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^ / 'V Stories it* ACOUSTICS DONKIN .
Honfcon
HENRY FROWDE
OXFOBD UNIVEHSITY PKESS WABEHOUSE
AMEN CORNER
V
c
O
_
gtrits
ACOUSTICS
THEORETICAL
PAKT
I
BY
W.
F.
DONKIN,
M.A.,
F.R.S.,
F.R.A.S,
LATE SAVILIAN PROFESSOR OF ASTRONOMY, OXFORD
SECOND EDITION,
AT. THE CLARENDON PRESS
MDCCCLXXXIV
[
All rights reserved}
ADVERTISEMENT.
As this is the only portion of a treatise on Acoustics, intended to comprise the practical as well as the theoretical parts of the subject, which will proceed from the pen of its Author,
a few words are required to explain the circumstances under
which
it
now
appears.
The
Author, the late Professor Donkin, has passed away
It
prematurely from the work.
was a work he was
peculiarly
qualified to undertake, being a mathematician of great attain
ments and rare
investigation
taste,
and taking an
especial interest in the
analysis
and application of the higher theorems of
which are necessary for these subjects. He was, moreover, an accomplished musician, and had a profound theoretical
knowledge of the Science of Music. He began this work early in the year 1867; but he was continually interrupted by severe illness, and was much hindered
by the
difficulty,
and
in
many
instances the impossibility, of
obtaining accurate experimental results at the places wherein
his delicate health
compelled him to spend the winter months
of that and the following years.
He
took, however, so great
at
it
an
interest in the subject, that
he continued working
to
within two or three days of his death.
The
part
now
published contains an inquiry into the Vibra
tions of Strings
more elementary theorems of the
of
its
and Rods, together with an explanation of the subject, and is, in the opinion
itself;
;
Author, complete in
his wish
was
that
it
should be
published as soon as possible
that
and he was pleased
It is
at
knowing
the last pages of
it
were passing through the Press imthe
first
mediately before the time of his death.
of the theoretical part.
portion
VI ADVERTISEMENT. It is exceedingly to be regretted that the Professor did not live to complete this portion . Feb. had formed the plan in his own mind and often talked of it It can now never be written as he would have BARTHOLOMEW ii. A . and the theory and practice of Music would have been most fully considered. even a sketch or an outline is found amongst his papers. with diagrams. It was intended that the second portion should contain the investigation into the Vibrations of Stretched Membranes and Elastic Plates . PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. Little alteration has been made in preparing the second edition. written it. OXFORD. . and into the did not live the work. E. In all other work remains exactly as it left its Author's hands. Mathematical Theory of Sound. PRICE. July 6. 1884. the DONKIN. respects on Compound Harmonic Curves. 1870. RUGBY. GILES'. ST. corrected few slight errors (chiefly misprints) have been and I have added an article (68 a). and he possessed them in a remarkable degree. Professor Donkin long enough to complete any part of this section of The third portion was intended to contain the practical part of the subject. for the combination of the qualities necessary for it is seldom Not with. 1 6. A. into the Motion of the Molecules of an Body . He met with pleasure.
. ON THE TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF AN ELASTIC STRING (DYNAMICAL THEORY) . . .149 .. ON THE LATERAL VIBRATIONS OF A THIN ELASTIC ROD .CONTENTS. VI. m VIII. . MISCELLANEOUS DEFINITIONS AND . III. . . VIBRATIONS OF AN ELASTIC STRING VIBRATIONS OF A STRING 90 VII. COMPOSITION OF VIBRATIONS IV. . . 29 47 72 V. ON THE LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS OF AN ELASTIC ROD .. . I. . IX. THE HARMONIC CURVE .13 . I II.165 . . GENERAL INTRODUCTION PROPOSITIONS . . . PAGE CHAP.
.
But the first step the usual process consists in the communication of a vibrain exceptional tory motion to the tympanic slight membrane of the ear. divided into two portions of nearly equal length by the tympanic membrane. TITus the meatus on the one hand. a temporary change in the pressure of the air in the tympanum. the tympanic ear. though capable It is of being opened. The shorter and wider part of the tube is outside membrane. The may be considered as consisting essentially of two parts. and ends at the orifice of the external is This part called the Meatus. 2. and the remainder the Eustachian The Tube. and the other of communication with the brain. Eustachian tube leads into the pharynx. that is. 1. due to . the cavity behind the tonsils and uvula. which is stretched across it somewhat obliquely as a transverse diaphragm.CHAPTER I. of which one is the organ of communication with the external world. part of the tube immediately within the tympanic membrane is called the Tympanum. like that of light. through its and rapid changes ear in the pressure of the air on outer surface. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. is usually closed. THE sensation of sound. The former part is a tube of irregular form. in the act of swallowing. into which the nostrils also But the orifice of the Eustachian tube. and the tympanum and B . The open. may be pro duced in and extraordinary ways. and can opened involuntarily be opened voluntarily by a muscular effort not easily described but easily made and the opening is accompanied by a slight sensation in the ear.
is Eustachian tube on the other. so that neither air nor fluid can pass through them. The tympanic membrane ' is connected with that which closes the oval window ' by a link. The second. Thus the motion impressed on the tympanic membrane by to the fluid contained in the the external air labyrinth. and is surrounded by bone except in two places. looking into the tympanum. and there are special arrangements of which the object appears to be the communication to these nervous fibres of any 4. filled with fluid. or interior. because it is of a complicated form. is not liable to be by slight and rapid changes. The air in the meatus directly affected but under to liable be by every change. by . The terminal fibres of the auditory nerve are distributed over the surfaces (or parts of the surfaces) of these membranous bags. in the pressure of the external air.2 Structure of the Ear. always contain different conditions.work of small bones con tained in the that open space of the tympanum. communicated and from that to the fibres of the auditory nerve. a similar movement is impressed on the although the fluid within ' latter. with which it is always in free Communication but that within the tympanic membrane. and probably as incompressible as water which it chiefly consists). These two places may be compared to windows. 3. following nearly the same form. though it takes part in the slower fluctuations shewn by the barometer. agitation affecting the fluid. in such a manner external when the former membrane is bulged inwards or outwards its by an increase or diminution of the pressure on surface. being . and themselves containing fluid. only occasionally put into communication with the external air by the opening of the Eustachian tube. One of these is called the oval and the other The interior of this bony labyrinth is the round window. but completely closed by membranes. and vice versd. part of the ear is contained directly affected within a cavity which is called the bony labyrinth. air. however slight and rapid. in which are suspended membranous bags. the membrane of the 'round (of window allows it to yield by expanding outwards when that is of the oval window is is forced inwards.
When variation the pressure at any point the time. means of It is 3 the apparatus mentioned above.. &c. &c. and other recent works on Anatomy and Physiology. i. But the reader is recommended to study the subject. be taken arbitrarily. portional is proof any point of pressure/ in which the abscissa to the time elapsed since a given instant. The pressure of the air at any point must be understood ' ' to mean. The curves of pressure and of density will differ slightly in form. if possible. known ' with illustrations. p.. and the OM P ordinate MP to the which may excess of pressure above a standard value.Curve of Pressure. so far be found in Helmhbltz. nothing is absolutely necessary to be known beyond what is stated here or hereafter in the text. 204. of the structure of the ear. as usual. negative ordinate (as at P*) A represents of course a defect of pressure below the value. which need not be 1 . as it is at present. further described at present probable also that motion is partly propagated from the tympanic membrane through the air in the tympanum to the membrane of the round window. the pressure unit of surface by air of the which would be exerted on a same density and temperature as varies with at the point in question. and so to the fluid. it the average (or mean) pressure remains will be convenient to assume that average as the standard value represented by the axis of abscissae OX. with the help of anatomical preparations or models. will B 2 . standard As we shall chiefly have occasion to consider cases in which unaltered. 5. the ' may be graphically represented by means of a curve Fig. and negative ordinates dilatation. Changes of density may evidently be represented in the same way by a curve of density/ in which positive ordinates repre' sent condensation. 198. however. For the purposes of this treatise. because 1 A full description. and in Huxley's Lessons in Elementary Physiology/ p.
it In the few. slight . if first is obvious to common observation that any. Two noises of the same general character often . : Sounds are usually divided into two classes namely. pressure is not in general strictly proportional to density . consists of repetitions of a single portion. pressure wavy curve may or may not be periodic. statements require more explanation and correction than might at first sight be expected. the distinction between these two classes of sounds is said to be that notes have pitch and noises have and.musical sounds. place. curve of pressure (Art. unmusical sounds. thus A A periodic : curve Fig. noises are perfectly unmusical. period or wavelength of such a curve is the smallest distance A which. it is the projection. 6) not mode is of their production. or notes. 2. of the smallest portion The B : which 7.4 Noises and Notes. Although it is convenient to use the word 'curve/ it must be understood that the lines representing changes of pressure or density are not necessarily curved in the ordinary sense. as regards the . on the axis. in contact with the and rapid changes in the pressure of the air tympanic membrane. is repeated. Qijwises . do not concern us at present. and nonperiodic in the case of a noise. however. 1) the sensation of sound. and . words. the reasons and consequences of this fact. Those so that they would be represented by a wavy curve including upon the whole equal areas above and below the axis of abscissae. that is. absolutely without pitch. but may consist either wholly or in part of straight portions. do not in general alter the average 6. measured from any arbitrary point along the has the ordinates at its extremities always equal in other axis. which cause (Art. As regards sensation. that the periodic in the case of a musical But these sound.
This is easily verified by The that any sound whatever.Generation of Mimcal Notes. there what it consists. for example. and is. In the case shew that very remarkable. will be considered afterwards. of which the pitch depends upon the frequency of repetition of the original or elementary sound. that different sets of waves can be propagated at the same time. or the edge of a card. intervals and sufficiently short For instance. On that is. few. the other hand. absolutely if any. velocity increases. generates a note. sounds are perfectly musical. 5 differ from one another in a way which we describe by calling one of them more acute or sharp. and a pitch which rises as the The connection between the frequency of of the elementary sound. without destroying . and the pitch of the resultant repetition note. if repeated at equal of time. simple experiments. is unmixed with Hence in 8. they have one important property in common. each passage of a tooth of the wheel across the quill or card produces a disturbance in the air. namely. The after. the reports of a pistol and of a cannon. if the point of a quill pen. either in the same or in different directions. is. nature of soundwaves in air will be considered here At present it is essentially different in sufficient to say that though they are most respects from ordinary waves in water. and are replaced by a sound which gradually acquires a continuous character. that more than one sound can be heard But the following it is once. the clicks gradually cease to be heard separately. considerations will 9. the question presents itself whether there after all if a real distinction in kind between noises and notes. which is propagated in all directions (unless some obstacle intervene) in the form of a wave. we must notice fundamental importance. the passage of each tooth produces a ' click/ But if the velocity of rotation of the wheel be gradually increased. two facts of first Before attempting to answer this question. above supposed. be held against the teeth of a wheel which is sharp noise or turned slowly. noise. and the other more grave or flat . The second at fact is is. This familiar to every one.
equal and parallel to the displacement A . stated in another may be Each causes .6 one another. which is idenform with that of the composition of forces in Mechanics. Thus. And the whole change. ticles. 3 at same AR being the diagonal of the parallelogram constructed upon AP. any point may or as an be considered either as a displacement of paralteration ot pressure and density. in the case of soundwaves in air. either in the ordinary algebraical sense. Thus. that is. would be displaced in by the action of a P wave belonging to one set. at to different sets. is the In this proposition the word sum is to be understood. either of pressure or density. and Q by that of a wave belonging another set. Composition and Resolution And it results from the mechanical theory that the waves are very small. the different sets are simply superposed . to to Then the the actual disinstant will placement be to R. and then by the along other along a line PR. is the algebraical sum of the changes which would have been produced by waves of each set separately . the disturbance produced at any point. according to circumstances.AQ. tical in This law of the composition of displacements. at a given instant. and when any given time. by the combined action of waves belonging sum of the disturbances which would have been produced by the waves of each set separately. or in the extended sense in which the diagonal of a parallelo gram is called (in symbolical geometry) the sum of two conthe disturbance at tiguous sides. Fig. while the displacement of any particle is the sum of the separate displacements in the sense just explained. manner thus : of displacement acts independently of other a proposition which is to be understood as follows : separate cause The were actual displacement AR is the same as if the particle first displaced by one cause P. suppose A is the undisturbed position of a particle which.
4. so far as most of the phenomena of sound are concerned.of Disturbances. if the causes producing such noises both act at once. 4. Then. And suppose the curve of Fig. 7 if A Q. it and this condition. 10. to have for its curve of pressure the dotted line in the same figure. Fig. upon the condition that the force which tends to restore a displaced particle to its undisturbed position is directly proportional to the displacement. The law. the resultant variation of pressure will be represented. It depends. 5. subsists rigorously only for infinitely displacements. which the latter cause would have produced acting alone. in which the ear can recognise no definite pitch. in the case of the greatest disturbances produced by ordinary causes. ' important to recollect that this law of the superposition of displacements is not a universal law in the same sense as It is ' that of the composition of forces. the curve representing in the way above exthe changes of pressure close to the tympanic plained (Art. is sensibly true. 5) D. lasting say for a small fraction of a second. in most cases in which small subsists at all. let us consider a continuous noise. of the same duration. ABC Suppose a different noise. by a . membrane) to be the black line pressure (that is. in fact. This being premised. however. as in Fig.
Similet abcdefg represent three of another periodic larly periods BC change. the curve consisting of repetitions of the portion A D. It is evident then that the ear has a power of resolution which the eye has not or rather. of Power of Resolution which the ordinates are the algebraical sums of the corresponding ordinates in Fig. . 6. that when two components. all. Now in such a case the two noises do not in general coalesce into one. but are heard distinctly. represent two periods of a periodic change of pressure. curves in the above figures are represented as made up of straight merely for convenience of drawing. On the other hand. that the ear does not easily resolve the resultant sound into its taneously. 4 are nearly the two noises are very like one another.8 curve. 5 which can suggest to the eye the process of composition by It looks quite as simple as either which it was generated. the eye cannot in general distinguish them in the lines. It is only similar. is. A B C D E F G. there is nothing in the curve of Fig. 4. there is nothing in its appearance to indicate one way as more natural than any other *. though simul when the two curves of Fig. that the ear resolves according to some law peculiar to itself. occupying the same time as two periods of the former. The that whatever be the forms of point essential to be understood is this the component curves. and although it might be arbitrarily re solved into two in an infinite variety of ways. Whether their forms be or be not such as could really occur. is still This phenomenon more remarkable when Let the component curves are periodic. : 1 The resultant curve. is quite immaterial to the argument. not resolve at 11. whereas the eye either does . ' Fig. of its components . or resolves arbitrarily.
why may not the repetition of represent two notes in the same A B CD way. Only a few of them. in Fig. of or for instance. 7 represents the variation of pressure which takes place when the two notes are heard simultaneously. that is does in general really happen . PQ But a new question now presents itself. 7 into the two components of Fig. and the curve in Fig. however. 12. why is not ? each component similarly resolved If the repetition of PQ itself represents two simultaneous but distinguishable notes. If the periods be sufficiently short. and why may not each component of again resolved. Now. and entirely fails to distinguish the different periods of the component curves. Here again. hence we acquire . Thus forte the sound produced violin by a vibrating is string. 9 The resultant curve consists of repetitions of the portion is P Q. its we find that the ear resolves according to a law of own. that is. each of the curves in Fig. it resolves the resultant curve of Fig. If a curve like is resolved by the ear into two components. that all this that a perfectly simple musical tone. it is a wellknown fact that in such a case the ear in general distinguishes both notes . then. These few constitute a combination which is always heard from the same string under the same circumstances .peculiar to Ike Ear. But the eye sees than a curve having a period repre sented by the abscissa P Q. Fig. is. and therefore also periodic. 6 will correspond to a musical note. theoretically unlimited in number. Fig. rarely heard except when produced a piano by means specially contrived for the purpose. and so on ad infinitum ? A B CD be The answer and is. are loud enough to be actually heard. 7 nothing more 6. 7. a tone such as the ear cannot resolve. in general compounded of simple tones. 7.
And it may be easily conceived that twelve notes intermediate between change would be much more complete if. and partly because the component tones of one dp not in general form a consonant combination with those of the other. we and on the other hand. is difficult when first to analyse the compound sensation. Still the habit of association complex prevents us from mistaking the sound of one bell for the sound of two once. It is evident therefore that the question. which unassisted ear. powers of the ear to resolve The latter is incapable of resolution by reason of its absolute simplicity 14. C and Gjf were heard at appears. notwithstanding the very confused combination of simple tones. absolutely simple tone ? or rather. In this case every one perceives easily the character . and it requires an effort of attention. When. // . ' The forte effect produced by ringing all the bells of a peal at once. or striking at tends to the all the twelve keys of an octave oft a pianoshews how a confused combination of tones once. It cases of sound.of the sound. What is an What is the character of the . that a noise once. What is a noise?/ It is in general a combination of a number of musical tones too near to one another in pitch to ? be distinguished by the unassisted ear. The sound tones. we distinguish their notes perfectly. 13. however. of a large bell is compounded of many simple some of which combine agreeably and some produce harsh dissonances. partly because there is in this case no habit of association.io What is a Noise? a habit of associating them together and perceiving them as a single note of a special character . for example. two strings. when two bells are struck at distinguish the two compound sounds more or less perfectly. not in unison. then. . The former fail is and a simple tone are extreme so complex that the ordinary it. We can now give at least a partial answer to the question. attempted by the In the case of a string this difficulty is increased by the circumstance that the audible component tones form in general an agreeable consonance. become a noise. vibrate at once.
It is evident also that some correction note produced by a string or an organpipe. it may r3e answered that of tension is tone (Gr. Objections the may is easily be made to both these terms. But hnston. The others others. and of the corresponding curves of pressure ? is of fundamental importance. is required to the musical notes have statement referred to above (Art. In fact word tone often used with express reference to that very . and has (as will be seen hereafter) no other distinctive quality except loudness or softness. or that any instrument has a good or bad tone. Again. only an absolutely simple tone has pitch. it As will often (as in the preceding articles) the words tone and note for this purpose. that Strictly speaking. 7). we shall always use simple 15. component is in general louder than any of the and is that on which attention is fixed.Notes and Tones. not a simple sound. When we speak of the pitch of the a single determinate pitch. complexity which it is here intended to exclude as when we say that the tone of a violin is different from that of a clarinet. in particular. to denote a simple sound which has a single ^ pitch. note properly signifies the written mark which indicates what musical sound is to be played or sung. rovos) really means and the effect to determine the pitch of the sound of a to demote a string. and seem only to modify particular its character. be necessary to distinguish between and compound musical sounds. I And ition with respect to note. sound with reference only to its pitch and therefore. and not the sound itself. n soundwaves which produce such tones. the written note is a direction to sing or play. become associated with it by habit. but that particular complex sound which is produced by the voice or by the instrument intended to be . Hence the word may naturally be used . we mean in fact This the pitch of the gravest simple tone in the combination. as when we say that a person sings wrong notes. it may be answered that the trans from the written mark to the thing signified is in fact habitually made. Again. without destroying the unity of its pitch.
Thus a note will be in general a complex sound. the blackbird or of the nightingale. used. But such a sound as that of the human voice could hardly be called in English a clang. 1 simple musical sounds. For these reasons we or the human voice. In this sense we speak of the note of 16.is Notes and Tones. though through the peculiarity of a particular be simple. and the elementary sound of any instrument. such as that of a violin string. by the word note. and the particular sound produced is in fact a note or characteristic mark of the kind of instrument. . without doing too much violence to established usage. it may accidentally. Helmholtz uses the words Klang and Ton to signify compound and . or nearly so 1 instrument. We have followed him in adopting the latter term. shall henceforth denote a simple musical sound by the word tone. an organpipe.
but retains sensibly both pitch and the same character as long as it is heard at the other hand. MISCELLANEOUS DEFINITIONS AND PROPOSITIONS. restored after the happen between any is 1 by a period. though partly belonging to a later stage of the subject. while the period continues sensibly unaltered. that the changes in successive grow successively less. especially when. and the period short. same the sound gradually dies away. When a change is is called periodic. may. the change is small. the period On may change. And the vibra said to go through is all its phases in one period. though remaining similar in Thus character. It The periods period also called the time of a vibration. The word vibration may be used to denote any periodic change of condition . Thus the series of changes which instants separated tinually repeated. the all. it is in general implied that a period an interval of time of constant length. is and that whatever condition exists at any instant. and frequently does happen. when a string is put into a state of vibration and the^i left to itself. 17. THE finitions contents of this Chapter fact. relatively to appropriate standards of comparison. will consist chiefly of de and statements of which may conveniently be introduced here. as when the . constitute a cycle which con The any tion is particular stage of change which has been reached at instant is called the phase of the vibration.CHAPTER II. lapse of a period.
and also in general the The loudest. the ear that is air in in a state of vibration.i4 tension Pitch Dependent on Period. To avoid circumlocution. however. no tone is perceived. tone produced by the component vibrations of longest period. on at all the other is hand. and the period of the vibrations may be called the period of the tone. Different observers have made various statements as to the But period of the slowest vibrations which produce a tone. being the lowest in pitch. If. it is certain that to all ordinary ears the perception of pitch begins when the number of vibrations in a second is somewhere between eight and thirtytwo. contact with the tympanic membrane of the But it has been already seen the several general resolves a series of vibrations into component series having different periods. the period be too is no sensation produced. 18. each of ear in which produces a simple tone with a determinate pitch. we may call the vibrations which produce any particular tone the vibrations of the tone . 19. or only one of the and perhaps component tones having a compound vibration. When a musical note (Art. but only a succession of distinct impulses which affect the ear with a peculiar sensation different both from noise and tone. is called the fundamental toney and its pitch is usually spoken of as the pitch of the note. But when nothing is said to the contrary. suppose at present that the vibrations are of that kind which the ear does not resolve. it is always to be understood that the period is supposed to be constant. For it shorter period is than that of the certainly difficult . of a string is increased or diminished while it is vibrating. 16) is heard in the ordinary way. shall. short. In experiments on this point there is an uncertainty arising from the doubt whether the tone heard is really fundamental. and proceed to state certain facts relative to the connection between the pitch of the tone and the period of the vibrations. the sound simply inaudible. so that only one We tone is heard. If the period of the vibrations be too long.
is But however it this may be. 18) of the two tones. strikes us as having an analogy to the Hence gradual change of position of a moving point. 306. comparison of tones we can make a further step which we cannot make in the comparison of pains. The ear decides whether any interval Q is greater than.. and .. that there is an interval between tones of different pitch. that So far as this we might go many other cases of con For instance. or more acute. is the sum of the to P R from P Q and from in Q to R. Suppose P. or more grave. How it far this of comparing an absolutely simple and is ultimate property of the sense of hearing. Difference of period causes a difference of pitch which we describe by calling tones of shorter period higher. we might speak of tinuously varying sensation. see Savart in Ann. for reasons not very easy which will appear it is hereafter. or less than any other interval intervals is P R S.call one interval the sum of two others. inaudible by certain Ears. 337. we say R to Then we intervals say that the interval from are three tones. but of different intensities. and those of longer period lower.000. t Comparison of Intervals. Q. equal faculty to. de Chim. 263. p. are to This appears to have been first observed by Wollaston. taken in order of pitch.' Phil. certain that the judgment made. Helmholtz. Trans. the audibility of high tones. P. 15 as to be quite sure that impossible so to arrange the experiment is of that kind which the ear does not resolve^ the vibration The extreme no tone is limit in the 1 . 21. 44. The change of pitch which takes place when the period is gradually altered. on low tones. contrary direction is known to be different to different ears In general it is probable that^ heard when the number of vibrations in a second exceeds 40. and interval PQ is a fact ascertained by experiment that any S. 20. p.. judged to be equal to another interval is R whenever the periods 1 (Art. for 1820. . et de Phys. See his memoir 'On sounds p. or briefly. Q. For we But in the can compare with precision the magnitudes of two intervals. the interval between two pains of the same kind. On t. to decide.
R be a third tone Q. for Q S numbers of vibrations. if 900. for from the proposition of Art. the logarithm of may properly be taken as a numerical measure of the interval P Q. Q R. and another tone Q by q vibrations. it cannot be taken as a measure of the interval. as we shall Suppose Q is higher than P. for the periods are in versely proportional P. And in . for  p +  is q p But if we take for the measure of an interval. by 600 and 900. having r vibrations in is a second. the it ratio  determines the magnitude of the interval PQ P follows . to the P R p 200 : 300 : : 600 : 22. the required condition fore is satisfied . and let higher than interval now shew. and S are equal. a tone P be produced by vibrations in a second. of two tones P. if be produced by 200 and 300 vibrations in a second. PR. then the intervals Q. 21 that no interval can be equal to Q unless the numbers of vibrations of its tones have P the same ratio. >  > which determine the three fulfil P Q. Q. q be the numbers of vibrations. but the logarithm of that ratio. QR. one another in the same ratio as the periods of the tones R. not equal to  p q p this do not condition.1 6 Measure of Intervals. Then the PR the sum of the intervals fore any number taken as a measure P Q. QR . intervals Now the ratios . for  p the logarithm of is = xP q and there the sum and  r P of the logarithms of  P 23. and thereof P R ought to be the sum of the numbers taken by the same rule as the measures of PQ. proposition may of course be expressed by saying that the intervals are equal when the ratios of the numbers of The same vibrations in a given time are equal. In general. in a given time. Thus. If then p. not the ratio of the numbers of vibrations. R. But although this ratio determines the interval. S.
Symbolical Names of Intervals. common in this. the And as in if we introduce the in signs + and modern elementary Geometry. Q. once = the addition and sub= o. and this opposite ways. In other words. 33) would then be the unit There would be some advantage convenient to use the 10. unity. from difference will henceforth be indicated by calling the same 25. namely. any whatever. interval it often convenient to use is as the name of the P Q. not the corresponding ratios. it is evident same way that the rules for the addition and subtraction of be applied at straight lines (in the to same direction) may traction of intervals. but praclogarithms.' the brackets being intended to remind is the reader that the measure of the interval o not  but interval between two tones P. QP PQ.cannot be used it as a measure. The interval P interval P Q or QP accordingly. we should have log 2 = 1. or from Q to P. is Though it the ratio . In designating any interval by the corresponding ratio name. we shall put that number in the denominator which . In fact the shall choice of the base merely de termines what interval be represented is i numerically by in every system. Thus. 26. if we took 2 for the base. of which the base is 24. Q. &c. like the between two points in a line. And if P. and therefore i would be the measure of the interval which has 2 (or f ) for the ratio of the vibrations of interval. may.orPQ+QP R be any three tones whatever. 'the interval (). When so used we shall inclose the fraction in brackets thus. be reckoned in two to Q. since the logarithm of the base Thus. the octave (see Art. PQ+QR+RP as a c = o. then PR = PQ+QR = QRQP. 17 order to compare the magnitudes of different intervals we must compare. tically it is its tones. but the logarithms of The base of the system of logarithms may be those ratios.
27. the words addition and subtraction being no longer restricted to their arithmetical sense. log P = be the measure of QP  with its proper sign . A some series of tones at finite intervals. intervals are to be considered positive from the conventions above made. also log Then will Jr being taken as the measure of P Q. . selected according to definite law. It follows. PR p p > q  q i q x j p compared that with QRQP. A scale formed by taking an unlimited succession of tones. is usually and appropriately called a scale . shew addition and subtraction of intervals correspond to multiplication and division of ratios . for log K*JThe = equations _ = x = PQ+QR. In fact this is is of the ratio only another way of saying that the logarithm a proper measure (both as to magnitude and sign) of the interval. that those which are reckoned from . though there is a limit as there incident *" power of the ear to distinguish nearly coincident tones.1 8 Addition and Subtraction. between the lowest and highest audible theoretically interposition to the capable of unlimited subdivision by the of intermediate tones.' though ' in itself 28. but used in the same way as in the geometry of a straight line. proportional to the number of vibrations producing the tone from which the interval is reckoned. is to the power of the eye to distinguish nearly cotints. 'the interval ()' will mean PQ. while 'the interval (^)' will mean Q P. is Thus. tones The is interval unmeaning. It since the logarithm of a ratio greater will be a which determines an the expression is convenient abridgment to call the ratio interval the ratio of the interval. for the selected tones are the steps of a ladder by which we ascend from a lower to a higher pitch. a lower to a higher tone than unity is positive.
Harmonic
Scale.
(in
19
a given time)
produced by vibrations of which the numbers
are proportional to
i, 2, 3, 4,
&c.,
is
called the scale of
it
Natural
Harmonics,
We
shall
henceforward refer to
simply as 'the
harmonic
scale.'
The
different notes
which can be produced from a simple
tube, used as a trumpet, belong to a scale of this kind.
And
each note of the trumpet, of the
string, in short
human
voice, of a vibrating
usual ways,
is
every musical note produced in any of the most compounded of simple tones also belonging to
a harmonic
chanical
state
scale.
The
will
explanation of these
facts at
on me
principles
be given afterwards;
present
we
them
as a reason for giving here a general view of this
primary and fundamental scale. 29. The absolute pitch of the lowest or fundamental tone
may
be any whatever.
If
we choose
the thirtythird part of
a second for the period of this tone, it will have the same pitch as the lowest C of a modern pianoforte, according to a standard
now very commonly adopted 1 (If we chose a we should of course merely transpose the scale
.
different period without altering
the intervals.)
The
series of tones will
i
then begin as follows
:
2
456,7
G
11
C
C,
10
c
e
g
bb
c'
d'
12
13
14
15
16
&
e'
M^^~
(^
e'
^
~r^
a'
H
**
~~ir~
l?b'
If
written
V
are the
c"
The numbers
above the notes
numbers of
vibrations in the thirtythird part of a second.
1
This
is
the
German
pitch.
In England there
is at
present no uniform
standard.
C 2
2o
Names and
are
Ratios
asterisk
Those notes which
marked with an
do not
exactly represent the corresponding tones, but are the nearest
representatives
which the modern notation
below the notes
writers.
supplies.
30.
The
letters
are, with
this
a
slight alteration,
those used by
German
In
system of notation, C,
D, E, F, G, A, B, represent the seven notes beginning with the second C (reckoning upwards) of a modern pianoforte, or the
lowest note of a violoncello.
The
letters c, d, e,
octaves above these notes are represented by the small f, g, a, b. Thus, c is the lowest note of a viola,
;
and the lowest c of a tenor voice
a violin.
and g
is
the lowest note of
the small letters
Higher notes than b are represented by putting accents above and lower notes than C by putting accents
;
below the
capitals.
;
Each accent above a
small letter raises the
capital lowers the
tone by an octave tone by an octave.
and each accent below a
Thus, g"
the lowest
3 2 foot
fortes is
C
the highest g of an ordinary soprano voice, C, is of a modern pianoforte, and C,, is the socalled The compass of the newest pianoof an organ.
is
C
from A,, to a"", &c.
notation for the future, the reader
familiar with
it.
As we shall use this recommended to become
(German
our b b.)
31.
scale
is
writers use
h instead of our
b,
and b instead of
The
intervals
between the several tones of the harmonic
derived from the
have in a few cases received names
places of the tones in the diatonic scale (Art. 35). The most important of these intervals, with their ratios, are
:
Octave
Fifth
C,
C
c
e
.
.
C
G..
.
j
f

Fourth
G
third
third
.
Major Minor
......e
g bb*
c
g
t>b* c
.. ..
. .
f I
f
of Important Intervals.
Major second Minor second
Diatonic semitone
c'
21
. .
d'
e'
f
d' b'
.
.
V
yf
c"
.
.
The two
modern
intervals (), (f) are not formally recognized in music, though they are probably often used both by
singers and by players on instruments not restricted to a finite number of notes. The major and minor second are often called major and minor tones ; but it is desirable to avoid the use of the word
tone in two senses.
Other intervals (such as the
sixth, &c.),
formed by addition and subtraction of those in the above list, may be omitted for the present. 32. TLe second and all following tones of the harmonic
scale are
often called the 'harmonics' of the
first
or funda
mental tone.
tone
If
is
The second
tone
is
the first harmonic, the third
on.
the second harmonic;
and so
take any tone of the harmonic scale as a new fundamental tone, the whole series of its harmonics will be found in
we
the original scale.
