacement. loc. '/. If the keys FI and C2 are struck.. middle Cor Ca (see Section frequency (n\ 14. having frequencies of n\ and #2. called "summation" and "difference" If two tones. and thus asymmetrical. Combination Tones. A study has been of the absolute loudness of a complex sound and Steinberg * finds that the loudness can be expressed in the form of an equa- made tion the factors in which have been determined. 10. the tone F\ can be heard. articles 297 to 301. This is a difference tone. the summation tone has a frequency (n\ + #2)5 and the difference tone a n%). Apparently it presents is no new problem of the kind just described. . If there is asymmetry this is not the case. 135 Whether or not response is not known. the restoring force depends upon both the amplitude and its square. There are two chief combinatones. 1925. Also. If. this is explained in the nature of the ear The tremulo in frequency is similar to the vibrato except that the variation large enough to be heard. loc. If a vibrat- ing body that there is displaced. 25. the summation tone is that practically of A. 10. it is symmetry independent of the direction of the displacement and dependent only upon the amount. Rev. Phys. The reader is referred to Barton \ for a detailed description of the best method of bringing these tones into evidence. t Barton. 253. * the response will not consist merely of vibrations corre- Steinberg. Frequencies Introduced by Asymmetry. It can be shown % that in such a vibrator the fundamental will always be accompanied by all the overtones which are integral multiples of the fundamental. cit.4) and F* are struck vigorously.14. and the It exerts a restoring force. on a piano. are sounded. j Barton.15.13. Loudness of Complex Sounds. if the magnitude of this force may is be said restoring force will change in magnitude if the displacement changes in sign only. With this one.FREQUENCIES INTRODUCED BY ASYMMETRY effect. There are many asymmetrical vibrators. p.

if It has been pre- viously stated that two tones of different frequencies actuate an asymmetrical vibrator. Dr. He found that if the frequencies. etc. ?)> Pi $9 (p ?)> (? four additional tones are of peculiar interest. 900 and 1. 10. If this motion by two forces having frequencies of p * and q y there result vibrations having the following frequencies: But the amplitudes of the 2y. . 600. The drumskin of the ear is an asymmetrical vibrator and it is not sur- + and q. the summation tone (p q) + sounded with suffiand difference tone (p q) will be heard. 23. Any consecutive three of these tones gave the tone of 200. with an impressed force of frequency p will introduce the frequency %p. If the restoring force also depends not only upon the first power. then the vibrator. the restoring force must be proportional to the displacement. Harvey Fletcher f has studied the criterion for determining the pitch of a musical tone. * The statement as to frequencies represents an approximate solution. up to 1.136 AUDIBILITY in frequencies to those of the is set in spending vibrator impressed forces. 427. Even if the elimination continued leaving only the 800. each having the same pressure amplitude. there be produced by the latter the summation and difference tones. tion.16. in case frequencies p and q are cient intensity. 1924. p. The bearing prising that. fact any three consecutive components gave this same pitch.000 were used. 200. This fact causes the ear will sometimes to misjudge the frequencies present in a complex tone. f Fletcher. is The condition of symmetry not sufficient to cause a vibrator In addito give only that frequency which is impressed upon it. were sounded together and then again with the 100 removed. no difference could be detected by the ear.. Physical Review. 300. the pitch seemed to correspond with 100 vibrations per second. for they increase rapidly with increasing amplitudes of the primary vibrations p %p an d of this conclusion of the assumed case upon the hearing of combinational tones is quickly understood.000. but upon the cube of the displacement. 800 and 1. 400.000. but weakly. the pitch corresponded to 200 cycles. loo. The Ear an Asymmetrical Vibrator. In If the components 200.

Apparently is is such practice common. if sufficiently loud. but this is not correct. 500. giving 32 and 48 cycles. .17.COMBINATIONAL TONES IN THE ORGAN One might conclude 137 that the pitch of a musical tone is always determined by the common difference in the frequencies of the harmonics. of a combinational tone in a musical instrument actually occurs 10. Use of An open pipe 16 feet in length will give apBut to give 16 vibrations vibrations per second. the ear would notice a difference in quality. The asymmetrical nature of the ear introduces a difficult problem into the construction of acoustical instruments. bend in a pipe is caused by the fact that the successive wave fronts do not remain parallel and there is a reflection at a But there certain amount of interference which depends upon wave-length. but with the relative Hence intensi- of the components constant. The combination 100. did not give a pitch of 200 but sounded a noise. acoustic length. This is usually too long to install in the recess set apart for the organ. a complex sound is made fainter. more like The fact that components are multiples of a give the pitch with certainty. 300. but with the frequency 200 distinctly audible. obtained a combinational tone of 16 cycles. and lof there is Thus ft. The no reason why an organ pipe should be straight. 700. per second a pipe 32 feet in length would be required. In this manner a loud-speaker which may give a faithful reproduction would. For the asymmetrical character of the ear is brought into greater relative if prominence by greater amplitudes of vibration. The use Combinational Tones in the Organ. appear to over-emphasize the lower tones. The tone is obtained by the combined use of two pipes of 16 ft. As the sound is made louder. the lower tones would ties become increasingly prominent. 900. proximately 32 in the pipe organ. common difference seems to These illustrations of the asymmetrical character of the ear lead to the conclusion that the quality of a complex sound as judged by the ear must depend not only upon the relative ampli- tudes of the components but also the actual amplitudes.

4. the greater the reflection if the diameter of the pipe is small in comparison with the wave-length. Annald. Intermittent Tones. then. This is shown in Fig. the larger the diameter of the pipe. 10. If the amplitude of the n vibrations is varied u times per second. and if u is smaller than n y a frequency of u per second will be heard. But this pressure proves to be very small. Such a fluctuating pressure would cause any vibrator to respond with the difference fre#2 ). p is the excess pressure and volume in the incident wave. again the tone u * is heard. It is possible. A. less pressures in the incident it is if the latter fraction is one dyne. Physik> and Science Abstracts. . This construction is now also utilized in organ building. 7. It is usually referred to as a subjective tone. 12.19. Pressure of Sound Waves. Schultze * considers the case theoretically 26.138 AUDIBILITY The longer the wave-length. For wave the is even Thus learned that although the difference tone (i 2 ) does have an objective existence in the air. for the amplitude of the resulting waves when two frequencies of n\ and n* are sounded fluctuates with a frequency (n\ w 2 ). 217. Also. If a frequency of n vibrations 10. F. the less the interference and consequently the less the reflection at a bend in a pipe. per second is interrupted u times per second. Schultze. No. The hearing of the difference tone really depends upon the asymmetrical vibration of the ear. />= wherein aJB. E is the energy per unit This phenomenon has a bearing upon the preceding discussion. 1908. less. 1657. Lord Rayleigh has shown that a plane wave of sound striking a wall perpendicularly will exert a constant excess of pressure determined by the formula. quency (HI Computation shows that lE is about one millionth the value of the pressure of the incident wave. yet the ear cannot hear it.18. p. to have a pipe double back upon itself and thus reduce the length it occupies. 1908. E in such a wave would fluctuate with this frequency and hence p also.

QUESTIONS 1. Show that there is not necessarily a discrep- ancy. Scientific Papers t Vol. 2#. the resulting tone will be judged by the ear as having a pitch which is The hum of a swarm of an approximate mean of the two extremes. 10. for the amplitudes add and the intensity is proportional to the square of But suppose there are n such tones. In what case will a sound wave exert an excess of pressure? 4. . What physical phenomenon may sometimes lead to an incorrect impression of the pitch of the lowest tone present? 2. What personal experiences can be explained by Sabine's work on loudness? than 5. 6. What frequencies will an asymmetrical vibrator introduce when a pure tone is sounded? 3. Intensity and Pitch of a Blend of Sounds. .QUESTIONS 139 and shows that there are objective tones present having the fol#). dinary care could such a result be achieved. 52. Two tones of exactly the same frequency and the same phase at a point will give there an intensity four times that of one alone. 10. u may exist on account of the changes in mean pressure quency that occur with that frequency and on account of the asymmetry y of the ear. and (ip + 2#). then the would be proportional to n 2 But only with extraorintensity the amplitude. It is obvious that the freetc. Explain why one tone of a frequency will "carry" farther a complex tone of the same total acoustic flow of energy. 3^. The late Lord Rayleigh * has shown that in such a case the intensity is not proportional to n 2 but to n. etc. It can also be shown that if there are a number if of tones of nearly the same frequency and of approximately the same amplitudes. (ip + 2). The frequency stated for least audible pressure.048 cycles. even the frequencies are identical. n violins playing in an orchestra must give phases at random at the auditor's ear. (p 2u) and (p + lu).1 is not in numerical agreement with the second column of Table V. (p + ). * Rayleigh. 2. 3. lowing frequencies: p (p From these may be formed the combinational tones u. as indicated in Fig.. bees is an illustration. p.20.

6. It is the purpose of intensities at the this section to state by what sense of direction of the source is given two ears. Binaural Intensity Effect. ears apparent position of the source scribed plane may be de- by the angle its direction makes with this If this angle be denoted by and the intensities median plane. then 6 measured to the auditor's right of the median plane. logio. then the technical mathematical statement 0logjThis states that the angle. 10. No. Stewart and Hovda * discovered ratio of the intensities at the ears that there was a very precise relation between the mathematical and the apparent direction of the If one draws an imaginary plane midway between the and the perpendicular to the line joining them. Review. could be used. though small. 142. between the median plane and the ratio of the intensities at the ears. the intensity at the is right ear.CHAPTER XI BINAURAL EFFECTS 1 1. but the equation would remain true if another number than 10 were used. p. then the in a horizontal source. If 7j is the greater. in the auditor's location of a source of sound. 1918. So it is left without such a number indicated. is the greater. In (H. 3. is There is no doubt but that difference of intensities at the ears a factor. XXV. 1. From the data not here reproduced the following conclusions may * be derived: Stewart and Hovda. at the ear by I\ is and /2. In obtaining the above results the apparatus was arranged so that the sound involved was a pure tone emitted by a tuning fork and there was no difference of phase at the ears. proportional to the logarithm f of the If /i. the form. Psych. the angle 6 is to the left. direction of the sound is (u.I). t See reference in Section 140 .i) 0.

BINAURAL INTENSITY EFFECT 1i) 141 Formula (1 1 .000. .i). 5.. i) for frequencies of 256. one stationary in front and one moving about with changes in intensity ratio.024.) (When it (2) These frequency bands were of different widths. 430. Table VI * Stewart. Some of the con- formed in clusions of these experiments are: (1) With ten of the sixteen observers. such a manner that they did not show the accuracy of equation (n. p. VoL XV. the source of sound appeared to remain directly in front of the observer. No. 1920. the binaural intensity effect ceased to exist throughout one or more bands of frequencies. a much greater ratio of intensity is than can exist in an actual case with the head casting required an intensity shadow for the sound from a distant source.000. but they did clearly indicate the frequencies at which the intensity effect did not exist at all. ceased to exist. Four of the observers were These experiments were pertested at frequencies up to 4. though the intensity ratio changed within wide limits. 512. The er's ability to locate binaural intensity effect does not account for a heara source of sound for to produce a certain in the experiment. apparent Later experiments * were performed with 16 observers and with frequencies from 200 to 2. (2) was found correct for several observers and and 1. Phys. (3) all occurred above 800 cycles and In certain frequency regions there appeared to be two sources of sound. Rn.

less than 180. side of the median plane to that on the other side. Binaural Phase Effect.i 42 (4) BINAURAL EFFECTS There is a wide variation among individuals in regard to the above. p. a review of the early literature p. for a If. H. then the interest centers upon the variation of ip r- (which is constant at one frequency) with frequency. The * The all physicists. The experiments recorded in the article just cited show clearly that the angular displacement of the apparent source of the fused sound or "image" is strictly proportional to the phase difference relation At = 180 the (See discussion of phase angle in Section 3.i show the results obtained circles and dots in the observations for the upper curve indicate two different observational methods. as stated. using here binaural phase effect is being actively studied by both psychologists and both sustained and impulsive sounds. It is impractical to present of the important results. Table VI shows the intensity effect is results so far as the absence of the concerned. By " binaural difference of phase effect" is meant the alteration of the angular displacement from the median plane of the apparent source of the fused sound when varying differences of phase of a given frequency are presented at the ears and the intensities are kept constant and equal. IX. While all workers may not be wholly in accord text. this linear relation between the difference of phase. with. in Fig. and single frequency. is given in the Physical Review. The conclusions * from these curves are the following: accompanying three curves with three different observers. mental procedure was to ascertain the angular displacement. the author believes these data to be reliable and the impression conveyed essentially correct. 1917. the limiting provision that the linear is true only for a difference of phase. <p. of course. The data have been verified by others. The experi0. The n. 502.) image crosses from the maximum angular displacement on one <f> at the ears. with the discussion in the . 6 is proportional to <p for any given frequency. The observations for the other two curves are shown by squares and triangles.2. This "effect" has been known for a number of years.7.