Thus
the series 3, 6, 9,
;
1
2
.
.
.
.
,
gives the harmonic scale of
the third tone
and
in general the series
n, 2n,
$n,
4*1,
,
gives the
harmonic
scale of the
th tone.
any discussion of the character of other intervals, we may here notice a peculiar property which distinguishes the first interval in the harmonic scale, the octave.
33. Omitting for the present
two tones which differ by an octave, we are by a certain sense of sameness, which we do not feel in the case of any other interval unless it be a multiple of an
affected
When we compare
octave.
A
cussed hereafter
supposed explanation of this property will be disbut, whether it be explicable or not, it entitles
;
the octave to be regarded as a natural unit (see Art. 23) with
which other
intervals
may be compared.
:
At
the
same time
it
gives a periodic character to the scale
every tone which has
occurred once seems to occur again and again at equal intervals.
22
34. If
Bisection of Intervals.
we compare
sive octaves of the
every interval
into
the intervals into which any two succesharmonic scale are divided, we see that between consecutive tones in one octave is divided
two
intervals in the next higher octave.
The law
tl+ n
1
:
of this subdivision
is
worth observing.
is
The
ratio
of the interval between consecutive tones
always of the form
;
now

+
n
I
27*+ 2n
2


2
#
f
I
2n
(
2 x 2H+ 2 +
i
in
other
words (see
two
Art.
26) the
interval
)
and
is
the
sum
fact
of the
intervals
/272+Iv / 2H ( 2H  ) (), V \2H
f
2\ 
+
I'
),
it
is
in
divided
into these two in the next higher octave; for in that octave occur three consecutive tones corresponding to the numbers 2n, 2n+i, 2/Z+2, of vibrations.
Thus, the
octave,
first
octave, C,
C.
fifth
is
undivided.
fourth,
The second
C
c, is
divided into a
and a
}*x.:
In the third octave the
fifth,
c
g,
is
;
divided into a major
and a minor
third,
f=f
g
c',
=
x f
whilst the fourth,
divided into two intervals, (), (^), which have not received names. In the fourth octave the major
is
third, c'
e', is
divided into a major and a minor second,
i=v=ixv.
Thus every
the
interval
word
half
may
divided into a major and minor half (if be so used), according to a law which may
is
be called the law of natural
always the lower.
35.
but
it
bisection,
the major
half being
The
will
theory of
artificial scales
cannot be discussed here
;
be useful to
state,
without reference to theory, the
diatonic
fifth,
actual construction of the
modern
major
scale.
If
we
take two tones at an interval of a
and
the intermediate
tone which bisects the
c,
e,
fifth
naturally (Art. 34), for example,
g^
we
obtain three tones which
produce a triad or
triads
is
common
chord.
And
when sounded together if we take three such
first
one above another, so
that the highest tone of the
the lowest of the second,
and the highest of the second the
for F. 4.Diatonic Scale. numbers of vibrations of the cor A. tonic. c'. e. 30. g. b. b. d'. 16. e 6 5 ~JT T S b 6. 24. the . g the dominant. to the above system of triads. g. Here the from If ratio written under each tone that of the interval F to that tone. c'. thus F.. we obtain the following series for the diatonic scale : c. d. 36. 1 A. d. thus c. 30. rising one : another by alternate major and minor thirds. viz. viz. f. 20. c. the other tones. b. (Art. 24. thus F~^T Lastly. g. &c. d'. let Returning. to which an eighth : (viz. a. 32. these fractions to the least possible common the numerators will be the smallest whole to the : numbers proportional responding tones. g. all 48. e. and bring all the other tones within the compass of an octave by substituting f. in the above scale c the subdominant. 54. 36. the octave of the tonic) is usually added. a. however. d'. of which or first is sufficient to mention three. us find the ratios of the intervals from the lowest tone. c'. to each of This will be done by successive multiplication of the ratios j. i' 5 6. e. 27. the dominant or tone. 36. 4 we the socalled tonic or take the lowest tone (c) of the middle triad as first tone of the scale. 40 45. : and thus we obtain the fol lowing ratios for the intervals F. The tones of the diatonic scale have it received technical names. d. and f Thus. 16. b. 45. 5 1> T> "a"* 315 T> T3T> 8 94527 is c. Recollecting 'now that the number of vibrations of f is double that of F. we obtain the seven tones of the diatonic scale. 23 above we obtain seven tones. A. F. 26). if 5 A 5 ~^T 5. a. e. lowest of the third. f. &c. and the is subdominant or fourth tone. all we reduce denominator. the tonic fifth tone of the scale.
e.^a. Relation of Diatonic The numbers of tones of a diatonic scale. of which the fundamental tone has one vibration. . having for their actual vibrations those given at the end of Art 35.. 3. . c. . c'. we may say that the diatonic scale is selectedfrom the harmonic scale of its subdominant. In . (major second). Returning now to the series of whole numbers which represent the diatonic scale (Art. . 1=1 y = f If = TT the octave g. harmonic scale which has tone of the original scale. viz. g> a. belong evidently to the harmonic scale (Art. This proposition is to be understood merely as the statement of a mathematical fact. = . f. e.. (diatonic semitone). (diatonic semitone).. by a whole number of octaves. b. . . is g . and not as involving any theory of the represented in whole numof its tonic is divisible both actual derivation of the scale. neglecting the difference between tones which differ . . a . c this scale divided into two socalled tetrachords.24 37. b. for its fundamental tone the third be said to contain the all Thus. (minor second). . we find for the intervals between successive tones of the scale the following ratios : c . V T (minor second). if = %% = TTF . 12. d e f . and of the harmonics of 38. 6. 35). . d.. f f = f (major second). . This fundamental tone is five 5 3 octaves below the subdominant.. d. its may third tone. for 3T = (f ) Hence. 9. (major second). every harmonic scale diatonic scales of that tone. . 7 b 39. and of gives a The series of multiples of 3. separated by the major second . octaves) of the diatonic scales of tones which correspond to multiples of those 3. f. by 3 and tones (or Hence we may say their that any harmonic scale contains the all amongst its no others. 28).. . bers The diatonic scale can only be when the number of vibrations 8. .
semitone. (upper) minor second. and the notes on the stave. g. 26) **= A comma tone . to are made to serve for the scales both of c and say nothing of other scales. These two properties are common to to many spirals. of which the number reckoned from any point. that if straight lines be drawn from the pole any two points on the . . Inwards. are capable of representing accurately one diatonic scale and no more. The whole on ignore. But the curve in question has this particular property. . the logarithmic (or equi This curve (see Fig. the imperfection of the ordinary musical notation for details all These but practical purposes. the curve approaches continually nearer to a point (called the pole). however. alike : for the intervals in the lower and upper tetrachords are (lower) major second. These tetrachords are nearly. i) consists of convoluangular) spiral. and in the former a minor second only. but not exactly. is 5 ) nearly equal to the is fifth part of a diatonic semi for (f nearly equal to Jf . 4O. is Hence. . 25 . the pole without it recedes from Outwards. by a simple example. whereas in fact the letters. as ordinarily used. structure. but they have been given here in order to shew at once. The letter a and the note g. This difference is called a the ratio of a comma . either tions. belong more properly to another chapter. actually limit. which it never reaches. . major second. The relation intervals and numerical ratios may be illustrated by the curve called. slight deviations from the perfection of the diatonic scale. inwards or outwards.to f Harmonic Scale. of modern music take is founded the possibility of educating the ear not merely to tolerate or but even in some degree between to pleasure in. minor second. is infinite. identical with the lower tetrachord of the scale of g for the ^ a major second above g. and comma is (Art. the upper tetrachord of the scale of c in the latter scale is not exactly . semitone. The a of the scale of c is therefore flatter a major than that of the scale of g by the difference between and a minor second.
i. and Oa distance from O whenever crosses the line OA produced. curve. &c.26 Graphic Representation to the angle between them. 23). pole. that if the lengths of any two such lines. OB. doubles it OA. . be taken to repre may a given time. its curve can be so drawn. as sent OA. so that a and following the curve outwards. that a complete revolution doubles the distance from the Oa is double of point. numbers of AOB produced by those Fig. and is so drawn in the figure. The Thus. the logarithm of the ratio of their lengths is proportional It follows (Art. the angle be taken as a measure of the interval between the tones vibrations in vibrations. starting from A of Oa..
. 2 * * . . 94 41 33 61 10 22 54 43 1 6 . and any fracfour right angles or 360. and seconds . when the number of vibrations is doubled. .0' = 2 which gives the angular measure of the corresponding = . Octave Fifth Fourth 360 o o 210 35 ir 149 24 49 . to the nearest 1 second. . following the curve outwards. hence the the fifth. we have 3 a . . . . . interval. the rest of those which occur in the diatonic scale can be found by addition and subtraction. for The log 2 angles being known for the fifth and the fourth. the tone is raised an octave. Major second Minor second Diatonic semitone . and successive passages of the point through any given line drawn from the pole will represent passages of the tone through successive octaves. is angle (in degrees) . to represent a tone continually rising in pitch. m hence. may.. minutes. r\ be two radii vec : n hence =2 log 2 . . The scale angles representing the intervals used in the diatonic cannot (with the exception of the octave) be exactly expressed in degrees. 115 53 38 third . that is. Scale. . (Comma) B_ 33 31 6 27 if r. . consider a point. therefore. But. but. n 6 The equation to the curve is r tores in the ratio of n. they are as follows : . Thus.of that is. Hence the angle described in a complete revolution. 27 whenever it completes a revolution. . We Thus the geometrical periodicity of the curve presents to the eye a sort of picture of the periodicity perceived by the ear in a continuously rising tone. represents an octave tion or multiple of four right angles represents the same fraction . or multiple of an octave. Major Minor third .
venient to divide the octave line into equal parts. De Morgan has proposed An atom would be very to call each of these parts an atom/ (See De Morgan. 40. x. of given kind tension. p. Young divided ' and Mr.. the octave into 30. of which the whole is assumed to When this method is adopted it is conrepresent an octave. may be observed that the same figure might be used to represent a descending instead of an ascendThe distances from the pole would then be proing scale.) . if we divide it into 301 parts (301 x log 2 the interval nearly) the logarithm of the ratio defining measured by n divisions will be. Conversely. 42.28 Division of Octave into Atoms. Phil. 4. a comma will be represented by divisions nearly. In Fig. 40. portional to the periods* of the tones. '. is A more usual mode of representing by parts of a straight line. The and given angles would then have to intervals graphically be taken in the reverse order. which produce them. Trans. multiplied by the logarithm of the ratio Thus. of which the number is approximately the product of some power of 10 by 2. nearly equal to 43" on the scale of Art. ' vol. 1000 x logny = 5 A division on this scale corresponds to something more than Dr. i 41.103 parts. the number of divisions representing any interval will be of that interval. the logarithm of 3 being io Thus. the letters represent the tones of three octaves It of the diatonic scale. or (as will be shewn hereafter) to the lengths of the strings. a degree on the scale described in Art. On the Beats of Imperfect Consonances/ Camb. approximately. 1000.
We shall call it. its most general form. in a velocity which curve. for the present. 17). such. is. the curve or not. that perform rectilinear In the same way vibrations. COMPOSITION OF VIBRATIONS. M will N will perform rectilinear vibra tions in O Y. The vibration of a point. a simple circular vibration. two axes. OX. will PN. the point M move backwards and forwards in the line OX with a peFig.CHAPTER III. the only kind of motion in which the velocity and the change 43. . may itself. It riodic rectilinear motion. Such a motion may be considered as the simplest possible vibration of a point (Art. (It is immaterial whether they meet From P. parallel to OY. OY. Suppose the curve i. OX. be plane. AsP moves round and round the curve. draw P M. THE of direction are both uniform. 44. simplest type of periodic motion is afforded by a For this is point describing a circle with a constant velocity.) the position of the moving point at any time. as in Draw arbitrarily any Fig. be denned as motion in a curve which returns into is with the always the to same at the same point of for instance.
9. or time of describing the whole circle. in the sense explained in Art. OX. compounded of the two displacements It is evident that O N. 45. P M parallel OZ. The radius of the circle. upon When nothing is said to the contrary. if M and N. in an infinite variety of in general ways . to. or lefthanded The an any phase of the vibration arbitrary fixed radius time. it is assumed that the axes are rectangular. 43). the third of the is above data may be expressed by saying that the phase given at a given instant. The point M. in the direction of the vibration of P. The fourth datum will seldom have to be referred the Through centre of the circle (Fig. and the character of each component depends the directions of both the axes.30 Composition and Resolution curvilinear vibration of The In rectilinear vibrations of fact. The position of the moving point at some one instant. We will now return to the case of a simple circular is vibration (Art. Such a vibration when four things are given : (1) completely determined (2) (3) The period. is then determined by drawing The projections of on OF. may be similarly resolved into three component rectilinear vibrations by in YOZ. the taking three arbitrary axes. 2) draw any two . 46. to the plane P are to be found in same way. given (4) The direction ^ of motion (whether righthanded ~^. OF. is defined by the angle between and the radius of the moving point at Hence. In this case is perpendicular to O . P as P is said to be compounded of the we consider is placement P a point displaced from O. O X. whether plane or not. Any vibration of a point. then called absolutely the rectilinear component. the disM. any given vibration of a point in a plane may in this manner be resolved into two component rectilinear vibrations. mutatis mutandis. and the vibration of (the orthogonal projection of P} X M PM is O X. O Z.
Intro . any time. the position of the moving the axes. and may properly be considered as the This will appear more simplest kind of rectilinear vibrations.) Then. Vibrations of the kind performed by that is. we have + a). Let an arbitrary radius. circle. and let r be the period of the vibration. 47. rectangular axes. perpendicular to (The origin taken at the centre for convenience. OX. putting a for the radius ON = P #sin(0 Suppose the time. sage of Then the time or time of describing the whole circumference. but it might be any where. is reckoned from the instant of a pasthrough K. brates in the line M A vi and N A'. clearly as we proceed. of the and a for the angle K O A. a is of describing the arc r. O Y. be taken as a fixed direction from which to measure the angle P) described (or and suppose the direction of the motion to be such by OP. M or rectilinear N. it is in B I?. whence we have =  mi. Then. as P de scribes the circle with a uniform motion.of Circular Vibrations. K. 21T/ n being some 2 whole number . comcir ponents of simple cular vibrations. and when the moving point KP 27T a is at P the value of / must be / r 27T + nr. are dis tinguished by many remarkable properties. and evident that these two rectilinear vibrations are perfectly similar. point at draw P M. K that increases with the time. is and from P. /. P N.
and putting + a) (i) as the equation which determines the position of N at the time /. rectilinear vibrations in which the displacement of the moving point at the time / can be represented by an expression of the form . A rectilinear harmonic vibration can be resolved into two others of the same kind in an infinite variety of ways. The constant a is called the amplitude. . we find y = <zsin( N. because its value that of the greatest displacement. *)' fe) may be conveniently called rectilinear harmonic vibrations. . if = f2ltt  acos( + a). if constant a is therefore known the phase at any given time be given. 49. putting M = x we t should find \ . Vibrations of the kind considered in the last article. (2) the latter equation be put in the form x it is = a sin ( x 1 T h 2 V / seen that both (i) and (2) represent vibrations of the same kind. the above value of ON =y. In like manner. In t \ the value of x at time / is the same as that of y at time > so that the first vibration may be said to be a quarter of a period behind the second. /27T/ aswV + V . x and. Usually the directions of the two components are taken at right In this case the component of (3) angles to one another.3^ ducing this value Rectilinear of 6 irt Vibrations. is The The angle   f a is called the phase of the vibration. but that x and y take the same values at different times^ fact. namely. 48.
The two in cases of most importance to are those in which the two vibrations be compounded are. r'.  . of the component vibrations be equal. in this sum tions case the resultant displacement of the component displacements. A and . same direction.  . (Art. 50. simply the algebraical If the component v vibra be represented by the expressions /2TT/ asmf . is evidently /27T/ a cos o> . . If. sin  v H a ) Composition of Vibrations. /3. (2) directions at right angles to one another. 1 (a sin a + o sm /3) cos 2 / 77 . in a direction 33 making the angle co with the direction of (3). 9. let the vibrations be in the is same direction. Rectilinear harmonic vibrations may be compounded according to the general law of the superposition of displace ments explained (i) in tne in Art. a harmonic vibration having For in this case the above expression may is itself _X be written in the form (a cos a + o cos p) sin . then. be increased by any common not in general admit of any useful reduction.Composition of Vibrations. and this is identical with A provided sin (^ + D ). however. 48). . First. for its value will then evidently be unaltered if / But it does multiple of T and T'. the resultant motion the same period. X27T/ r + J 5 the resultant displacement will be represented by the sum This expression is periodic if the periods r and r' be com mensurable. the periods r. A A B be so taken that cos B = a cos a + b cos sin B = a sin a + b sin /3. 1 N CM z sm( .
and is the sum = o. be performed so as to lead to an algebraical equation between x and j. and the component vibrations completely destroy 51. or the amplitude of the resultant of the amplitudes of the components. = tan" 1 a cos a + + b sin cos /3 to where we may suppose the square root tively. y at = b sin (n't /. We y between the two equations x = a sin (nt fa). In this latter case. though the process simplest case of all is impracticable except in simple cases. b. = b sin (nt + 0) . (4) . to eliminate component vibrations are equal. be taken posi amplitude of the resultant vibration. which is the difference of their phases. one of the component vibrations is half a period behind the other. If a (3 same phase.. If a*~/3 = TT. vibrations be at right angles to component one another. then. and A = a~r*b. + ). and nience let their periods n'. The value of A. the and also on the angle a~*~/3. both on the amplitudes a. point (see Art. = o. The elimination can. theoretically. the time of the moving The equation to the locus of the point would be found by these eliminating / between two equations. whenever r and T' are commensurable. the component vibrations are always in the A = a + b . Next. 48). be r. The / is that in which the periods of the have. of the component vibradepends tions. putting for convethe equations = #. if a = b. +P+ a sin a 2ab cos (a >  j8).34 Composition of Vibrations satisfied which equations are by A D ^ = v . or the amplitude of the resultant is the difference of amplitudes of the components. j = we may represent them by x = a sin (nt + a). let the one another. and these are the coordinates. then A. r'.
evident from equations (4) that the ellipse described D 2 . that is. and the sum of their squares be equated to the result is 52. It is vibrations. two coincident if Again. if a /3 = o. or a straight line (when the length of one axis is o). which may however degenerate into a circle (when the axes are equal). = . the equation becomes and the axes of the ellipse coincide with the directions of the component 53. fi) and the difference of phases (ct*~/3) of If the component vibrations are the component vibrations. from them we have _ 35 cos a sin / + sin acos/ j3 = > a cos j3 sin nt + sin cos / =  f i. line. ellipse degenerates into a straight straight lines. that is. and if the values of sinw/. if o one component be a quarter of a period behind the other. and the into is. if a*~/3 = TT. cosw/. This equation always represents an ellipse. the equation becomes and the locus If a ~*~ /3 is again a straight . the equation becomes /* ( y^ j) = o. always in the same phase. that one of the component vibrations be half a period behind the other. more strictly. The dimensions and position of the ellipse depend only on the amplitudes (a. or.or .at Right Angles. line. be found from these equa tions.
. it follows that the angle a /3 varied continuously from o to TT. of now suppose B 2? (Fig.b in two coincident is Q\ of which the abscissa a cos (a j3) (3). it manner into the diagonal DD degene An mined if ellipse inscribed in if a given rectangle is completely deter one point of contact be given. the ellipse would pass continuously through every form capable of being C C*. including the two diainscribed in the rectangle D U gonals as extreme cases.COS (a/3)) line = o. 3) to be the axis of a C' I? are the circular ends seen edgewise by an eye placed at a distance in a line through per which DC. . Let us cylinder.3 D y are a. of which the sides are 2 a. nerates into the diagonal rates in like CC". _. 2 3.36 Case of Equal Periods. 3). by the vibrating point is always inscribed in a rectangle. ellipse meets the y . and when = TT. and the ellipse degea*~/3 '. This may be from equation (5) result is for if in that equation 2 we put y = formally proved b. x = we find b cos (a for the ordinate When a = /3. Simi a. since the extreme values of x and D Q Fig. Q and R coincide at C. 6 (see Fig. the (f shewing that the points (as at larly. 54. by putting of the point of contact R. Hence.
that this we see construction gives a perfect representation of the change undergone by the ellipse which is the resultant of two rectilinear harmonic vibrations at right angles to one another. to be transparent. . 37. the angular velocity of the rotating cylinder being (For BQ A much which more general case of any two the periods are commensurable. let us suppose the direction of the harmonic vibration to be horizontal.f(z + 277). would be orthogonally projected into another ellipse I/ C'. or in the axis of x. equal to the rate of variation of the difference of phase. which.. pendicular to the plane of the paper. when the difference of phase of the component vibrations varies uniformly. Suppose also the cylinder its and to have marked on surface the trace of a section made by a plane touching each end. . This vibration will therefore be represented (Art. T. vertical vibration Let us also suppose the ratio of the periods nr = mTy m and n being integers. rectilinear vibrations of and of which one.. J is (6) denote any periodic function. And if the cylinder were inscribed in the rectangle turned uniformly about its axis.General Case. 50). this inscribed ellipse would DC its evidently go through all possible forms in such a to manner that the distance BQ would be equal a multiplied by the cosine of a uniformly varying angle* Comparing these results with those of the last article. is harmonic (Art. 47) by an equation of the form x = a sm . as seen by the eye.  h a ^ . a cos (a #)). at least. Then the may be represented by an equation of the form f always finite. which Let and such thaty~(0) . a case which could rarely be treated algebraically For the sake of clearness. T to be such that Now let a curve be drawn in which the abscissa of any point . similar construction may be employed in the 55. This section would the circular edge of be an ellipse.
4.4 that a line equal to n x A shall be equal to circumference of a circle of which the radius is B m a. and cause And different values of x and^ to become contemporaneous. in which = T'. containing exactly n periods of the curve. the m hori in same time as n Hence tical the apparent coordinates of would be always idenwith the values of x and y in equations (6) and (7). the horizontal motion of P be a harmonic vibration. 53.38 is Representation by proportional to \ the time /. and the ordinate is the corre sponding value of y given by equation (7). a perfect repre sentation of the resultant vibration. (Fig. then. and thus we should get. and to be viewed in the manner explained in Art. pro P vided the cylinder were turned (if necessary) about its axis into such a position as to give x andj/ corresponding values at any one instant . times the If. then if a point were to describe the curve in P such a manner that the projection of on the base of the cylinder should describe the circumference of the circle uniformly. it could be rolled m times round a We should thus obtain a complicated cylinder of radius a.) AB A \ IB Fig. as seen by the eye. by equation would be completed Moreover. An alteration in the value of either of the angles a or /3 (equations (6). while identical with that defined P. Suppose the whole to become transparent. a rectangular curve on the surface of the cylinder. 56. . would its vertical motion would be (7). slip of paper were cut out. (7)) would alter the time at which the corresponding vibration passes through a given phase. as before. zontal vibrations vertical vibrations. may be taken to represent two periods of such a And suppose the unitline to have been so chosen curve.
were changed into this . is Hence. We see also that a uniform variation either of a. t. The results obtained in Arts. may be exhibited so. cY = e r. a change of /3 into of a into a \ equivalent to a change '. the 39 effect would be produced to the eye by turning the about its axis into a new position. the projected curve seen by the eye would go continuously through all its possible forms during a rotation of the cylinder through . 27T ..transparent Cylinder.e. now. the retardation would be if r'. e' is Hence. cylinder Thus. that is. if a were changed into a f e. n consists of 57. tion through a given phase would be accelerated by a time r. or e'. ft e'. Lissajous. Since the curve rolled on the cylinder similar n portions. is . But before explaining the mode of doing we 1 This mode of representing stereoscopically the composition of vibrations due to M.' Ann. 51. with a motion contrary to that of the projection of P) through an since in either case the passage of the horizontal vibraangle . 5255 to the eye. 147. the effect would be the same same as if the cylinder were turned backwards (that is. et de PAys. to a turning of the cylinder backwards through an angle T e'. corresponding points on two consecutive portions 27T . p. 2TT A retardation of the vertical vibration effect as if ft would have the same an equal acceleration of the horizontal vibration. the angle n . de Ch. the angular distance between . and or e would be equal to the former acceleration. See his memoir ' Sur 1'Etude optique des Mouvements vibratoires. 58. if the cylinder were turned continuously. = T . or of would have the 1 same effect as a uniform rotation of the cylinder .
\ h equation and result of eliminating / between this last (7) into a'. N* are the actual num . but that the curve is disturbed by the variation of a'. but i +k . k . 55). Art. as such that mr quanlowest = T' (the ratio m : n being in its And suppose that the vertical vibration is the same terms). but not exactly. forms the while the cylinder turned through an angle Hence curve would go through : all its forms in a time equal to n . to and all also that its the curve. It 59. before. has been seen (Art.40 will Case in which the Periods consider the case in which the ratio of the periods of the is nearly. 2 TT k / = a'. > which will differ from If now we k be a small quantity. tities. except that a would be changed into a uniformly varying instead of a constant quantity. of a would have the cylinder with same effect as a 57) that a uniform variation uniform rotation of the 2 an angular in the case velocity equal to the rate of variation Tt of a. T' are given constant two vibrations numerical fraction. as seen by the would go through * . that is. if is no longer r. that would be the same as is. still We may. eye. consider that the vibrating point describes the same curve as before. as before (see equation (7). but that the horizontal (harmonic) vibration is now defined by the equation x so that slightly its = asm ( v r (i period T. positive or negative. just as we consider a planet to an ellipse disturbed by the variation of one or more describe of its elements. now supposed. Suppose then. that r. therefore. or r nk Suppose that M. the above put a + equation becomes x and the a sin /27T/ ( f a . expressed by a given before.
The two Figures. being the same as that of positive or negative according as the ratio M N : k. in a unit of time. in the or forwards. especially in connection with the theory of the socalled beats of imperfect consonances. 5 Fig. vertical. the periods are such that two horizontal vibrations same time as three periods . while Fig. backwards . 6. illustrate the case in which both vibrations are harmonic and have the same amplitude. The less is sign of nM ' mN. simply of time M is m the = n = i.are not exactly Equal. and vertical vibrations then M= __ the . occupy the Suppose 37. Or number of expression (8) becomes cycles of change in a unit the difference of the actual numbers of vibrations.+k i > and JV = . as will appear afterwards. 60. is is greater or than m : n. 7T/ 9 sin . 5 defined by the equations x = a sin 27T/ ? y = a . This expression is worthy of remark. of the horizontal 41 . In the former case. the N. 6. are the two is then the curve in Fig. r r T i > = n wr cycles of change of the curve Now number of complete of time is 5 in the unit and this is equal to (8) nMmN. In the particular case in which the periods of the vibrations are nearly equal. the rotation of the cylinder latter. 5. bers. 2r.
the curve will appear to go through a in the figures. and such a rectangle can therefore be rolled twice round a cylinder of radius a. and the whole to become transparent. 6 reversed right and left. a third similar rotation produces Fig. then (as in Art. a second rotation through 30 brings back Fig.eye. if the cylinder be held vertically at a distance from the . with those parts of the curve in front of the cylinder which were at the back. the length of a rectangle which will just contain them will be 4710. ( > 3r 6/ V (The origin is in each case These two curves are at the centre of the square. 58) the locus of the vibrating point might be represented by the equations x where a' is flTSt = a sin ( 1 a . in the ratio of 3 to 2. and a fourth reproduces the original Fig. 5.\ ) 5 y = a sin . and vice versd . Then. series of forms of is which two are represented into Fig. Let three complete j ' waves/ or periods of the curvej/ = a sin slip be drawn upon a rectangular of paper.) particular cases of the appearance presented to the eye by a transparent cylinder having a curve traced upon its surface in the manner above described. 6 Fig. 5 changed by a rotation through 30. 6 the x = equation is changed into /2TT/ 7I\ sm . Ttt > an angle which varies slowly and uniformly with the time.42 Particular Case discussed. and turned about its axis. but not exactly. that is. 5. is completed in a rotation through 120. so that the axis of x is parallel to a side of the rectangle. or o (see A greater number of the forms belonging to' this 57). . Thus a whole cycle of  forms Art. in the present case. as follows. originally given ' 61. Suppose this to be done. They were in the memoir of Lissajous above cited. If the periods of the component vibrations were nearly.' p. 319. first while in Fig. and other cases of composition of vibrations may be seen figured in Tyndall's Lectures on Sound.
the path during one or if more repetitions of the period 3 T will be sensibly the same a were constant. that is. but if the variation of a' be sufficiently slow. and the path of the end a reentrant sufficiently curve. while their planes are at right angles to one another. The period of one component is fixed. suppose them to be n is in lowest terms. but the period of the other component may be altered within certain limits by clamping the lower part at different points. and improved by Helm holtz. and a small bright object (such as a silvered bead) is attached to the top of the other. and at right angles to one another. small. These trivances. right angles to the former.Wheatstones Kaleidophone. the rod be disturbed in any manner. where the two periods are commensurable. joined together in such a manner that their longitudinal central axes are in the same straight line. r.g. or other elastic material. just as the path of a disturbed planet is never actually an ellipse. of which one part can easily vibrate in one direction. and during a longer time will appear as to undergo a continuous change through all the forms corresponding to constant values of a'. the impression on the retina made by the bead in any . Then mnr ratio m : (the least common multiple of mr and nr) free is the period of the is resultant vibration. 43 In this case the path of the point never actually coincides with any curve corresponding to a constant value of a'. is The whole position by clamping one of the slips in If now will is parts are bent. and the other part in a direction at fixed in an upright a stand. consists of two thin and narrow rectangular slips of steel. If the mr. phenomena may be is exhibited the by various conThis simplest instrument. the motion of the free end tion be compounded of vibrations which (when the deflec not too great) are sensibly rectilinear and harmonic. so that both its and then left to itself. depending on the length of the upper part of the rod. through all the forms presented by the curve on the rotating cylinder. Thus a compound elastic rod is formed. described in this period. invented by Wheatstone of which the kaleidophone. 62. e. If then mnr bright be not greater than about onetenth of a second.
The eyepiece is fixed. the image will appear as a curve. if the approximately expressible by low numbers. and in the same plane. and the eye sees a continuous bright curve. impresses on the reflected beam a sufficient deviation to produce a considerable displacement of the spot of light on a distant screen. performs rectilinear vibrations at right angles to those of the fork. a nonreentrant curve. sufficiently rapid) appears as a continuous straight line. not on the motion of translation of the mirrors. 64. in the manner already explained (Arts. though small. for the purpose of exact observation. consists in reupon a screen a beam of light which has been succes by two small mirrors fixed to the ends of two tuningforks vibrating in planes at right angles to one another. instead of being stationary. so as to vibrate with it. performs also vibrations which are the fork vibrates. The methods described in the last two articles are useful for illustration. the other prong being counterpoised the axis of the objectglass is at right angles to following. Lissajous. but upon their angular motion. 63. and (the vibrations being But. Lissajous.44 Vibration Microscope. this vibrating image viewed through the fixed eyepiece. If the periods of the component is vibrations are incommen their ratio is expressible then the real path of the bead very complicated is only by high numbers. mate ratio were exact. the is much better adapted. 5659). It must be observed that the effect in this case depends. but. which. The : the plane of the vibrations. either inva . more or less complicated according as the numbers m and n are greater or surable. formed by the objectglass. Another method. due ceiving sively reflected to M. of a microscope is attached to one prong of objectglass a tuningfork. position has not time to fade away before the bead comes into the same position again. or if smaller. the actual appearance to the eye will be that of a curve gradually going through all the forms which would be possible if the approxiratio reentrant one. When any stationary luminous point. in either case. the image of is very approximately linear and harmonic. or a But. if the luminous point itself. also devised by M.
if the ratio of the periods be known. 55. which completely defines the actual vibration of the point. We have. the form of the curve will depend upon the character of the vertical component.Imaginary Unrolling. or very nearly. and then. having rolled this on the glass along the curve. when the ratio of the periods is not quite exact. and those of the luminous point vertical. In reference to this subject. on all sides. because then the cylinder appears axis (Art. and of given period. from its displacement and the mean position. following a useful exercise. and upon the ratio of its period to that of the horizontal component . 66). in some simple ratio. is equal to the actual (vertical) ordinate of the vibrating point. the actual vibrations of the luminous point) can be inferred from the observed form of the curve. for clearness. and to disentangle from one its another those parts of the curve which are on the front from those which are at the back. The curve may then be supposed to have been formed by rolling on a transparent vertical cylinder a plane curve in which the (horizontal) abscissa is proportional to the time. the character of the vertical vibrations (i. vibration of the Then the horizontal component image being harmonic. hence. 57) so that the observer is enabled so to speak. e. the student will find the Draw on a slip of paper two com plete waves of a harmonic curve (Art. 65. therefore. to reproduce this plane curve. it has been seen that in order that the curve may be vibra distinctly observable. In fact. so as to obtain a slip . g. the periods of the two component tions must be to one another either exactly. at the given time. that plained in Arts. than to turn about to see it. It has been re this unrolling marked by Helmholtz that it is easier to see what the result of would be. or changing according to the conditions ex Let us suppose. riable in 45 form. the vibrations of the objectglass are horizontal. Cut the paper of which one edge has the form of the curve. when it is . &c. through the contrary directions of their motion. choosing the wavelength so that the double wave can just be wound once round a glass cylinder (e. a common lampchimney). by imagining the cylinder to be unrolled.