" Stewart would appear and Lindsay. 0. p. and if it emits several frequencies. 500 d. 229. of the foregoing conclusions leads to interesting If a source is actually placed at an angle 6 from considerations. that this conclusion as to time difference is approxi- mately correct. . therefore. * See "Acoustics. all of these The second will have the same difference in time of arrival at the ears and all hence.v 1000 FIG. 1 consideration of the computed phase differences at the ears with the source of sound at any given 6 shows that the above account for the ability of the quantitative measurements fully to locate the source of sound in the limited region disindividual (3) A cussed. according to the second conclusion above.BINAURAL PHASE EFFECT (1) There is not a wide variation in individuals. 1 1. It can be claimed." it could be stated (not here proved *) that the apparent position of the source indicated by 8 is dependent only upon the difference in (2) If these straight lines went through the point " time of arrival of like phases at the ears. the median plane.

the conclusion that . This constancy has a distinct bearing upon only 10 cycles. It has been shown effect cannot account for the It is now shown can do so in the limited region here discussed. Measurements of the frequency limit of the phase effect was made upon 16 observers. and second.000 cycles were Table VII There are two striking indications to be found in the table.144 to the auditor to BINAURAL EFFECTS come from the same is direction. effect very significant. used. The values of frequency above which no phase effect existed are only approximate and are shown in the accompanying Table VII. The third conclusion above that the binaural intensity ability to locate sounds. This is in accord with experience. that the binaural phase There are limitations to this conclusion as will now appear. Only frequencies less than 2. The first is for all that the frequency limit is approximately the same individuals. Above each frequency limit there was no rotation whatever of the apparent source about the head with changing phase. The average deviation from it is 1 the mean is 155 cycles. Omitting two observers. that there are exceptional wide variations from the mean value.

It fre- has been shown above that with some individuals there are quency regions or bands wherein the observers are not influenced in their localization by variations in the ratio of intensities at the ears. in this "lapse-region. There are also unpublished results by others. The suggestion that we have here to do with a response ference upon localization and to the character of the stimulus will doubtless be regarded with skepticism. The phase effect was always entirely independent of the lapse-region. is 145 the most important factor in localization * up have shown that the phase effect is not limited to frequencies less than 1. Other factors is may become prominent at higher frequencies. For Halverson.200 cySubsequent experiments cles are evidently important in localizing ability. p. it would seem. Psychologists are familiar with the influence of intensity-difthis phenomenon is subject to genBut the recognition of a phase differerally accepted principles. 1917. With them. 97. phase-difference remaining constant. But the significant fact is that with six f of sixteen observers the "phase effect" is continuous in at least a portion of this lapse-region. and in fact an attempt has been made by some to Fortunately it has explain the "phase effect" in other terms. t The reason for only six is that the lapse-regions were too high to be within the frequency limit of the phase effect." the apparent source of the fused sound remains stationary in the median plane when the ratio of intensities is altered widely.200 cycles. American Journal of Psychology.200 cycles. 38.BINAURAL PHASE EFFECT phase difference to 1. the phase-phenomenon seems to be independent of the intensity displacement effect. In fact. * . in This evidence terms of physical intensities at the ears cannot is direct and readily understood. ence at the ears with the two intensities equal means. The evidence may be found in the comparison of Tables VI and VII. In short. a response to a different and more intrinsic feature of the stimulus. with a few selected observers of considerable experience the binaural phase effect has been found to exist at frequencies of several thousand cycles. Nevertheless the frequencies below 1. been possible to get what seems to be conclusive evidence that any explanation be correct. This point dis- cussed in a later section of this chapter.

in general. But this cannot be true in the sense that the phase difference is produced merely by a single source and the diffraction about the head as a sphere. have the phase effect in a region where the intensity effect is entirely lacking. note that G. Utilization of the Binaural Phase Effect. of a given frequency are phase and intensity.3. and since we have all but eliminated intensity as a factor in localization below i. W. then a small rotation of the apparatus will them furmean a larger few observers difference in phase at the receivers than at the unaided ears. One Complexity of Factors in Actual Localization. S. and G.146 BINAURAL EFFECTS example. since the only physical factors in a pure tone might 11. seem to locate the source of A sound in the rear instead of the front. if attachments can be made to the ears which will virtually separate ther. equivalent of several sources. conclude that. and intensity. The binaural difference of phase effect was utilized during the war for the location of submarines and of airplanes. but this does not vitiate the method. 11. discussed. all the tones will have the same angular displacement and hence there will be no confusion as to (A confusion in a horizontal semicircle only is being This leads to the utilization of the phase effect. we have.) location. yet. having a wavelength less than 34 cm. For there are always present reflecting sur- which are extensive enough to produce images. Obviously. of the median plane as the source. 11. cycles. Phase Effect with Complex Tones. This is especially true of frequencies higher than 1. This means that. Although the effect at the opening of faces the external meatus is still expressible in phase in contrast to the case of a simple source. is As shown above. effectively a difference in time of arrival at the ears.000. Thus a very high accuracy may be obtained. and hence the angular displacement is independent of frequency. R.5. the with most of them on the same side There would result from these .4. W.aoo the only important factor left is that of phase difference. so long as the phase difference of any the phase effect overtone does not exceed 180.

BINAURAL PHASE EFFECT reflections 147 an apparently diffused source of sound instead of the Consequently the observer could distinoriginal source only. Thus. The complexity of conditions involving reflection gives the single factor. in familiar surroundings in a home. It should be noted that the discussion in this chapter of locali- may have zation of sound in a horizontal is limited to the apparent position of the source plane with not more than 90. phase difference. Physical Review. The phantom source of sound. it by no means follows that the case is as simple or needs to be as simple as that of a source and a rigid sphere with the two ears located diametrically thereon. A suggestion has been made by Hartley and Fry * that the an appreciation of the distance of the source. 13. If two tuning forks of almost the same frequency. Demonstration of Binaural Phase Effect. 6. the hearer observe the phase effect. . assuming that phase difference is the most important factor in localization. The whole problem of localization has therefore been merely touched upon. to tell from which room a voice comes. circle. 1 1. moves continuously about and will in front of the head in but does not complete the an approximately circular horizontal path. agree that with pure tones no such appreobserver ciation exists. however. Doubtless there are other factors which enter into the localization of a pure tone. 1919. they are the difference in quality at the two ears produced by diffraction. There are at least two additional ones in the case of a complex tone. which seems to be a single source. Having reached a point almost directly opposite the ear it moves abruptly from one side to the other but continuously across in front of the observer. and the variation in the quality of a sound that depends upon the location of the source in the particular environment. guish between a location on the right and left side of the median plane. an example of the latter is one's ability. are held one to each ear. Observers. producing a "beat" say every five to ten seconds. a greater opportunity to secure accurate location than did the simple theoretical case.

if one listens closely. maxima are present only if the beat period exceeds at least one second. assuming that one may notice the variation of 6 from 1. Moreover. 26. Physical Review. the beats can be heard. he can hear two additional swells of intensity. Physical Review. compute the time difference that can be detected.7. BINAURAL EFFECTS Binaural Beats. 6. n. The phenomena involved in binaural beats will. For a report on binaural beats with a record of new phenomena see Stewart.U8 11. 509 and 514. one just before and one These additional or secondary just after the minimum intensity. p. Recent experiments verify this conclusion. oif0= * 2.i.* doubtless increase the understanding of au- dition. p. Why cannot phase fully account for localization? Why cannot the phase and the intensity effect together fully account for it? 3. June 1917. of Acoustical Society of America. when fully investigated. 1930. The most interesting conclusion in these papers is. If two beating tuning forks are held one to each ear. In listening to two beating tones with one ear the combined intensity varies from a maximum to zero. QUESTIONS Why cannot the phase effect be explained as an intensity effect? 2. 1925. the saccule. 502. . that the evidence points to the existence of a second and a different organ of hearing. From the data in Fig. and by Stewart. No. There is an interesting phenomenon that may easily be observed. IX. April. Journal See also a later discussion by Lane. With binaural beats the minimum intensity is distinctly not zero. 401.

i. Both elasticity and density are requisite. The In the of a sound also chapter it was made evident that the transmission wave depends upon the elasticity of the medium and upon the density. Without either the wave would not be produced. It is therefore to be observed that in the value of the velocity of a sound wave in a fluid there It may then not be surare involved several physical factors.9 the reflection at the open end of megaphones was mentioned. The former quality requires that the disfirst placement return to zero value. but not in a closely analogous manner. This product is called the "acoustic resistance. indeed. also when a conduit opened out into the unconfined atmosphere. In Section 6. one medium being on the left and one on the plane interface. In Section 5. new considerations. because of the changes in the confinement of that medium. the percentage of energy in the transmitted wave depends upon the product of tlie density and the wave velocity in each medium. essential in the process. 149 . Transmission of Energy from One Medium to Another. the energy transmitted was not 100 per cent. But the transmission of sound from a gas to a solid and from one solid to another involves physical factors entering the question of such transmission from one medium to another will now be described. In previous chapters there have been discussed several cases of transmission where the medium remained the same and yet." the second word being used also in elecConsider the tricity. incident perpendicularly at a plane prising interface between two media.CHAPTER XII ACOUSTIC TRANSMISSION 1 2.7 it was found that there was a reflection in a conduit at any sudden change in area. The gives a return force which is density indicates the existence of it mass and hence of the requirement of time to produce a displacement. that in a plane wave.


Let the incident wave come from the

Of the energy

reflected at the interface and the flowing to the right, part will be remainder will be transmitted into the second medium. It is fortunate that the actual amount transmitted can be determined by

the application of the following simple expression:


Transmitted flow of energy
Incident flow of energy


(r +


Here r
in the


an abbreviation

for the ratio of the acoustic resistance



to that in the

an important fact that this discussion can be extended to include solids if one limits the consideration to longitudinal waves. This would include the passage of sound from It would be air to water and from water through a ship's hull.f
It is also

applicable to the transmission of sound from air to the ground and vice versa. But one must be warned that it is only applicable where the second medium does not act like a drum head or a dia-

In fact, in partitions and floors, diaphragm action is the correct description, for it is found that mass is a very nearly important factor. The actual sound entering a wall, treated as




as in this chapter,

would be small indeed and



not agree with the amount of transmission found in experience. The following table gives the value of the acoustic resistance
for several substances: J

* For the derivation see Stewart and Lindsay, Acoustics" (D. Van Nostrand), Chapter IV. f Not precisely true, for the diaphragm action discussed in this section may not


be disregarded. J See Appendix


of Stewart and Lindsay, "Acoustics," p. 327.