Then vary the experiment by substituting for the harmonic and curve on the paper either one or more waves of any other kind. and the pencil. curve on the glass is distinctly visible both in front and at the back. in an observa tion of the kind described in the last article. or more times round the curve on the glass then becomes more and may more complicated. and the marking with the diamond pencil not so easy. (See Helmholtz. is The object of the exercise is to practise the eye in the imaginary unrolling. thing that the paper will The be done with a wavelength so chosen go two. and turned about its axis. 139. glazier's Experiment mark diamond described. p. which is necessary in order to infer the form of the plane curve on the paper from that of the curve as seen on the cylinder. the luminous point performed simple harmonic vibrations with a period nearly equal to half that of the vibrations of the microscope. Fig. the series of will forms be seen which would be produced if. If now the cylinder be held vertically at a moderate distance from the eye. on account of the overlapping of the paper. particularly of a zigzag formed by portions of straight thus: lines.46 cylinder. three. 7 The same cylinder.) . the glass along the edge of the paper with a This is very easily done.
and then putting A. terminated at one end by an oblique plane section. we obtain VT = y for the equation of the = <zsin(^^ + a) (i) monly and harmonic curve. (It was formerly comcurve of sines/) If a wheel were to turn uniformly about a horizontal axis. and of uniform motion in a straight line direction of those vibrations. Let the straight line be taken for axis of x. were smeared with printer's ink. THE HARMONIC CURVE. = <zsin h a. be so taken that the abscissa of the moving point at any time / shall be given by the equation x = vt. 47) by the equation velocity of the motion along origin to y vibrations. called the ' at the same time to slide uniformly along it. and then rolled over a sheet of white paper. IF the motion of a point be compounded of rectilinear vibrations. where a and r are the amplitude and period of the harmonic Eliminating / between these two equations. The ordinate^y will be given (Art. 66. the projection of any point in the wheel upon a horizontal plane 'would describe such a curve. the line bounding . and let v be the harmonic at right angles to the will describe then we may suppose the it. Or if a wooden cylinder. the point a plane curve which is called the harmonic curve.CHAPTER IV.
The distance between corresponding points of two consecutive waves is A. which is called the wavelength . The value of a has its no effect on the form of the curve. . consists of an infinite series of similar waves. as before.) If in equation (i) integer). radius of the circle determines the amplitude. ordinates of points on a circle of arbitrary radius. The curve. which has in fact been already implied (Art. so that a change in a would shift the whole curve along the axis of x. A harmonic curve is most easily drawn in practice by determining a number of points and drawing the curve through them by hand. which is the greatest value of the ordinate. but position . the amplitude. Fig. the blackened part of the paper (The proof of this proposition. and making them equal which to the divide the circumference into The an arbitrary number of equal parts. The points may be found by erecting ordinates at (arbitrary) equal distances. therefore. 53). and the between distance two consecutive ordinates of the curve. would be a harmonic curve. thus. determines 67. and the constant a. i. which are divided symmetrically into upper and under portions by the axis of x.48 Harmonic Curve. we put x lA instead of x (i being any the value y is unaltered. may of be left to the reader. is called.
may vary from a + b to a^b. E . so that cos or i. (a 0) the resultant curve degenerates into a straight line coinciding In the particular case in which the amplitudes of the components are equal.). + b* + 2 ab cos (a /3). and one of them is half a wavelength before = the other. Composition of Harmonic Curves. and this can be put in the form y if = c sin (2 77 x + y) to satisfy the c and y be determined c cos  (see Art. 50) so as equations y = a cos a + b cos /3. the value of c is o. is Harmonic into Curves. The case in which the component curves are harmonic is specially important. harmonic curves which have equal wavelengths can be compounded into another harmonic curve with the always Two same wavelength. which the circle 49 is by the number of parts the wavelength. according to the value which determines the relative position of the compo nents. has been already explained (Art. c sin y = a sin a + b sin /3. the amplitude of the resultant curve. 10. is The value of c. in which the ordinate of any point is the algebraical sum of the corresponding ordinates of the component curves. 68.Composition of multiplied divided. The formation of a resultant curve. v which a j8. &c. For let the component curves be y the value of y in the resultant curve is the sum of the values given by these two equations.
modifies it in one way or another. with the axis of another. we choose to look upon No. it is possible to resultant curve of this kind. 150. formed. and the quantities a and /3 on which the phases of the two curves. as shewn in No. the same whatever be the amplitudes and phases of the components. values to the ratio m n. 1874. though it should be observed that or a and b. i as the curve of pressure ' ' (Art. R. 5) corresponding to a simple tone of any given pitch. and not the pitch. We can also give different relatively to one another. ticular In the accompanying diagrams some of these resultant curves No. i gives the simple harmonic curve of a par wavelength and amplitude. an alteration in the values of a and /3. of a mechanical contrivance i. If we now compound these two simple harmonic curves we obtain the curve of pressure for the consonance of two simple The general form tones an octave apart. 70) 1 For a description of the instrument the reader No. as we have already said. the components completely neutralizing one 68 a. = sin ( 2 ir { /3 J ? pleasure the amplitudes a and b. 79). 3. is referred to Proc. for this affects the intensity of the sound only. By means draw any described. S. and No.r. if the component curves be f y = a sin ( 2 IT we can vary at a ) j j. 2 one of the same Now (Art.50 Composition of Harmonic Curves. then No. This will be so whatever the amplitude may be. . and it is on this ratio that the form of : the resultant chiefly depends. as above curves. by compounding two simple harmonic The tude components may be chosen in various ways and wavelength. . depend. 2 will be the curve of pressure for a simple tone an octave above. but (Art.e. and the number of compound curves that can be drawn will be limited only by the mechanical as regards ampli conditions of the apparatus \ Thus. of the resultant is. are shewn. if amplitude but of half the wavelength.
51 4 \ IWvw E 2 .Composition of Harmonic Curves.
52 Composition of Harmonic Curves. 21 .
7 3). the diminish. but with one component of very small No. Thus. 39 : nearer that of the octave. when this interval In Nos. similar curves are shewn. This is shewn modified by alterations in the values of either. 36. each beat corresponding to the wide. it passes approximately through all the forms given in Nos. 15. better or almost exactly 16 15. the same curve again. In and. Nos. ii the ratio is 81 : exact the narrowest parts of the curve would all be similar). 13. 13 it is 81 the ratio of a comma. but if this ratio be slightly altered we have a curve of pressure for the octave when thrown we somewhat out of time. (if it were 76 : mates to unity. 18 shews the curve corresponding to the amplitude. . and in No. ively. in No. and each interval of comparative silence to the narrow. 31. 36 were in the ratio 2:1. and No. the 1 6. Nos. and therefore the corresponding interval to a unison. 20 and 81 interval of a twelfth thrown a little out of tune. 710 are shewn the curves of pressure for some of the intervals whose fifth ratios are given in Art. and it is noticeable that : 9. in No. 14 such a curve. a peculiar throbbing and the two notes are said to produce ' beats. more the curve tends This is still No. of course. through all the intermediate ones besides. 12 it is 55 80. but the ratios being : 40 respectNo. in No. part of the curve. 1113. we notice that the nearer the ratio approxito periodically enlarge and Thus in seen in Nos. 53 in the four forms given.' These beats are represented by these enlargements. 10 the minor second (10 9). in No. : : Now is it nearly in heard. 8 the fourth (4 Thus. where a single 'beat' repre We saw above that the wavelengths of the components in Nos. 17 gives periods are correspondingly longer. is a wellknown fact that when two simple tones unison are sounded together. 36.Composition of is Harmonic Curves. No. or (Art. 39) 54. 9 : : the minor third (6 In these four curves 5). changing the ratio to 19 get in No. viz. : we have the (3 : 2). in This is seen to greatest is advantage perhaps sented. one of which may be any is taken as representing the effect on the ear sounded. in No.
It evidently follows from Art. and that for former case (cf. besides the two fundamentals there are also heard the harmonics of each. 12. The as explanation is probably to be found in the fact that all these curves are compounded of simple harmonic curves such correspond (Art. 19 the same. for the width of the curve remains practically constant. and the beats that ensue are caused by an harmonic of the one string beating with an harmonic of the is fundamental slightly altered the ' ' other with which it had previously been in unison. crescendos and diminuendos such as occur when two notes nearly in tune are sounded together. twelfth. (e. there would. 20. be heard a kind of undulation. Phil. For a . i. nevertheless it is well known that in general such are heard when any simple interval or fifth) is thrown a little out of tune. octave. thus. therefore. it is almost impossible to obtain such tones. pp. for the sounds produced by all when a either instruments are (Art. 21 give the curves corresponding to the intervals 81 respectively. or nearly 3 : 2 and 4 : 3 We may marked remark all these cases (Nos.e. and of which the greatest possible amplitude tudes of the 1 is the sum of the ampli component curves. an imperfect unison such as is given in Nos. fifth is played on a violin. but probably of a different nature to produce if nearly in unison \ the beats they would 69. Now. If we could hear two absolutely simple tones nearly an octave apart played together. Nos. 13.54 Composition of Harmonic Curves. 68 that any number of harmonic curves having equal wavelengths may be compounded into a single harmonic curve with the same wavelength. harmonics belonging to it are also changed. Mag. no doubt. In the it would appear from the nature of the curve No. but with one component of half the amplitude of the other. When. fifth series. xi.g. 12) more or less compound. 1 6) that no 'beats' would be noticed. 14) to simple tones. 492. : 55 and 80 that in : 61. 420. by further discussion of this question the reader is referred to a paper Bosanquet.. 1421) a difference exists between the curve of pressure for an interval (such as the octave) somewhat out of tune.
would be found amongst those produced by placing along the same axis an unlimited number of harmonic curves A. 71. / nx sin ^ ajsin^2'nr + pj + _\ which does not admit of reduction. equation to the resultant curve is then y of ~y is = a / mx 2 IT \ 7 . but we see that the value unaltered by putting x A for x. so that their actual values are m >> &c. Suppose \ to be the least common multiple of the wave lengths. If the component wavelengths are incommensurable. the constants &c. /3.. is if the wavelengths be commensurable. they finite have no common is infinite : multiple. 70. including the whole as one case of an aliquot part. n 3 . but their positions depend a. compounded into a single harmonic though. that is. the re sultant curve periodic. It is evident that as components. are integers. 55 they can no longer be curve. The . If the component curves have different wavelengths. with wavelengths components. without wavelength.Composition of Harmonic Curves. &c. so that the period of the is resultant curve periodic. the resultant non The forms on upon shifts their amplitudes of the component harmonic curves depend only and wavelengths . A variation in the corresponding curve along the axis. resultant be given. and the positions of altering its its points of intersection with the axis. the least comwavelength + mon multiple of the wavelengths of the components. an .. If the wavelength only of the the wavelengths of the components may be all possible aliquot parts of it. JA. and the number of the possible components is therefore unlimited. and shifting by varying arbitrarily the amplitudes of the them arbitrarily along the axis. JA. so that the period or of the resultant curve is A. in other words. Thus every curve which could be constructed in this manner.. any one of these and any such shifting will evidently alter the form of the resultant curve. so as to have a given wavelength A. where m.
so that a wave of the periodic curve defined by the equation = C + CBm . 72. the axis of x is opposite sides. and having A. having a given wavelength A. including any number of straight portions... and constitutes the celebrated theorem of Fourier. but conve nient to call the axis that line which cuts off equal areas from the the curve axis its y = asin(nx + Thus. as defined by the equation This being premised. that the ordinate must be always finite. the same curve may always be produced by compounding harmonic curves (in general infinite in number) having the same wavelengths. that the projection. having A. all the same wavelength produced. JA. is possible to may be expressed as follows determine the constants C. Any rection lie upon a straight parallel line parallel to straight line to it that diis may be on of a called an axis of the curve. for their The only limitations to the irregularity of the arbitrary curve are. first. If any arbitrary periodic curve be drawn. move always in the same These conditions being satisfied. a wave of the curve may have any form whatever. enunciate Fourier's Theorem. we will define precisely the meaning of the word axis as used above. Cv : C 2. on the axis. giving a formal enunciation of it. Analytically the theorem It . is Before true. &c v a p a 2 &c. harmonic curve.. of a point moving so as to describe the curve. . must direction. JA..56 infinite Enunciation of number of resultants could be produced. But it could not be assumed without proof that every possible variety of periodic curve could be so This. Corresponding points of a periodic curve a fixed direction. however (with a limitation to be mentioned below). axis. we proceed to a). and secondly.
2 ITSX . ^ . viz.i. cos + 2 = OD 2. subject to the conditions mena change of notation. cos  if _ we multiply both _ sides of the equation (2) by A dx> or by sin limits. lillX cos cos sin dx sm ZJTiX. all the integrals C I . we can obtain the expressions for these values at once. we may write the above equation more convenient form.  A dx ana t integrate in each case all between the above cluding o. by means of the following simple 2Z7TX 2/TTX ~ dx. 2ZTTX 7 I the third integral sin A cos 2JTTX  A ax . If/ = i two have the according as common value . But we may observe here that. or the several values X and o. . If tjjt be integers. : tioned above. see the Appendix to this chapter. =1 / have any proposed form. / is different from. vanish unless still j vanishes. . sin ~x ( ' (For a demonstration of the theorem. in . we obtain. o. assuming the truth of the theorem. By in the following y = ^ + 2 ^1 = 2. Hence. or shall 57 y = C + V?/=oo C. =1 00 A 2 ITtX 4. while the first . or equal to. t taken between the limits o and A.sm( 2.=1 ^ > . .Fourier s Theorem.. propositions. includes The a demonstration determination of of the theorem just enunciated values the of the constants.) 73. for values of z".
. that a given function of x in the ordinary algeis. if we draw by hand upon paper an arbitrary curve between two points. Thus. B^ are required. y may be a given function from x = o to x = a. by evaluating the definite in 73) by which they are expressed.58 Enunciation of Fourier s Theorem. b. but not for other values. that y = f(x) from x = o to x = Suppose. When the actual values of the coefficients A 4. the expression ' 2 + v*= 2 i=1 cos i* * _2 C K *i J/( X) cos \ 2 dx . 74. which it important to distinguish. 74. (l)j> A. and have A for its period. so that f(x + A) = f(x) . we can measure as many ordinates as we . represents a periodic function of which the value coincides with that of f(x) for all values of x between o and A.. in which last case alone the expression (3) as equivalent tof(x). in which case it is only to be ascertained by actual observation or measurement. they have to be found tegrals (Art. value of viz. Or (still using the word function in the same sense). another given function from x = a to x = d. &c. In these cases the ordinary methods of the integral calculus But are applicable to the evaluation of the definite integrals. whatever the function f(x) may be (the pro er limitations being always supposed). &c. unless the function f(x) be itself periodic. This equation may subsist in two different senses. being given values between o and A. Thus. t that for every value of it x there is a determinate y though may be impossible to assign any rule for calculating it. it may be possible to assign a rule by which the value of y can be calculated for any assumed value of x. a. is may be braical sense. may be taken without limitation 75. as in Art. may be a given function of x only in the more general (2) sense (including the former as a particular case) in which the word function should always be understood in mathematical y physics.
though we may not be able to ascertain their values rigorously. When the coefficients A^ B^ are considered as having arbi trary values. but for 59 y we can give no rule for calculating the value of an assumed value of x. or only in the physical sense explained above. that it furnishes an analytical ex pression (within finite limits) for any function whatever. y for any value of if an approximate rule for x between given The rule would be exact but. 76. 72) evidently represents a completely arbitrary periodic function of x. from x ' ' Suppose from a. Art. In such a case the values of the definite integrals can only be found approximately. and its great value consists partly in this. 6. 74. please. by means of equation (2). calculating the value of limits. whether it be a function in the ordinary algebraical sense. cutting the axis of x at O at a point B. Fig. by measuring a sufficient number of values of jy. such that OB = A. are the coordinates of A. the abstract truth of the theorem is in no way interfered with . point of the curve OAB. Let OA. however. It is required to determine the coefficients so that the expression (3). and is a A (x from x = a x* . in we Since. the expression (2) (Art.be and two straight lines. the coefficients actually exist. the coefficients A B^ {. known. the origin A. and applying the method of quadratures. The following is a simple and useful example of the application of the theorem. were exactly order to calculate them exactly. 2. shall give the value of the ordinate at any = o to x = A. We can thus obtain. Then y (AT) A) is  x to x = o to x = a. must be in possession of such a rule to begin with.Illustrations of Fourier s Theorem.
for values of i from b 7 2 to oo . of which one O A B. If now we introduce the value of n i = ( ^. B^ = o. = 4 x A But it (area 0. Performing the integrations. 73) { \A a b = . The result is easily reducible to the following . form . Only it is be observed. we find. we have (Art.60 Illustrations = A. : a 2 ) 1 . .4^) = .J we find. of this course.C xzvsnxdx + b  TK r ajo b Ca \B: = . of  x Hence. 2 = to may also be found by evaluating in the usual way the above expression for A when j} i (and therefore ) o. The same process gives. (with A Q =) wave is are to be introduced in the equation 72. Art. which gives once A. A2 r . which then becomes the equation to a periodic curve. putting for the present  = A n. after = = ' b \a b " a(i coswA) A(i cosna) \a most simply obtained at Xsmna is The value of A directly from the expression  i r* / Ajo f(x) dx. a) These expressions (2). a N i 2 4z 7r a (A B f = b 4z z7 2 2 7r A2 i ^(A 7T  a)^ A A a rSin2Z7T. ./ x$mnxdx\aJ o aXJ a b  / (x ^  TK (x a a AJ X)s easy reductions. that for purpose we must not assume i to be an integer before putting i = o.
Fourier s Theorem. which b bisect the lines O A. In other words. 71) of the whole locus represented A S) is the line C of repetitions of by (4) (consisting evident that the axis D indefinitely produced. 77. since the abscissae of these points are > 2 > and ' their ordinates are ' both 2 It is also 2 (Art. of which the value shall coincide with that of m (x v 2 } ' from x o to x = A. It 61 may be observed that all the periodic terms on the : right of (4) vanish for v ' it x = 2 and also for x = 2 from which follows that every one of the harmonic curves represented several terms passes through the by the two points C. to find the equation to a periodic curve consisting // . is The following simpler example is also instructive. D. A J5. It required to find a periodic function.
that. Assuming = that we may 2TIX r differentiate equation (5) we  obtain dx Now. without passing through the intermediate values. which are inclined at an infinitely BB '.. while for these critical values of x the equation (5) givesj/ = o. the required equation.. if Here we may observe the locus be considered as consisting of the detached lines A B.62 Illustrations of " m\ ^. i it i r cos 2 2 c + c 2 . This subject cannot be fully discussed here varies . but greater. 21TX . but the true view seems to be that while ' x from a value to a value infinitely infinitely near to a critical value. when c (increasing) becomes = we see that must be taken as representing o . '.2=00 V I i .) (6) as the limit of that is.. B' E. that is. small angle to the true perpendiculars drawn through O. continuous.. the value of undergoes a sudden alteration from m  to m when y x passes through o or any multiple of A. of the fraction i. y passes instantaneously through all values from m to m Or. geometrically.. 2m\ 2TtX h cos 2 1 2 TUX cos cos 3 + considering the series i + 2 (cos + cos 20 + cos 30 + . the arithmetic mean is of the two values just mentioned (see Appendix to this On the other hand. but less. near. since every term in the series (5) chapter). it is impossible that the sum of the series can undergo an absolutely sudden change of value. 2'TT^f I .1 7 S1 A 2TIX or m\(\ which is . the the portions locus of the equation (5) ought to be considered as including A' A. and cut them in those points. &c. C. &c. &c.
Boole. We Phil. And = fol expression dx has in general \ for its value. &c. xxi. P AB is passing through infinitely short 1 curved arc. Phil. of which the radius of curvature purposely avoid here all discussion of the legitimacy of differenand of the logical validity of reasoning founded upon the have properties of the series (6).) ( Trans. while x passes through the critical values of the series passes instantaneously through to oo . On the Analysis of Discontinuous Functions.. 605. &c. 63 which give cos = 1 3 in which case it becomes oo . On the Critical Values of the Sums of Periodic Series.. but by turning round that if we suppose a moveable locus A B B'. vol. the reader is referred to Stokes. for all values of 6 except the critical values o. values from o to oo by considering and back again little less to it being infinitely lows that the series within brackets in the above for little greater than a critical value. so that = dx m . B.. viii. but. 197. absolute suddenness. but as being connected by an '. are to be considered as not with points at which the tangent changes its direction. vol. have been proposed in order to treat the subject with perfect rigour. B'. 75.. Nat. p. the to be describing the point until coincides with tangent P AB P approaches infinitely near to B.) De Morgan. CaL. Thomson and Tait. Price. 3. A. and of the theoretical questions connected with it. that it is impossible to clear notions of the true nature of Fourier's series. turns through all directions between which last it coincides as soon as P has passed through B. And we avoid. while and B B' with B. vol. &c. of R. i. vol. &c. all the value values from \ and back again 1 Hence A\ A. Trans. tiating (5). should be consulted by all students who can obtain access to it. I. all that from oo passes through to o. ii. are to be considered not as making an angle at B. which unfortunately is now rare. i. Theorie analytique de la Chaleur. Infinitesimal Calculus. But Fourier's original work. Diff.. o.Fourier s Theorem. in Fig. In other words. and Int. pt. B If. 277. without some such For a view of the various methods which illustrations as those in the text. . So those points. and. the two lines A B. (Camb.. A. as before. especially in its application to the representation of discontinuous functions. the difficulty of attributing a sudden change of value to a series of it which all the terms are continuous. while x varies from being infinitely . What is certain is. &c.
ticular general the sensation of a musical note. Fig. which is not a simple tone (Art. and city. => _ . rem evades the difficulty of expressing analytically the abrupt changes of value which may. 12. is not a single ' ' vibration in the strict sense of the term. but a combination of tones corresponding in general to vibrations of which the periods are air excites in (The exaliquot parts of the period of the original vibration. we may say that Fourier's theothe locus. and do. viz. For in the case of actual physical changes. &c. socalled vibration of a tuningfork. the conditions which make the theorem applicable are necessarily fulfilled. but infinitely rapid. by substituting for them continuous. at instants separated infinitely small equidistant intervals. If y represent the magnitude in question. changes. and each of the r. Thus every periodic disturbance of the air. pressure.) which which varies periodically with the time.64 is oo Illustrations of Fourier s Theorem. by is the average of all the values which y J has. and in par such vibrations as excite the sensation of sound. and T the period of its vibration. physical condition (such as density. occur in nature. velois measurable in magnitude or intensity. then y is expressible by an equation of the form J^=^o+2 /=1 C>n( where j/ is . compounded Hence 1 The value of}'<>. The ceptions to this statement are apparent rather than real. 2.). . every actual vibration can be resolved mathematically into har monic vibrations. is expressible as a 78. This remark of course equally applicable to the angular points in In general. &c. /2 Z'TT/ + N a i)> the mean 1 value of _y. variable terms represents is by itself a harmonic vibration. for example. Any function of the time by means of Fourier's series. but is of vibrations of which the periods are incommensurable.  / ydt. In other words. of which the period an aliquot part of the whole period 79. can be Now we know as a fact that a vibration of the so resolved. during the period r. at the extremities is and infinitely small at the middle.
65 motion similar cases. We shall believing that this soon be able to assign a conclusive reason for is so. In what follows this condition will be supposed. and a and also that c is positive. In this and other component tones are heard which do not belong to the The the harmonic scale of the fundamental tone.Demonstration of Fourier the whole s Theorem. x = a + (2 i + 1)77. corresponding to x + 2*V. ? ' 2ccos(x a) + c 2 which may be also written c being any constants. resolves a note into simple tones in after same manner which Fourier's theorem resolves a vibra. APPENDIX TO CHAPTER FOURIER'S THEOREM. therefore. Then y will have i j c i + = a F for c maximum and minimum values. tion into harmonic vibrations and the question naturally arises whether each simple tone perceived by the ear is really caused exclusively by the corresponding harmonic component of the complex vibration. 14. . represents a periodic curve of which the ordinate is always positive if c be numerically less than i. THE equation i i IV.) ear. is not really periodic. and we shall thus obtain an answer to the question suggested in Art.
and down again on the right side. however or M' P' will tend to o as a near to A. The area included between the curve. and two or consecutive corresponding ordinates (as M. It is evident that if the value of A B c be increased. and the distance between the ordinates points on successive waves of the curve R c = P M^ * Fig. ). or llf'. 4 represents a portion of the curve in the case in which R. At the same time if a fixed point M. the axis of x. but it is most simply obtained by first deexpression P M" A veloping ydx.. are two of the maximum ordinates. &c. . y in a series = i : thus. &c. f. a minimum ordinate. tending towards i as a limit. will be called critical values. y + 2 (c cos (x a) + c 2 cos 2 (x a) + . but passes those points by going up the left side of the ordinate to an infinite distance. '. The values (a + 22*77) of x at A. to become that of a point which moves along except when infinitely near to one of the points A B. P OX . . motion of tends. P" Q. the ordinate MP limit. the Hence. as the value of c approaches i. of corresponding iS 27T. and Q. be taken. the maximum and minimum ordinates will tend towards oo and o as limits. This is easily found by integrating directly the JR) is 277..66 i being Demonstration of any integer. if the curve be considered as described by a point P.
(as obvious inferences If =27*. A M M" B ff f/ assigned quantity. The sum of the four integrals r*i is / ydx. MPQA. however small e and e 1 may be.Fourier s Theorem. ydx. cluded between two consecutive maximum ordinates. / a + e any case has 277 sum of its limit. with which neither of them absolutely 1 coincides. and e1 this has 277 for F 2 . e1 ydx. the two middle integrals is / Ja ydx. so long as there is not absolute coincidence with M" M" M" B either. These conclusions may be expressed analytically as follows. Jo. J XQ and. the area AQ MPQM' the value of c approaches to i. the area And this is true M' P' P" tends at the same time to o. when c approaches to i. a) doc find at 2TT of i except o. have for their limiting values o. it is and the area MPQA. 77. this is equal to 277. M' P it r maximum tends to 2 ordinate be any two fixed ordinates. Q. possible to take c so nearly equal to i that the . we X+ once ydx fJx The area between a ordinate. o. and if e. R. 77. M" P" RB. four integrals /*a I e1 ra. e be any positive constants such that a + 1 e are also both included between XQ and x v then the a and . A QP'M'. shall each differ from M'P P M from o. . This is true however near either or both ordinates may be to Q absolutely. by quantities less than any f fixed quantities AM'. If x x v be two values of x. and in The for its limit when c approaches to i. so long as neither of them coincides with tends to become = 77. And. QA MP Q : maximum and ). be. observing that r+2ir 67 cos for all values i (x = o. from which.AQP'M' M" . is next following minimum The following are of course = 77. Each of the areas P" be any two fixed ordinates. Ja+e J OCQ ydx. I Ta I f e Px^ \ ydx. P" may be to the maximum ordinates P' however near A Q. M P. including between them only one critical value (say a). however small the may areas 77. including one between them. supposing x^ XQ to have the greatest admis sible value (277). Jo. both inAnd if as a limit when A A M'f.
third j(x)ydx> e1 I c/a f(x)ydx. r by some quantity intermediate between the to o cally) least from XQ and greatest values which_/(jtr) takes while x varies xv There are three cases to be considered. x l considering the integral (2) as the sum of Suppose. and (y having all values of x the value (i) as before) the integral have any values such that /"(*) be any function which from XQ to xl inclusive. In this case the integral (2) may be considered as the of the three integrals ra . the limiting value of / J ydx is 277. x = a. when c approaches to i. / f(x}ydx> XQ J x +e is. be taken so small that M ydx Ja / multiplied + M ra + e a e1 Also. while the second equal to by some quantity intermediate between the least and greatest 1 e e. + e of which the the first first and have o for is their limiting values (by /*a +e e1 case).el ra + e xlt o when c approaches to i. is equal to the product of the integral (algebrai /ydx. value. as was shewn above. is 277/(a). and therefore of the (2) integral (2). say x = a. for = a + 2 TT.68 Let us Demonstration of now suppose not for that x is x^ x: let l x^ finite is >277. they may therefore shall differ infinitely little from /"(a). Then by J it instance. XQ xv may . difficulty that limiting value is */(*o) + V(^i) that +/(a + . to a values which f(x) takes while x varies from a But and e 1 may be as small as we please . Then J(*)ydx. 77 I f(x)y dx (/(a) > J xie the 2 77) ). coincide with a value. between x^ sum f*i I f(x)ydx. critical There may be a and but not coinciding with either of those limits. l will be seen without . In this case the limiting value is y dx. Hence we infer that in this case the limit of the integral (2). I f(x)ydx. since j> is (2) always positive. (3) critical One or both of the limits. J XQ I Jo. (1) There may be no critical value (0 to + 22*77) from of / x = XQ x = x l inclusively.
half the sum of the values given by the general rule for the two values otf(x). or x l = while x^ XQ < 2 77. the rea x soning is not affected. as the Pa. X^ XQ xl be two values of x such that XQ < a < x^ and XQ be not > 277. the value of the integral i v ' cz i 2c cos (x a) + 2 <r when for its c (increasing) approximates indefinitely to i. because in we may not take lie and e 1 so small that the value question shall between a + e and But suppose nitely little less (in case (2)) that /"(. The above conclusions require modification in the case in which the function y%r) is such as to undergo a sudden finite change of value when x passes through the critical value. . then it is 77 (/"(a) +f(a 77)). . But if (x) undergoes a sudden general f a. however near to it. XQ a. = (/(a) +/(&) ). change a.Fourier's Theorem. e1 is = f(a) when x is infiand =f(b) when x is infinitely little greater these will have for its and the second Ttf(b} . and f(a + is 2 77) to mean y(o + 2 77 e). may enunciate these results in the form of the following We Theorem. the result would evidently be 7r/(a). 69 If only one of the limits x^ v coincided with a critical value a. considering the integral / f(x)ydx. has in limit 2 Trf(a). Ja el fa + e sum of / f(x]ydx and / f(x)ydx. these last suppositions we may provide for the case of sudden changes of value of the function by understanding (if But if x = a 2 + 2 On necessary) f(a) to mean f(a + e). then If . we see that the first of a. and if f(x) be any function which is finite for all values of x from x = X Q to x = x^ inclusively. that the limiting value of (2) will be J a. than than Ja limit iif(a). If a sudden change take place for any value of x not absolutely coinciding with the critical value. /a + e Then. of value from a to b when the value of the limit is 77 x passes through then If either XQ = a. so that is. where an infinitely small positive quantity. then the limit is Trf(a).*:) a. 1 f 77.