As an example,


one applies the formula to the transmission

air to water, a

very small fraction



Transmission in Architectural Acoustics. "



foregoing one might correctly conclude that the structure of buildings to avoid transmission of sound from one room to another is

not a very simple matter. Interesting experiments have been made with partitions in order to find the most economical construction that will give satisfactory acoustic insulation. The lighter the structure, such as in a home, the more difficult becomes

the problem. For in a building requiring massive walls and floors, the inertia prevents diaphragm action. It is to be borne in mind

that to reduce the sound transmission through a floor or partition there are chiefly two methods, absorption and rigid or massive construction. The absorption can be produced by the nature of
the material itself or of its surface. This will prevent, through surface absorption, the transmission of sound, but the absorption on the interior is not so effective if the wall is light enough to

Both mass and rigidity of a wall or floor vibrate as a diaphragm. will prevent transmission. An illustration of the use of absorptwo layers of flooring, the top one the finished floor. Underneath the joists are the lath and being the plaster. Not only will such a floor vibrate as a whole, but even the areas of flooring from one joint to another will have
additional vibration.
tion and rigidity is as follows. consists of the joists carrying


ordinary wood floor in a


One way

of producing a serious reduction

of the transmission


to lay over the first flooring

an absorbing

material of perhaps an inch in thickness. Upon this, and sepa2's but without nailing. rated by perhaps six inches, are laid 2.



the finish floor


nailed thereto.


the finish flooring

without any solid connection with the floor structure. effect is very marked.


Machinery Noises.

Noises from machinery


prevented by the removal of the cause, by absorption and by
* In this country there
is an organization of physicists, acoustic engineers, and construction engineers, the Acoustical Society of America, that is

actively interested in


problems relating to architectural acoustics.



preventing the flow of energy from the machine to surrounding supports. Attention here will be devoted especially to the last


Assume applicable. the 120 cycle hum of a motor from that the desire is to prevent being conveyed to a support such as a table or floor. Everyone
for the others are

more obviously

knows that

a soft

pad placed under the motor

ive in preventing the transmission.

be quite effectnot merely because

of the absorption of the pad but also because of its elasticity. One can substitute a number of small springs and get a good effect

because the springs cause a reflection of the energy, explained briefly as follows. The presence of the springs will allow the motor base to vibrate rather freely. There will then


exist a condition


like that at the

ously discussed.

In other words the condition

open end of a pipe, previis one of a reflecthe springs are light and



be particularly true


numerous, rather than heavy and few.

The mathematical



gives a




better explanation,* but the chief point to be are here dealing with a case of reflection of

energy, rather than of absorption. Attention of engineers to the prevention of machinery noises is rapidly increasing.!




Three Media.

not with the transmission from

from medium two to

Assume that we are dealing medium one to medium two, but medium three, retaining perpendicular

incidence of the sound and parallelism of the two planes separating the media. Then, if this second medium has a length such that



a curious result.

obtained through the reflection at the two interfaces, The transmission of energy from the

first to

the third

exist if the


ascertain the

medium is then of the same magnitude as would medium were absent. Usually in order to energy transmitted in the third medium it is neces-

sary to use a complicated formula.

f See

Kimball, Journal of the Acoustical Society , II, a, 197, 1930. Slocum, "Noise and Vibration Engineering," D. Van Nostrand


12.5. Constrictions
sity Effect.


the area in

and Expansion in Conduits. (i) Intenbeen explained in a previous chapter that if It has a tubular conduit is changed at any point, there is not

100% transmission, but a reflection. If there are two changes in area as illustrated in the accompanying Fig. 12.1, then there are





both junctions where the areas are altered. It assumed that the diameters of conduits i, 2 and 3 are small
reflections at



comparison with a wave-length.

If the area of the first tube


of the second

*?2 >

and of the third




we put mi




and m%



then the following conclusions


be drawn:

(a) If the length of the tube area Sz is very short compared with the wave-length, then the ratio of transmitted to incident energy depends only upon the first and third tubes and may be

expressed by





If the tube S% has a length equal to one-half wave-length,

then there




resonance set up in Si and the transmitted wave is This is also true if oYs length 2 were not present.


integral number of half-wave-lengths. (c) The ratio of transmitted to incident energy



any length of

The reader

now enabled

to understand


it is difficult


diminish transmission in a conduit by a constriction which is very short in length. An example would be the insertion of a dia-

154 ACOUSTIC TRANSMISSION across the tube with a small hole in it.6. complexity. (2) Phase Effect.* The Stethoscope. The query arises as to the transmission of energy from medium i into the in the shown small tube. Sec Stewart and Lindsay. p. 75. The theory it: is known f and the following conclusions may i. 12. the ratio of the transmitted energy to the If the thickness of the lamina 2 energy incident in i is (n * + 2> "*2) f Brillie. But this is not the case. be drawn from is very small in comparison with a wave-length. 1919. be nearly closed with imwill be noted until there is practically canals may At first thought will it might seem that. The medium in 2 and 3 is air. for there are repeated reflections at the ends of the constricted (or ex- panded) length and the transmitted wave is made up of not merely a portion of one wave incident at the 3 end of the constriction. yet there would be no change of phase other than that which would ordinarily occur in the same length though a constriction or expansion of tubing of constant diameter. Medium i is a solid. 78. since 1 and S 3 would be equal. but of a large number. the entire incident energy would be transmitted. tube conduit and thus to reduce the intensity transmitted. Of course viscosity and the assumption of plane waves in the theory would prevent the accuracy of this statement. 223. but its truth is sufficiently approxi- mate If one attempts to pinch a rubber as a practical guide. Its phase cannot be unmodified by this The theory for this change is known. Le Genie CiwY. al- change the intensity of flow of energy in a conduit. Acoustics. phragm According to item (a) just stated. Consider an ideal stethoscope as accompanying figure. The ear pacted wax but no deafness complete closure. . prac- tically no change in intensity will occur until the channel has been made very small. liquid or any medium.

* The longer the cone. but . i. change measurements this is a serious consideration. and and m* is considers the thickness of medium 2. the less its slope. 12. Velocity of make measurements of the Sound in Pipes. In the area of a conduit without introducing reflection. If one considers the transmission from water to air. the introduction of felt incident energy be unity.. he will find that this length can readily be adjusted so the energy of tube 3 is much sound greater than the energy that in which would pass from the given area of water to air.8.7. since the reflections at the ends of the cone introduce the will not be transmitted possibility of resonance. the stethoscope tube permits all of the energy in tube 3 to flow into the ear. In quantitative order to avoid reflection it is customary to connect the two differ- 12. the less the reflections at the ends. When the ear is pressed area of against medium i. Only at resonance In many cases. Non-reflecting ent areas by means of a cone of very gradual slope.VELOCITY OF SOUND IN PIPES where r\ is i 155 the ratio of the acoustic resistances of medium 2 to the ratio of the area of 3 to the area of 2.2 whereas without the the given stethoscope only a small part of the flow of energy from water would enter the ear. in the transmitting tubes will cut down resonance and prevent material effect of reflected waves upon the source and thus any will possible satisfactory quantitative relative intensities of different frequencies. all wave-lengths will the ratio of transmitted to equally well. Moreover.7. FIG. 12. Also. It is impossible to Conduit Junctions. medium 2. There are two physical in pipes phenomena which enter into sound transmission * Sec also Section 5.e. it is obvious that the ear becomes a stethoscope.

wherein r is and c a number which Schulze the radius of the pipe in mms. over.i 56 ACOUSTIC TRANSMISSION in the which are not important is open air. Physik. in 1904 found experimentally that c varied from . 12. 224. 1919.0075 to 0. . Brillie f presents the following data as having been taken by Messrs. p. Le Genie Ciw7. n is the frequency varies with the diameter and the material * of the pipe. of the sound used in these experiments not given by The accompanying * Fig. Clerget and Dessus in France. 13. unit length should be the same throughout the pipe and should be dependent upon the frequency. made prominent The exchange of heat between the wall and the gas is the second The result of both of these factors is to diminish the factor.3 graphically exhibits the data ob- t Brillie. Schulze. It is found experi- mentally that the percentage decrease in the velocity of sound in a pipe is given by the following expression. H. The frequency Brillie. the diameter and the material of the pipe.9. sound intensity and also the sound velocity. d. tionary a gas is heated by compression and cooled by rarefaction. Decay of Intensity in Pipes. The lengths of pipe given are those required to reduce the sound intensity to 50% of its initial is value.. The decay of intensity 12. The viscosity of a gas in a pipe because of the presence of the staMorewall which necessitates slippage in the gas itself. 75. of sound in transmission through pipes has been only slightly It is well-known that the percentage of decay per investigated. 1060 (1904). p. Ann.025.

Chrisler and Evans.DECAY OF INTENSITY IN PIPES 157 tained with transmission through speaking tubes by Eckhardt. and 51% in a 30-600 1 tube. p. 12. not clear whether the difference is caused by friction or to the lack of perfect rigidity in the pipe. Technological Paper of the Bureau of Standards No. .4 loss in transmission also But it is depends upon the material of the pipe. Thus a 2-inch brass tube would transmit 80% of a tone of 300 cycles in a lo-foot Thus tube. 1926-27.* The loss in transmission depends importantly upon the diam- eter of the tube. in long tubes the differences in Fig. 333. The 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 FREQUENCY Fio. 163. 12. 12. ai.3 would be the square of the values shown. 64% in a 2o-foot tube. 60 BRASS 40 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 FREQUENCY Fio.3 are accentuated. by absorption due The passage of sound around a bend in a pipe has already been * Vol. Of course the transmission in a 2o-foot tube TRANSMISSION OF STRAIGHT TUBES PER 10 FOOT SECTION "4 BRASS i.

how does the excess pressure tube containing medium 3 compare with the pressure which would be obtained if the tube containing 2 were extended indefinitely to the right and the former tube omitted? 2.6.4. From this fact what would you conclude concerning the reflection on the walls of the cone as well as at the ends? 4.18. medium i to medium 2 of Fig. Compare Sections 12. 12. there would be little difference in result between the long cone and the approximation to it by a succession of short cylindrical tubes connected by abrupt changes in area.7. the transmission of sound energy from 1. Explain the apparent contradiction involved in the following: According to Section 12.158 ACOUSTIC TRANSMISSION in Section 10. Can you venture a reason why such walls would modify the velocity of the sound wave in the tube? . pared to the abrupt changes proposed in 5. 12. Assume a conduit had walls that were thin and elastic so that they would be set in vibration by the sound w^ave.7 and 5. and hence the energy computed as in 12.1. the attachment of the tube containing 3 could not increase the flow of energy from I to 2.6 cannot be correct. QUESTIONS in the According to (2) of Section 12.7. The results are shown fre- There an unexplained peculiarity with high quencies with a pipe of large diameter. effect of is mentioned determined also the in Fig. The authors just mentioned have 90 bends.2 depends upon the ratio of the Then acoustic resistance in the second medium to that in the first. For a wave-length long com3.

1. 64. When the pressure of one is positive the other will be equal and negative. 65 and 210. then a wave passing from A to D will suffer no reflection at D but will divide equally and pass on to E. through the double tube shown in the accompanying Fig. for a given frequency. one-half wave-length longer than DCE. 13. it. . but the displacements add. from left to right. There can be no forward wave * in EF for there is no pressure to produce pp.* In transmitting sound through a tube or conduit.CHAPTER 13. Interference XIII SELECTIVE TRANSMISSION Tube of Herschel and Quincke. it is often desirable to eliminate certain frequency regions and this chapter describes the methods so far devised to produce such a selection. FIG. Sec Rayleigh's "Theory of Sound/' Vol. Consider the transmission of sound. 13. If DBE and DCE are alike in length and area. The pressures neutralize. and if EF has the same diameter as AD the combined wave at E will pass on through EF without reflection at E because there is no change in condition. but the displacements will unite favorably for a positive displacement of one is the same y actual direction as the negative displacement of the other. But if DBE is.1 As already noted in Chapter V.1. if the area of cross-section of tube AT) is twice that of either DBE or DCE. then the two waves will meet at E out of phase. 159 II.

If the sound entering A posed of a single frequency but is complex.160 SELECTIVE TRANSMISSION interference. from two to three times as many. or Stewart and Lindsay. But the above explanation. Since the difference in paths is now zero. The complete theory of the Herschel and Quincke tube shows that there are other frequencies. there will be no transmission is not comof the energy through EF. provided that at the same time the difference of these lengths is not an integral number of wave-lengths. 4. in general. part through be reflected back through C to D. One can see that the wave travelling D by the path DCE B will divide at E and part go out through EF. satisfactory is in error occur only for frequencies which are opposite in phase after passing over the paths DBE and DCE. 1928. They are found to depend upon the sum of the lengths of the two branches rather than upon their difference. t 31. Thus it becomes necessary by to resort to mathematical methods of stating the conditions which must exist at D and . in fact. 696. At these division points there will be in general a change of phase with the reflected waves. the additional eliminated frequencies are discovered. When this is done and the equations solved. 90. the history of a sound wave leaving is not simply passage from to by the two paths. two waves and B and D assuming the conditions specified. It is obvious that one cannot actually trace the paths of the waves in intensity back to D where it will again divide and part will limited and phase in the general case for they will not be one circuit about the loop. the presto A. Stewart. There is zero transmission when the sum of these lengths is an integral number of wave-lengths. although apparently in the inference that elimination will to physicists for almost a century (from 1833 to 1928 *). which will fail in transmission through EF. This is * p." . Phys. The D secret of their appearance rests in the fact that. "Acoustics. Rtv. the The energy cannot be destroyed by proceed in their journeys around the loop through C unite at D. sures are in phase and the waves proceed from Thus. that frequency for which the difference in path is one-half wave-length will be eliminated from transmission. etc.



an interesting case of the advantage of mathematical methods. Quincke has made use of a modification which is more simple
in construction.

The wave

enters at





and either

passes out at

F or

experiences what

equivalent to a reflection

at D, for there

no opportunity

for the energy to be disposed of

If the frequency corresponds to the natural period of

vibration of the tube

DC, then



will resonate.

As noted





nance frequency the incoming and ^ outgoing waves in such a closed
tube agree in displacement at the open end, but have pressures
that are approximately equal and opposite, forming a "loop" at
the end.
If this occurs, there




approximately no pressure to produce transmission out through DF. Thus the wave of this frequency is eliminated from transmission.

Since the elimination

of the tube



caused by resonance, the shape inconsequential, if the elimination of this one

frequency only is considered. But a more detailed description of the action in Fig. 13.2 will make the phenomenon clearer. Consider the number of possible

waves involved.



to D, which the flow of energy from There are the two waves from wave one, one enter-




described as two, and one passing on toward F, described ing as wave three. (For simplicity let us regard the reflection in passinto and out of We are not so much interested in as nil. ing



an accuracy of treatment as in a further helpful description.) There is one wave from the tube DC which will pass partly to the Denote this left toward A and partly to the right toward F. wave in the tube by six, the one passing toward A by four, and
the one toward
to the right,

F by five. We then

see that there are

two waves

toward F, numbered three and



required to build up resonance, and, if there is no where there is only the limiting case of vibration in viscosity, the energy escaping from the resonator is equal to that entering

noted, time




details are as follows.

from the source.
will build





until five

as great as three.






furphase to three because it has traversed a half wave-length ther. Wave five will not build up any further because at equality

of three and five the total flow to the right becomes nil. Then In the total flow in four must become equal to the flow in one.
other words, wave one is essentially reflected. This explanation gives a better insight into the phenomenon, though we have incorrectly neglected the reflections occurring in passing in

and out

FIG. 13.3


DC and

the alteration of phases involved at this point.


never have any greater number of waves than those specified, though they arise from more causes than described. With resonance without viscosity one sees that

with these reflections we




equal wave five and wave four


equal wave

in Fig. 13.3.

As illustrations of possible shapes, two arrangements are shown But, as shown below, the shape of this tube does

determine the extent of the partial elimination of neighboring

An investigation of the theory (see the following section) states that if it were not for viscosity, the elimination of the



selected frequency would be complete and independent of the diameter of this side branch. In practice one branch will eliminate all but a fraction of the incident energy. Consequently more

than one branch


sometimes essential

to the production of the

desired reduction in intensity.

* Krueger has studied the use of such branch tubes and has concluded that the extent of the elimi-

nation depends upon the point of attachment of the side tube. He used a fork resonator and found that the elimination was the

when the point of attachment to the conduit was an intenumber of half wave-lengths from the rear wall of the resogral nator and the least when the distance was an odd number of

quarter wave-lengths.

Undoubtedly these conclusions indicate






FlG. 13.4



the influence of the reflected

wave on the

source, but a discussion

of the matter should be based upon additional experiments. It is not difficult, however, to understand that there is a desirable
separation of side tubes when using more than one. As an illustration, attention is directed to Krueger's final design, shown in
Fig. 13.4.

was constructed to eliminate a frequency of 256

cycles or an integral number of times this frequency. Side tubes A, C and will assist in eliminating 256 cycles per second if each is adjusted to have a length of one quarter of the


B C, D and -F, 512 cycles if correspondingly and similarly A> 5, C, Z), E and F, 1,024 cycles. The adjusted; object of the spacing is to cause the reflected waves to be in agreement. Consider the fact that the incident and reflected waves
length; A^


Krueger, Philos.


17, 1901, p. 223.



at each opening are opposite in the phase of the displacement. Assume a wave incident at the right in Fig. 13.4. If the distance



A is

flected at the

one-half wave-length, then the phases of the waves retwo points are opposite (for the incident waves are

But, since the reflected wave must travel opposite in phase). a half-wave-length, it will there be in the same phase from B to



with the reflected wave at A.

Consequently there


be no

interference in the reflected waves, a fundamental condition for



of a Closed


Tube as a Side Branch.



oretical investigation

* by Stewart considers a single side tube, and only the incident and transmitted waves. The wave reflected at the opening of the side l*0\ UZ3T1 tube is assumed not to






affect the source.


condition can be approximated by having a

amount of





the conduit between the

source and the branch


it is





not reflected at

the distant terminus of the tube.

This ideal con-

can be approxi-


700 BOO 900 1000


FIG. 13.5

mated by again inserting damping in the conduit
between the side tube

and the distant terminus.

Obviously the damping will greatly dissipate the original energy, but the arrangement will permit a comparison of the theory of

"Acoustics," Stewart and Lindsay, p. 116.

Here the the- ory and experiment bring rather unexpected results for the re- sponse of such a resonator in the open is "sharp.6 - 3 B FREQUENY 456789 IN CYCLES 10 -r 20 100 30 PER SECOND FIG. " The function tan kl" is a short expression used in trigonometry for indicating a certain value that depends ITT! upon the angle kl or . frequencies other than the critical one produce very little vibration.5.HELMHOLTZ RESONATOR AS SIDE BRANCH the action 165 is and the experimental 13. Helmholtz Resonator as a Side Branch. results. and the transmission is zero and independent of the areas of the tubes. At the critical frequency tan kl = oo . * The full line curve gives the theoretical of the square root of the transmission. S the area of the conduit. 13. The formula physically is may have given here merely that the reader may see that a result complicated a simple mathematical expression. 13." that is. LO . The comparison found values in Fig.3. where X is A the wave-length.6 * The is theory shows that the ratio of the transmitted energy to the incident energy where <r is the area of the branch tube. k is 2ir divided by the wave-length and / is the length of the side branch. .

However. The and experimental results are shown in Fig. to be observed that the transmission 13. Two points which can be seen only reaction of the through theoretical considerations are that the cause of the decreased transmission in the orifice is more importantly the mass and that the viscosity of the orifice is relatively unimportant. the sound escapes from the orifice and thus diminishes transmisBut this is not the correct picture. Here the sym- bols not defined in the foregoing are c the "conductivity" of the neck of the resonator and V its volume. Stewart and Lindsay. "Acoustics. the former by the graph and the latter by the circles. is theory. Curve 5 is the theoretical if CQ be arbitrarily changed from its computed value 0.582 to 0. A point of interest is cies the most." p. that the orifice affects the low frequenthis conclusion cannot be extended to indefinitely high frequencies. It is is affected very over a wide range of frequencies." p. might be supposed that sion. The Helmholtz resomarkedly nator would not be efficient as a Quincke tube if only one frequency or a narrow range is to be eliminated. "Acoustics. fThe too complicated .4. 116. is is mass of the gas in the hole. The ordinates on the right give the values in decibels.6. there is The former point needs explanation.74.166 SELECTIVE TRANSMISSION theoretical * 13.7 shows a series of curves taken with orifices of four different diameters. is In this connection the action of It an orifice in a conduit interesting. this Of course is lost. 120. a radiation from the hole outward and inertia of the energy But because of the action of the this chapter. The full line curve is the theory t and the designated points represent the square root of the measured values of the transmission. Action of an Orifice. Figure 13. the reflected wave. similar to that discussed earlier in consequently * very much greater than the radiated wave and the chief factor in the resulting decrease of trans- The theory. Stewart and Lindsay. shows that the ratio is < I -fI of transmitted to incident energy 4*$* ( I J i . Curve 4 does curve not agree with experimental points. for a brief footnote.

is has just been stated that the reaction of the mass very important.9 0.183 0. for here It we have standing waves.3 10 -1 (V -2 X X -10 -20 8 S I Frequency Fio. inertia and elasticity. If one can imag- ine the air losing its elasticity at a certain point. The reason is that these two qualities. are the same throughout.0. 13. indeed more so than the radiation from the orifice. then there would .084 0. R 0.382 0.3 0. reflection In a tube or conduit having a constant cross-section there is no backward. In the early chapters the transmission of sound was seen to be possible because a medium possesses inertia (or mass) and elasticity (or the ability to return to the original position). although one may perhaps wisely attempt a further discussion in language.ACTION OF AN ORIFICE 167 mission.1 L .7 Again the mathematical theory is the only adequate description. Points 0. However the relative importance of the radiated wave increases with frequency.582 0.05 0. The above interesting points can be to a musical instrument like a flute.74 0. but not without addiapplied tional discussion.015 c Ex p.