. then. that when c approximates to i. is true up to the limit is true in the limit. x' 2 write 27T. now we o. Xj_ . follows : The limit of the integral ai J where a t in y v ' /(a) OO i i cz r . we shall give the greatest possible extent to the theorem by supposing xl XQ = 277. .cos 2 ? (x a) +  . i viz. Since the value of a must not transgress the limits _r xv and XQ must not be > 2 TT. a) da.<Ja. that when c affirm. referred to above (Art. so that a becomes the variable The principal result may be then stated as in the integration. for a.' On the convergence of the series (3). and we may therefore the limit of this series between a and a p x + ing to a sudden change from a to b in the value vif(x\ and 7r (/( a o) +/( a i)) for x = a or jr = o r Assuming. when c approximates indefinitely to i. + a 2 (c cos + c. we may write the result as follows : (excluding of course the exceptional cases) 2Ttf(x} = for values of Li 2'~ i:  fa x between a and a r 2 Vof(a)cosz(x / . see the demonstrations of Tait and Thomson and of Stokes. 77). zc cos (x a) + r and x has any value between a and o lf is general The If nf(x). mutatis mutandis.).70 Demonstration of . (3) we obtain the series =0 2 J f f(a)da + 2* is /(") cos i(x a) da. . and TT  a . ' 1 which what . a 2 f = 27r. . This assumption appears to be the only point in the demonstration is open to objection. special cases are of course to be stated as before. But we cannot here discuss the proposition. in general 2 isf(x') for any value of for a value of but is TT (a ft) correspond x = i the value of the series becomes equal to its limit *. a = ax = the A above equation becomes cos A for x. The notation used above was convenient in the course of demonstration but in actual applications it is better to change it by writing a for x and x for a. now in the above integral we substitute (x a) for the fraction its development. assuming also 2tn(x'  a} .
JQ f(a) sin  A da since the integral elements with the on the left may be divided same sign. made.^ a . . by an obvious transformation. but with opposite signs. is periodic. This equation may. 4 usually most convenient. . with period (or length) 2 /. A further transformation. In this 2 case is easily seen that the integral / /"() cos J ^ da vanishes for all values of z. into pairs of equal Hence. c^ found in the same way a series only differing from (4) in having 2 5 f 2 for limits in the integrations. x =1 sin ^a is <a. x .= /.Fourier s Theorem. then (5) will be true without limitation.r = + / for any function f(x) which is true from ^ = which is odd between those limits. 71 omitting accents. we should have If we had taken above TT. waveIf/Xff) besides being odd. A.r between o and A. The case in which/" (x) is an even function (/(x) =f(x}) may be left to the reader. and writing/"(.. or. But C? . Sup pose is this alteration an odd it function. . be written thus : X . da = 2 /** / . that/"( x) = f(x). cos x /(a)cos sin + . /=1 (5) / to . and then suppose further thaty(:r) that is. and which is also in which form it is often referred to as Fourier's purposes of this treatise. since it may be divided into pairs of equal elements. ' Theorem/ not required for the = = +TT. And it will evidently be true from x = o to x = I for any function.r) instead of/(  which is now true for values of . 2 lira J_A / f(a) sin  A . including * = o. which gives an expression for/(x) by means of a double definite integration. if we put . instead of o.. we obtain instead of (4) x () sm 7. . ' .
According to (or its this law. of which the value depends on the nature of the string. nor indefinitely exten according to the above law. and the thickness of the string very small length are small. The term 'elastic string' is to be understood as implying ideal qualities. if / length when not length when it is be the natural length of the string subjected to any tension). that is. then riwhere T E rs a constant. 80. and extensibility according to the law that extension is proportional to tension. = T. VIBRATIONS OF AN ELASTIC STRING. is . and /' the stretched by a force T. E is a quantity of the same kind as T.CHAPTER V. it But when the changes of proved by experiment that they are senAnd when the sibly proportional to the changes of tension. one of the most usual which musical sounds may be in practice. and simple in theory. Since the homogeneity of the above equation requires that T should be an abstract number. string. which do not belong absolutely to any actual namely. to stretch the natural No sible. consists in the vibration of elastic strings. nonresistance to flexure. OF the various modes in produced. tension is considerable. we see that gives And E E since the supposition t= 2 / may be defined as the force which string to twice its would be required length. a force. actual string is perfectly flexible.
The vibration actually does cease because the string gradually gives up its motion to the surrounding its air. to own molecules. which. The case in which imperfect flexibility must be taken into account 81. that is.Vibrations of a String. in a different form. but sider it is them separately. that is. is Longitudinal vibrations of a string are neglected. at right angles to its original direction. the vibrations are necessarily longitudinal. and when the initial velocities are lateral also. . its form in the condition will be a straight line. namely. if it were cut there. same at all points 1 Suppose now the string to be slightly disturbed by any forces whatever. Vibrations of both kinds can coexist. theoretically. all When the initial displacements of the particles of the string are lateral. The sub sequent motion of the string will depend upon the positions and velocities of its particles at that instant . to the bodies which its sustain the tension of ends. at a certain instant. When the initial displacements and velocities are longitu dinal. will be considered apart. cease to act. being insensible in all cases of the 1 The effect of gravity kind here considered. Under these conditions the phenomena with which we concerned are so nearly the same as they would be in the case of the ideal string. that for most purposes they may be considered identical. and its tension will be the . would never cease. Supposing the two ends of an elastic string to be fixed at points of which the distance from one another is greater of equilibrium than the natural length of the string. the vibrations are sensibly lateral. the resistance to flexure very are small in comparison with the resistance to extension. in 73 is comparison with its length. The condition of the string at the instant is when the disturb ing forces cease to act called its initial condition. and the form best to con of the string remains a straight line. will go through a series of periodic changes. and the mechanical theory shews that it will vibrate. and. which. that with which the string would have to be pulled at any point in order to maintain the equilibrium.
85. VII) is regarded as infinitely long. we shall only examine the lateral vibrations. in so far as they are merely geometrical. of motionless points. displacements and velocities. are in one plane. of which any arbiand let C dition. and of which the actual vibration It is sufficient. practically unimportant. coexist independently. which will be In the case of a string they are At present. which is the. and out of the various possible forms of motion of an infinitely long string. rise to vibrations in own plane. suppose that the initial displaceand therefore the subsequent vibrations. of the same kind as those of a straight rod.74 Vibrations of a String. Any two such motionless points of the string might evidently become fixed without disturbing the motion. at right angles to one another its . be best understood by considering them under that aspect which in which the string suggested by the dynamical theory (see Chap. are true without limitation. initial 82. those are selected which are characterised by the existence of nodes^ that is. therefore begin with the case of an infinite string. Imagine Let AB D QR CD . velocities. if they are may be resolved into components in two arbitrary planes. It must be always understood that though the following propositions. treated of in another chapter. are sensibly true within limits wide enough for the most imit is only when the portant practical applications. Lateral not in one plane. with fixed ends. so as to leave a as finite string. We shall 84. represent part of the string in its undisturbed conbe a line parallel to A JB. to ments and 83. and each set of components gives resultant. is bent into an trary portion arbitrary curve. therefore. and then all the string not included be tween them might be removed. therefore. The is true nature of the vibrations of a finite string may . which would continue to have the same motion it would have had under the original conditions. nitely small that they are rigorously true mechanically displacements are infibut they . The simplest form of motion of an infinitely long elastic string consists in the transmission of a single wave.
be always bent into the same form by a lateral displacement of its AB being always straight. of which one would travel to the right. it is possible to assign the initial velocities the form P Q shall the one way so that a single wave of be transmitted to the right.Transmission of Waves along a String. we assume that the initial velocities have been such as to give rise to a single wave. however. Q. either in same or in contrary . to Suppose a portion of the string. to be 75 moving with a constant velocity. in the direction of its the right or towards the left. either towards which at any time is opposite to R. which we may call be bent into any arbitrary form. and is at rest at all times before and afterwards. the wave P Q would in general be resolved into two components. and the other to the left. 86. the rest will during the passage of the wave. Now the form of P Q being in given arbitrarily. i. and in another way so that a similar if wave shall be transmitted to the left. and that length. and a determinate lateral velo P city to be then communicated to each particle of P Q. Any number of similar or dissimilar waves the may be trans mitted at the same time. however. Then the string be transmitting a> wave. When a single wave is thus transmitted. and these initial velocities on of its particles. were assigned arbitrarily. to of the string part AB Q Fig. according P to any arbitrary law consistent with the continuity of the string. But initial velocities At present. to explain how such a wave could originate. It is necessary. any particular particle of the string is disturbed particles. The subsequent motion will depend on the form of Q.
Let PQ. but . and for its middle point the point at which the ends of the waves first meet. The velocity of transmission string. at that instant will be the algebraical is and the displacement of A sum of pm and p'm. or from 87. that opposite in zero. string will evidently have for its This part of the length the length of a wave. since pm. by calling them positive left or negative according as they are transmitted from right to left.76 Transmission of Waves along a String. p'm' are equal in length. depends only on the nature and not on the form or length of the otherwise now suppose two waves of equal length. p'm be any two ordinates equidistant from A. to right. It is directions. convenient to distinguish the direction of transmission of waves. Now The pm. so that the figure would not before meeting. cuts the other also at a point equidistant from A). the (We may express same condition by saying that every straight line through A which cuts one wave. P*Q[ (Fig. and tension of the wave. But during the passage a part of the string will be disturbed by both waves at once. but of arbitrary forms. and A be altered by turning the paper upside down. to be transmitted in contrary directions so as to meet. corresponding points p. After passing one another they will 88. and the displacements of its particles at any instant will be the sums of proceed in the displacements due to the separate waves. And let us now further suppose that each wave is (as in the Figure) a reversed copy of the other. 2) represent the positive and negative waves the point at which they will first meet. p' of the two waves will arrive let opposite to A at the same instant. Two such waves may be called contrary waves. Let us their original forms.
will A Thus. at but so far behind that position as to meet the negative wave BQ I when fix the latter arrives AQ. AQ.Nodes. but it evident that there will be also an infinite at equal intervals. since the same thing true for every pair not of corresponding points. ~f . and will then begin to disturb r B unless it meets at that instant a contrary wave BQ' moving towards the left. a node at the point ' . And. 89. 77 is Hence. the next following one will not be at PA. The distance between corresponding points of consecutive positive (or negative) waves is eviFor when the positive wave dently twice AB. when an infinite stringMransmits^Jtwo there is contrary waves in opposite directions. however. Let us Let now inquire what conditions are necessary in order that there may first be two nodes. will begin to disturb A unless it meets a new positive wave. A be the place of the node and B of the second. and a contrary negative wave beginning to A. our attention upon . direction. and suppose meet at that a positive wave PA. which at at any instant is at PA shall have arrived P'B. 90. the string be displaced will have a node at A. are just The wave PA. when it arrives at the AQ. we see that there must be position an infinite series of positive waves meeting an infinite series of negative contrary waves. number of other nodes an infinite Hence string cannot have more than one node without having an infinite number. the point at all. There will then be nodes at A and at is B. will after a certain time arrive at the position P'B. * . continuing the same reasoning. pass s ing on to the right. Let us. But this new negative wave BQ. '"" * ~ at which they first meet. in other words.
and is replaced by the negative wave.4 . both the whole string and are in a state of vibration. by this composition the disturbed part of the visible string undergoes a change of form. where it meets a new positive wave. and to be reflected at those points. that is. . and the will It positive wave. forwards between A and B. be transmitted unaltered until its righthand end reaches B. then begins to invisible part of the string.78 Reflection of Waves. During motion of this kind. and so on indeThus. meet the negative wave coming from the and to be compounded with it. and the period of a vibration. of which the lefthand end is now at A. a wave will appear to pass backwards and finitely. The form Fig. just passed one string will then be this. supposing the rest of it to A y sider its condition at the instant when the positive and negative of the waves have visible another at A. Each reflection consists in a shortening of the wave to half its an equal lengthening. until the positive wave has passed completely out of sight.5 which is transmitted to A. and during this and lengthening its form is changed into that of shortening length. the portion of string included between two consecutive nodes be hidden from view. undergoing the portion AB a periodic change of condition . followed by the contrary wave. thus.. 91. Fig. and con#. and a converse series of changes takes place .
in order to make the process of reflection clearly intelligible. in the position which they have at a given instant. as at all bisect the ordinates which drawn through them. actual form of the string at that instant (which is not drawn) would be found by compounding the two curves. so that a wavelength is now twice the distance In the preceding illustrations we have supposed only a small portion of this wave to be curved. 6. D. Hitherto we have considered a wave as consisting only But we will now of the bent or curved portion of the string. Thus the middle point of any ordinate Pp would be a point on the string.Nodes and Waves. every straight line drawn through a node at any instant and terminated both ways by the string. . the whole wavelength. the figure representing part of a series of positive waves. on the others. Now suppose Pp. Fig. Let AC be a wavelength. as we have always done before in treating of periodic curves. axis. between consecutive nodes. is evidently the time required for the transmission of a wave through twice the distance (AB} between consecutive nodes. call the whole portion included between two consecutive similar points a wave. &c. C. B. 79 or the interval of time between the recurrence of similar conditions. is bisected by the node. P'p' are any two ordinates from any node A . The at this nodes are the points instant. but since the length attributed to the curved portion was arbias it generally does in fact. A. and also of the contrary negative The waves. 92. trary. we may suppose it to occupy. in other words. it is evident that the middle* equidistant points of these ordinates lie upon a straight line which is bisected at A .
the appear to be transmitted in contrary direca portion of string between two consecutive tions. Hence. has been already explained that. of course. are often called stationary. we must suppose two nodes to 1 become fixed. Hence length of the string. the period is known if we know the number of nodes. in order to pass from an infinite to a finite string. we see that the half wave on one (Art. occupying two nodal intervals. and the two halves will have exchanged their forms after Thus every half period. and the period the time of transmission over this double length. fixed at both ends. and any two adjacent intervals exchange N/t'* The wavelength is twice the disafter half a period. the is wavelength ' twice the length of the string. and the period of a vibration is the time occupied by the transmission of a wave over this forms double distance. consists in an fj* ') oscillatory motion. only nodes be looked at. to be reflected backwards and forwards curved portions or. and the velocity of When there are is no nodes between the extreme points. side of the middle to the other half. It in the manner explained in Art.8o Finite String. of nodes between them. The form nodes dividing the string into equal of the part included between any two consecutive nodes will always be contrary to that of the adjacent intervals. node is always contrary in form 88) the whole infinite string will always have the form of a series of similar waves divided into contrary halves by alternate nodes . the transmission. if will from node to node 94. \ aliquot parts. tance between consecutive nodes . Hence such waves :~r " L . but there will be The either in general no visible appearance of transmission^ of waves in positive and negative series completely disguising each other except in the case in which a considerable portion of each wave is straight : in this case only. the direction. 93. string will therefore appear to oscillate. But these may. include any number Hence the most general form of the with vibration of a finite string. 90. considering a whole wavelength of the resultant curve. This is called simply the time of vibration 1 ' of the string.
or. real and finite value for every value of the equation the form of a string which is = f(x). results obtained in the preceding If f(x) be any function which has one oc. the term will always mean what Prof.Time of the tension by which it same unit as W). g its weight. and a ' swang of equal ' 96. stretched (expressed in terms of the the socalled accelerating force of W T gravity (that is. and the two together a double vibration . however. we remove the origin along the axis = to a distance the equation becomes jy G /(*)) . We will now proceed to the analytical expression of the articles. and the time of a vibration is there) fore 2 V jIt IW (see below. equal in duration and and it has been the practice of some call French) writers to each half a single vibration. Thus. the velocity acquired by a falling body at the end of a unit of time). said. (especially of divided into two parts. must be remembered also ' that a vibration in general ' is not necessarily divisible into a swing duration and opposite character. In many of the most usual cases (as in that of a string) the vibration may be converse in character. supposing the latter to be of a curve vt) will represent always bent so as to follow that y =f(x y moving in the positive direction of the . De Morgan has proposed to call a swingswang. the time of vibration of a socalled seconds' pendulum is two It seconds. 123). to use the term vibration without distinctly explaining in which sense it is to be understood. then the velocity of transmission of a lateral wave I is v ^W here . a swing in inveterate. and is Vibration. what is much worse. is may be once for all. namely. 81 If / be the length of the (stretched) string. direction. if (For in the former equation z>/. In the case of a common pendulum is the habit of giving the name one In vibration to what only half a cycle. Art. that the term ' ' vibration always to be understood as implying a complete cycle of changes. has this become work.raxis with a constant velocity v. 95.
ence of origin have not yet introduced the condition of the existLet us now suppose that there is a node at the that is. y + + Supposing.sin in J. two sets of waves in opposite directions. to both these causes. and to have the same wavelength 2 /. F (x\ F(x + vf) = represents the transmission of the in the negative direction. y we obtain ZlTtt . . . 2 z'TT/x . o. if We . rid of. 96. written the terms of the order / in the above series may be sin j ( C t cos a^ + + C't cos a^) C"< sin a^). Since y vanishes not . with an equal velo Hence the equation f(xvt) F(x vt) represents the form of a string in which the displacement of any particle at the time / is the sum of the displacements due And if f(x). rately.82 Similarly^ Analytical Expressions. because it could be got necessary. x = o. the equation will take the form (The constant term is omitted.. these periodic functions to be expressed by means of Fourier's series (Art. + cos y. then. and put 2 C{ cos at = A i} 2Ci sin c^ = JBit 2lvr . 72). F(x) are both periodic the last equation will represent the transmission of functions. = formj/ = city.) 97. y = o for all values of /. f ' i at  + ' C"t sin a  i These equations are satisfied by assuming C i = C{ a i = a{ and if we introduce these conditions in the value ofj at the end of Art.cos^^ +^. (i) which r is the period of vibration.(C and it t sin a^ is evident that the coefficient of each must vanish sepais. When nodes. that when x = o. by removing the origin along the axis of'y. that C C { cos a t sin C'i cos a't = = o.
side of these iisx equations by sin dx. besides satisfying the conditions f(mt] = o for all integer values of m including o. that when and / = A o. and these are satisfied by every such term as G 2 j. 93). so that the function f(x). and in its differential coefficient with respect to /. IV.but not .. another ^j /=o given function $(x) within the same limits. for instance.sin 7} ^ /(*). for the form of the string is at any time half a wave (It of a series in which the alternate values are contrary (Art. Suppose. fixed at 98. represents the vibration of a finite string of length its two ends. and the initial velo. Hence this equation represents in the most general manner the oscillatory motion of an infinite string described in Art. And it if we confine our attention to values of x between o and /. are given.Initial Circumstances. multiplying each . Putting. i^s Hence. of its particles. when /. we must have 2. A. only 83 /. in the equation (i). x=o to x= /. but also at an infinite number of points separated from one another by an interval / (or half a wavelength). /. to be a given function /(JF) from x = o to x = /. must also satisfy the conditions f(x+ 2 ml) =/(x) and/(2w/ sin x) = * 2 rrr > /(x). 93. If the cities initial form of the finite string. the values of the constants B { are determined. we obtain 2 J * f J sin by means of a should be observed thaty(^r) is necessarily expressible series of sines only (see Appendix to Chap. ITiX . . x = o.) . and integrating from x = o to x= /. y is t. we but also when x is any multiple of for all values of see that the condition of the existence of a node is satisfied not only at the origin. adftn. then. =1 2z=oo /=1 from ^z = oo . .
andy%r) is. Suppose.) is initially A case frequently useful at rest. and a. Here  <f>(x) is o. if 1 A iifx dx . and therefore S . A x. Another useful case that in the string is a bent line where coordinates of Q reckoned from A. and (x /) from x = a to x = /. . ) \ nta if 2 a (I a) that the (The reader should observe problem here solved . and therefore B = i o.* from x=o to x = a. is 99.=00 cos^.. which. that the initial velocities of all points are This is the case of a string made to vibrate by being pulled aside at one point and then left to itself. as is easily seen satisfy the same conditions. and f(x) and is is the series just given for y . where r = v as before. = (x) o. b are the AB Fig. ought to is is its initial j applies to < (x). y In this case < ITTX ~ = ^=00 Qsm 5. further. hence the subsequent vibration  given by the equation 2lTlt y. sm . =1 . The same remark h priori. AQB^ which the initial form of = /. o. and form which the string given by an equation that in .84 by cos Particular Cases. 7. = i 2 C^ j/sin ITTX = I 'Jo . dx = Q.2 =1 Qsm Z . zero. i = and A< = 2b( C a T U x iitx T dx + Z3j<ry* .
) Introducing this value of A i in equation (i). which gives the form of the vibrating string a particular case of this at the time /. while the half of the positive to the left of the string must be contrary to the given half .J (*<*)* (*)). 88) to the wave given half of the positive wave. 118. These equations give (the /(*) . that the bent line is here half a wave. in order to maintain to the the nodes at extremities. when / = o.* = /.) It is easy to trace geometrically the variations of form a vibration. That so that/"(^) and ^(^) are known from x = o to . we obtain . whereas there it was a whole wave. differs 85 from that in Art. supposing the initial value ofy to be (x\ and < of  to be v ^' (x). arbitrary C being taken = o) /(*) !(*(*) + * (*)). and one half of the negative wave is. one half of the positive are given in the position in which they produce by composition the initial form of the its string. from x = o to x = /. (/'(*)*'<*)). and these expressions must coincide. ^give. (On formula see below. the half of the negative wave right of the string must be contrary in form (Art. . The equation during 1OO. zira sin 2Z7T/ . and its differential coefficient with respect to /. we have whence /(x)F(x) = Cty(x). And since. Art. with the given functions which define the initial positions and velocities. 76 in this respect.Variations of Form. Hence.
coinciding when / A Bqb of the negative wave. . the waves will have been shifted (one to the right and the other to the left) through a distance equal to half the length (A that part of the figure ) of the string . in order to find the shifting. = o. the Hence.B is are. hence that cide.86 Particular Case. 8. the ends that given by compounding is. that by doubling the ordinate at every point. 99 affords teresting example. *// The initial velocities \r (x) = and we may therefore take (jr) an easy and inbeing zero. ap is the other half of the positive. initial we have positions : Fig. the given halves of the positive at and negative wave coinis and the ordinate any point of each string half the ordinate its of the corresponding point of the following forms and in initial form. is. through equal distances. completing the waves as in the last article. 9. of the string. and compound those parts which fall within the limits of the string. And we have only to shift the positive wave to the right and the negative to the left. and have which is : within the limits AB will been changed into the following Fig. is of the negative wave. A PB and represents the halves of the positive and negative waves. case treated in Art. a whole wave of each determined. and the initial form the two ' A. as before. After the lapse of a quarter of a period. we have = o . form at the time corresponding to that amount of 101. curves ' which coincide in A PB . The o.
the addition if necessary of a constant term. Now the series 2*. the constant term by extending the summation to . but Putting at that x=o dy in the value of dy ~ derived from (2). . &c. the form will be that of the last figure reversed right and left (as it would be seen through the paper from the back). iTta 2tnt .=00 i . same end of the string. end of threequarters of a period. viz. We may include = o. At and the trary to the initial form. zbl ^. three the instants when the positive and in general. difficulty. four The value of ~ at either end of the This the string varies discon tinuously in a remarkable way. in all. 10.Sudden Changes of Direction.~" Q cos ~~ ~~ evidently represents a pe which the period is r. be divided into either two or three straight portions. the form at the end of the first. trically may be traced geomeof proof without affords a good following mode example of the use of Fourier's series. third. and also at the instants when a summit negative of each is opposite the times in each vibration. and which satisfies the with condition f(f) (r /). we have. end of the string. And from this 87 we obtain by composition the following as the : form of the string at that instant Fig. quarter of a period But in other cases the string will always will be a straight line. and any such function can. be represented by riodic function of =f i such a series. the at the end of half a period the form will be evidently contwo half waves again coinciding . If the original point of flexure be at the middle of the string. but only two^at waves coincide.
k.88 Sudden Changes Consider. The representation of these changes by a diagram in which the . then. during the time of wavetransmission along a distance a). (that is. a to Assuming^/) 2]~* Q cos  = > r. 7. / k from /= a to c from / = T = T / a. 99). it then suddenly becomes parallel to and maintains that direc QB tion until / until = ( i  ) r. and c so that 2 CL bl from which we find b * ~j > u a ar zl / a I a and it follows that the string. represented by the Hence series the discontinuous function f(t) is which will 2 be identical with (3) Q . a function/^/) of which the value c is from /=o to /=a. at the point its A (Fig. when T i is not o. ' we sna ^ nave and i/u for all values of i except o. if we assume (Z a. / maintains initial direction AQ from / = o to = . Art. Performing the integrations in i separate parts (as in finding A in (2)). we find sm Z7T . when r. it resumes the first direction the end of the period and so on successively.
93. VII. on a bridge sup The dy variations of pressure are sensibly proportional to those of ~y as will be seen in Chap. where a greater number of intermeforms of the string is given. and a diagram representing the values of dy at one end.of Direction. p. diate (See Helmholtz. which is taken as the curve of pressure (or rather of variation of pressure) posed to support the string at that end.) . abscissa 89 and to the value of and ordinate are proportional (ory(/)) is to /  ax at A obvious. and may be left to the reader.
72. represented by the several terms of the series. 102. VIBRATIONS OF A STRING (continued]. . we ITTX /2/7T/ \ and the form of the string at any time is therefore a harmonic curve cutting the axis in fixed points or nodes. employed in Art. have. may be y where ~ = ^/=o> C^sm =1 2 lt (lTt cos(   r + \ . and^j/ is the distance of any point in the string from one the lateral displacement of that point at the time /. a. the motion of the whole nodes. Supposing this term to exist alone. (in THE most one plane) of a general form of the infinitesimal vibrations string is given by the equation (i) of to that Art. 97. in general infinite in number. by a transformation inverse written thus : .). which divide the whole length into i equal parts. instead of (4). and the vibration of the whole string may accordingly be said to be compounded of the vibrations represented by those terms. which. (4) x is end. of the kind described in an . while the amplitudes of the waves of the curve vary periodically with the time. and every individual point (except tions with the string is the nodes) performs harmonic vibra same period oscillation with Thus. This displacement is therefore the sum of the displacements.CHAPTER VI. the term of the order Let us then consider separately the vibration represented by i.
the lowest tone heard will of course be one of the higher components. But The nodes. however. the period is>and the lowest tone heard the (z' i ) th harmonic of the funda mental tone. Now all if. as we shall see presently. if there are is i nodes. to make a string vibrate . (If. 93. heard. and the first component of the vibration consists in an If oscillation of which the period a is r and the wavelength is twice the length of the string. vibrating without nodes. as in Art. Art. properly assisted But (see below. CT is not zero. belonging to the harmonic scale of the fundamental tone.) If there is one node. when the string vibrates without nodes. are called notes produced by a string vibrating with one or by musicians the harmonics of the string.Harmonics of a String. But other tones. we are able. and the be . the period r is so long that the fundamental tone does not fall within the limits of audibility. Now. more 104. we suppose to vanish.and > the lowest tone heard is the octave of the fundamental tone. there will still be the returning to the general equation (4). and a practised ear. the period becomes . the coefficients preceding arbitrary. but with this distinction. 115). can easily distinguish ten or more. there are no actual nodes (except the fixed ends). the lowest that of component tone heard in general vibration. Art. which the pitch corresponds to the period r of the whole and this is called the fundamental tone of the string. that 91 the waves are of the harmonic form. are in general heard also. period of the vibration will still but the form of the waves may be any whatever. 103. When string. the rest remaining t C same number of nodes. in each case higher harmonic components are in general so that the sound is a compound note. produces is an audible note. the series of har monic component tones is in general complete so far as it can be traced by the ear. 93. so as to produce what is called its fundamental note. z And in general.
497 . And it is found. But to appreciate the force of this conclusion. the soundwaves in string. Then put that waves and ear. From the facts stated in the last two Articles it is obvious to infer that each component tone actually heard. therefore. 105. these. how Propagated. Ixii. are extinguished. by means of the linkwork of small bones mentioned in Art. are very remotely In the first place. . being propagated to the itself into tympanic mem brane of the vibration. through the fluid of the labyrinth. i 21 that when this is done. 449 . to the membrane of the oval window. membrane a state of forced which is further communicated. i. iron pegs in a when it will be found impossible to make it yield a note of any considerable strength. vol. Ix. 4. so coefficients C^ zi that the component harmonic vibrations of which the periods T T are &c. Evidently. be shewn by stretching a violin or pianoforte string between two very firmly fixed supports for instance. by the corresponding 1 component harmonic vibration of the string . and finally. 106. C or nearly inaudible. state of forced vibration to a considerable this vibrating surface originates surface of in the air . to those parts of which the vibrations ultimately affect the auditory nerve. in the series (4) shall vanish. is produced exclusively. p. from that. in Poggendorf. as a fact. ultimately produce the derived from those of the the air are This may excited in a very slight degree by the string itself. or at least mainly. therefore. wall to communicate a wood. The vibrations in the ear which sense of sound.92 in such a Vibrations manner that . In all actual stringed instruthe supports of the string are so arranged as ments. What sort of vibrations produce simple tones ? see the Memoirs of Ohm and Seebeck. any proposed value of i all for the Csi &c. 1 For a discussion of the question. we must con sider the phenomena more precisely. the corresponding tones become either quite . lix. it is essential to inquire. by what law the form and period of vibrations excited at any part of a material system by given vibrations maintained at any other part are connected with the form and period of the latter. .
one of In either case. to distinguish them from the forced vibra which are now to be considered. action of small periodic intensity is forces of which the expressed by which may be either constant or dependent on configurations. acted on by a conservative system of forces 1 . the system may. We may tions call these component vibrations the natural vibra tions of the system. it none) impressed upon any of such as will will continue for ever to execute small oscillations. in the proper sense. That is. (Thomson and Tait.r Law! of Forced y Oscillations.) If a material system. the whole motion is compounded of two sets of vibrations: cities That is. the product of two factors. that is. provided that all the displacements and velocontinue to be of the order of magnitude above supposed. either that certain points 109. further suppose. 107.) is 1 . If. every describe a path in which it it had in the condition of equilibrium. then the may be treated as motion is sensibly either a true vibration. or may not. velocities (or and then to itself after having its from a configuration of stable had very small particles. let us now of the system are to small obligatory periodic motions. or else is by itself. that particle (except may remain at rest) will is. however. In addition to the suppositions just made. a system in which. be very slightly disturbed left equilibrium. 271. or else to the subjected forces. and the other is a periodic function of the time. . (See Appendix to this chapter. 108. compounded of vibrations each of which might subsist but of which the periods are in general incommen so that by their superposition they produce a nonperiodic motion. The answer\o this question is contained in a statement of the law offorced oscillations. always be very near to the position which The motion may or may not be a vibration. or more properly. a vibration of infinitely long surable period. the mutual action between any two particles independent of the velocities of those and of all other particles. the displacements and velocities are always so small that their squares and products insensible. pass again and again at equal intervals of time through the same configuration.
we only wish to take account of the energy of the system in the ordinary mechanical sense. and on a particular hypothesis. . such as When. forces which are not independent of velocities. no addi difficulty in is the mathematical treatment of the problem. particle. But in all actual cases there are kinds. stances. if once begun. but the energy into other forms. heat. for one such cause another is the communication of motion from the ends of the string to the bodies which support its tension and a third is probably the conversion of part of its energy into heat. There is of energy . / I / And it can be shewn that no forced vibration can have any harmonic component of a period which does not exist among the periods of the harmonic components of the imposed motions or forces. . but changed is which can in general be assigned. and it is at any rate certain that results calculated on this hypothesis agree in general much better with Any experience than those obtained by neglecting resistances altogether. however. namely. that the combined effect of these causes may be represented by assuming a retarding force to act on each constitutes the vibration considered. we have to introduce these resistances under the fictitious form of forces of the nonconservative class. later extinguish thus an apparent destruction not really destroyed. ' ' must be understood that the word resistance is here used to denote any cause which tends to extinguish that particular kind of motion which It In the case of a vibrating string. that the motions of the particles are resisted directly proportional arises by forces tional to their velocities 1 . instance. that is. and in no way dependent on initial circuminitial . but the result 1 modified in the following manner. 110. one which as before might be may are independent of the imposed motions or forces. entirely extinguished be called natural. which there is reason to believe gives sensibly correct results for small velocities. of which the periods and which by a proper choice of the disand velocities and another set displacements posable which are forced by the imposed motions or forces. and which are permanent. The hypothesis is. directly proportional to its velocity. so that the natural vibrations. &c. which sooner or resistances of various the natural vibrations. other law of resistance would introduce insuperable difficulties into the mathematical treatment of most cases. the resistance of the air is . We have so far supposed the original system of forces to would continue be conservative.94 Hypothesis of Resistance. for ever.
which can be accounted for by a second approximation. and of which the harmonic The components have periods which are either the halves of the periods of harmonic components of the imposed motions or forces. But in all actual cases the effect of the resistances is to limit the increase of the amplitude to a definite magnitude. however. and of abso lute equality of periods. 111. but fail to explain phenomena of a delicate but still perceptible kind. which the periods those of the imposed motions or forces according to the law already stated. the system soon assumes a permanent condition of motion. as before) of we are connected with : of the forced vibrations depend upon the relative magnitudes of their periods and those which the natural vibrations would have if they existed.Second Approximation. in a great the squares may still be larger than is con sistent with the supposition referred to. number of cases. and there is no trace of the natural vibrations except this that the amplitudes and phases tions (which will call forced. then there will be amplitude. with experiment. there are. the amplitude in question would go on increasing with the time. the supposition that and products of displacements and velocities may be neglected leads to results which agree well. 112. result of this second approximation shews that there are in general forced vibrations of which the amplitudes are small magnitudes of the second order. On a corresponding forced vibration with a large the supposition of no resistances. small periodic forces or obligatory periodic motions. The 95 periods of the natural vibrations are altered (in general without ceasing to be constant . which. if there are no obligatory motions or periodic forces. so as soon to violate the supposition of small motions. If any harmonic component of one of the imposed motions or forces have a period nearly equal to that of a harmonic component of any one of the natural vibrations. In fact. as we have above supposed. so that the system is soon brought sensibly to rest. or are such that the numbers of vibrations in a given . as a first approximation. however. but their amplitudes diminish rapidly. consisting of vibraIf. slightly).