A very striking and effective specific ranges of frequencies has been found * in the acoustic wave filter. 1924. Acoustic Wave Filters. 116. 583. were the medium at very Indeed. will be given in Chapter XV. 1922. elastic action of which was much more important. Phys. 1924. and Jl. as if it may act prove to Thus the reflection may be important and the transmission through it is small in comparison. 9. but opening out into space. the inertia only. and Peacock. flute or clarinet it is not primarily for the purpose of allowing energy to escape. Type E a high-frequency pass. 1924. be considered. Rev. 23. lose its elasticity and have Now an orifice acts much like a medium having inertia only. 23. in Fig. p. p. Chapter VII. Or see "Acoustics. although effectively so short. when one raises a key on the the important element. 520.. 22. but rather to cause reflection with change of More concerning the action of such instruments pressure phase. 13. of Opt. The ment with the Helmholtz resonator illustrates that the possesses inertia only. The characteristic curves of transmission are shown * in Fig. Its detailed description is means of eliminating beyond the scope of tical interest will this presentation.8. p. Rev. the letters Type A is p." Stewart and Lindsay. a low-frequency pass. Soc. the orifice has already been assumed to have This was because it led into a large volume.9. The but certain points of pracconstruction of three types of filters is shown Type A consists of a series of Helmholtz resonators distributed at equal distances along a conduit.5. corresponding to the types. 13. p. Phys. and Hall. What is here stated is but one aspect in a very complex acoustic condition in such instruments.168 SELECTIVE TRANSMISSION be no pressure there and there would be reflection at that place approximately as at the open end of a pipe. In short. 1923. 528. . 20. See Stewart. 13. 525. experiorifice. 502. 23. there any point along the tube to would be reflection. inertia only.. in the Helmholtz resonator. 1924.. Experimentally (and theoretically also) the radiation is not In fact. Type B of orifices similarly distributed. and Type C of the combination of the two preceding types. p. the side walls being extended to increase the inertia of the orifices. Physical Review.

consider a standing wave Place walls across the tube at in a tube of infinite extension. were it not the dissipation of energy caused by viscosity and absorption of in this closed . FREQUENCY Fio.ACOUSTIC WAVE FILTERS and Type these 169 C filters a single-band pass. not necessarily adjacent. 13. ~1 TYPE B r fro IP P TYPE C Fio.8 There can be a vibration of a medium to and without any transmission of power. The remarkable property of is an almost total elimination of transmission in the attenuated frequency regions. 13. For example. The vibration would continue for space indefinitely.9 two displacement nodes.

theory of the acoustic wave filter. node. a region of frequencies where there is a vibratory motion in each "section" or space between of Fig. possible to In a similar manner in the acoustic wave filter. the effort must be propcating energy throughout erly timed. SELECTIVE TRANSMISSION such closed spaces could be placed along One would then witness an oscillatory motion or vibraseries of A the tube. the applied force must have a certain phase relation to the movement. For. If one wishes to set a in vibration by communi- vibration. Thus there must be a .8. Thus theory shows the possibility of a non-attenuated transmission region of frequencies in the acoustic wave filter. Fictitious paragraphs makes discussion in the preceding this a convenient point to mention the absence " Nodes. but reflects it. tion in each* compartment. that is. is In the case of standing waves in an open organ pipe. This not analogous to the wave filter but is introduced to show the Now theory shows that possibility of no transmission of energy. 13. yet there is no motion of the medium and without movement a force cannot do work. without a flow of energy from dashed lines in Type in the acoustic filter wave there is A one to the other and with an amplitude of vibration constantly decreasing from section to section in the direction of the attempted transmission. there a flow of energy out of the open end.6." The of ideal displacement nodes in the stationary waves occurring in No energy could be transmitted through such an ideal practice. 13. This is the phenomenon pendulum its in the non-pass region of frequencies.iyo the walls. From these two analogies the possibility of an acoustic filter wave having attenuated regions and non-attenuated region is sugAlthough this discussion does not consider the actual gested. it is have a phase relation between pressure and particle velocity such that energy will be transmitted. enough has been said to indicate that the acoustic wave filter does not dissipate energy. but is no transmission of energy. thus refusing transmission. although here is a "loop" of pressure and ample variation from the mean pressure to do work.

ment nodes in the air column are not strictly stationary. for there is a loss of energy in the wave travelling along the tube. What is the reason that the Quincke tube does not give zero transmission at the critical frequency? 4. 1. too. rather than in the particle velocity which each wave. How would the introduction of viscosity affect the consideration of the divided tubes shown in Fig. The same sort of diminution occurs as the wave returns. none of these This explanation of the cases can have ideal displacement nodes. all the but even in this case the displace- With a occurs because the air next to the pipe remains stationary and a friction loss is introduced. This loss closed pipe.7? Why . 13. energy issues from the mouth. 13.5 and 13. existence of imperfect "nodes" must be modified by the statement that the viscosity loss must enter through the actual particle velocity of the resultant wave. would have if existing alone. The wave travelling from the mouth to the end of the pipe thereby diminishes slightly in amplitude with distance of travel. Why does the presence of a mere mass of gas in the orifice prevent a serious amount of dissipation of energy out through the orifice? of the resonators are 5. Then. In both Figs. DB and DC. wave energy is communicated to the walls of the pipe. the that for waves returning from E to displacements are favorable to transmission in DA. Show D Can you 6. provided the difference in the lengths of the branches is one-half wave-length. 13. 13. 2. forward and back. From what has been stated. Of course similar losses occur in the open pipe as well.6 the effects not as sharp as would be expected from their response in the open.1 ? 3.1. QUESTIONS of Fig. suggest a possible reason? " '* might one expect that a large orifice would give a result not in conformity with theory as in Fig. but unfavorable to transmission again in the branches.QUESTIONS flow from the 171 mouth to this end.

the ratios of the frequencies to the as follows: first or "tonic" being It will be seen at once that the ratios of C. B have the ratios 10 12 which is called a minor chord. Thus what is called by the octave has a frequency ratio of 2 i. Several reasons exist for expressing the relation between the frequencies of two tones not as a frequency difference but as a frequency ratio. are all B y and d 4 : 5 : 6. but western countries use chiefly the one to be described. which : is : a major chord. The manner in which : the range of frequencies between a note and its octave is divided determines the nature of the scale. and G c ' 1 F.1. There are a number of different musical scales employed in the world. and G. A. 15. Our scale consists of eight notes. If the ratios of the frequencies of adjacent notes be now written we have CDEFGABc' 9/8 10/9 I 6/ I 5 9/8 172 10/9 9/8 16/15 . It nation of two tones is is a fact that to us the most pleasing combi- one which the frequency ratio is expressible two integers neither of which is large. . The Diatonic Scale.CHAPTER XIV MUSICAL SCALES 14. The notes of E y G.

But this is not prac- It is evident that Consider the impossibility of applying it to the piano forte. Mean Temperament. D and E y F and G. fr to ^> IO /9 or C D m^ and the interval C to . I III > and 1. In order for this to be true.m. If the first is called a whole tone. as a result. There are indicated above three distinct ratios or "intervals" 9/8. a sacrifice of harmony must be made for con- venience in execution. there are. to be entirely independent of the tonic. Hence one could not pick out the tones that would produce the same scale if he began on D as a keynote. the latter is a semitone.059 (repeated. . But with the above ratios these twelve intervals could not be all equal. 1 1 1. 14. each one of these intervals must be 1 . then the three intervals are T.0* A semitone interval multiplied 12 times (which means 12 such intervals) equals 2. If now additional semitones be inserted between C and D. - introduce a sufficient possible to start tical. i The reason for this is that X * 1.0.0 or the octave.125 X i. occurring twelve times) equals intervals between C and the other notes of the scale This is the significance of what is meant by the twelfth root of 2. At least four suggestions as to temperaretained. but only one has been called the mean temperament. or 1. to the interval is 9/8 or 1. 12 intervals in the octave.067. G and A^ and A and 5. The mean temperament assumes If the scale is twelve fixed intervals. an d J 6/i5.059 instead of the 1. number of tones in the scale to make it on any note as the tonic. It is ment have been made.MEAN TEMPERAMENT An ^interval" / 173 between two tones is If the frequencies of three tones are represented the ratio of their frequenby a y b y and f.* The 1. interval D to is 10/9 whereas C to D is 9/8) Similar obstacles would arise throughout in attempting to have the same scale on D as a "tonic. is called The modification in the tones necessary temperament.and -.067 given above." One recourse would be to 1. then the twelve intervals must be exactly alike. 10/9.125. . 1. the last being Thus clearly the algebraic product and not the sum of the first two. As an example.2. The first two are practically equal and approximately twice the third.059 X 2.125.

1. There is not universal agreement as to the frequency of a given note. .174 MUSICAL SCALES " are shown for the "natural and the "tempered" scales as follows: On as Db. Frequency. it is said that the difference is very noticeable (see Section 14. G y A the actual tuning of a piano care temperament. No.6). 295 (1930).059. The following can be found mentioned in various works in acoustics: STANDARD FREQUENCIES FOR A 435 French Stuttgart Concert Pitch International 440 460 435 461 .498 1. .059 an ^ would be the same By placing the semitones. we have twelve semitones In the octave and any one of them may be used as the tonic. These introduced semiis tones would have the following intervals with the tonic: C# and Db i. F and G.059 1.682 D# and b F# and Gb G# and A}> A% and The slight But in chords.059 1.122 1.059 1. 1864.325 1.ooo 1. 14. D and in and A and 5. Science. the tempered scale C# would be 1. b X X X X X 1. but it is not taken to secure this equal approximated. in between C and D. 72.059 1.6 American Concert Boston Symphony Orchestra According to White * 435 * all piano manufacturers of the United White. p.3.059 difference between the natural and the tempered scale is and scarcely noticeable if the tones are played in succession.

MUSICAL INTERVALS States are using an A of 440 vibrations. to 5.4. C. With becomes 261. uti y #/2) w/ 3 . C__a to 5_2 .. This is French use as C's. where /a is middle C. Ci to JBi. middle C There are various ways of indicating 14. Nomenclature.. C2 to 52 . Two examples follow: C_i to 5_i. c* to 8. the octave in which a given note is found. C//. c to b\ c\ to b\\ c* to 2. C 3 to 5 3 . Miller in the work so . c\ is C /. C to 5 .6 on an equally tempered scale. C_i to J5_j. etc. used in Germany.. etc. wherein middle C. The etc. Table VIII Musical Intervals . extensively quoted in this text. wherein " " middle C is C3 This is used by D. A 440.

QUESTIONS T a semitone and * why? This paragraph has been kindly prepared by Doctor P. Director and Professor of Music at the University of Iowa. since in our contemporary music the contrast between major and minor. the major third for instance. find the tempered scale less aesthetically satisfying than 14. most performers who talk glibly of the "pure" scale actually increase major and augmented intervals and diminish minor and diminished intervals. are of relatively great psychological importance. not greater. What interval is the twelfth root of 2 and why? 3. . Certain choruses in the Roman and Greek churches do actually use or approximate the standards of pitch expounded by Pythagoras. while these alterations are thus away from. G. and the "tendency" of certain tones to progress to certain others because of our habit of thinking harmonically as well as melodically. the natural scale. and practice without instrumental accompaniment in order to form and maintain the habit of thinking in terms of this pitch standard. It is to be noted that in the last columns is evidence of the introduction into the literature of the term "millioctave.122. Singers and players of instruments whose pitch can be regulated by breath or touch. what is the interval of 1. To him the author's thanks are due.6. as compared with the tempered scale. Clapp. they are aesthetically eminently justified. wn not ta ^ e this as a standard? 2. This table is taken from the preliminary report on acoustic terminology by the standardization committee of the Acoustical Society of America. If the interval of a whole tone is 1." which is one thousandth of the interval of the octave. However.* If the semitone B to C is 1. Production of Music in the Natural Scale. is though.067. the musical intervals in a comparative form. and consequently endeavor to perform in the latter. not toward. what they term the "pure" or "natural" scale.Musical Intervals. rather than make an inaccurate use of the terms "pure" scale and "natural" scale. in the Pythagorean scale. than the tempered interval. To distinguish this practice of emphasizing "tendency" from a true attempt to approximate the scale of nature. I suggest that performers should speak of an "artistic" or "harmonic" scale. but less.The accompanying table VIII gives I4-S.

that the flow of energy from the fork was increased by the presThe fork was closely coupled with the air column representative of the method of affecting the flow of energy from the source by resonance. in with the remainder of the text. and can successfully convey to the air illustrated Barton. discussed in Chapter V. The purpose of this chapter. Development of Musical Instruments. The resonance experifork placed over ajar. Richardson. 1922. 15. General. ment with a Production of Sound." Oxford University Press. But with our increased knowledge of by modifications of present instruments and the additions of others. it is probable that the physicist will have greater influence in the development of musical instruments in the future than he has had in the past. That improvement can be made both tion. the present time there are excellent treatises * giving discussions that are more thorough than are here possible. The table becomes a sounding board. showed ence of the jar.. "Acoustics of Orchestral Instruments and of the Organ. theoretical * 177 . is not a detailed descripharmony tion of musical instruments. gives a non-mathematical and yet theoretical account. THE VOICE AND OTHER SOUND SOURCES Musical in15. gives both the and practical aspects. there can be no doubt. Its function is to emphasize physical principles so that the student may have At his understanding increased and interest aroused. 1929.CHAPTER XV MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS." Macmillan and Co. Another method is to increase the vibrating surface exposed to the air.1. "Text-book on Sound. nor of the underlying theory. struments have been developed through experiment. This is by pressing a vibrating fork on a table top. Their use has preceded our full understanding of the physics of their operaacoustics and of psychology. This may be in the jar so that the latter could influence the former.2.

and the increase of flow of energy from the source at not large. One is concerned not only with the intensity of sound on the interior of an instrument. Then. we would anticipate without resort to matheThe effect is not to change the fork frequency in the direction of equality. The nature of the change in frequency is curiIf the level of the water in the jar is raised. be described at the appropriate There is another feature that should be mentioned in stating a general view. The entire variation of frequency of the fork in a certain experiment performed as described was less than one-hundredth of one per cent. The effect is therefore column can show that a vibrating air of such a rigid body as a tuning frequency fork. two most prominent effects to bear in There are cases when the source is coupled to more than This will one vibrating system. so that the ous. it is to be remembered that the fork and the air jar its own frequency. An investigation of the situation shows that column each has the resonating air column affects the frequency of the fork rather than vice versa. but with that on the ex- . the effect is opposite to what matical analysis. with gradual increase in frequency of the air column. Returning to the fork placed at the opening of the resonating in Section 6. place. although greatest when these two frequencies are alike. yet is noticeably large when the two frequencies are not exactly the same. there is a sudden jump in actual frequency of the fork back to its natural value with greatly en- hanced intensity of resonance. is The experiment affect the cited to like frequencies. are the mind. natural frequency of the jar is gradually increased in the direction of equality to the natural frequency of the fork. the fork frequency continues to shift slowly to higher frequencies. This effect of one of the coupled vibrating systems upon the other. but in the opposite sense. These are the two general methods used in musical instruments and in sound sources in general.178 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS more acoustic energy than could the fork directly. But when the natural frequency of the air column becomes equal to the natural frequency of the fork.5. and that the intensity of the acoustic output.

would then vibrate freely with only the fundamental frequency Similarly. and a careful study shows that such is really the case. of its natural frequencies. assume that by a carefully constructed the string. between nodes and hence with higher frequencies. 179 is In wind instruments with open orifices the transfer very complicated. 15. the string might be displaced to a position corresponding to the actual position of the string when possessing the frequencies of the fundamental and the first overtone. When a string is plucked or is struck by a hammer. In the case of plucking. These two different starting conditions of the string will result in a difference of the values of the amplitudes of the component tones in each case. the two cases would not be alike. From this Clearly it arbitrary position the string is suddenly released. . a blow of the hammer is very rapid and is actually completed before the string has had time everywhere to move into a displaced position. the relative amplitudes which the various components have will depend upon the original displaced position of For example. the subsequent vibrations would contain only these two frequencies. is are actuated by impact. Then involved. constraint it is throughout its easily possible to displace and hold the string entire length in that position corresponding to a displacement for the fundamental frequency alone. other hand.PRODUCTION OF SOUND BY STRINGS terior. plucking and bowing. the On the entire string is set free from practically a rest position. Production of Sound by Strings. moreover.3. The hard hammer would give a sharper bend One associates sharp bends with short distances to the string. which are integral multiples of the fundamental one. one can understand softness of a why the size and hammer would cause a difference in the quality of tone from a string. the string forced into a strained position and then allowed Since the string is capable of vibrating in any to vibrate freely. For a similar reason. the dis- placement produced is much more complicated. and. The hard hammer accentuates high frequencies. Stringed instruments In the first two cases.

4. the being . at will much more phenomenon. is "touch" in such an instrument is Production of Sound by Reeds. sufficient to keep the reed or reeds in a closed position. this description it is evident that the width of the bow. and the impact of the air behind also con- The pressure not spires to cause the closing of the reed or reeds. the quickness of its blow. finally slips under the bow. the piano. the nature of the hammer.i8o MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS From the above discussion. The quality of a bowed string can be modified readily. the pressure on the bow and the place speed of bowing will all enter into the production of the tone From The possibility of quality. it is rather clear that the quality of tone can be modified by the speed of plucking (which may not be a practical consideration). possibilities of "touch" on the piano are seriously lim- much more so than is commonly believed. Give the hammer a certain energy or a certain velocity and it will always strike in the same manner. Thus the ited. the of bowing along the string. After the hammer is in motion. Bowing presents a complicated and an interesting The bow pulls the string to one side. the key no longer has any control. the string is the slip once begins it continues until the string has reached a displacement in the opposite Then the string again follows the bow's motion and direction. instrument. and in the oboe and bassoon there are two. Work is done by the bow on the string because the force acting in the direction of the bowing is very much greater in one half of the vibration than in the other half. 15. The reeds are set into motion by blowing. When repeats its former action. In the clarinet there but one reed. and the position along the string of either But it happens that in the hammer the plucking or the impact. The velocity of the air blast lowers the pressure between the reed and its base." It is well known greater than that existing when slippage once So when the bow pulls the string to one side. the actuating key does not determine the quickness of the blow. or between the two reeds. the force is called "static friction. therefore relatively large. arising from what that such a force begins.

with a quality of sound which is not very pleasing. the former is the chief factor in deter- mining the frequency of the coupled system. of the production of sound by an air blast are the blowing of the flute and of an organ pipe. coupled with an air column.PRODUCTION OF SOUND BY AN AIR BLAST original position is 181 In this resumed and a continuous vibration ensues. acting alone. The frequency details are beyond the scope of this text. the of the eddies or vortices is controlled thereby. It is taught by some authorities that the blowing of an instrument is made easier if one will put his mouth in the position of humming the note desired. as in the clarinet and oboe. But there is another factor. The shape of the mouthpiece in the case of there brass instruments and tional its influence on the quality deserves addi- mention in a later section. has been stated about the reeds would also apply to the use of the lips with brass instruments. Until quantitative data are obtained. or rather a group of natural frequencies. With such an air column and a thin reed. 15.5. blower is also coupled to the vibrator. It is to be borne in mind that reeds are used in organ pipes as well as in orchestral instruments. have a natural frequency. vibration the reeds. This tone is caused by the production of eddies first on one side of the sharp edge and then on the other. lips may be stretched more or less tightly and they may be thrust forward. the importance of which is not The resonating cavity in the mouth of the definitely known. If a sheet of air strikes a sharp edge a tone is produced which depends upon the shape of the edge. a positive statement concerning the importance of this second coupling cannot be made. is coupled with a resonating air column. But the reeds are usually. except in the latter case What is The a large opportunity for the alteration of the vibrator. but enough has been When such a source said to remind the reader that here again one has two vibrating . the velocity of the blast. mon examples The most comProduction of Sound by an Air Blast. and the distance from the blast opening to the edge.

of the effect of the shape of the mouthpiece upon the tone produced in such an instrument. which the blast impinges. Harmonics and Overtones. each represents an integral number of Such overtones are called "harmonics. 6. 7. But these frequencies may not all be present. 8.. In this analysis the frequencies of include those whose relative frequencies are consonance with octaves. by the velocity of the air blast and the distance of the blast opening to the edge against is shown in practice in of organ pipes. etc. The production of the edge tone can therefore be controlled. then. for fundamental. which are octaves of the first.6.i82 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS systems. its Any the vibration which repeats itself can be analyzed into component simple harmonic frequencies. while 4.." Thus this narrow sense be harmonic and they may not the overtones be. This may be the explanation. This the use of the flute and in the manufacture There is one application of the air-blast in which its importance not quantitatively known. may be called harmonics. The amplitudes of some of them may be zero. or lowest tone present. 6. are not octaves and to them is given more general term "overtones. Then overtone . all of the others present are in I. at least in part. is For assume the lowest tone present that represented by 8. yet the in 3. may Also the overtones may be dissonant with the fundamental. duction of sound. etc." But if the it. components may etc. In dealing with the pro15. one must have clearly in mind the possibility of regarding every sustained sound as composed of various frequencies. There is here a secondary source of sound produced. is represented by 2. with one controlling the other. 5. 5. each of which is strictly a simple harmonic vibration. 4. In most brass wind instruments the mouthpiece is cupped so that there is an edge at the opening of the tube of the instrument into the cup. 3. If the one repre" " sented above as I is present. The blast of air from is the lips must impinge upon this edge. 2. The natural frequency of this "edge tone" is raised by an increase in air velocity and is lowered by an increase in distance of the edge from the air blast opening.

a vibration perpendicular to both. or the lowest tone. and indeed to both the belly and back of the instrument. and more nearly under one foot of the bridge than the other. 1929. much * Of course less. played. This Under the vibration causes a motion of the bridge in the same direction. Peculiarity of In them the tone represented in the above by " " I is not Action of Several Instruments. The sound from the instrument thus depends upon the natural frequencies of the violin itself and the air volume within. 15. the veloc- Die Naturwissenschaften. About this side which is rather stable. there is a supporting sound-post. . the bridge rolls back and forth with the vibration of the string. has a great elasticity and small mass per unit volume. unfortunately. of violins and their construction. for example. or the increase of exposure to the air of the vibrating surface. ity across the grain is. which be called. Backhaus * has experimented with famous violins and has shown that one of their chief characteristics emphasis upon the high overtones. has a fundamental. H. but the overtones need not be harmonics. but this would take the reader too far afield.ACTION OF SEVERAL INSTRUMENTS 183 9 would be dissonant with it. In the violin. This is true. That the natural frequencies of the violin are of importance is shown by the difference in instruments.000 feet per second) of sound and causes the vibration to spread rapidly over the violin. the vibration of the string is practically parallel to the body since the displacements are along the direction of the bow.7. Every musical sound. But the radiation of energy from the instrument is largely enhanced by the soundingboard effect. to the fact that frequently used in violin construction. 18. or upon the actual number of overtones that have a measurable ampliis A great deal may be said about the tone characteristics tude. Attention is may Norway spruce. of most wind brass instruments. bridge. There is thus conveyed to the body of the violin. however. Thus the vibrating string is coupled with resonating is bodies and also with an increased area which forced to vibrate. then. This gives a high velocity (15.

cit. In these the tube widens out slowly at first exponential and then very rapidly at the bell. It is usually stated that the fundamental and harmonics have the relative frequencies of i. its if the string is struck at one-seventh from the end. fundamental amplitude has the maximum value and consequently less of the energy can go into the high harmonics. But is may be made to act as an well. for the mouthpiece acts as a closed end. The from one This location would help to prevent the formation of the seventh harmonic which is somewhat dissonant.1 84 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS In the piano we find one bridge on the sounding board and one on the frame which carries the tension in the wires.8. 5. made to strike at one-seventh the length sounding board by the former. opened holes also. enables the energy from the interior to escape more But the energy may escape from the rapidly than otherwise. Hence the excitation of natural vibrations of the sounding board are re- duced to a minimum. is possible that the mouthpiece end introducing noticeable even open it is harmonics as There opened a vent hole in the instrument near the beak which range. 3. The harmonics are the same as those of a conical tube. The vibrations are conveyed are to the hammers end. air-blast .. but it is thought by Richardson (loc. claimed that beak end. as described in the following Section The organ pipe must be considered as open at the 15. In his opinion. and would thus have the tendency actually found in the use of the instrument. and such an orifice helps in the formation of an antinode near the But thus encourages the formation of high tones. The bell on these instruments. The oboe has a conical tube. The clarinet is a cylindrical tube terminating in a bell. 7. though it is the source of sound. in order to The function of this small hole it play the higher notes in its It is is not very clear. etc. Many brass instruments have a hyperbolical or an shape.) that this is not the most important effect. as pointed out in Chapter XIII. as is the case with a cylinder closed at one end. would also be favorable to the transmission of the higher frequencies. with a " closed " end at the reeds. as on the clarinet and oboe. Its natural frequencies include therefore all of the harmonic series.