' see that. the inference appears unavoidable that the responding tone. shall We shew afterwards how this result accounts for the remarkable phsenomena of socalled 'combinationtones. say c. or. time are the sums or differences of the numbers of vibrations of the 113. and hold the key down so that the vibrations may not be stopped by the damper. holding the key also down. Then. much com The The pound character of following principal point next in importance is the verification of the the note usually produced. In the is. (The two or three strings belonging to the note should be tuned well in unison. so far as the first At present we approximation goes. the isochronism of small vibrations (that the independence of their periods on their amplitudes) is shewn by the familiar fact that a given string produces a note it of sensibly the same pitch. of simple will tone is produced by simple harmonic 114. whether or softly. any note of a pianoforte rather strongly. first place. note as if it the attention be dies fixed upon the sound of this latter away. of Strike making the ear conscious hears them. . latter taken two and two. first it will be heard to remain as a component of the note struck. be made to sound loudly provided the variations of loudness do not exceed the limits usually allowed in music. We now describe some simple experiments which exhibit the accordance of the theory of vibrating strings with facts. sensation vibration. is harmonic component tones sensible an easy method of making some of the to an unpractised that it ear. rather.) Immediately afterwards strike very gently any note belonging to the harmonic scale of c. And when we compare this theo conclusion with the observed fact that the extinction of string any harmonic component of the vibration of a if extin not entirely) the sensation of the corguishes (very nearly. assume that the vibrations which ultimately affect the auditory nerve have no harmonic components differing in period from those of the vibrations of the body from are entitled to we which the sound retical originates.96 Experiments.
ciples We shall of resonance. it is But. a cavity with one opening . the bottle it is and so formed that by coating with sealingwax may be ear. have to refer afterwards to the general prinand to the use of these resonators in 1 particular. 86. in the shape short. or very nearly. trained will soon acquire great facility in tracing these harmonic tones. 116. with the meatus as far as the tympanic membrane. now An ear which has been musically generally be distinguished. without any assistance. p. 115. it forms. In order to obtain this effect in the highest degree. made of glass or The neck of it brass. Ill). and so what is 97 distinctly. in order to distinguish the higher necessary to put the ear in communica tion with resonators. But if the period of any one of these harmonic components coincide natural exactly. vibration of the vibrations will be large (Art. with that of the cavity. Suppose now forced miration. and indeed often with unpleasant loudness. but of which the amplitudes will in general be inconsiderable. up to a certain number varying with circumstances. They are usually of nearly spherical bottles. and fainter ones. which depends on the form and size of the cavity a resonator and of the opening. particular the amplitudes of the forced and the ear will hear that component with great distinctness. of which the component periods will be those of the harmonic components of the vibrations of the external body. When such applied to the ear. the other ear should be closed.Resonators. and the air in such a cavity is capable of vibrating with a determinate period. that it will often appear quite surprising that a conspicuous phenomenon should have entirely 1 escaped observation before attention was thus directed to it In this way eight or ten harmonic component tones may . H . made There to fit closely into the outer part of the orifice. Helmholtz. the action of which may be here briefly explained. meatus of the is another is opposite to the neck. that there is an external vibrating body in the the air in the cavity will be put into a state of neighbourhood.
which. but when successful is very striking. the same tube may be made to strengthen several harmonic components of the same note. while a finger is lightly applied at a nodal point. by tilting it backwards and forwards between complete contact and a considerable opening. on a horizontal piano In the latter case. and of any length. By tilting the tube. the tube and ear together form a cavity open at one end. and so. in . an If. now. and may be made still more striking by alternately removing and replacing the tube. coincidence of pitch be nearly exact. This experiment requires a little care and practice. or shewn on any instrument of the forte. but has a determinate pitch. if a key be struck and held down. The sound of the taps is not noise. The vibration of a string with nodes violin species. And if any other note be struck of which one of the stronger harmonic components has the pitch corresponding to the natural vibrations of the cavity. the effect of the tube in strengthening the fundamental tone of the string is very conspicuous. however. the string will sound the corresponding harmonic instead of its fundamental note. this series of tones may be heard upwards and downwards several times before the vibrations of the string once struck cease to produce audible sound. so that it ceases to touch the ear all round. the corresponding note be struck on a pianoforte. is an easy way of roughly If a stiff pasteboard tube. by different angles of tilting. from three or four inches upwards. higher In this manner. illustrating their and the following action. be pressed with one end closely upon the ear. and the unpractised ear is liable to estimate an octave too low. and can therefore be brought into coincidence with that of a tone. Imperfect substitutes for them may be made of pasteboard. and the note cor responding to the natural vibrations of this cavity is easily ascertained by tapping the outside of the tube with the ends of a mere the fingernails or with a pencil. of about i^ inch in dia meter. the strengthening of that component may be made more or less strikingly sensible in the same way.98 Resonators. Or the finger may be applied after the key is struck. is easily 117. the pitch of the natural vibrations is raised.
1 38. shall be extinguished. It is players on those instruments. a node. all those terms in the series vanish for is which a multiple of n. Young. the corresponding of harmonic tones becomes nearly or quite inaudible \ fact This Inquiries respecting was discovered by Dr. but if at the node. See his Experiments and Sound and Light. same way. and the finger be applied string. which is heard at first. p. production of harmonic notes on the violin or violonby touching the string lightly with the finger at the place is familiar to of a node. for in this formula we suppose a = is. In this case there are two nodes. for 1 800. strip will be shaken when the key is struck.' Phil. harmonics that obviously essential to the production of is the point at which force applied to cr make (whether by a hammer. will remain undisturbed.Experiments on Harmonics of String. 99. the fundamental note be c. This follows from the formula (2) of Art. the at onethird of the distance from either end of the harmonic note g' will be heard. Trans. and therefore the component 5 5 ? vibra tions of which the periods are It n 2n &c. if / ( being a proper fraction in that the string is lowe"st terms). %n was series 1 also stated that when this is done. the finger. and the existence of that one which is not touched by the finger may be shewn by if it placing on the string a small bent it it be placed at any point except the node. with all any proposed harmonic those whose periods are aliquot that if parts of the period of that one. 99 extinguished. T. the string vibrate a bow) should not be 118. It was stated above (Art. 104) that a string may be made to vibrate in such a manner component vibration. is and the harmonic remains and is heard alone. and the notes of a harp string may be produced in the first of them (or octave) is sometimes' used The cello. that we suppose made to vibrate it into i by being plucked at any one of the points which divide n equal parts. ' H 2 . of paper: The harmonic by harp players. which case the fundamental tone. if Thus. do not exist.
the absence of the same harmonic be passed will be unmistakeable. Thus. or 'twelfth' above the fundamental tone). These points must be taken very exactly. at a point not dividing the string into three equal parts. will be alternately. with a node in some proposed division. with a finger of each hand. heard 1 The fourth string. it is only necessary to pass the point of the finger very lightly across a pianoforte or violin This should be first done at a point not coinciding string. 119. a". does not answer so well. and the other point. if the or d' string of a viplin be used. which is covered with The wire covering appears to have the effect the component vibrations which the pluck. To shew this experimentally. at its middle point and at a point onethird of its length from either end. d". Then.ioo Experiments on Harmonics of String. for instance. and the with fingers passed lightly across the string. Pluck the string alternately. of immediately reestablishing were extinguished by . The following is an easy and striking way of making this experiment. and the attention directed to the corresponding harmonic (in this case the third component. Then along distinctly the fundamental tone will be heard very at its the twelfth when the string is plucked octave when it is plucked at the third * middle point. so that it may be heard distinctly. at the first instant wire. the tones. if the finger across a node.
VI. (i) where accents signify total differentiation with respect to /. and the summation extends. 343. x. &c. &c. &c. and on the right hand to every point at which an external force are the components of the force applied X. given only differs from that employed by those authors in modifications of detail. at the time /. z be the coordinates of any point of a material system referred to fixed rectangular axes. see Thomson and Tait. words. be made in the coordiIn other nates x. This formula expresses the proposition (known as D'Alembert's theorem) that the system is at every instant in a conis applied. particles. the possible motions of the particles are limited by equations of condition . dy. y. If x. on the left hand to every particle m. corresponding to any arbitrary infinitesimal displacement which the system could at that instant undergo . For more complete details on that part which relates to natural The process here oscillations. is to be taken only as a slight sketch of the which many points of interest are omitted.y> z. in (i) represent any arbitrary infinitesimal alterations which could. y. Y. the equation (i) must at every instant subsist for values of &r. without violating those equations. and in the extension to the case in which the system is subjected to obligatory motions. the differential equations which define the motion of the system under the action of given external forces are to be derived from the formula 201 (*" Sx +S'ty + sf'&z) = *(Xtx + rby + Z&g). and dx.APPENDIX TO CHAPTER ON FORCED OSCILLATIONS. Z at the point figuration of equilibrium with respect to the applied forces and the resistances to acceleration arising from the inertia of the When the system is not entirely free.) (THE following in subject.
T is the expression. it is in a conif the force applied to figuration of equilibrium at any instant it is in the direction of a normal to the surface at that instant. but could be all assumed arbitrarily without violating the equations of condition. because. became constant. in the equations of condition. it could not. at any proposed time. quantities of which the values at any time would determine the configuration of the system at that time. When the equations of condition contain the time / explicitly. if a particle be constrained to move on a question. &c. that is. only because given points of the system are subject to obligatory motions. The coordinates of those points 1 See Price. surface which is continually changing its form. made. This. The transformation to the Lagrangian form 1 of the differen. in terms of the new variables .io2 Forced Oscillations.. with the value which it has at the instant in (Thus. Inf. the expression configuration of equilibrium at any proposed time is to be understood as meaning that which would be a configuration of equilibrium. .. it common In either case the terms referring to those points disappear from both sides of the formula (i). f2 . or subject to an obligatory motion. without violating the conditions which limit the freedom of its motion. if /. is only a generalization of the case in which given points of the system are fixed.) ' ' We may Our call the equilibrium relative / explicitly.dTS dT to (w)~*i~*&' on which equations.. iv. &c. whether a point is fixed. 302. the following observations are be made.. which the equa present object to consider the case in tions of condition contain / explicitly. viz. of the summation extending to all coordinates which appear on the lefthand side of (i). of any kind. however. we refer the system to a set of independent coordinates f.. should be observed. so we shall have as many . vol. Cat. . so that the coordinates of those points are given functions of /. now. Suppose.. receive any displacement without violating the condition imposed upon it hence 8 #* = o. tial equations that is in no way affected by the suppositions now equations of the second order as there are independent coordinates. for all such points. is condition contain and absolute when the equations of when they do not.
. &c. &c. so that x = x + y aw. x y. relations between the old and new variables will enable us to express each of the other coordinates x. dx . &c>. . as a function Tas f fi> &> an d x. (This new T . that the point (x. y. z. have now to introduce the supposition that the obligatory motions consist of small vibrations. x'. ~K s is . ... . . j x . f 2 > an(^ a ^ so contains is value of merely the kinetic energy (or half visviva] of the whole system expressed in terms of the independent coordinates. + . for instance. is homogeneous. . y=y are + a^. . where the contain all coefficients P. con.. z) is subject to a vibration. Q. and when these values are for T. z = z + aw. . taining also in general x. being given functions of the original coordiS l &c... so that we may assume . w are given . .Forced which are subject in Oscillations. z. respect to \ . .. &c. periodic where x . > dx dx +~+ *lJ' TS + . Let us denote by x. but not their differential coefficients f... suppose. the result substituted in the original expression evidently a function y'.) For the present..&c. Now x. 2 . . z.y. . The functions S 19 S2 . are given functions of / . F. y... for in We stance. in equations (2) are to be found by means of the equation ^8^ + ^5j/ + Z5 Z + . .. y. *= then *(>&.. and when their values are introduced T is no longer homogeneous with / explicitly.. z constants. and of the second degree. which to \. with respect f x'.z>). . &c. however. &c. Let us assume.. u.=S which gives 1 8f1 +S 2 ^+ 2 . y. y. v. we will suppose Tto be expressed in terms of \ x'.. are given functions which may the coordinates. the original coordinates of those Then the points which are subject to obligatory motions. . 103 to obligatory motions therefore do not appear expressed in terms of x. X.. &c.. z. y'. . are known functions of the new coordinates. (4) so that nates.y.
+ [2. z) (the point (x. while =j in the dT > &c. Next we will suppose that the system is always nearly in first /. Hence the lefthand member [i. The excursions of the particles being of the first order. we make the further assumption (which must be justified 1 a posteriori) that the differential coefficients first ^. we must reject the terms &c. and [i. i]. &c. i]fx + [. flj. Hence we may take may Moreover. i]r. and a a small quantity of the a constant which order. + + + v" + + 2 w + v". are of the second (since fu &c. only. only differ by quantities of the first order from values (which we will denote by (j) &c. y. Hence first T rp is of the second order. &c. are also of the 7 order. is this : The justification The motions nous vibrations. call (x . of the of equations (2) becomes [i. But  &c. 3]f. 1 In these equations the symbols [i.. 2 . and so on. and of the second equation [2. &c. in the equations (2). is evident that in the coefficients P. &c. i].). of the particles consist of isochrofollows that the velocities may be diminished The supposition of small veloindefinitely by diminishing the amplitudes. Q. which will disappear in forming first equations (2). . so that those coefficients will receive constant values. We may . . if we retain only terms of the J rrt j first order. Hence. . it put x for x. + sir. x" + tt y + Cl z". + terms in x'. from which it . a were = o. we and the equilibrium values for fis &c. that is.104 functions of Forced is Oscillations.) which would belong to a configuration of stable equilibrium if . y. are of the order. + [i. 2] [2.. y'. merely denote given constants. ]r. y z ) the mean position of the point (x. &c. only occur coefficients P. as well as = &c. z) would become fixed at (x y z ) if a were =o). &c... a configuration of absolute stable equilibrium. that the values of the coordinates j.. cities therefore merely implies a certain limit to the allowable magnitude of the amplitudes. a]f. may be considered .
and therefore supposed each of them may be expressed as a series of simple harmonic terms by means of Fourier's theorem. it is coordinates values (). the of equations (2) will have also x" = a". &c. Thus we shall have a set of simultaneous differential . we shall have. f.Forced Oscillations. &c. multiplied and so on. With respect that. then it will also occur in x". = &c. for the equilibrium values of putting &c. where brackets signify values corresponding to equilibrium values of the coordinates. ^ (Xbx + Fby + Zbz) = o. if we denote the constants first (^?)> become &c. &c. by letters A. evident that we may assume the zeros of the &c. putting D for . as far as terms of first the order. and therefore But since b (*i) lt (S 2 ) Further. this implies o. Suppose sin (nt+fi) occurs in the value of x. Hence. B. are periodic functions of /. w now see that. &c. 105 to the righthand members of (2) we observe as before (). are independent and arbitrary. We that u. when the variables have equilibrium values. = o. v. we may write the above equa tion in the form the righthand side consisting entirely of harmonic terms of by small coefficients. and we &c. The second equation will be of the form different periods. .. in such a manner that their equilibrium shall = o. Now. so that Now x=x + aw. &c. by Taylor's theorem.
[ba\.I)A ) 2) / 2 + . e being a small constant*. to add to S l &c. linear functions of fj. &c.. and leads to results more in accordance with ticles.io6 Forced Oscillations. Adopting abbreviations for the operative symbols. DA 1) 1 + ([i 2]& + a. of which the following appears most convenient for our present purpose. .. \_ac\. X... in some or all of the terms of the original formula. is not the same as \ba\). . write the equations thus : we may (where it is to be observed that [ab\ Let V be the determinant [aa]. and it is evident that the effect of this will be. fa fs &c. i~ n \c a\. (.. experience. 2 constant coefficients.. Now if we operate upon the differential equations respectively with the minor determinants ' d\aa\ d\ba\ d\ca\ just as in a system of algebraic linear equations.* = sin which are the differential equations of the problem. . [be]. This system of equations may be treated in several different ways. We will now. in a new sense). and transposing these terms to the lefthand side of the differential equations. \c o\ [ffj. with neglected. we shall have (using a1} &c. f . introduce the further supposition of small resistances varying directly as the velocities of the parThis does not add any difficulty to the integration of the equations. will . &c. equations of the second order. when terms of the second order are &c.. [ab]. This supposition instead of is equivalent to writing Xe. r ~~\ [bbl r 7~i . as many in number as there are independent coordinates. however..
. and the real part of each pair be negative. however. observing the effect of differentiation on the periodic terms in the righthand members.Srsin(/ + Z) + . . in the fr The ? ..2< = oscillations. differing only in the f2 values of the constants v &c. (5) manner small. . to perform this operation actually.. . occasion. as is evident if we observe that the differential equations would only contain if there were no resistances. so that all the variables fr f2 satisfy the same differential equation. . &c. constants. K? L. being known . which we may write K. . we see that the result will be V and in like = . and call a v a 2 a 3 = o.Forced Oscillations. . are introduced solely by the resistances. so that the value of fj may be put in the form . The factors ~ ai ' &c. and K. those in the values of f &c. . (6) (where 04 &c. . . K' integrate these equations we first suppose their righthand members to be absent. . even powers of The above values of &c. = If we put for a moment f(D). unless the roots see that the motion cannot consist of f1 C isin(w 1 1 /+/3 1 ) + C2 sin(^ 2 /+ft) + . determine the natural vibrations of the system. in relations necessary for this purpose would have to be ascertained by substituting the expressions for &c. then we know that a 2TO the roots of the equation (x) the general solution of V u = o is m V . f Hence the values Cj. of the variables are of this form. . 2m being arbitrary constants. of the order 2 m. but since the complete solution of the system can only contain 2 m arbitrary constants. say we permanently small of the equation f(x) = o consist of imaginary pairs. To .. C . original system of equations of the second order. . must be expressible as functions of those . . We have no Considering now the value of any coordinate. and. C2 . are used with a new meaning). C . . 107 be eliminated. .. Vu and which is = o. such as could exist if the obligatory vibrations D . . if be the number of the independent coordinates v &c.
. and observing that the Substituting this value of operation V destroys the part (6). we shall attend only to the first. . on the supposition that K. sin (nt cos (nt Z) L) are constants to be determined. the operation V. the lefthand side of (7) is easily seen to be and have this is to be identical with ^sin (/+Z) . K' &c.io8 Forced Oscillations. hence we must from which we find A B A and and when the values of B thus given are introduced in . We have thus obtained the complete solution of the system of equations (5) &c. B . may now be found as follows Assume. + +B + + . consisting partly of even Now and partly of odd powers of D Tor \ > may be put in the form where the second term is introduced entirely by the resistances. We see also that the effect of the resistances would be gradually to diminish the amplitudes of the vibrations so that the motion would be ultimately extinguished. we obtain the condition (7) for A Vsin(w/+Z) + ^Vcos(w/+Z) = ff sin (/+) the determination of A and B. (A similar pair of terms is to be assumed for every term on the righthand side of (5). the terms in the ex: pression (6) +A where A. and if they are considered as small quantities of the first order l the terms depending on them in <$>(D ) will be of higher orders. ..) in (5). but as the following process would merely have to be repeated for each pair. each of which could . are And the solution of those equations in their actual form all o. subsist alone. were suppressed by fixing the points subject to them and they are compounded of harmonic vibrations. 2 so that <I>(D ) may be considered as what V would be reduced The result of the operations on to if there were no resistances. . for the complete value of fj.
so long as terms of the first order only are considered. so that that there are o... K It is important to observe that the whole process that forced vibrations which it follows from the nature of no periods will be introduced in the do not exist in the harmonic com ponents of the obligatory vibrations. no on that m*) = Hence it follows that the amplitude of any component of the forced vibration will be large if its period coincide with that which would belong to a component of the natural vibrations if there were no resistances. 109 (after it becomes an obvious reduction) fiCicr* 1 sin (%/+&)+*. introduced by the resistances. Thus we see that the effect of every harmonic term in the obligatory vibrations is in general to add to the value of each coordinate a term with the same period . will is introduced by the resistances. (of which the period \ if is have a large amplitude the roots of the equation $ n be such that <>( n 2 ) = o 2 = o give the values of (j*r ) i.Forced the expression assumed for Oscillations. . because no periodic terms are ever multiplied together. resistances. represent the forced vibrations of the system. give the natural vibrations. Now in the expression the second term fore small . &c. T 0) + .. (8) being a constant of which we need not write the actual value. we see that those will be large of which the periods are such that the denominators of the coefficients in (8) are small. but + m^ V on the supposition supposition <$>( &c. &c. . we may say in general terms that there will be forced vibrations of large amplitude if amongst the harmonic components of the obligatory vibrations there exist any with periods equal to those of natural vibrations. &c. which are the same as if but these in general soon become insensible through the diminution of the factors e~ a i*. . while the forced vibrations are permanent. And since the effect of the resistances in altering the periods of the natural vibrations is in general small. and is there' n ) hence the vibration. and these added terms The other terms.. With respect to the amplitudes of the forced vibrations. = o.
the phases are in general different. but somewhat simpler. It is therefore omitted. The process to be used in the case of periodic forces is nearly identical with that which has been just explained.no Forced Oscillations. . and the results are exactly of the same kind. we see from (8) that though the periods of the forced vibrations at all parts of the system are the same as those of the obligatory vibrations which give rise to them. Lastly.
sensibly transversal. T. and it will have a tension. ON THE TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF AN ELASTIC (Dynamical Theory?) differential THE rigorous elastic equations which define the motion of an string under given conditions can in be formed without difficulty. we shall introduce ab initio the conditions of the actual problem. particle that the projection of any on the line AB may be regarded as a fixed point. at a distance from one another. so as to obtain the approximate equations directly. motion be its such that no particle position of equilibrium. .CHAPTER STRING. greater than the natural length of the string. In the condition of equilibrium the form of the string will be a straight line of length stant throughout its it /. certain quantities involved in the equations form the rigorous equations. extension to which If its depending on the amount of the has been subjected. : displaced from much make the and we ever be following assumptions (i) The original disturbance is such that the vibrations are is. now the string be slightly disturbed will and then will left to itself. but cannot be integrated. B. general It is only when the circumstances of the problem are such that may be neglected without sensible error. that an integrable approximate form is For our present purpose it will not be necessary to obtained. and neglect the small quantities mentioned above. 120. con length. Let us then consider an fixed at elastic stringj of which the ends are / two points A. VII.
or the ratio of the actual length insensibly to the length in equilibrio differs unity. so that the whole components are But since T is constant and ds = dx. the element is only acted on by the tensions at its extremities and the components of these. and may (This is therefore be taken as always equal to T. and x + dx. and is x. it dx = ds.y + dy. x is to be z regarded as constant. follows from (i) that. (2) The inclination of every part of the string to the line is AB its sine or tangent always an angle so small that the square of may be neglected. (3) The extension of any portion of the string due to its change of form may be neglected. of. and from (2) that is ds. and the x coinciding with AB. we have ^ = ^= o . a consequence Now let referred to rectangular axes having their origin at axis of It the position of any element of the string be A. these o. are . no external forces are taken account T^> ds T^> ds dt' ds T~ ds \ at the end next A. from (This is evidently a con sequence of (4) (2). which nearest to A. 7V(^> \dx/ \dx' Hence if dm be the mass of the element. of (3)) 121. for a given element. become Td(\. Consider let now _y.) The tension is sensibly constant. an element of which the length be the coordinates of that end of or dx. z + dz If of the other end. in the directions of the coordinate axes.1 1 2 Vibrations of a String. dsJ ds at the other end.
This is displacements and original disturbance were to be that of xy. (The string will being supposed uniform. 113 unit of length in Let p be the longitudinal density of the string.Vibrations of a String. Since the first of equations (2) does not contain z. evidently equivalent to supposing that the velocities of the particles produced by the all in one plane. and we will suppose for simplicity that the motion corresponding to the other does not exist. which we will take We have then the single equation of which the general solution is y=f(xat} + F(x + at). so that a portion of the infinite string contained string between any two nodes may be considered as a i finite . and the values of jy. at the time /. z its displacement from the position of equilibrium. 88. functions of the two independent variables x and /. in contrary directions and we have already shewn (Arts. we obtain from (i) the equations The integrals of these equations will determine y and z that as is. 96). it follows that the motion of the determine projection of the string that of its on the plane of xy is independent of projection on the plane o>{ yz\ so that it will be sufficient to discuss one of these equations . or the mass of a its actual state of extension.) what must be the general character of these forms in order that the resultant curve may . and the second does not contain _y.) 122. with the same velocity a. # 2 and take .) Then and if we put T= dm = pds = pdx. &c. of any proposed particle. (corresponding to the v of Art. (4) This equation represents the transmission of two arbitrary forms along an unlimited line. (The value of x defines the particle. dx constant. have nodes. they will give the position. p be constant.
The mode of obtaining the same con from equation (4) in a more analytical manner may be seen in treatises on mechanics. ^1=00 sm ITSX f A (. Price. as long as no particular conditions are specified. Cal. But in order that string. (5) The value of a 2 is T . t. example. so that r varies as the length and the thickness W directly. and therefore r= 2/ Hence if g be expressed in the usual manner. Traite de Mecanique. C. was also shewn how the most general solution of (3) in and satisfy the conditions imposed by the problem.ii4 fixed at clusions its Solution of Equations.4. which the weight would equal the tension T t then T=gpc. string. (See. Inf. D are arbitrary. for viii. is therefore A / /Wl ~^ For a string of given material and thickness.) chap. Wx /. vol. all the constants m. square of the thickness. 2 1. 2t'irt\ ). two ends. in which. may represent the motion of the finite we . B. If c be the length of string of and the square root of the tension inversely. may be expressed in the form It which the functions f F > = 2. Poisson. the number of vibrations in is a second 124. iv.cos 2 tiff +^sm . is proportional to the length and to the only be given. 281.=1 where ar = 123. this solution A. let W be the weight of the r. ii. The form (5) may be arrived at The form of equation (3) suggests solution directly as follows at : once as a particular y = smmx(A cosamt+JBsmamt) + cosmx(Ccosamt+J)smamt). and 2 a z = T=~I and fa I the time of a vibration. then W=gpl. and therefore r varies directly as the length If the material and inversely as the square root of the tension.
of equations (i) then becomes dt c being a constant. 98) that they can be so determined as to give the required initial values to y and the dy ^ for every part of the string. must have. The problem becomes ^little more complicated if we introduce the supposition of a^ retarding force acting at every 1 The first point of the string. The of these two conditions gives sin C= D=o and the second gives o. . note. I 2 . Thus we obtain  y= . using the theorem 1 See Art. 110. but it has been shewn already (Art. i being any positive or negative integer. x = /. COS n \ ^ sm ~ /) ~T~ + . 1 15 y=o ml = when x = o. B i are all arbitrary unless the initial circumstances of the motion are given . ar = 2l) the form (5) as a more general obtain (putting coefficients solution. The A { . and also o. 125.Vibrations resisted by Retarding Forces. sin iitx f ~7~( . when . whence ml= ITT. inat iii at as a particular solution particular solutions is and since the sum of any number of we a solution of a linear differential equation. And instead of the first of (2) we shall have j* v dy ^ 2 where 2 k is put for e Multiplying (2') by w and . and proportional to the velocity . (Longitudinal vibrations will be considered in connection with those of a rod). for all values of first /. dif The form (5) therefore is most general solution of the ferential equation applicable to this simple case of the lateral vibration of a string.