* . 5.* He found that the correction was proportional to the area of the pipe. of an organ flue pipe. 65. The former correction has been mentioned in Section 6. In measuring the acoustic length. in both directions along the tube. of Am. y i. as one readily sees. radiation from the orifices and the affect of return waves 15. JL Atous. is very complicated. and all the harmonics for an open end. 3. t R. 3. but a pipe having open holes will inevitably have a filtering action inside.9. length and distribution of mass of the cords. of the frequency over the octave studied. The resonances of the larynx. 1930. p. and independent It is the purpose 15.8. Bate. But up to the present time no one has studied opening Not only in detail the emission of sound from the instrument. Emission of Sound from the Clarinet." This paper is of interest particularly to physicists. The latter has recently been studied by Bate. later section discusses the frequencies produced by the holes.8. etc. 10. 1930. Philosophical Magazine. 7. waves travelling nance. Wegel. L.. or the length referred to in Section 6. In the absence of experimental facts. as discussed in the previous chapter. one can surmise that the quality of these two sounds would not be the same.9. The vocal cords or ligaments Production of the Voice. for a pipe closed at the other end.PRODUCTION OF THE VOICE end. for one has to deal at least with resothe filtering action of one or more orifices. inversely proportional to the area of the mouth. 617. a blast of air from the lungs to pass through the slit berequire tween them. discusses the "Theory of the Vibration of the Larynx. and also for the mouth or air-blast end. 185 the variation Thus the harmonics and fundamental have of i. i. The entire action. of this section to emphasize the very complicated action within an instrument such as a clarinet and the effect upon its emitted sound. The sound bell in part issues from the opened holes as well as from the is and with some notes the former of high importance. a correction must be made for the open end. p. The frequencies are determined by tension.f They act in a manner similar to two non-rigid reeds. Soc. upon the source. A does the opening of the holes modify the resonance inside.

Yet these approximations do not permit of manufacturing designs based solely on computations. for sustained tones. Aeolian Harp. This action is the opening of a bottle. p. mouth and nose control the harmonics that are emphasized As earlier stated. For the impulsive sounds which also is proceed from the vocal cords. then the resonance frequency examination of the theory * shows that now the frequency can be calculated by assuming the pipe to consist of two resonant systems consisting of a pipe from the is modified. pharynx. sounds are produced which are not due to the vibrations of the * Irons. It has Frequency of Pipes. An and a pipe from the first hole to the second. Phil. Mag^ 10. and for the reason that the opened hole is not equivalent to an open end. then. In fact. Even now the location of holes source to the first hole. it is possible by making approximations in the theory to compute the frequency for the case of any number of open holes. depends upon experiment. with one hole open.1 86 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS and give the quality to the voice.10. since the blown end is also effectively an open end. So. 16 (1930). . been well known that the frequency of a pipe. in speech 15. If the frequencies are computed by assuming that the effect of the opened hole is to create a pipe with an open end at that point. But it is also evident that resonance cannot fully control quality. If two holes on the instrument are open. When wind blows over stretched wires 15. In the case of the which the player blows.11. wave-length is twice the distance from the source to the open This is only approximately true. a flute for example. the hole. depends upon the resonating action of the column of air extending flute the source is the hole across from the opened hole to the source of sound. similar to the effect of sending a puff of air across The natural frequencies die out rapidly. the differences in sustained vowels are caused by resonance. only the vibrations present in the vocal cords can exist in the tone produced. and music both types of action are prominent. the quality tation of all produced by the excithe natural frequencies of the resonating chambers.

itself. Singing Flames. The noise of the wind at corners. * Richardson. wherein wire.12. If a small flame is introduced into an open pipe. article 265. the pressure in the gas and in the Heat is transferred to the air at air being in opposite phases. 1915.! 15. at all obstacles caused by the instability of vortices and consequently the predominant term depends upon the shape of the obstacle and the The "howling" of the wind is the charvelocity of the wind. et scq. v is 0. Knipp has phenomenon in a convenibulb is the source of energy and the the natural vibration of the air in the chamber volume it is A heated glass to which attached. in the trees. or about half way the pipe is to the mid-point of the pipe. has been found by recent observations * to have the following frequency. Singing Tubes. 36.13.SINGING TUBES wires but to the action of the air obstacle. 15. the tone is reinforced. vortices or whirls side. each condensation. and 37. 187 may the air passes an be established on the leeward When It is tions and the instability of these vortices that leads to oscillaThe predominant tone finally to sound production. 153.> f See Barton. Physical Society Proceedings. is acteristic sliding of the tone in pitch which is precisely what would be caused by continuously varying wind velocities. made an apparatus which ent manner. 178. . 1924. T. must be between the open end and a node. tone is exhibits the Recently Professor C. he. Its position it may excite the natural vibration of the pipe. One can tune this volume and thus secure a fairly constant source of sound.00 J. cit. When the frequency of excited the height of the flame oscillates simultane- ously with changing pressure. the velocity of the wind and d the diameter of the Of course if a natural frequency of the string corresponds to that given in the above formula.

1 nodal lines and the frequencies of the fundamental and eleven fundamental overtones. but versally used whose stiffness is caused by its thickness) is uni- in telephone receivers. cies as multiples of the fundamental. In Fig. is The The second and number under each figure is the frequency. The assumptions are that the membrane is stretched uniformly in all directions with a certain tension that remains unaltered during the vibrations considered. satisfactory to represent all frequenThus the frequency of the * are shown the regarded as unity. a sound wave of In the case certain frequencies may produce this unsteadiness. this pressure A waves because of the displacements of the pressure changes. a flare results.15. The membrane. a brief description will be given of the modes of vibration of an ideal circular membrane. . membranes and diaphragms are in common use. the nodal lines are those belonging to that overtone only. 15.1 88 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 15. To illustrate the nature of the natural vibrations of such pieces of apparatus. and that the membrane is perfectly flexible and infinitely thin. under the assumptions. Its fundamental vibration is with the circumference as a node and a maximum displacement at the center of the circle. the pressure behind the jet may from an orifice become so excessive as to cause an unsteady state in the jet. into quiet air. Sound. The first third chief points of interest are * first. that the overtones are not mul" This figure is according to Rayleigh.14." p. If. sensitive flame responds to sound however. 206. A membrane is "perfectly flexible" if there is no force resisting bf nding. Some of the best membrane telephone transmitters for wireless broadcasting use a stretched (or very thin flexible plate) and a vibrating plate (not stretched. Tones from Membranes. numbers are the radii of the nodal circles In each figure as compared with the radius of the membrane. In acoustical apparatus 15. is not quite attained. air and not because of The action occurs near the orifice. is fastened rigidly at its circular boundary. of a flame. Inasmuch as our it is interest is in the ratios of the funda- mental and overtones. Sensitive When a fluid jet issues Flames and Jets.

A force having this frequency would set the diaphragm into a Reference to the discussion of the disrelatively large vibration. is very complex. and symmetrically distributed diameters remains In the ordinary telephone transmitter diaphragm the fundamental has a frequency in the neighborhood of 800 cycles.594 2.154 FIG.TONES FROM MEMBRANES tiples 189 of a membrane. . Yet the general description of the nodal system as consisting of concentric circles correct.000 1.652 4.136 3.1 namely. 1. The vibrations of plates are not the same as those of membranes because the stiffness in the former has a different origin. the rigidity of the plate and not the tension in it. that the actual vibration when involving all these tones. 15. of the fundamental and second.

except with the kettle drum. Rest a thin horizontal bar on two edges placed approximately . the elastic constants are such that in most materials the velocity of the longitudinal sional wave. Thus it is possible to Its velocity have is in an extended solid a second kind of wave. sound of the drum fact that its overtones are 15. but E is then not a single constant but the sum of two.16. one wave would travel faster than the other. there is an accompanying contraction or expansion laterally. If a small rod is stretched or compressed longitudinally. Experience has shown that this frequency gives the most satisfactory results erations of design are met.190 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS tribution of energy in speech will show that the maximum energy does not occur at 800. The quality of the is caused by the somewhat dissonant with each other. The velocity of a longitudinal wave in an exis tended solid can be expressed by an equation similar to (1. There is therefore a change of shape of the material as well as a longitudinal dilation or compression. depending upon the same but not in the same manner. But if the solid is extended in all directions. But if instead of using a longitudinal force at the end of a rod. dinal wave. Sound Waves in a Solid. difficult to get. Hence if we had spherical waves of both types start- ing from a point. expressed by an equation similar to that used for the longitutwo constants as before. wave is roughly twice that of the tor- Then it is possible also to produce transverse waves in a solid. where the pitch modified at will by altering the tension. . this change of shape laterally is not free to occur and the velocity of the sound wave not the same. when all the practical considIts pitch Reference should be is is made to the sound of a drum. we would have caused a wave of twist or a torsional wave in the rod. One of these elastic constants deals with volume elasticity and the other with shape elasticity. causing longitudinal waves. we had used a force twisting the rod first one way and then the other. In fact. The velocities of the two waves are not equal.2) of Chapter I.

and the ends of the bar as loops. six The first overtone U shape is about times the fundamental frequency. The position of this node is approximately at 0. The points of intersection of one ellipse and circle are not the FIG. If the reader will draw the circle and the two ellipses he will see that the four "nodal" points on the circumference are not stationary.3 times the fundamental frequency. as may be here surmised. It will vibrate transversely with these edges as nodes. The wide separation of the fundamental from the first overtone and the relative faintness of latter are the reasons for the purity of the tone of the tuning fork. In fact. 15.224 f the length from each end. It will give a relatively pure tone because the natural frequencies of the rod are widely separated and.17. 15. tuning fork is a rod bent into a U shape. but with the adAlso the nodes of the dition of a mass of metal at the bend.18.2 showing an exaggerated Assume fundamental vibration from one approximate ellipse to another with perpendicular axes. that the bell experiences its A bell may be regarded as a viConsider Fig. cross-section perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder.226. moreover. 15. that the over- tones are not harmonics. If there were stationary nodes we might assume that transverse (or But. both longitudinal and transverse waves exist. It can be shown. Vibration of Bells. (See Section 15. or between three and four octaves above the fundamental. under the circumstances. the fixed position of the nodes makes possible only a few of these. torsional) waves were the only ones existing in the bell.) . A bar approach each other as the rod of a bar bent into a is bent. brating cylinder.VIBRATION OF BELLS 191 0. experi- ment and theory both show that the first overtone that would have a node at the same point has 13.2 same as the crossing points of the other ellipse and circle.

The cause of this judgbell ment as to the pitch of a bell is not understood. There seems to be some loose- ness of definition in the literature concerning the terms "carillon" and "chime.192 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS The physical requisites of a good bell are that the material be homogeneous. * . measured the frequencies of the largest bell of the Dorothea fully Carlile Chime at Smith College t and has found that the first An clastic body when stretched will return to its original position when the stretching force is removed. 373. 247. It is obvious that such bells must be bell by casting each This is done carefully tuned to pitch. Jones. Jones has caresidered a good bell will now be cited." Both refer to a set of bells tuned to a musical scale. But bells with tuned overtones are unusual and occur only An illustration of what is conin the most expensive carillons. 373. Physical Review. XVI. I 2 2. p. A.18. p. t See article by A. and Journal Acoustical Society of America^ I. p. 4. but in the carillon all the semitones appear. I. T. Indeed. provided a certain limiting tension is not exceeded.4 3 4 5 6. T. Jones. But this result cannot be secured except by the most skillful application of the art. 1920. Soc. does not correspond to any actual vibration of the bell. \ A. Bell founders have for many years considered the seven desirable tones of a bell to have the following frequency ratios. The funda- not prominent. 1930.18). and in a bell is mental tone of the not intrinsically tuned (see Section 15. it does not determine the pitch of the bell. This limiting tension per unit area is called the elastic limit. at the present time. Dr. Carillons and Chimes. JL Acous. In fact. T. The pitch of the strike note is an octave below the fifth partial or the fourth overtone. Am.! 15. relatively free from viscosity and have an elastic limit * that will not be exceeded in ordinary use. a slightly higher tone than desired and for then by removing some of the casting by cutting and abrasion with the aid of machinery. a bell ranks with the best if only the : : : : : : fundamental and the are obtained. 1930. first four overtones with the ratios stated Even this requires machining in a manner that is regarded as a trade secret..

15. All the values refer to the fundamental tone and not to the entire output. the cone has natural frequencies of its own. There is a natural period of vibra- frequently have a cone-shaped surface.MODERN LOUD SPEAKERS seven partials : : 193 : * have the ratios i. which are very different from the ratios given above It is surprising that a bell like for a bell with tuned overtones. The bells with tuned overtones are. Acoustic Power Output.000 microwatts.20.00 : 3. however. with closely coupled systems one may get much more energy from the source of vibration with than without the condition of resonance. P.65 : 2. Open diapason organ pipes gave an output of approximately 1. The vibration at tion. is used to include both the fundamental . Moreover. A good violin gave a fairly uniform output of 60 microwatts for frequencies from 192 cycles to 1. A violincello in its fundamental. But it must be the one described could be pleasing to the ear.300 cycles.oo : 1. remembered that harmonics of the seven tones are not present. This text has shown that 15.97 5. a sounding board. and consequently the dissonance that would occur in sounding the same tones on a string instrument is not observed. Thus in actual use. Sabine has meas- ured the acoustical power output of certain musical instruments. E. Modern loud speakers The cone It is the vertex cannot convey sufficient sound directly to the is employed because of its large exposure to the air. any of the cone's natural frequencies occurring in the original sound at the transmitting station will be overemphasized by the loud (first partial) *TKe term "partial" and the overtones.19. when bowed strongly.54 4.000 ergs per second) at 128 cycles to one microwatt at 650 cycles.10 3. it has been recognized that any mechanism having elasticity and inertia may be likened to a spring and a weight suspended therefrom. a distinct improvement and will be increasingly used. air. varied from loo microwatts (or 1. Dr. actuated electrically at its vertex by the complex vibrations which eventually are to be given to the air. Modern Loud Speakers. But being light and far from rigid.33.

Give an illustration where three vibrating systems are coupled. The endeavor is made to reduce these resonance effects to a mini- mum. This is desirable for one can readily see that the vibrations on the two sides are opposite in pressure phase and will produce interference. large enough and the complex sound. a. 150. But then is it would be too mas- One of the difficulties enough. are used in loud speakers in theaters and public address systems. sive to actuate. or surface surrounding the base of the cone. Under what conditions are two vibrating systems "coupled?" to give great intensity of sound? 2. In what ways is the transfer of energy Give an illustration. a slippage could decrease the pressure caused by the vibration of the cone and hence the intensity of the sound wave. p. It separates the inside of the cone from the outside. for theory points approximately to this shape. 4. The third function is that of shutting out the vibration from the other side of the cone. to obtain a cone light without introducing a distortion of yet It may be called a baffle plate. II. They are coupled systems in which the horn and the moving diaphragm each has its own natural frequencies. An exponential horn doubles its area at equal intervals along its length. Obviously the cone could be made of very rigid material. rim.* He favors a horn of the "exponential" type. In Section 5. Horns. usually with diameters increasing much more rapidly than the length. . What mechanical is conditions must be met if a musical instru- ment from the initial vibrating portion of a musical instrument to the atmosphere accomplished? 3. thus preventing the Such slippage of air from the outside of the cone to the inside.i 94 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS speaker. so rigid that its natural frequencies would be higher than any used at the transmitting station. Journal Acoustical Society of America.5 it is shown that by this reflection a greater amount of sound issues from the vibrator. QUESTIONS 1. A practical discussion of horn design is given by Hanna. Another important feature of interest is the use of a plane. The baffle plate also reflects the sound. * Hanna. It has three functions. 1930.

14. State the difference in action of the sustained and the impulsive sounds of the voice. While one holds a piano key down. a wood having a high sound velocity for transverse displacements? 11. Explain the howling of the wind. Physically how can tone quality be modified? 12. By into vibration of the fundamental alone? In what way does the nature of the piano hammer affect the quality of tone? 7. How body of +? : a violin its is do you know that the vibration communicated to the is not one caused by the changes in tension of the vibration? the reason for using. in the violin. Upon what does the quality of the voice depend? 13. of the damper? 8. what is the position of the hammer. What . Discuss the possibilities of the qualities of a tone in a brass instrument and the ease of blowing being altered by the adjustment 6. ng during 10. of the mouth. 9.QUESTIONS 195 what means (ideal and not practical) can a string be set 5.


57-63 Beam of sound. correction of pipes. 56 Architectural acoustics. Airplane sounds.INDEX Absorption. in Chimes. 186 Air blast production. singing. 16 in pipes. 129 Filters. 137 Complex tones and binaural effect. 140 Binaural phase effect. 155. 187 . 146 Echo. 148 Bells. 61 Baffle plate. 181 Clearness of enunciation. 193 Diatonic scale. 157 Conical megaphones. 181 Audibility. 87 reso- End Blend of sounds. 140-148 Binaural intensity effect. 25 Emission of sound and nance. 172 Difference of phase at ears. 20 Binaural beats. 125 27-34. 148 Binaural effects. 139 Branch tubes. 185 Absorption coefficients. 68. 124 Deafness.119 Expansion in speech. 26-33 Clarinet. 142 Diffraction. 184. 91 Energy of a wave. 192 in. 32 Absorption along a conduit. 142. vibrations of. 156 40 Auditor. 92 Constriction in conduits. limits of. 153. 36. 74 95 Energy distribution 117. Auditorium acoustics. resonance Carillons. 192 Fechner's law. 153 Asymmetrical vibration of i ear. 177. 151 Asymmetry of vibration. 37 Beats. 168 Flames. 129 Density. 135. 164 Buildings. Decay of intensity Decibel. 78 Aeolian harp. 178. 26. 114 Coefficient of absorption. 31 Combination tones. 30. diffraction about. 191 Doppler's principle. 153 Characteristic vowel regions. 135 146 Conduits. in conduits. 123-139 Audibility. 36 Coupling.

176 Overtones. 35 Loops. 165 1 difference. 25. 159 Oboe. 188 Minimum Harmonic motion. 128. 7 88. 99. Harmonics. 151 Masking effect. 47. 130 26. 35. 95 Musical tones. 39 Huyghens' principle. 91. 133 Phase. 130 Helmholtz resonator. 170 Noises of machinery. 176 Nodes. 123 simple. reflection from. parabolic. 193 Phase difference compo- nents. 184 Organ pipe. 177186 Instruments. sounds from. 83. 90. musical. 127 Phase difference. 182 Hearing. Mean temperament. 182 Parabolic mirror. 94. Orifice. 130 Piano. 132 Helix. 99 Megaphones. 59 ception. 135 Loudspeaker. 39 Paracusis. 132 Particle velocity. 91 . 151 123. Horns. 85. 133 Mirror. 21 Least time. 44 of Loudness of complex sounds. resonance in. 12 Minimum quency perceptible fre- difference. 63 Limits of audibility. 166 137. 174. Intensity of tone-blend.198 Flute. 46 Pipes. 20. 184 Pinnae. 18 Perception of tone. 70. 36 Musical instruments. 177-194 Musical instruments. 127. 139 Interference. 185 Intermittent tones. 71 Instruments. 65 Loudness. noise present. Image. 92 time for tone per- Herschel Quincke tube. Fundamental. 83. 104 Machinery noises. 85 Phase change. 146 Longitudinal vibrations. 1 INDEX 86 5. 124 Localization of sound. 129. 133 Minimum Minimum wave perceptible intensity in. principle of. 101 Intensities of fundamental and overtones. 90. 99 Intensity. 84. 95. 138 Interval. audibility. 186 173 Frequency. 97 Natural scale. 173. overtones. 93 Membranes. 40. 92.

129 Sensation units. 9. 71 Reflection at a closed end. effect Tone.INDEX Pitch of sound-blend. Refraction. 193 Pressure. 88 Resonance of the voice. 123 Silence areas. 177-181 Semitone. 63 Quality. 19. 101 Singing flames. 94 Stethoscope. whole. 50-57 49 Resonance. 90 Transmission. 187 Velocity of a wave. 149-158 Transmission in buildings. 179 Temperament. 77 Reflection at an open end. singing. 68 Reflection of ripple waves. 179 phase. 121 Speech. 80-96 Resonator. 84 Reflection with change of Stationary waves in general. 190 factors Speech energy. in musical 92 Tubes. 81-83 Stationary waves in a closed pipe. 173 Sensation level. 172 selective. 187 Solid. 138 Production of sound. 56 Selective reflection. 19. 75 Reflection in gases. 95 instru- Resonance in buildings. 187 Reciprocal theorem. 6 Reflection. 65 Reflector. 55 Quality. 151 Resonance 9 in cylindrical pipes. 173 of. 21 Reverberation. 66 Reflection without change of phase. 38-47 Stringed instruments. 128 Sensitive flames. waves in. 42 Pressure on reflector. physical of. 106 Stationary waves. 23. Helmholtz. 38 Reflectors. Singing tubes. n Scattering of airplane noises. 15. 77 117-122 Speech sounds. 95 20. total. vibration of. plane. instrumental. diatonic. 26-31 . Resonance ments. 65-78 Reflection at a change in area. change by diffraction. Transmission. 16. 97. 173 Temperature. 172 199 Power output. 1 59- Resonance in conical pipes.49 Velocity of a particle. 188 Sensitivity of the ear. 154 String. 139 Scale. 61 Reflection. 52.

90 Vowel sounds. production. effect of. 20 Voice. 3 Waves properties of. 156 Vibrato. 183 Waves. 185 Voice. 4 Viscosity.INDEX Velocity in pipes. 52. 10 Weber's Law. 134 Violin. 106-116 Wave. 26 Wave Wave filters. resonance of. 53 . 128 Wind. sound. 168 length.

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