2 hence 2 =  sin (m x + a) sin ((0 #z  is a solution. or _>/ /> = 2 2 ffz (a  2 )*. It is easily seen that 2 TT we lose no generality by taking a = o. but of more or less practical interest. we must have (for all when x = o. The ends values of = o /) y of the string being fixed. sin (ml+ a) = o.orm = Finally. it But we shall not discuss this case. then ml = t'ir. From the above expression we see that the amplitude of the vibrations will progressively diminish. as does not concern us practically. the most general so lution of (2^) appropriate to the problem is in which A. 126. for any values of z'. We proceed now to some problems of a less simple kind. and when x = /. u through the diminution of the factor fT Also that the period of vibration of the i^ tone the resistance in the ratio of i is increased by to ( i  zVtf 2 ' ^ . and therefore sin a= o. If the value of k were so great that. insensible. to be determined as usual by initial circumstances. /3 { are arbitrary constants.1 16 Vibrations resisted by tcmKn? RetcmKng F\ Forces. . k > j 5 the value of y would contain nonperiodic terms. and ultimately become . we obtain Assuming as a solution of this equation e*^ = we find the condition sin (mx + a) sin (//+ /3). therefore.
in the instance. ma = n hence values of / on the supposition k ~~n~b* sin a and the value ofj/ becomes k (for this part . and also the condition that y = o when x = o. without violating the prescribed condition. itsx / aiiit sin 1 (^4. cos mat\B all sin. nx . PROBLEM of it is i. (We have no occasion to consider the external forces necessary to maintain this obligatory motion . A B^ . . ait\ ^ J. sin sin ni nb a 00 sin .cos D + ^sm . We Let b be the distance of the given point from the end A of the string and suppose that at this point the value ofy is to be sin/. Thus we get k . We have next to satisfy the condition that when x = b. y = k sin n /. This gives smmb(A . 1 1 7 To find the motion of the first string when a given point is subject to a given obligatory transverse vibration.) It is evident that the portions of string on the two sides of the given point may move independently of one another. if we add the terms which would give the natural vibration of this part of the string. . except that the value of^> must be the same for both when x = b. This satisfies the differential equation. y = sin mx (A cos mat+Bsmmat}. since contains no But it is evident that we may still satisfy arbitrary constant. mat) = sinw/. nx a .Vibrations of String. the differential equation. . that there no resistance. suppose. if the given point were fixed. whatever they may be. we suppose them to be applied. of the string) . conditions relative to this part of the string.y^ sin a This however is *"' it ( 6) only a particular solution. (6) and the satisfy the initial series of arbitrary constants will enable us to t . which can only be true for that A = o. Let us assume then that from x = o to x = b. .
or 2 o = tar. If we 7T . call T the period of this forced vibration. the equation (6) r = 2 n and neglect the natural may be written in which it is vibration ar remembered that k is the amplitude of the imposed upon a point at the distance b from one end. at a distance x from the fixed end the is amplitude of the forced vibration therefore which expression becomes the preceding reasoning oo (except for x = o) if sin = o. Attending for the present only to the first portion of in (6') consists of two the string. XT Now . is All that o. the whole of if the string is become sin large. to be so that b is the. and determines the forced vibration of that portion. the amplitude of the greater than under other con2irl> forced vibrations will be .. In any actual case the natural vibration is soon extinguished. 211 b sin ar = o gives = . For any given point length of the portion of string now considered. and represents the natural vibration.. in fails fact. y The other part is independent of the obligatory motion. string Suppose A the length of a portion of the which would . Forced Vibrations of String. ditions. the first of which depends only on the imposed obligatory motion. and will be given merely by instead of x and b in (6').n8 problem. But the forced vibration will continue as long as the obligatory motion is sustained. or the excursions of any part of we can really infer therefore that when very small. lx and / b 127. because the string is constantly giving up some of its momentum to the air and to the bodies which support the tension of its ends. so that vibration. This cannot of course actually happen. ar ?TT. so that the above equation gives the general solution of the The motion of the other part may be found exactly in the writing same way. much . we see that the value of parts.
that is. is. or. The explanation is simple. if the imposed vibration required that. = ar and therefore the above condition b = i\'. and . have so far supposed. and it is easily seen that if the obligatory vibration be imposed at any one of the points of division of the whole string into i equal parts. The .. i cos 27T/ h ^sin x b. and if its period be ~th of the period of the natural vibrations of the whole be large. sin 2Tr. that the motion was a simple harmonic vibration. vanishes ar . have r for the period of (Art. 27T/\ 5 J the forced vibration of the string. so that there will be quasi Similar conclusions may be deduced for nodes at these points. 7. natural vibration is . may be 129. phases. We Thus. and the tone will be the z th of the harmonic scale of the string. it would be easily shewn that every one of these components would produce a corresponding term (analogous to (7)) in the expression for the forced vibrations of the string. at points which divide the length b into i equal parts. that sin ^ . its 119 then 2 A.. same period might have been conjectured that a point of greatest motion ought to have been chosen. the forced vibrations will what would be a node in the case of natural vibrations of the It a conclusion which may appear strange. sin that A = o . the amplitude of the forced vibrations in this portion of the string becomes large when its length is any multiple of that "which would vibrate naturally in the same period .. when x = y = 2{A expressed by / .r points of minimum . the obligatory vibration must be imposed at string. on the supposition now made. fixed. disturbance will be those at itx at is. when the tone corresponding to the period of the forced vibration belongs to the harmonic scale of tones which would be given by the natural vibrations of this portion if equivalent to both ends were 128. the other portion of the string . from the equation = o to x = b. Thus we learn that in order to produce strong forced vibrations in a string. which is the same thing. or. which . for simplicity. and amplitudes. left to the reader. would be .= o . 94). which ii.Forced Vibrations of String. But if it obligatory were a compound vibration consisting of the superposition of any number of harmonic vibrations of different periods.
ar. an octave above the fundamental tone. The fundamental tone of a tuningfork is by far the strongest of its component tones. and <f" may. 130. then that portion of the string is thrown into strong vibration. These results may be approximately verified by exIf a tuningfork be struck. In this case. be such that the portion of string intercepted between it and either end could vibrate naturally so as to give. either as a fundamental tone or as a harmonic.130 Experimental Illustrations. so as to give the corresponding tone very distinctly. be distinguished as sounding with it. that tone will be heard. if a c" tuningfork be placed on the second string of a violin at the point where the finger would be placed in playing c". of the kind mentioned in Art. 112. the point of application tuningfork. however. are very high tones with incommensurable periods. . in which this circumstance is taken into account. and this. but persistent. as well as the fundamental tone. one of the component lx : tones of the tuningfork. may be produced from a string in the manner just described 2 For instance. which is weak. if the period of every com ponent of the imposed vibration is some aliquot part of the natural period of the whole string. 3 The sound actually heard is caused by waves in the air originating not directly from the vibrations of the string. then the above expression is not altered by changing x and b into and / b\ and therefore it holds good for the whole string. and the end of periment as follows its stalk be then placed on the string of a pianoforte. is given by Helmholz (Beilage III). through the bridge. 2 This harmonic octave in the sound of the tuningfork is a phenomenon of the second order. if r^ = r > that is. The practical results agree with those of the simpler process in the text. or violoncello. But if the fork be placed on the first string at the proper point for the finger in playing 3 c". which are hardly heard after a few seconds. And it will be found that in general the only sound heard is the note of the If. that tone will be distinctly heard. . violin. at any point. An investigation of the effect of placing a tuningfork on the string. very weak. The higher components proper. to the soundboard. while c" will be weak . But there is also a harmonic tone. by attention. it may be considered approximately as imposing an obligatory vibration on that point. but indirectly from those communicated from the string.
And as the result will be useful in a subsequent ~W~ and we are conditions C =a ~dt ^ .\ Forced Vibrations modified by Resistance. putting c instead of 2 k in the differential equation (2') of Art. and equating to o the coefficients of sin/ and COST*/. the four values of the expression . a 2 a s a 4 are the four roots of the equation . 131. when the obligatory applicable. when x = o. and with which we shall have no concern in the application to be made hereafter. vibration is imposed at such a point that its period is any aliquot part of the natural period of vibration of the portion of string considered. we find the two conditions in which D stands for  dx Eliminating v we obtain and therefore u = Ae ttl where a. or its equivalent (7). we have d*y dy 2 d*y This inconvenience may be avoided by introducing the hypothesis of resistance. we shall give the process as briefly as possible. to obtain a solution of this equation satisfying the y =p sin nt + q cos nt For this when x= . Then. and y=o /. . that is. 125. Let / be the length of the whole string.. under the form already employed in Art. becomes inas was shewn in Art. Substituting this value of j/ in the differential equation. We problem. The expression (6). 121 These are particular cases of the general phaenomenon of resonance. of which we shall have to speak hereafter. which are soon extinguished. shall neglect altogether the natural vibrations. purpose we may assume y = u sin nt+ v cos u and v being functions of x to be determined. 127. 125.
and C. changing A and C into \ A and \ C. B. we must y = o hence have u = o and v = o when = o. . where 2 It 2 remains to determine A and C so that the above expression may become when x = b. C D ' & from which it follows that A = B. identical with that is. employing De Moivre's theorem. D instead of in which for u. = tan tan = /3. assume v//. therefore. A. B' = D. and observing that co A/COS \r AI we find for the values of the expression (a) those of and the above value of u becomes ~ (after putting A . C. If. and C + Moreover. In fact. Finally. But these eight constants cannot be all independent of one differential The Hence another. B instead of ^7. D' instead of A. for all values of/. when 6 = . whence. since . put this result in ' To a convenient form. on substituting the values of u and v in those equations. C'. then i +  . = o when x = o. we obtain the relations = A' = C. D. we may write the values of u and v thus: y = (A osin0+C6cos0)sin/ + (Cosin0 A 8cos0)cos/. D' = B. since the solution of the simultaneous equations (I) cannot contain more than four arbitrary constants. equation for v is of the same form as that the value of v will only differ from that of u in having different constants A'.122 Forced Vibrations modified by Resistance. C + = o.A/ I = COS r \/A (cos V \lff A/ i sinxl/) .
the two equations A whence sin< sin</> +C6 yl 8 cos</> Ccr cos< and the values of A and in the C thus determined are to be introduced above expression for y. fore this expression always gives a finite value for y. 6 = o. expression (II) is however too complicated for use in for the sake of which we have obtained it. in order that this value of may agree with that found. <r. and 6 being of the same order as /3. o = i. or ft = o. 6 = o.sin 1 sin (nt + $) (II) f b cos cos (/+$)}. we have = = />. /3 being supposed very small. 6 corresponding values of 6.\ becomes . Z'TT ) > so that.) shall therefore neglect /3 in every part of that the problem We expression except where gives o it is essential to retain it. But we must retain P . . when resistance is neglected. denominator must evidently be understood to have the same putting sign as sin $.b . lx lb y The 2. the denominator in the expression (II) becomes and therevery small . (See Art. or an The b .Exact and Approximate Results. n natural vibration of the part of the string from hence. Now /3 =o = i. The result may be conveniently expressed thus : put then y = t /(T Sin<p ^ + ^' r0 COS<p { o. Putting therefore for the 123 and <T O. $ (T Q for this particular value of 6. <?. This gives the exact solution of the problem. in (II). /  nb _*J . that is. motion of the remaining part of the string will be given by The radical in the for x and for b. as in Art. 126.= iv } the value of (f> r( = V . tan$ = . but it cannot vanish for any value of <jf>. if period of the obligatory vibration is and that of the x = o to x = b is the former period be any aliquot part of the latter. 138. it deThe termines the motion of the string from x = o to x = b.
But if the element dm d{jj~) contain the point at which the finite pressure is applied.at point. in a direction at right angles to B. in (III). Hence. for thai particular element we must write A( \ instead of </. in order that sin </> = o. so that is infinitesimal. thus obtain We y may . 129. but agrees with experiment in giving a large but not infinite value forj/ when 6 sin = </> o. the term 6 2 cos 2 < become infinite when in the denominator. A Suppose that the pressure end A. so that the values of two points on by a finite different sides of it. is it is/>sin#/. resistance being neglected. Art. which sensibly coincides with that obtained on the supposition of no resistance. meaning is that the force on any element dm is the difference of the tranverse components of the tension at its two ends. however near. = and $ = \ If the vibration the simple imposed at the point where x = b were not of harmonic kind. (It must be remembered that. and since it is acted on by the given pressure in ad . To find the motion of the string when a given point of it is subject to a given finite periodic pressure. then instead of the righthand mem ber of (III) Art. of which the Now in general the change of direction of the string is con tinuous.Case of Periodic Pressure. for all but very small values of $. not TTTX (III) as an approximate expression. we should have a series of analogous terms. applied at a distance b from the p being a given finite to To solve this problem we must recur 121) the fundamental equation (see (i). as in 132. there will. or b = . may differ quantity. or at any rate mqy^ be a sudden change of direction at that ~. and that at the time / constant force. PROBLEM 2.
y = sin/0 (lx) (A' cos mat + &sm mat] from x = b to x = The S ives condition that these values of j> must coincide I. y = sin where nb n(lx\  sin a a from . At all satisfied. B sin mb = B' sin m (lb). when x = b. nx  n (C cos nt+JD sin . A /). and then subtract the the second. we obtain first result from A (^) = . y = sin n(lb} sin . which is (8) a condition that must be satisfied for the point at which other points the usual differential equation (3) must be x = b. C and D are constants to be determined by the condition b in the values W' Now if we put x = dy of. = o for conditions that allow the possibility of a y finite value change in the value of b. it is Moreover evident that it will be impossible to satisfy (8) without taking ma  = n. . dition to the difference of 1 25 component tensions. x=o to x= <5. for that element. and this equation must subsist.derived dx from the two expressions above given. A sin mb = A' sin m (I. however small we hence in the limit it becomes take dm.Case of Periodic Pressure.b). and (C cos nt+D sin nt) ^ from x=b to x = 1. we must have. V0. by assuming dy when x passes through the y = smmx(A cos mat +1? sin mat] from x o to x = b. Now we may satisfy (3) with the x = o and x = and at the same time I. Hence we may put . ..sin (Ccos/ + Z>sin/).
For this purpose we shall adopt the hypothesis proposed by Helmholz.Pianoforte String..=<x> sin M. natural vibration. we suppose . The breadth of the hammer is if. x = . if the portion on one side of it were vibrating naturally. if the constants A { i The explanation is merely that in this case the periodic pressure is equal to that which the string would exert on a fixed point at the same place.cos >. I These expressions determine the forced vibration of the string and it is evident that we may add the terms representing the . . C = o. /  / / (o ) j (The above expressions result for the forced vibration lead to a which nb at first sight appears paradoxical. sin sin n(lx) a nl y = a  p JL a sin ct n sm/ . o].) namely. that sin = o. nx a sm/ . the value of_>> in the other portion will be always o.) 133. namely. Now neglected. and whence rsin^ a . in the solution of the above problem. nb . viz. . . but that it lasts only during . (x = o . 134. that the pressure of the hammer on the string during contact may be represented by an expression of the form / sin #/. which will happen if the period of the forced first vibration coincide with that of the natural vibration of the Then portion of the string. from / = o to / * . so that. portion will remain at rest. \x = o to . (the reason for which is explained below. have introduced this problem for the sake of the use which may be made of it in finding approximately the character of the vibrations excited in a pianoforte string by the blow of the hammer. in order to satisfy (8). we must have y . a . We half a period. ^*=i f. Art. or that be all o. sin n(lb) a sin y = a p j.." sm j . Suppose. IT: at \ . to x A = /).sm mat) >. and the other portion at rest. viz. iitx C ^. considered as fixed at both ends.
the constants instant 127 at o. iitx I . = sin n(lb\ Cb . these will give the data for calculating the natural vibrations which pressure then ceased to exist. say be so determined that when / = some one the values shall vanish at all points will of the string. this (10) value of the righthand member of nl . multiplying each side by sin dx. that is. sin a jb / sin^ n(lx] a . and to disturb the string.Pianoforte String. then the the pressure subsequent motion be the same as if had only If then begun to exist. nb r l . ~ a (* = b to x = /). when = . . sin dx. A^ B^ to when ofjf and of dy ~ the pressure vanishes. we have .I sin nx sm iitx dx a a I Jo . Now for_>>. and the condition ~ir = dy JT 2. and integrating from x = o to x = /. .2^ Sin ap i ap . nl sin a B. sin whence.  ' + The found to be . equation will be nal1 n Pa?i*Tr* *& 2 o *> > sin = a I and therefore . iitT 2p . as we suppose would follow if the it to do in the case of the pianoforte. n . sin sin n(lx\ a . we referring to the general expression (9) = o when / = see that the condition + (9') obtained y o gives A i = o for all values of i\ . at that instant. we find the values of_y and / ^ at the end of the first halfperiod initial of pressure. nx a sin sin a a . sin nb a .
= /. If then we begin . to reckon / afresh from this instant. x = o to x = b. we put TT. A in the general expression (9) find. 2TTX/~ C j.{ i cos ITS at  _ . 2p Now if. nt = y. . and integrating x=o to j. * S1 ~T~ nl ^ ~* ' n(lb} 'sin 2 sin . we when . for the instant + (9') for = i o. h^sin (12) and compare the above initial values with those derived from we find air _ an iTa IT:X tux = sm Sz^cos j's. . tit* a sin sin nl ZTTX IT? a C S . a from x = ^ to A: = /. lT7af\ J. . { y . sin sin n(lx) a _ . (observing that (10) gives We obtain . / sin a and these are the initial values of y and at with which we are to calculate the subsequent natural vibrations. inx / . . nb . and multiplying the from last equation by sin dx. ~di~~T^ where the value of>>' is . and ap ~ y .iD^mj. y=2B dy _cns . and assume y = 2 sin this expression.Pianoforte String. nx a ap a sin ^ from a .
or. T. On this supposition let A be the length of the hammer. of Pressure of Hammer. after a 129 slight re and therefore the value (12) of y becomes. S. its moment of inertia about the axis on which it turns. and occurs at points which bisect the nodal intervals. and that Helmholz's A n is the amplitude only of the negative wave. or to (C + Z?")^. 48) with reference to the harmonic vibration of a point. _ iax j t /iirat { sin + M . t\ n in (14) correspond to Helmholz's A. and 0' the values ^ of and at will . expressed by the equation ' ' y = Lsm .Law duction. and is therefore half the amplitude of the complete vibration. or by the equivalent form iirx ( _ iaat y . In the case of the harmonic vibration of a string. \L its mass. then the pressure will be \q(6 ) during contact. (Beilagt IV. and at which suppose / = o. In order to understand the results deducible from the expression (14) we must recur to the hypothesis made above concerning the law of pressure during the contact of the hammer with the string. the amplitude is 4p (This expression in naP will . . The amplitude 4 of the component vibration which gives the /* harmonic tone replaced by its is therefore zB i cos IT? a . ^ \ . n.) 134. at the instant when contact begins. m. B i being actual value (u).) if it be observed that /. which equation determines the motion of the string after the pressure has ceased to act. equation (120). 6 the angle through which it has turned from rest at the time /. + D sin iitat\ \ > the amplitude may be defined as the maximum displacement from the This maximum displacement is evidently equal to position of equilibrium.( C cos . 2 Z. iiib be seen to agree with the result obtained a different manner by Helmholz. That hypothesis is founded on the assumption that the impact may be assimilated to that of an elastic body upon a hard fixed obstacle.sin j. q being a constant depending on the elasticity we 4 The meaning of amplitude has been before defined (Art.
(which only affects the value of the coefficient />. way. depends only on the latter circumstances. This shews that if the blow of the hammer be applied at any one of the points which divide the string into i equal parts. is independent of the momentum of the blow. upon the place at which the blow is struck. during contact. which is determined by the comparative strength of its different component tones. (We found a similar result on the supposition that the sound was excited by plucking the See Art. Referring now to the expression (14) is. 119. and the constants 7/J determined by the conditions 6 = result is . as well Hence the value of as on its weight. all the harmonic component tones which would have nodes at those points are extinguished. the = 6 ' . n sin*/.= 0' when / = o. \ If . In general the quality of the note produced.) string at a given point. if we see that it vanishes if sin = o . and we shall have. material and form. But the value of n.) but depends upon the two ratios  and ? that is. where fq~ n = :\/ \ is A and the pressure during contact therefore and the duration of contact is n \ q p in (14) is Q\k*/\*q.130 Law of Pressure of Hammer. hammer is of the material of which the head of the made . and upon the ratio of the duration of contact to the period of the fundamental tone of the string (viz. which determines the duration of contact. m being any integer. 135. and if this be integrated in the usual . that ib = ml. which depends on the velocity of the hammer at the beginning of impact. and not on the velocity.
But the product elasticity q. the expression (14) may be written in the form 8pl v . energy of two constant. and such that the note produced is simply the z'th harmonic component. to be inso that the above expression for the amplitude becomes where A . then the expression table of results calculated on different suppositions as to the place of the blow and the value of v may be seen in Helmholz. and is measured by half the visviva. and velocity of the hammer. p. 136. It appears that in general the effect of diminishing v increase the strength of some of the higher harmonics as pared with that of the fundamental tone. is entirely converted into kinetic energy string is passing through the position of equi whenever . If we suppose the hammer becomes sin absolutely hard. The potential energy is that due to the deviation of the string from the form of equilibrium. A depends upon the weight. on the coefficient of and becomes very small if q be very great. Then the form of the string at any time may be represented by the equation j> = Asm . that is.Intensity of Tone. First. kinetic and potential. dependent of to the values of p and v. of which the sum The kinetic energy is that due to the motion of at any time the string. 131 we put v for this latter ratio. See Problem 3. but not upon its elasticity. that is. PROBLEM 3. form. suppose the vibrations are in one plane. and whenever the librium. caeteris paribus. is The pv seen. ivx sm( iliat + a J (15) The is total principles. as we know from general parts. consists. tiro value of v depends. inb ^ ^sin cos(z7ri>). if the hammer is of a hard unyielding material. /Z'TT at ^ 2 K . or v = o. on reference g. 135. is A to com In numerical applications it must be remembered that the intensity of the tone is supposed to be proportional (for each harmonic component) to the square of the amplitude multiplied by z t . To find the energy of a string vibrating naturally.
at / any time. . and ar { = 21 . and the square of the number of vibrations in a unit of time. suppose the vibrations still in one plane. ITSX r \A^ cos h B i sin iitat^ J  In this case the string. but of the . where (18). Next.sm iirx _. which : M pl = M. ITIX ' p be the mass of a unit of length. /IT: at \ = Now (15) gives. and the potential energy is therefore never entirely converted into kinetic. . then. when sin (^ \aj o. at that instant is A* A ' We is the required value of the total energy at any time. be the mass of transform this expression as follows let may Then the whole string. Hence the total energy at any time is equal to the kinetic energy at any one of those particular instants. most general kind . and K P the kinetic energy due to the motion expressed by is the potential energy due to the form expressed by (ii). never passes through the form of equilibrium. and ri the period of the vibration. the square of the amplitude. IT: at y = 2 sin . and and the total is dy jjr is air = 7 Sz^. . hence the above expression becomes fM^f. . ia or I  = 2 z ri .132 Energy of Vibrating String.ira Tr so that. if 'r Asm A . in general. (18) energy K + P. dy . T i (16) from which we learn that in this case the energy is proportional to the product of the mass of the whole string. the kinetic energy T Ti(^ a \ dx = * ph (T) . fax (17) 2^sm^. Let us consider the string at the instant when / = o : at that instant >/ = .
_ . and left to itself again. thus where v . Suppose then the string to be brought to rest in that form. and 1 where K^ P is again left to itself for a time /' . it were left to itself for a time /. but will have been partly : To converted into kinetic.cosz0. so that is the kinetic energy at the instant in question. its total energy will still be equal to P. will vibrate (see K K 98) so ITIX that at iitat any time (reckoned from that instant) y =2A and at the . Now the string. i sin cos  . = 6. (20) . are the kinetic energies which the string v would have after successive intervals of time equal to /.sm \ .. itself without any initial velocity. > * I* *A/ y = 2^. and so on successively. and then left to After the lapse of any time /. we shall have / . ~r) and if developed. for 2 l ^ = IP (T) JC /tfTTx / o ( 2 * * sm ITIX\ . if. on 2 integration. we may proceed as follows Suppose the string to be put in the form (17). left to itself at a given instant in the form Art. Hence we have find the value of P.. and the potential energy due to the form at the same instant. end of any time * /'. The value of 133 K is easily found. beginning with the form (17). we suppose we see the square of the series within brackets to be at once that all the terms will be destroyed in the series by the integration except those comprised and these give. if we put . (17). we should have in like manner and so on successively.Energy of Vibrating String. J/2?" ^ 2 . then brought to rest in its actual form.
i sinzfl. tirx .ad inf. if the arbitrary be taken incommensurable with TT. a But we (sin iO) would vanish. It may be observed that. for this of 6. the kinetic energy obtained from (21) in the same hence To find K z we have to ing (20) instead of (17) as the proceed in the same way. always deduced Therefore y) 2 * ^ 2 (sin*'0) (i + (cosi 0) + (cosi 0)*. the series within brackets cannot become divergent. we obtain the required expression for the total energy (E) of the string. arrive at a true result by interpreting the product as representing i. Adding the value of P by an infinite series corresponds to the physical representation of would require an infinite number of operations of the kind described in the text to bring the string into the condition of equilibrium. a . it is evident that the operations In this case the factor described would never bring the string to rest.sm (21) and KI is way as K was from (18). thus 2 /(cos /0) (sin . dy = j "Ka . the value of from that of n by changing A i into K ^n+1 being A i cos z'0. If we took t' equal to half a period (or = TT). .] and. merely assuminitial form. and the series within brackets become oo. the series within brackets being equivalent to 2 2 i(cos*'<9) (sin/0) we have 5 finally thus found to that of ^(19). but this will be compensated by the factor (sin i 0) a becoming infinitely small.^tA . though for infinitely large values of i it may approach infinitely near to divergence . as for all other values fact that it 5 The P .'$)* and so on successively.i34 Energy of Vibrating String.
when / = o. observing that amplitude of the component vibration. as before. i sin z = 2 sin iTiat t \A cos  \B . is the square of the Now. for a given point. be called the square of the amplitude of the actual vibration. The result is and. in order to put it into its actual form and state of motion. because. lrax J. and the process is the same as before. ._ . and comparing this result with 1 is the sum of the energies ( 6). is the square of the velocity at any point of which the abscissa x. with obvious modifications which may be left to the reader. ITTX / . and r the where. is in It will is for . be observed that the numerator in the above expression each harmonic vibration the sum of the squares of the amplitudes of its components in the two planes and this sum may. although the ear can judge with great accuracy which of two notes is the louder. found in the last article is the equi137. we see that the total energy z' M A?+Bf E harmonic components. when both have the E . as before. zax  t sin J. +B . is now. The value of valent of the work which would have to be done.Energy of Vibrating String. the total energy is the sum of the energies due to the several harmonic component vibrations in both planes. in the string at a distance x from one end is then compounded of two displacements y and z in planes at right angles to one another. Lastly. we will take the most general case. if the string were at rest. by an extension of meaning. period i of the thl harmonic component vibration. 135 is the mass of the string. But the propriety of this definition cannot be absolutely demonstrated by experiment. general elliptic. And it appears natural to take this as the measure of the strength or intensity of the note produced. and the whole vibration is compounded of two repredue to the several sented by equations = 2sm . which. in which the The displacement of any point vibration is not in one plane. ittat (^cos iTtx / .
it is necessary that the coincidence of the point of application of the bow with the node should be exact. the When curve (Art. (In order however to extinguish these tones. which is the louder. as to the ratio of intensity. no component tone which would (if existing alone) have a node at that point is heard in the note produced. the ear can still decide with some certainty whether they are or are not of equal intensity. We are obliged therefore to have recourse to observation. To examine the motion of a violin string under the action of the bow. PROBLEM 4. This problem is much more difficult than that of the pianobecause the force exercised by the bow upon the string is determined by circumstances which seem to defy calculation. that when the bow is drawn across the string at any point of aliquot division.136 same ment Vibrations of Violin String. and the ear would judge whether equality of loudness subsisted at the same time.) ascertained not by the ear but by the eye. quality and the same pitch. 64. The character of the vibration of any point of the string may be observed by means of the 'vibrationmicroscope/ the principle of which was explained in Art. so that a complete is vibration represented thus . and we can hardly make any plausible hypothesis a priori. (The definition of quality will be discussed in another chapter. very small deviation reproduces the missing tones with considerable The other facts to which we shall have to refer are strength. and the point observed is one of the other nodes of the same division. obtained by the imaginary unrolling of the cylinder 65) reduces itself to a zigzag line. and endeavour to determine experimentally some characteristics of the motion from which the analytical representation of it may be deduced. and it On might perhaps be possible to arrange an experiment in which a series of notes should have the same quality and equal intensities according to the theoretical measure.) 138. with a practised ear. and in this way Helmholz has arrived at results of which the following are the most im A portant (a. it cannot form a precise judgthe other hand. and if not. when two notes have the same quality but differ moderately in pitch.) : the bow is applied at a point of which the distance from the bridge is an aliquot part of the string. In the first place then it may be easily verified by any one forte string.
the character of the vibrations has not been satisfactorily made out. though When the bow is applied at a point which is not a node. and the ordinate represents the displacereckoned ment of the observed point at the time / ( = A from the instant of greatest negative displacement. maintaining their average directions. It follows evidently that the velocity of the observed point is constant throughout each of the two parts (the ' swing and the swang ') of the vibration. but a if the corresponding component . however. instead of being per fectly straight. It appears = CE.) When the observed point is not one of the nodes. the swang at a node in the contrary half to that swing and in which the bow is applied. 139. and greater in the contrary case. In this case the lines DE. i. of the vibration. It appears probable that at the (6. 137 C M D Fig.) (The reader will observe that we are point which would be a node vibration existed alone. consist of a series of ripples or wavelets.Vibrations of Violin String. it is found that A C = CJ3. but is not in general the same in each. or that the excursions on opto be implied that posite sides of the position of equilibrium are equal. if the observed point is in the same half of the string as the point of application of the bow. vibration is still represented approximately but not exactly by Fig.) here using the word node to signify not an actual node. When. the observed point is at the middle of the string. would represent the Thus. i. EF. the (c. (Helmholz. then the velocity of the swing is less than that of the swang. i. p. &c.) If at ' EF DE point of application the string is dragged by the bow with its own velocity during the swing. and the velocities are AB period PMrepresents P of any point the (T) in the line DEF M) AD ' ' therefore equal. in Fig. any point we call the 'swing that part of the vibration which is performed while the point is moving in accordance with the bow.
is a node. (22) that of where r is the period of the vibration. 131. Art. D^ we . J. Then end of x = o (see equation (III). at a distance b from the bridge. we know that it can be expressed by means of Fourier's theorem in the form 2 (Q cos t : + D i sin .Z^sin 2 ITT ) .138 Vibrations of Violin String. We shall therefore in the first place assume that the series of are known. and in order to determine shall further assume that the vibration of Q. where. and that the bow us suppose that is applied at a point which we will call Q. represented by (22). The facts above stated ((a) (b) (c)) have been ascertained only in the case in which the point Q. Now. and the motion of the rest of the string would remain unaltered. (On the principle of this method of observation. it will hold good for the whole length of the string. i D Value of y at Q. which must be the natural vibration of the string. at which the bow is applied. and e/ is since this formula 140. see Note at the end of this chapter). the length of the string is /. and the remark at the that article) the vibration at any point of the string from = b will be approximately represented by the to x equation " _a=oo ' =1 (C. must therefore assume this. we might suppose it to become obligatory. and that (22) is the obligatory coefficients Q. These results have been confirmed by Professor Clifton. let 139. (23) ~ 21TTX = ITtX ' a * lTtb And a small quantity depending on the resistance. who observed the vibration. in the present case. Assuming the facts above stated. since we assume that the fundamental note is produced hence r = 20. Moreover it is evident that if the actual vibration of Q were known. whatever be the character of the actual vibration of Q. 6< = cos 221T + . x and is not altered by changing x into / b into lb.curves of points on the string by means of revolving mirrors. is of the same kind as that observed at other We Q.
as it is easily seen that will when they are in troduced in (23) that equation become sinnr 141. . 139 nodes. CE ' DEF term. i). A. TO . 76. and T = 2^ T. We thus obtain for the ordinate the value 2 2/3r 71 T o( r 2 ~ ro) i * . x /. <^ are it  In order however that may determine completely the value ofjy at every point of the string. a. ZTT a .' at the same point. Hence y ( 2 5) ought to vanish when 2 b is the value T .Vibrations of Violin String. that Article. and the simplest hypothesis we can make is that .' and r .f/1 ). it is evidently only necessary to omit the . so We shall have then that )3 is the amplitude of the vibration at Q.r of the swang. r/ sin T O ?sm . Therefore  ought to vanish when sin t vanishes. r is the duration ' of the swing. 138) that every component tone is extinguished which would have a node at the point of application of the bow.constant P DEF } AM AB AC .. (24) and the values of (22) are to be so taken that the expression . every component of which the period is an aliquot part of the period of vibration of a string of length f b. so that (22) must give the value of the ordinate at any in a line such as point (Fig. has been already In order to make use of equation (3) of solved in Art. it is necessary that the value of the ratio should be known. T. and change into ^ 2/3. Now it has been already stated as a fact of experiment (Art. if the abscissa be taken proportional to /. a multiple of now is b = r$. so that y ought to vanish when r^ ma a multiple of T sin IT: or when <^ is a multiple of <  TT. Now the problem of representing a locus such as by means of a periodic series with period T. Z^ t It is unnecessary to write shall be identical with this. = T O and = r' let = (3. that is. In this equation abbreviations for j it is to be remembered that 0. 2Z7T/ r T N 2 ^ . C down these values.
/ \ 2 / _x 28 ) )' ( which the part under the sign of summation can be reduced same form as in (24) by changing the arbitrary instant from which / is reckoned. comparing this with (24).Sin .140 Vibrations of Violin String. we obtain the or very small. for all values of i except those which make sin <^ o If we substitute i for this factor. that is. . put in the form . (25) will be reduced to the form lx f 2/3r 2 ^/ = 00 i sin <. we see that for any particular value of x. In this equation the factor . sin j = sin tttx ^ .U V r r T' . and since if .+ T' 2 T . For if we take a quantity T' such that 2/3T /= x 2 > (27) I z may be . because TO ought to be greater than r TO . so that the positive direction of y is that of the motion of the bow. shall have COSZTT. sin  = . for any particular point of the string. "~ is O . i) is reckoned from an instant at which Q begins to follow the bow. ITiX cos i TT .voo I ^ Sm 2 /VT' 2Z'7T/ .  (36) very nearly = equal to i. Hence it represents a zigzag like in to the . sin </>. = sin This may be satisfied either by but if / (in Fig. it gives a vibrationcurve of the same kind. . we now agree to measure x from the other end of the string. approximate equation Tn \ 22*77 / 'sm (27) and. which is equivalent to changing into x. V=7r 2 r (r TO)^ r2 ~ T = Z ^. the latter supposition must be Then we adopted.
if it is not a node. and the phase of the vibration at any given time varies with r'. and Helmholz has ascertained. with x. that is. or ' swing . then. 25 (p. that one side of the zigzag is too steep to have ripples. 141 Fig. and therefore 6 Helmholz's Fig. . in which last case it very nearly) except when sin For we have already seen that the vanishing of this factor causes the extinction of the component tones in question . and the vibrationcurve (27) will be modified by the disappearance of the corresponding component curves . 2/3r 2 /3V 2 ^O(TTO) whence let /3' = ^ /3 T '(T ^ r') 0(Tf ) T (TT ) /* P be the amplitude at the middle point of the string. then P= 8r z r . that this relation to observing the ratio of subsists. and the effect of their disappearance will evidently be to change the zigzag of straight lines represented by (27) into a zigzag of rippled is = o. i. by any point the durations of the ' actually in Fig. (i) the extinction of those component tones which have nodes at Q. It fails to represent two of the observed facts. . and r' of the first Now r' part of at it. so that the hypothesis assumed above is AC CB justified. i. neglecting et.' hence the equation ' ' x = .Vibrations of Violin String. accurate formula (26) represents these facts ex we consider the factor we have 2 . T is the duration of a whole vibration. The equation (27) agrees with the approximate formula which Helmholz has obtained in a somewhat different manner. But Professor Clifton has found that they are seen on both sides when the observed point is nearer to the middle of the string. If we put /3' for the amplitude of the vibration at any par ticular point.to be = i (as is = o. and (2) the existence of ripples in the vibrationcurve when the observed point The more actly. namely. lines . but with a different amplitude. 144) represents the vibrationcurve of a point so near the end of the string. expresses that ' swing and of the swang are proportional to the lengths of the two parts into which that point divides the string.
Introducing the above value of Pin (27). are This is easily shewn as follows. all When / 7" is o. CB (Fig. that this equation may be made identical with (29) at any determinate time /. It was proved in straight. 2) is (from x = o to x =. determines approximately the form of the whole string at any time. T or any multiple ofj^> vanishes is for values of x. /).142 Vibrations of Violin String. other times the two portions of the string between and the point of greatest displacement. we obtain that 8P I which agrees with Helmholz's equation (3 c) (Beilage V). This equation (or (27)). And it is evident (Fig. At extremities portions A C.) the The C sign being taken in both. so that the whole string straight at these instants. of these equations shews that the locus of the vertex of the string consists of two parabolic arcs passing through first same . 2). considered as an equation between x and y.(/*. 99 that the equation to a locus consisting of two straight all its 142. by taking X Q andjy so that h  *. where reckoned AB = / (like and x ot y Q are the coordinates of C x and y) from A. Art. to at the which gives the ratio of the amplitude at any point middle point.
Beilage V. belonging which the equations are The second time /.) The It is AC' i string therefore vibrates in the following manner C. or first harmonic. determines the position of the vertex at the it and writing in the form we = (beginning with the instant when / \ r ) it is by supposing X Q to vary uniformly from o to / and then from / to o and so on successively. or always divided into two straight portions.Vibrations of Violin String. This (See Helmholz's Fig. which passes from the original zigzag. into a similar zigzag of half the period and smaller amplitude. and the upper and under sign being taken alternately.) Hitherto we have supposed the bow to be applied in the usual manner. B. (This will be most see that satisfied clearly seen by examining the case of t'= i. its 143 extremities to the parabolas of A. while the bow is drawn with a somewhat quicker motion and lighter pressure. with a con (Helmholz. 145). the fundamental tone becomes weaker. CB. 26. the fundamental tone is extinguished. nearer to the bridge. These changes in the character of the note are accompanied by a corresponding series of changes in the vibrationcurve. through a series of intermediate forms. . and on opposite sides of AB. and ultimately a node is established at the middle of the string. so as to produce the fundamental note of the But if the point of application be taken gradually string. and the note produced is the octave. p. A and B M. moves backwards and forwards between stant velocity. as describes the two parabolic arcs C'B\ and the vertex : A C alternately in such a manner that the foot of the ordinate. the time occupied by each of these successive changes being \ r.
144 Vibrations of a Loaded String. undergo a sudden change when and at that point the equation x passes through the value b must be satisfied. has not been submitted to mathematical analysis. But phenomenon has it also been observed by Professor Clifton. = (32) (33) Either of the above equations gives. for . 143. consider it as a small but finite mass. together with the conditions that y = o when x = o and when x = I. dy and. equations when x = b. be this mass. taking the difference of values of dx ~ given by the two 2. exactly in shall therefore assume the same way as in Problem 2. we must suppose that the value of j^may . y from x = b to x = /.cosamt+fismamt). To examine the vibration of a string which loaded with a finite mass at a given point. is We shall assume that the weight of the mass is insignificant compared with the tension of the string. ar _. The rest of the string is subject to the usual differential equation dy dt 2 ~ * dy dx* ' Now we may satisfy the latter equation. from x = o to x = b. {JL As in Problem 2. we find. we shall centre of inertia may be neglected. concentrated at a point. as in Problem A(~ ) = msinmt.(Acosam/+smamt) . and = smml>smm (I x) (Acosamt+fismamf). and suppose / is the length of the Let then and b the distance of the point at which is attached from that end of the string from which x is reckoned. . jut string. We y smm(l &)smmx(A cosamt+J3smamt). and that the value of_y must not change suddenly when x = b. . so that the vibration is modified only by its inertia and also that its dimensions are so . x = b. small that the consideration of its motion relatively to its own In other words. PROBLEM 5.
roots. (34) . or sin m(lb) = o. and the second member of (34) is insignificant in comparison with the first. length of string which would have the pA. or b = I. equations gives y = o when x = b. Loaded String. . namely. and can only be improperly called harmonics/ { If in equation (34) we suppose A. = o.Vibrations of a hence. The 2 value of a T is (Art. The periods of the component vibrations are now those which belong to the separate portions of the string. A and B remain arbitrary is circumstances of the motion are given. where p = the longitudinal If then we put /* density of the string. . so that A.. so that the component tones do not belong to a harmonic scale. the complete solution of the prodenote them by m lt m 2 blem will be given by the equation . m If. we I = o. (35) which 1 ~ ( (sin i and the coefficients b sin m (lx] (x = b to x = /). . in order to satisfy (31). as get the condition for an unloaded string. as it evidently ought. unless determined i it { by initial conditions. then A = oo . which determine the periods of posed. the Either of these point at which \L is attached remains fixed. will evidently have an infinite number of and if we y = 2i in x m i ( A i cos am i*+ B i sin ami*} . as in the case of the unloaded string. A B are all arbitrary. 145 we must have \Lc?m sin mb sin m (lb] = This last equation determines m. mb = o. and smmdsmm (lti) = o. these component vibrations. or b = o. sin in the original investigation of that case. same mass as the the above equation will become b} m\sinmt>smm(l It = smml. . and the condition for determining m becomes so that either sin that is. of simple harmonic vibrations superBut the values of m. liberty to on the other hand. The complete vibration therefore consists. 144. while unless the initial Tsm ml. is /u. are not in general commensurable numbers. we suppose p = QO (which we are at do if we also suppose gravity not to act). 123).
346
Vibrations of a Loaded String.
equation (35) shews that each can only exist in its own portion. it is evident that we may now, without violating any prescribed condition, take smm& = o in one portion and sinw = o in the other; thus the motion consists in general (/ ) of the natural vibrations of the two portions, existing indeThe infinite attached mass is simply equivalent to pendently. a fixed point.
But
145. In general the roots of the transcendental equation (34) could only be found by troublesome approximations. Two special cases however deserve attention. The first is that in which the mass /ut is attached at a node, so
that b
=
"77
/,/,/' being integers.
(34) then becomes
mb
and
it
= sin^
mb\
for
is
evident that this
is
satisfied
by taking
to oo in
mb
any
multiple of /TT.
roots)
Thus we
shall get a series of roots (not all the
by giving
i integer values
from
i
as
The period of the z th component we see from (35),
2TT
tone given by this series
is,
2/
aij'
am
i
Now
when
2/
is
is
the period of the vibration of the unloaded string, vibrating so as to give the lowest harmonic tone f at the points of division of the string into j
it
which has nodes
equal parts.
when the mass is attached at a node, component tones which have nodes at that point remain But the fundamental, and other component tones, unaltered.
see therefore that
all
We
the
be changed. This may be verified by attaching a small lump of wax to one of the points of aliquot division of a violin or pianoforte
will
string.
The
other case
is
that in
which the attached mass
is
so small
that the square of the ratio
j
may be
Z'TT
neglected.
A.
Since (34)
is satisfied
by
ml=
when
=
o,
we may assume
Vibrations of a
that
Loaded String.
by
147
where
e is
when A
is
small
it
will
be
satisfied
mI =
Z'TT
+ 6,
of the same order as
ITT
f"
Substituting therefore

for
m
in (34),
we
obtain
(ITT
+ e) sin  (ITS + c) sin (i
.
.
y)
(Z'TT
+ e) = sin (ITT + e)
;
and, terms of the second order being neglected, this becomes Jv A b x. = ecoszTr; ZTTT smiir jSin^ijr ZTTyJ
.
.
.
whence we
get
f
w  sn
\
ITT
so that
we may
take
ZTT /
A
The
period of the corresponding tone
is
is

;
or the
number
of vibrations in a unit of time
vibrations
is
277
;
hence the number of
diminished by the load in the ratio of
A
I
.
r
.
*
tO I,
jSlrftTTj
and the fundamental tone, as well as the higher components, are all lowered; moreover the components belong nearly but not exactly to a harmonic series, so that the compound note will sound slightly discordant. The examination of particular
cases
may
be
left
to the reader.
NOTE.
On
the Principles
of
the Use
of Revolving Mirrors.
(See Art. 138.)
If a plane mirror revolve about a fixed axis in its own plane, the path of the image of any stationary point Q is a circle which passes through and has its centre at the point where a perpendicular from meets t Q,
AB
And
Q
AB
this
path
is
the same whether one side only, or each side, of the mirror
reflecting surface. If the axis of rotation, AB, be not in, but parallel to, the plane of the mirror, then the path of the image of Q is a curve of the 4th degree, having
be a
L
2
148
Revolving Mirrors,
a double point at Q, and two loops, one within and the other without the The inner loop is the path of the image formed circle described as above. by reflection at the outer surface (reckoning from A B} of the mirror, and the outer loop of that formed by the inner surface. A usual arrangement is to join four mirrors together so as to form four sides of a cubical box, with the axis of rotation passing through the centre of the box, parallel to their planes, and equidistant from them all. The outer surfaces of course alone reflect, and the images formed by them all describe the same path. But an eye placed at any determinate point will only see one image at one time, and only while it describes a small portion of its path and if the velocity of rotation be sufficiently great, this small portion of the path of the image of a stationary continuously illuminated point will appear to the eye as a continuous and stationary line. If however the point, while continuously illuminated, have a vibratory motion of sufficiently short period, parallel to the axis of rotation, and if the velocity of rotation of the mirrors be so adjusted that one quarter of its period is equal to, or a multiple of,
;
the period of vibration, then the passage of each mirror through any given position will always happen when the vibration is in the same phase ; and consequently the visible portion of the path of the image will appear as one or more waves of a continuous and stationary vibration curve, formed by compounding the two motions along and perpendicular to the line before mentioned. On the other hand, if the point be stationary, but illuminated only at instants separated by sufficiently short intervals of time, it will appear, when viewed by the eye directly, as a continuously illuminated point ; but when seen by reflection from the revolving mirrors, it will appear, not as a continuous line, but as a row of points, which will be stationary if one quarter of the period of rotation of the mirrors be equal to, or a multiple of, the interval of time between successive illuminations. Some of the most usual applications of revolving mirrors depend upon these principles. They appear to have been first used, for purposes of
observation, by Wheatstone.
CHAPTER
VIII.
ON THE LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS OF AN
ELASTIC ROD.
146.
THE
vibrations of a uniform elastic rod
may be
either
transversal or longitudinal,
and both kinds may, when
small,
coexist without sensibly modifying each other. may therefore study them separately ; and we shall begin with the theory of longitudinal vibrations, as being the simplest. might,
We
We
did in the case of the string, first consider the subject kinematicaUy, assuming the law of wavepropagation in a rod
as
we
of infinite length
;
but we prefer to proceed at once to the
all
dynamical theory.
147.
We
suppose then the motion of
the particles to be
in directions parallel to a fixed straight line in space, with
which
the axis of the rod always coincides. By the axis of the rod is meant a line passing through the centres of inertia of its transverse sections. the particles which at any one instant are in a plane at right angles to the axis, continue to be so at all times. In other words, the velocities of all the particles
Further,
we suppose
that
all
in the
same
first
transverse section are equal.
The
because we
of the rod
is
know
of these suppositions cannot be rigorously true, that a longitudinal extension of any part in general accompanied by a lateral contraction,
and
vice versd.
But when the vibrations are small these
lateral
displacements
may
be neglected without sensible error.
Longitudinal Vibrations We shall first investigate the conditions of equilibrium. The definition of extension. the effect will of course be positive extension. to any two transverse sections. the equations of motion from them by the help of D'Alembert's principle. or elonga a pushing force (or negative tension) the be negative extension. namely. in order to produce is a tension. which must be applied. and if T be 7 effect will actual length . in contrary force. or contraction. or pulling an extension (or compression) e. and then deduce Z?e.150 148. is tion . which includes both cases. per directions. is the a constant (the modulus of elasticity). The usual law of elasticity is assumed. and unit of area. If where q is T T force.
required to produce this extension. so that paXdgis the whole force upon the mass of the slice. Hence ^^(~j. on its faces remain finite. whereas the interior forces. being pro portional to areas. (2) 151 A force X per unit of mass infinitesimal slice applied throughout the between two sections of which the actual abscissae are f and f +d. and the condition of equilibrium would be r = o. the extension is ^ i. and are therefore negligeable in comparison with the forces on the faces. To find an expression for F we observe. diminish without limit also. and were cut off. being proportional to volume. J the abscissa interior o where p represents the actual density in the section of which is f. since x = o when f=f . is therefore supposing no forces (such as of the slice. and natural The equilibrium being established. this therefore is the value of ^k^Thus (i) becomes which. may be written .i) is the force which must be ap plied to the surface of the section to maintain the existing state of extension . that the natural </ thickness of any slice being dx. and the actual thickness area. in order to of the rod between part Pp B maintain the equilibrium of the remainder to it apply to the surface of the section P p some force F per unit (i) would be necessary of area. and the force per unit of on each face. if there are any.of a Rod. / the 149. X) to act on the interior is mass Now when the forces the thickness of the slice diminished without limit. Let CD be the area of the section. if the length of the rod.
If in equation (2) we put for p~ its Value p . we have merely to substitute for the force co pQ X dx supposed to act on the slice. the resistance to acu>p Q celeration arising is. we have so that the last equation becomes Po ax (3) 150. of any proposed section defined by the value of x. To deduce from this the equation of motion. then. putting x= o in this. from its inertia. namely. any time its /. Thus we obtain.. together with the conditions relative to the extremities. The at solution of this equation gives independent variables x and /. it gives the position.152 Longitudinal Vibrations we obtain Differentiating this equation with respect to x. putting an equation of the same form as the that to which we were led by problem of vibrating strings. we get and. that to write 7. The and the two initial arbitrary functions have to be determined by the given displacements and velocities. f as a function of the two That is. and pu>d Let pQ be the natural density of the rod. . since both express the mass of the same slice. in the case in which no forces are actually applied except on the surfaces of the ends. 151. instead of X. dx. natural distance from the solution is end A.
when x=o and when for all values of Hence we must evidently have k=i.of a Rod. first forces. We we to consider the most important cases. as the terminal conditions. we may neglect part of and assume only a term proceed will kx in addition to the periodic f. Assuming then the terminal conditions are k+ mA cos (w . ml being any integer). = o. and the two equations (6). and acted on by = o. cosa = last o. find it necessary to add a nonperiodic term such as which is obviously of the general form (5) and satisfies (4). we had considered the equilibrium of we should have found in like manner These two equations merely express that the condition of extension at each end of the rod is always such as corresponds to the force applied there. But the part b + (c' c)at of this term merely signifies a uniform motion of translation of the whole rod. Then l Q F F both when oc = o and when x= /. And no (7). are concerned with in studying the vibrations. exist. 153. if the terminal conditions admit it. cos(w/+a) = o. which all we it. If 153 the other part of the rod. 152. Such a motion may. suppose the rod entirely free.* + x= /. satisfied of which equations the (i two are by a = . we shall but in order to satisfy the given conditions in all cases. value as The differential =s equation (4) is satisfied by such a ^sm(* + a)sin(i<i/+0). and therefore . but as it in no way is modifies the relative motion of the different sections. <*) sin (# /.
x 2 cos (^. (8) as the general solution. a constant term to in the summation.r / . we may lira/ *+2a.. A and j? being r.from 2 the origin of f. Now we have (Art. now find the position of the centre of inertia of the is Its abscissa given by the equation the integrations being extended from one end to the other.x + A cosyiitx . To understand the equation (8) we must recollect that is the distance from a fixed origin. but from (8) we have / Jo rl dx i 2 .f&r. is a solution. The value of x therefore depends only is on the particular set of particles considered. It must not however be inferred from . dx for d.154 Longitudinal Vibrations f..r. fiii at sm(^ y . it becomes simply /. and independent of the origin of Let us rod. we should merely add which would be equivalent to an alteration of the fixed origin from which f is measured. as = r in former cases. 149). + /3J and making a take . (If we included = o f. arbitrary slight change of form. hence or the centre of inertia remains fixed (as we know a priori that it must do under the supposed conditions). . . and is at a distance .) 154. .cos + ^sinyJ nra/\ . hence if we put. at the time /. of the f particles in a plane section of which the natural distance from the end A is x. in the above equation. so that the limits of the integrations are x=o Jo = and x= /.
because x. 156. gives the disperiodic part. at sections for which all x is any odd multiple of > provided A if Z?  t vanish for values of i except odd multiples of n. in the state of motion. 155. which is the actual value of at the time /. explained. the periodic part of (8) would disappear. is not the actual abscissa of the particles in a reckoned from a fixed point. The density at any point is given (Art. 149) by the equation P Hence the general equation (5) gives which represents the transmission of two contrary directions with the to the matter of the rod. same constant is of density in velocity a relatively states This not rigorously the same thing as a constant velocity relatively to fixed space. by the value of x. hence the x. we may say that the vibration congiven section. in the natural condition. of the section defined. contains the centre of inertia remains fixed . just as the lateral vibration of a string consists in the transmission of waves of lateral displacesists ment . no section remains fixed. If the vibrations ceased. But there will be n nodes. In general. but differs from it by the small periodic displacement due to the vibration. The periodic part of (8) does not in general vanish for any value of x. in the transmission.of a Rod. so that there are in general no nodes. in contrary directions. that will only happen when A BI it are o for all even values of i. the centre of inertia still maintaining its position. or sections of no displacement. this that the section 155 which. This being understood. of waves of condensation and dilatation. and 'the waves appear to be reflected from the ends in both cases. as before placement. and we should have f = x at all points of the rod . the place of the centre of inertia being occupied by different particles periodically. Thus the rod may have any number of nodes. of which those next the ends are .
each of which might subsist by itself. and in this case. the sections in which there is no variation of density are those which bisect the nodal intervals in the state of equilibrium. A if B i general vanish a multiple of n. that twice the length of the rod. the The vibration represented by (8) consists as usual of superposition of an infinite number of simple harmonic th comvibrations. as i will be seen on inspection of .156 distant Longitudinal Vibrations from the ends by half the distance between any two nodes. 150) time. ponent vibration would have i nodes . Since the value infer. ponent vibrations form in general a complete harmonic The period of the z' th 2l component tone is is > and the period of the fundamental tone 2l a Since would be the time of transmission of a wave over a the distance 2 1. cos j is for values of x which make sin 2T7X = o. and these since sections of no variation of density are also sections of greatest displacement. . That is. of a (Art. the variable part of ~ vanishes when x is a multiple of  n Hence. the / 157. when there are nodes. there is no variation of density at the free ends. hence P = i when x = o and when x = /. as in the case of the string. But there If will in be variation of density except when i is at all other points. From (8) we have also ^ = ^ p dx tTtat\ J. or is ( ) > the number of vibrations in a unit of ^. the tones corresponding to the comseries. is JLYlA* 2l ' V . (8). the wavelength we is exactly as in the case of a string.
be different from the natural length /. is fundamental tone of a rod. inversely proportional It is. to We will next suppose the terminal sections of both ends be Let fixed. The most general case in which there is is a node at the all middle of the rod that in which cos vanishes. when x= for all In order that even values of may be the case. Thus the first upper tone will be at an interval of a twelfth (octave + fifth) above the fundamental tone. A i} B{ must vanish The gravest component tone is then the fundamental tone of the rod. length. the rod. is in by the tensions or pressures on the Art. is at rest. this t. We will suppose. so that the rod elongated. The wavelength is four times only the tones of odd orders. 159. so as to leave a rod of half the original length with one end fixed and the other free. 153. with infer that the But the component tones of the rod with a fixed end do not form a complete harmonic series. mainfixed ends. but the higher tones of even orders disappear.. to satisfy the conditions 5? when x=o and when x= for all values .of a Rod. independent of the thickness. and either half might then be taken away. as in (in which equation at x has = its original meaning). as it evidently ought to be. when a state of uniform elongation or contraction. with one the same as that of a rod of twice the length. Assuming. Hence we end fixed. I' Then. middle section of the rod might become Now in this case the absolutely fixed without disturbing the motion. we have /. tained if /' be the distance between the planes of the fixed ends. for clearness. for values of i included in the series (8). shall arrive at the same conclusions the length of the rod. and is 157 to the therefore. that /'>/. c&teris paribus. We afterwards in a more direct manner. containing both ends free. 158.
*Msin when sm( + /3). 1 Thus the tension to which we. or = I*  y /' Thus the expression above assumed for g becomes f= A .r. and if we put a = solutions / a. sum of obtain the particular for general we t . since the ends are now fixed.o when x = o . then of ex x = r = x .158 of /. r. then T the actual tension might be obtained r '<2H from which we find and r *(')< by eliminating dx. when x= x= /. . we should find p' being the density of the rod at Jf rj~"' rest. . have supposed the rod subjected increases the velocity 1 This value of the velocity of wavetransmission directly thus : let T' be the tension in the state of rest. x n (9) now let V be the distance of the section defined by at rest in its actual condition from the end of the rod tension. then k must be such that f = /' when I. the solution. y. lira '/\ . Longitudinal Vibrations Hence we must have sin (mx + a) = o when x=o and which conditions are satisfied by taking a = o.r*cr*n(j)i if we now investigated directly the differential equation. so that f . r = i + q a' . and the take. moreover. we may assume the origin from which f is measured to coincide with one end. we have P . as before. hence 2 = a ~ = ( \ ? = ( \ a* . (9') This equation evidently expresses a vibration in which the velocity of wavetransmission is a = /' a. #2/=Z7r. at any point . But p being the unextended density.
we see that the periods of the fundamental and other component tones are the same in the rod with both ends fixed as in that with both ends free. Comparing (9') with (8). between tension and extension may be supposed to The longitudinal vibrations of a pianoforte string may be excited by gently rubbing it longitudinally with a piece of indiarubber. The note . in so far as the assumed relation subsist. or glass tubes. which is considerable. One end may be or the rod may be held lightly in the fingers at the place of a node.) If the peg of the violin be turned so as to alter the pitch of the lateral vibrations very considerably. experiments on the longitudinal convenient to use rods of deal. is evidently applicable at once to the case of a string similarly extended. 161. The rod with fixed ends has always two nodes. and those of a violin string by placing the bow obliquely across the string. the th harmonic component would have i i z' nodes (besides the ends) dividing the rod into i equal parts. the change of velocity of wavetransmission depends on the change of extension. it For is vibrations of rods. or of fixed in a stand . 156. the fixed ends themselves . and moving it along the string longitudinally. 2/' ^ 159 But the period = 21 is the same as if there was no tension. namely. The theory of the longitudinal vibrations of a rod ex tended by tension at its ends. keeping the same point of the bow upon the string. But when there are nodes they are not at the same places. of the longitudinal vibrations. The mode of division in the free rod was explained in Art. a a 160. it will be found that the pitch of the longitudinal vibrations has varied very slightly. The reason of this is that in the case of the lateral vibrations the change of velocity of wavetransmission depends chiefly on But in the case the change of tension.of a Rod. of transmission in proportion to the extension. (The relation between the unpleasantly shrill in both cases. which is comparatively slight. steel. of lateral and longitudinal vibration will be considered pitch is afterwards. .
because it impossible by any mechanical contrivance to apply a constant force at the ends. is different in (2). whence.r = . three cases. If.160 Longitudinal Vibrations vibrations The cloth. As suming then. 153. which is the same in (i) and is (3). value. v tel cos ^ / . and. a=2 z=oo 7T ml = ZTT. arjd therefore cos a = cos (ml+ a) = o . J. say * Hence i. The case (3) cannot be realised in practice. the series of component tones is the same. instead of supposing both ends of the rod fixed. infer then that in the We But the distribution of the nodes. as in Art. end A to be at rest any section from the under the action of Comparing period of the in both cases. 159. supposing the terminal forces.ea = a. z' this th result with equation (8) ( we = see that is the component vibration =  J the same and the nodes are similarly situated. as in Art. we must have k i +mA cos(mx:\a) sin (?#/+ and when /3) = e i both when x=o k = e. we should have . putting *. 153).sm J . iitat cos + #. as before (Art. both ends fixed. el = l'. may be excited by rubbing the glass with a wet and the rods with powdered rosin on a dry glove. 151) ~ i must have the same given both ends. /. ditions would be F Q = F l = constant. In case (2) the force supplied by the fixed . iita't in which ^ now signifies the distance of it of the rod.r'. we a constantforce applied at each end. x= o. the terminal consupposed 162. (3) both ends pulled or pushed by equal (2) constant forces. at (Art. (i) both ends free.
we see that. i = M^ we qu dP when x= l. supports of the ends the actual value is is 161 a periodically varying quantity. ) coto=f* cot (ml + a) = . but otherwise free. then these conditions give i/. dx And . of which that of q(^ q (. x = o. The only remaining case of practical interest is that in which one end of the rod is fixed. to be attached to the two ends. or loaded with a given finite mass. (7)). 151) will then be the resistances to acceleration arising from the inertia of these masses . and the terminal conditions will therefore be may be F M M . d ' ^dx 1} / at the end A. The condition of fixity at either end can then be introduced by supposing the mass attached at that end to be infinite.. Suppose then masses Q l The forces Q F^ (Art. if in these equations substitute the values of from the assumed equation f = kx + A sm(mx + a) dx d? (10) /. and the mean value 163. ^0) a*MQ = u a*M ft l . whence ). shall shew how the solution of the problem in these cases We obtained by means of the more general supposition that both ends of the rod are loaded. = = > sin (mat+j3). is and i ) at the other end. M . * = LL . . ^O) = Let B m (r Jfcf. in order to satisfy i them for all values of we must have k = and coi(mx\a) = ma? M  when x = o.1 = I# I ? dx d ^ \ qu dP when . when x = /. while the other end is either entirely free. and the condition of perfect freedom by supposing it to be nothing. (7) (see equations (6). .of a Rod.
. we before in the case of fixed ends without extension. To each value mi will correspond a value of a. These values in general could only be found by troublesome approximations. If we suppose ju = o. oo . by eliminating we find (12) 164. . cot (ml + a) = o. also found cot (ml+ a) = ml = /TT. or a= o. say a.1 62 Longitudinal Vibrations a. of which the periods are inversely proportional to the values of m it so that the component tones do not in general belong to a harmonic scale. cot (#z/{. Suppose m lt m z &c. 00. which can be found from (n). fJL . . from which.CL) =o . or a = 2 TT > ml = = /TT.. then both ends are fixed. then both ends of the rod are perfectly free.. and /^ = o. Then (10) will . and we have from (n). cot a = 00. Again. . 3. are the values of m which satisfy the equation (12). B 165. give the form f = x + 2 sin (m i x + a^ (A i cos m i at{Si sin m^f) (13) where A { are arbitrary constants. if /x oo and ^= .. ml . % Tf so that (13) becomes 2l Here the periods of 7 : the component vibrations are the values of in a unit of time are i. r > and the numbers of vibrations therefore proportional to the odd numbers 5. i This would give the solution of the problem if the values of mi were known. then the end A is fixed and the other But if end free. Thus . and we have as cot a = oo or a = o. as we found before. / . and equations (n) give cot CL = o.. = oo jutj = o. We see however that (13) expresses a vibration compounded of simple harmonic vibrations.
shall have = fj. Mi = ( a small quantity) . (See Art.= e(22 7 T 2 + i). fixed at both ends or free at both. Each tone is therefore lowered by the and the whole series 2 . quantities of the second order being neglected. This shews that the diminish the in the ratio : effect of the small load is simply to number of vibrations of every component tone i e i. cot a = 00. we shall consider the case of a rod fixed at one Then we end. Lastly. Then whole mass of the rod M 2 .of a Rod. and its pitch is the same as that of a rod of length 2 /. The wavelength of the fundamental tone is 4 /. 158. we may therefore assume being a small quantity of the same order as 77 cos ((22"+ i) or. Then 77 f \0) = 77 e ((22+ i) \6) sin ((2 2'+ i) 0). same interval. this Now if e were = o the solution of would be ml = (22 + i) .sin(22fi) 2 ' ' \ 7T / \ T : 2 whence and = e (2 2"+ i ) 5 m l= (22'+ i)~ (i i 7T e). oo . Let c mean the ratio of the attached mass and the attached mass. 222 e.) 166. and the therefore. /!/ \ / tJsin(2z+i). and the second becomes cos ml = fmlsmml. other. first of these is satisfied = cot(/#/+a) zml: by a = o. still belongs to a harmonic scale with alternate tones omitted 2 The following result is found by carrying the approximation one step to the further. and loaded with a small mass at the. 163 the component tones form a harmonic scale with alternate tones (namely. the octave of the fundamental tone with all its harmonics) left out. from (n).
being measured by the logarithm of i +f ir' e varies as e 3 nearly. or e 3 = j 2O7T 5. The a and therefore if 2 n be the number of vibrations Q ft> in a unit of time. Since a2 = ^(Art. 165). Hence the higher component tones become unharmonic. . The interval by which the first upper tone is put out of tune relatively to 2 3 the fundamental tone. Thus. The value of n can be ascertained with great accuracy by methods of which the principle will be explained afterwards. if the pulling force which would double the length of the the law of extension held good without limit. and e in . . hence.' This would be a diatonic semitone 2 3 if 47r e = J. ratios of the attached to the hence /x /x x are simply the mass of the rod. which gives r nearly . in a unit of time. we have for the period of the fundamental tone (Art./p o>: if a second be the unit of time. we have i6#2 / now g Thus rod. of this chapter afford a method of determining experientally the modulus of elasticity by observing the tones produced by longitudinal vibrations.f for the ratio of the attached mass to the mass" of the rod. 167. taking the case of the rod with one end fixed and the other free. calling this W. 150). or instance. i6n P = and ?o> = i6 2 /. where is the number of vibrations. 163) now /p o) is the mass of the rod masses . th^.164 Longitudinal Vibrations of a Rod. the values of ft> are ^^ (Art. which exceeds a twelfth by an interval of which the ratio is I + nV. the weight of the rod expressed in theoretical units of force is //o a>^ . results 168. . the last problem has the same meaning. of the unloaded rod. is X weight o of rod. ratio of the interval is between the fundamental tone and the first upper tone (to the same approximation) 3 (i+firV).
all and similarly situated. particles (3) The which in the undisturbed state are in any transverse plane section. Taking rectangular coordinate axes fixed in space. passing through the centres of inertia of sections may be called the axis of the rod. (This is meant by calling the rod thin. above assumptions that the is position condition of the whole rod at any time and form of its axis. In its undisturbed and all its transverse sections are similar. mentioned in (i) is small. we . ON THE LATERAL VIBRATIONS OF A THIN ELASTIC ROD. line A transverse We suppose the vibrations to be small. determined by the 170. (2) No part of the axis pf the rod undergoes any elongation or contraction. remain always in a plane normal to the axis of the rod. and such that (1) One principal axis of every section remains in a fixed plane.) The plane which always contains the principal axis mentioned (4) The principal axis is what in (i) It may be called the plane follows evidently from the of vibration. THE susceptible of tolerably simple mathematical treatment theory of the lateral vibrations of a rod becomes when the following assumptions are made. The rod condition equal.CHAPTER IX. supposed to be homogeneous. is it is straight. 169.
if either terminal face be not entirely fixed. and / is not the natural length. Hence we may consider that neglected. then . We will also suppose that y the axis of the rod in the . dy = dy ~ ^ as in the case of the string. ifj/ be the (vertical) ordinate of the same particle. Thus the plane of zx is horizontal. maintain all the . and the axis of vertically upwards. When either end of the axis is fixed. its undisturbed condition coincides with is vertical. we must suppose normal tensions or pressures applied at all points of its surface such as would. for clearness.1 66 Conditions of Equilibrium will zontally suppose. we will suppose that in the undisturbed condition the lefthand end A Let x be the abscissa of any given coincides with the origin. / is the natural length of the rod. Calling the axis of the rod AB. If either one or both ends of the axis are free. for a given particle in the axis. that the axis of x is directed horifrom left to right. The problem variables to express y as a function of the two independent x and /. 171. particle in the axis of the We suppose (as in the case of the string) that the vertical displacement of any particle in the axis is so small that its horizontal displacement may be rod in the undisturbed condition. we quantity. in the undisturbed condition. the fixed. section is Thus always in the vertical plane of xy and the other (which may or may not be small) is always horizontal. <o the area of the section. and is the x remains constant as the abscissa same of that particle reckoned from the fixed origin. In the undisturbed condition let p be the density of the rod. if ds be an element of length of the axis. Then. different But if both ends are fixed at a distance from the natural length. and / the actual length of the axis (which remains constant). whole of the terminal face at that end may or may not be is When both ends of the axis are so fixed that there extension or contraction.raxis. coinciding the small principal axis of every y and that the plane of vibration with the plane of xy.^ is always a small Also. the axis is in a state of permanent extension or contraction. dx may put is = i.
always contains matter. applied at its centre.0).) (3) L A force unit of area. and denoted by T FV Gf In the condition of equilibrium these forces are balanced by the forces of elasticity called into action by the state of strain which they produce in the rod. (1) the same faces are not in general parallel in shall We suppose a function of x). they would in general tend to produce extension or contraction of the axis. The slice included between two plane sections cutting the oraxis at distances x. The forces . x + dx its from the origin.of Elastic Rod. usual rule and moments of signs will be observed with respect to will be considered positive which tend to produce rotationyh?w the axis of x towards that ofy. though the disturbed condition. acting particles of the slice. in that plane. parallel to the plane of vibration. reducible to which the mo ment (6) is co. 167 filaments of the rod at the same length as the 172. being a function of x. at right angles to its plane. T (4) Tangential forces in the plane of the same face. (If there were such forces not reducible to a couple. constant throughout the same slice (so that Y is (2) Forces parallel to the plane of vibration. longitudinal axis. in that plane. and reducible to a single force ^. Analogous forces applied at the face JB. on the and reducible is to a couple. We must first investigate the conditions of equilibrium of the rod under the action of such forces as could produce a displacement of the kind supposed to exist at any time during the motion. A vertical force J^per unit of mass. . of which the moment slice) L x (mass of = Lpadx. applied at every part of the Q per terminal face A. of A. (5) Forces applied to the surface of the face a couple in the plane of vibration.
Suppose the transverse sections P. i suppose the plane of the paper to be the plane of vibration.1 68 Conditions of Equilibrium to subsist. In Fig. We proceed what these forces are. the middle of ab. by the formula actual length i. and the section of an infinitesimal FG slice contained between transverse sec tions cutting the axis in a and b. and x \ dx. if Pp = 77. which we will call R. dition 173. x + \dx the b. and the let apfi be projection of such a filament on the plane of vibration. and let ab be an infinito tesimal portion of the axis of the rod. so we may obtain state of extension at same value at middle point by calculating it as all its points. It Suppose then the equilibrium disturbed if would not be the part of the rod included between any two transAnd if the rest of the rod were verse sections became rigid. had the natural length . it is plain that Now the state of extension of any such filament is may the if it (since its length infinitesimal) be considered to vary uniformly from that one end to the its other. x be the abscissa of/*. in order to maintain the equilibrium of this part to ascertain would be necessary to apply to it certain forces. then removed. Then. that is. Let point abscissa of a. on the supposition that the part we have supposed to become rigid is an infinitesimal slice. it and deduce the differential equation which expresses the conof equilibrium. Suppose the slice to be made up of longitudinal filaments having do* for the area of their section.
have calling T f the actual tension in the filament aft. we Hence the pulling force exercised by the filament element du> of the section DE (on either side on one upon any of it) is Consider section.(_. and a couple of which the moment is / j] integrations being extended over the whole section. due to the permanent extension. and / rfdu> = o> 2 /c . per unit of sectional area. where K is the radius of gyration of the area of the section about the horizontal principal axis in its plane. modulus of elasticity. the ordinate r\ Now since the section. we have is / TJ da = o. all these forces side (say the left) / of the They are reducible to a resultant force = T' du> apT'du*. of which the moapplied at P. Let then dx^ be the natural length of dx or a b. are equivalent to a resultant force To* perpendicular to its plane. Thus the forces acting on the lefthand side of the section. reckoned from a horizontal axis in the plane of passing through its centre of inertia P. 7. Then.of Elastic Rod. and a couple in the plane FG R . This the natural length of aft. due to extension. where q is the T will be the value of a constant tension. so that the extension at/> is / is 169 also ( * )sr ii\dx '' Now that if dx^ 1 is the extension of the axis (which is constant). so we put .). the plied at P.
But the vertical components (since v dy = dy\ ^Jare ds dx' these are equivalent to a vertical resultant force = Ta> <Py j z dx. we found a resultant pulling force Tu> on each side of P. (For the moment is of the couple resulting from the horizontal components Tudy. the elementary slice in order to maintain its equilibrium when the rest of the rod is supposed to be removed. then the moment of that on the lefthand face of the slice will be We become rigid. (distance between them) j~ dy . is while that from the vertical components (difference of forces) xJ = T<& dx}. applied perpendicularly at a The horizontal components of these forces and b respectively. If we call Q and of that on the righthand face The sum of these is Moreover. (3) and no couple.Lateral Vibrations. can now find the forces which must be applied to 174. directions). may be considered equal (in opposite f . Hence on each face of the slice there is a resultant pulling force. the slice having the moment (which we have just determined) of the couple due to extension acting on the lefthand side of the section DE. = dv T<*>~dx.
Now in the actual condition of equilibrium all these forces are balanced the interior by those which we have supposed to act on mass of the slice. 171 But we must not assume that the only forces lost by the removal of the other parts of the rod are the couple and resultant force just found. dF (c) and a couple of which the moment is uFdx. (<:). Suppose then force Fa* is the value of this tangential resultant on the left and right sides of the section it DE' } then. (a). and therefore the forces in question are equivalent to a resultant vertical force s^^dx. and a couple of which the moment is p<&Ldx. we may put ~n= dz y r^> we find. since (d). i and ob we /dy\* neglect ^ J .Differential Equation of Equilibrium. . being of the order of (T} neglected. reducible to resultant forces in the plane of vibration and applied at the centres of the faces. Introducing the actual values of serving that. after dividing by a>dx. on the lefthand face of the slice. (6). a vertical force pvFdx. (d) are 175. for the parts removed will in general have exercised tangential forces in the planes of the faces of the slice. must have + p uYdx = o. (The horizontal components. will be and on the righthand These expressions vertical will also give (as we neglect (f) ) the components .) . () + Hence we ^ (a) + (d) + pu>Ldx = o. namely.
172
Differential Equation of
?
(
+r)Kg^+ P Z
We
=
o.
(2)
In order to eliminate the unknown F, we have only to subtract, after differentiating (2).
thus obtain,
finally,
as the differential equation which must be satisfied in the condition of equilibrium.
176.
it
We
is
essential to ascertain the conditions
have no occasion to integrate the equation (3) but which would serve to
;
lution.
determine the arbitrary constants contained in its general soThese are to be obtained from the data of the problem
relative to the
ends of the rod.
Now
the forces acting
on the
surface of the lefthand face
are only the given external forces (Art. 172), and the interior tensions arising from extension, and these must balance one
another.
Hence we must have
end of Art. 173)
and
(see
<? +7
>
(2), gives
The
first
of these, combined with
These equations
ditions.
((4)
and (5))
will furnish the
(It is evident that similar
required conequations must subsist at
the other end of the rod.)
have
177. In order to form the differential equation of motion, we now only to substitute in (3) the forces arising from the
resistances of the particles to acceleration, instead of those sup
posed to act on the interior of the mass. Hence, instead of the vertical force p&Ydx, supposed
to act
on
the
mass of a
slice,
we must
substitute
pw
dy
l
dx
or
d?v
7^ instead of Y.
Motion formed and
And
situte
integrated.
173
sub
one which
instead of the supposed couple is found as follows :
p^Ldx, we must
Since the particles in. a plane transverse section remain in a plane section, and since the inclination of the plane of the
section to the vertical
dy
is 5s
if
r?
be the ordinate of a particle
dm, reckoned
its
(as in Art. 173) in the plane of the section
from
horizontal principal axis, the angular velocity of the plane
being
f)(in
the direction of positive rotation), the linear
left)
is

velocity of
dm
(estimated from right to
T\
CL
3
and
t dOC
therefore
its
resistance to acceleration (in the
same
direction) is
rj
lr J T~ ^dt> dx
is
dm, and the moment of
2
*?
this resistance, with its
d^dy
'
proper sign,
(r) 7
dm.
Now, considering dm
as the
mass of an element of an
infinitesimal slice,
is
we have dm
=
pdadx;
hence the above moment
and taking the sum of
all
/
such moments for the whole
slice,
we have
l
J
as the expression to be
substituted for
d?dx
pu*Ldx.
Hence we
must put
K
*j^jj
instead of L.
Making
these substitutions in (3)
we
obtain
=
as the differential equation required
1
(6)
*.
See Klebsch, Theorie der Elasticitdt fester Korper, 61, where this equation (with a different notation) is deduced, as a particular case, from the general theory of elastic solids. The equation usually given in ele
mentary works does not contain the term
%
,
which
arises
from the
angular motion of the sections of the rod. (See, for example, Poisson, Traite de Mecanique, torn. ii. It may in fact be neglected without 5.)
sensible error in ordinary cases.
174
178. This
as follows
:
Differential Equation of
may be
put in a somewhat more convenient form
z
Put
q+T= Pp, T=a
p,
and
it
becomes
=*
sirable to observe the
<>
(In order to see the homogeneity of this equation it is deT<a is the actual meanings of a and b.
tension,
the tension which
and p the actual density, in the axis of the rod. would have to be applied to the rod
its
^co is
in
its
natural state in order to double
length,
if
the law of ex
good without limit. Hence Ta> and ^o> are forces, and can be represented by weights, say by the weights of Then lengths X and X' of the rod, taken at its actual density p. Tu> =^pAco, g<& =gp\'a), and therefore
tension held
so that
a*,
b
z
are the half squares of the velocities which would
be acquired by a heavy body falling vertically down distances X, A + X'. Hence a and b are of one dimension in space and i
in time.)
179. In order to find particular integrals of (6') we assume
m
u and v being functions of
the form
T,
.
m
.
x
(7)
x
to be determined.
Substituting this value of j> in (6'),
we
K
find
an equation of
m
K
7cos
/+ Fsm
/
,
.
m
/=o,
in
which
U and V do
not contain
so that in order to satisfy
the equation
we must have
separately
y=o. *7=o, These equations are exactly similar in form, and we need only consider one of them. The first is
therefore
^
which, being linear with constant coefficients,
in the usual way.
=
o;.
(8)
can be integrated
The
u=
A
*i
general solution * x +
is
B&
+ C&* + D &*,
i
Motion formed and
where kv kv
3,
integrated.
175
k are the roots of the equation
which gives
#
==
4r2 {a*m* 2K
((Jm^ + ^P)*}.
(9')
We may
and,
represent the four values of k in the form
<$> l
(m),
making
for convenience a
constants
the form
A
t
B, C,
i
D
t
we may
\B
fa(m}; change in the meaning of the put the values of u and v in
u=
A
tf>l(m)x

$i(m)x
x
._
(10)
z>
= a similar expression with
different
constants, say
A
',
5',
cr.iy. ISO. Introducing these values of and v in (7), we obtain a value of j/, which is a particular integral of (6'), and in which
all
the constants, including m, are arbitrary,
if
and would remain
problem and these con
so
we had only
to satisfy (6').
But
in every actual
;
we have
also to satisfy the terminal conditions
an equation of which the roots are the only admissible values of m, besides other equations which partly determine the constants A, B> &c.
ditions lead to
cases,
Before investigating these conditions however in particular we will examine more closely the nature of the four
k.
values of
of k*
is
necessarily positive,
Since the last term of (9) is negative, one value and the other negative. Suppose
value a2 and the negative value
2
we we
call the positive
/3
,
then
shall
have
k=
for the four values
a,
=
fiVi
we may
put (10) in the form
of k; and thus
^our
u=
in
A
cmr_i
ax
+by
_^
ax
 + Ccos0x + Z)smpx, (n)
a, /3 are
which
it
is
important to remember that
(9),
determinate
functions of m, given
to
while the value of
m
itself
has
still
be determined.
instead of A. which must be supposed to We be applied to them on every unit of surface. A' = o.) terest. B. j/ = o at both ends. (The equation (5) gives no condition. give. would merely serve to determine the value of the pressure is T^co supported by the point to which the end of the axis fixed. mined by stretching it over bridges. become simplified. deter Now that referring to the terminal equation (4) (Art. with A'. because it may be taken to represent that of a wire is a pianoforte string) of which the vibrating part (e. B (n) for u. '. namely. the most simple. 176) we o. relatively to x = o.. &c.176 Case of Fixed Ends of Axis.) But the fixity of the ends of the axis gives us two more conditions. and B e a/_ e aj __ p* D sin pi . ^y when x=o and when for all values of /. see on the suppositions now made we must fly put G Q = and consequently at both It ends of the rod. that in which the ends of the axis of the rod are fixed. but the terminal faces are subject to no other constraint. will take now the case which is in some respects 181. conditions relatively to C = o. These conditions. We have then to put in (7) the value and a similar value for v. (The tension T. as will be easily found. and then express the conditions y= both A and that ^' x= /. which it is impossible to satisfy otherwise than by A The are =o. x = / thus  C= o. g. namely. will evidently leave This case is of practical inthe directions of the faces free. &c.
the factor multiplied by B cannot vanish. that initial it depend only on easily seen that is be displacements and velocities.lf0. and therefore from (7) y = sin ft x \D cos in f . (It will useless to include negative values of z. 177 These give Bnow  = o. to The u= D sin fix.) 183.1 this Case. Z>sin/3/=o. and to each value of ft corresponds a value of m obtained from (9) 2 = Hence. since a sin/3/=o. fO. while ft must satisfy the equation sin/3/ = o. Hence D and If remain arbitrary. ^= o. for real values * the above formula gives . 2 z' since m i (see next article) only depends on .# = 0. ticular values of y^ we have for the general solution of (6") appropriate to this problem j where . values of u. C iy D i are arbitrary constants in the usual sense. mJ (12) is. after slight re m* ~ _ = o 2 a2 K 3 & 2 2 and since.Final Equation in with similar equations for B' and Z/. v (see equation (n)) are now reduced v = Z/ sin (3x. m we z t find. Solving equation (9) for ductions. taking the sum of all the par/3 by putting & . which gives 182. is real. Hence we must have .Z/ sin ) > which /3 may have any of the infinite series of values obtained by giving all values to the integer * from i to oo .
61. we have and 1 The process which has been given in Arts. the rod as very thin. on the supposition of infinite thinness or perfect flexibility 2 put for Z> and a* their values (Art. and assuming section of the wire to be a circle with radius r. and (14) gives ni = if the value found before.178 Application to Metallic Wire. or the number of is vibrations. without being inK2 is But we consider finitely thin. ponent tone. the value (14) be applicable to the case of a metallic string or wire. 184. Such a string might be regarded as perfectly flexible. Let us however examine some special cases. 2 Strictly speaking. the supposition of infinite thinness ought to be dis^ can imagine a thick string tinguished from that of perfect flexibility. If we suppose the rod infinitely thin we may neglect K together. 2 Calling this 7T JC number n i} we have from This shews that in general the component tones do not belong to a harmonic scale *. But the We . so that will a very small fraction. of which only the central infinitely thin axis should resist extension or contraction. so that K 2 = ^r 2 . 178). is Now (12) shews that the vibration compounded of simple . harmonic vibrations of which the periods are the values of m. of the z'th com(13). In the this neglecting the square of . al The differential equation (6^ then reduces itself to the ordinary equation for a perfectly flexible string. 179183 is substantially the same as that of Klebsch. in a unit of time. we find ia hence if we put = N i (the number of vibrations calculated 2 ). K2 case.
this character. though . N 2 . by substituting for T T The term thus added is sensibly independent of T. since / (the actual length between the bridges) is constant. for a tone of given order. Suppose Q is the be supplied by a weight W. at least for moderate variations of T. so that for a given value of i. and r is sensibly If the tension invariable. This correction may be put in another form thus: from (14) we have n = L I  (a* + W2 2 z" K  z 2 (^ ~ fi2 )) ^ ne arly. g. . verse arrangement is common.Correction for Rigidity. parts to extension or contraction. that is. then Q^qu.. But the strings used though the conmade by winding fine wire upon a silk core. because the values of the very small and of the very large weight Q could hardly be obtained with sufficient accuracy. then weight which would double the length of the string if the law of Hence the extension held good indefinitely. . . in guitar strings approximate to e. for musical purposes never would disappear. but it is easily ascertained experimentally by com inertia of the outer parts y would introduce the term 9 in the differential a raxd*y the term which arises from the resistance of the outer equation. z 179 V r 2 q which gives what is called the correction for rigidity. fictitious W weight to be substituted in calculation for the actual weight is It would be difficult to calculate the value of the ratio added term (j\ a priori. the number of vibrations corresponding to any actual tension may be calculated as if the string were perfectly a fictitious tension flexible. = 7o>.
g. the ends of the axis being fixed.180 Case of no Tension. trial to agree very exactly with those 185. .. We shall therefore intro duce this simplification in what follows. so that 7=o T . which we may generally do without sensible error. it becomes much more differential simplified if we neglect the term dP doc in the equation. and (14) becomes where In P = ~P of n i are. of a harmonic scale. somewhat simplified by the circumstance that T = o. the axis at that end j . st component tones are the i th Thus the first of the upper 4 9*h. we had supposed instead of merely supposing the ends of the axis the planes of the terminal faces of the rod to be fixed. since K is small. then. so that the . 186. Since the differential equation was founded on the hypothesis that the particles which in the undisturbed state are in a plane at right angles to the axis continue to be so at all if a terminal face of the rod be fixed. for moderate this case. But d*y . supposition now made may be approximately realized in several ways. we should have found a very complicated transcendental equation. the distance rod. tones is two octaves above the fundamental tone and the second is one octave and a major second above the first &c. between them is the natural length of the hence a = o. bers . instead of the simple formula (13) which gives the values of m. can then be calculated. corresponding to other values of W and they are found on actually produced. 187. 3 . &c. a bar of steel) upon two bridges placed as close as possible to its ends. the values i. 2 2 . The same thing happens if one terminal face be fixed and the other entirely free. fixed. and therefore a = o. If. values of sensibly proportional to the series of square 2 num. of which the simplest consists in merely laying The a rod (e. i 2 . still We will next suppose that. or if both be In the two latter cases this equation is always entirely free. . The tones paring the tones produced by two different weights. &c.
terminal F as the terminal conditions at a free end. 176). of which we have already considered one. the effect of which we are now going to neglect . 181 axis we must at right angles to it . The equation (6'). at that end. in (5). Substituting this value of_>> in (15). Of the remaining five we shall only examine the three which are of most importance. (16) u. GQ (or G^ and Q (or F^) Also Z. 177) from the angular motion of the planes of the elementary slices. hence these equations give if These But therefore are the terminal conditions for a fixed face. must always be itself is fixed. v are to be functions of x. Now. we must have which rod. end of the a terminal face be entirely free. are both o. we find that in order to satisfy that equation for all values of /. both free. I is the length of the m a constant to be determined. so that the direction of the plane of the face is free. both faces fixed. 188.sin^2 w2 /. namely. we must obtain the conditions from equations (4) and (5) (Art. one fixed and the other free. a = o (since we suppose if we omit T= o). veniently assume j> we may con = 2 #cos^2 /+z. There are altogether six possible combinations. and in = ~do? 7**' Of == ~f v ' The general solution of the evidently be written in the form first of these equations may . the second term and put becomes To find particular solutions of this equation. have already seen that the conditions are We at an end where only the extremity of the axis is fixed. at a free end.Simplified Differential Equation. and as the have. arises (see Art.
much trouble to adopt the following abbreviated Let Then we shall evidently have. ). with other constants A'. we find (for x= o) A + C=o. B'. ~ mx and v will be given by a similar equation. so that U= A A f mx cos ( +< /mx and then the conditions x = / become A(cos??i + a(m)) + ( sintfz + d(.) relative to . satisfied for all values is and since these are to be evident that we must have <Pu cPv cPv . 187) are The con both when cPu x=o and when of /. .. 189.Case of both Ends free.o and x = I Putting then x successively in the values of these differential coefficients deduced from (18) and from the corresponding expression for v. let us suppose both ends entirely ditions (see Art. _8(_0). then.z)) = o. C'. D'. o(o)=i. ) A( smm + b(m)) + (cosm + o(m)) = o. Thus the equation (17) becomes mx and we have now satisfy the terminal conditions in ( /\)+Z?a( ^/\ free. First. (18) will to find the values of the constants which each case. ^(^6) = ncr(n9). It will save notation. mx + B sin . it x = /.
and call i it . we find the same equation (20) for the determination of the values of m but . eliminating 183 A (<T(m)y(*(a$?. The if we denote them by and roots of this equation are the admissible values of . The constants C# D i are determined by the initial displace ments and afterwards. t D ^ = 2Z (Qcos^^ i 2 /+Z>i 2 sin'^w i /). =C m. general value of will then be where is another arbitrary constant. the terminal conditions are (Art. in a manner which will be explained 19O. If instead of supposing the ends of the rod entirely we suppose both the terminal faces entirely fixed. (22) and this is the equation expressing the vibration of a rod free at both ends. arbitrary. and proceeding exactly as in the last Article.i0i (cos (ff^)). 187) free. velocities. is Q(sinw.)). or (20) cosw=i. A B m sponding values of A. from which. hence this equation becomes e <r(m)cQsm ~ m m + m = i i i.d(w.Case of Fixed Terminal Faces. B.. Thus we ui = shall CX t have from (18) it where and v i = DX i i. The i y which is the sum of all particular values.i. the correv m 2 &c. we have 2 = sin 2 w. (o(flz)cos mj (S(w)) now. ** both when dy =' x = o and when x=L Assuming then (16) and (18) as before. either of the equations (19) gives the ratio A : i B^ We may therefore A take B where C. by the definition of <r(m) and (d(w)). and B.
jrzrCiCOtmft+DiSmjmf _. (sin %&(. 179 and 180. i ^sm m f o (^)j (cos ^ x \ / nix . AI = B and where i Q =C i . but they may an approximate manner in the only case of practical importance. But we shall suppose the term 2 in (6') to We may form be neglected.)). or for a long and thin lamina. varies inversely as the square of the length of the rod.g. . then K is simply proportional to the thickness measured in the plane of vibration. that in which the thickness of the The rod is very small compared with its length. The result may then be considered as giving the correction for rigidity for a wire. so that the natural length of the axis was maintained. In the last Article it was supposed that both the terminal faces were fixed. inde{ pendent both of material and dimensions. For the values of m i are the roots of the same equation (20) in both cases. namely. faces. take in this case the equations (7). when the which the rod material is given. whether the terminal faces be both free or both fixed. but firmly clamped at the ends. Hence.<)). for the tone of the *' th order. we see that the com ponent tones have the same pitch. leads to be treated in supposition of permanent tension. but that there was no permanent tension. f^i^\\ v ~/J/ / /^t^NN in. not stretched over bridges. 178) only on the material of is made. Wvjj. (23). and m is an abstract number. Y (23) = / . or rectangular. <r (cos /< (. is m? The Kb constant b depends (Art. and directly as the radius of gyration of the sectional area about that diameter plane of vibration.184 Case of Permanent Tension. and (IT). for a tone of given order. the number of vibrations. (9). and the number of vibrations in a unit of time. \ (24) Comparing the expressions (22). as d*y in Arts. with fixed terminal much more complicated equations. so that instead of = a2 2 K2 (9') we get the simpler p# . is which at right angles to the If the section is elliptic 191.
<r(a/) = 8 (a/) = Je +a/ .= o. Now the values of a2 ft 2 give. 2 +i into i in the last term Now number K2 is in the case of a metallic wire or lamina. since a / is expressed by a fraction in which 2 and the denominator is the small fraction the numerator is > 2 2 Now the terminal conditions are these. 178). we from and hence. and from equation (i proceeding as in Art. and the equation (m) becomes sin/ 2 mb . 2 185 and therefore. . A + C = o. ct/3 difficulty. neglecting e~ a/ . ^ is a large q. eliminating A.2 mation depends upon the assumption that = K2 3 is is so small that it also very small. since a and write the value of a 2 thus : /3 are the two values of If. we i have. 189. x ct dy at both ends find . 2 2 From this assumption follows that al is very large. T is small compared with But very small 2 and the legitimacy of the following approxi^. since al is very large.Application to 2 Wire with Clamped Ends. we should obtain an equation in m. we find. . C. j. and reducing by means 2 2 of the identity (o(a/)) (g(a/)) = i. D. we may and ft will be given by changing of the numerator. as will be found at once without and if in this equation the values of . i) y = o. 8 a/ sin 3/ 2 a3 a and /3 given above were introduced. since . of which the roots would be the values ofm v m 2 &c. (see Art. 2 2 = mb Also. finally.
But the number of vibrations since the case differs very string.? so that 2 1 0. therefore 2 mb and. _ 7 or. this little in a unit of time is 2 7TK . faces were free. very little from /3/ or /3/ = nr + is where 6 . Now the value of 2 /3 gives (by developing the binomial as far as the second term) . 2mb taa/=. Ka . u hence 2/ 27TK in Art. hence I ft Q = ml Ka nearly. in a / . or. of the the number calculated on the supposition of i 2 infinite thinness then = ia j N *r and = . and we may take mb = 0.a/ to Wire with Clamped Ends. being again neglected. number of vibrations.= . . and from that of an infinitely thin differs number Z'TT. m. Comparing this with the corresponding expression deduced 184 on the supposition that the directions of the terminal viz. differs very little from . equating this to j we have introducing the subscript index to distinguish the different values of m.( K I \ Let n { be the /th tone. . is very small 2 hence 2mb and = tan = tan 6 very small .7 ) ( ) \ I la' la' nearly.1 86 Application . and N . in a unit of time.. m i . { K3\ 1 z'tra / K&\ = ri + 2 .
d*y = o. In the case of a wire stretched over bridges.) ). 187 we see that they differ essentially.Case of one Fixed End. . after reduction. 205). But the deviation of the upper tones from the harmonic scale is probably too small to be made sensible to the ear. and raised through a greater the series is therefore no longer harmonic. tfy . whereas in the other case (') each tone strictly is interval than the next lower one.^ 3 x. and then D A (cos m f (m)) + B (sin m + b (m) ) = o. =o. 184. so that the value of_>> will be (26) in which C it D i are arbitrary. eliminating A and B we obtain. B + = o. (m)cos m = ao e m _j_ e m cosm=  i (25) as the equation for determining the values of m . when when x = o. that in the case (n) of fixed faces the pitch of all the component tones is raised. and 1 See the memoir referred to below (Art. A (sin m b (m)) (cosm + (r(m)) = o. through the same interval. so that they do not cease to form a harmonic series . The conditions then are (Art. we find A + C = o. was given by Seebeck 1 and found by him to agree with experiment when the ends of the wire were clamped. the form (n) has been found to agree with experiment. Tax dy = o. by the rigidity. An is is last of the cases which we proposed to examine which one terminal face (suppose that at which x = o) fixed and the other free. especially in this respect. or i. B = i C and we may t (cos m + <r (mj) t . in the manner mentioned at the end of Art. take A i = C i (sin m + S (01 t . The that in y = o. 187) 192. assuming (16) and (18).L in the first place Again then. expression equivalent to (n\ and obtained by nearly the same process. .
1 88 = Periods of Tones 2T. To X Y Z z'. m V a ( now cos( cos ( + 020 sin( sin m&) = cosm6. 193. and then to find the values of x which satisfy =o = o. <r(m0 \/^i) = cos mO). md) = rr (mO). we have to find the values of. to verify the results which will be given below. where the upper sign corresponds to the case of both ends fixed or both free. It is evident equation (28). are troublesome especially those which relate to the nodes.) in8(). and for each root of (25). 190. ..sin0z0. But the law of their variation with the length and sectional area of a rod of given material is still the same as that stated at the Art. </~^~i . which determine the periods of the component tones. the periods of the component tones will not be the same as in the two former cases. then.*=i. The required calculations. for each root of the equations i i i (20). b(m0) = 6 = = smme. then observing that on inspection m and that if m i be any root of either are also roots. who may be so disposed. on examining the forms of the functions it the effect of changing any one of the four values \/ i X Y {. Z^ m^ +m t into any other.m it which are the roots of the two equations (see (20) and (25)). for small values of which belong to the most important tones. b(mO). (sin * i + (. we should have first to find the roots of the equations (20) and (25).. 187192. First. f x 4 f~ x (28) l_cos. end of (27) Since the equation (25) is not the same as (20). (m6 V^T) (mO) t b( + m6/ i) = A/ i. V^7) = 0z0) cr (m6). = o. we that see. And we shall only give a sufficient specimen of them to enable the reader. complete the solution of the problems considered in Arts. will in every case be merely to . and the lower to that of one fixed and the other free. in order to ascertain the positions of the nodes corresponding to each tone.
222 + y limit. .found in two Cases. the ~"\ . and the distances from the axis of = i will be the positive roots of it cuts the two lines (28). from the y of which the amplitudes increase without In Fig. of which the equation is y= it *+* 2 cos x^ will cut the positive axis of x at distances *. at which origin. The curve itself will consist of a series of unsymmetrical waves.+ \/ i multiply the function by one of the factors given by the consequently all the four terms in the value of four roots can be united into one term of the form (22). + y or (26). 189 and 1. It is therefore only necessary to consider the positive real roots of (28). The position of the roots of (28) may be most clearly If we draw the curve exhibited by a graphic construction. (23). according to the case in question. 2. 194.
190 Periods of Tones found 577 j in two Cases. We then have to find the least and we have seen positive root of (28)..o(m)+ sin m. ~ cosm. pz Ps is quite undistinguishable We Ppr will now shew how to calculate the values of QP QP lt 2 .r = . Developing this. then (29). and so on as often as may be necessary.m. first. 2 On the scale to which the figure is drawn. 195.I we have found an approximate assuming m+a value of x. and positive.398 nearly ' Assuming therefore . then it must be assumed as an approximation. Suppose that in either of the equations C+* COS X = 2 4. the portion of curve from the ordinate at C. and those corresponding 77 to the lower sign alternately greater and less than2 ^77 3 &c. x (m) 6 (m) cos m ' If the value m + a thus found is not sufficiently exact. say x . taking the lower sign . Xthe values of TT 222 37T t 5 &C.o i . 194) x= that this is somewhat greater than Assuming +a as a first approximation.+0. and the process repeated. We will take as an example the case of the fundamental tone of the rod with one end fixed. dy are alternately negative limit. Then as the true value. increasing numerically without Hence the roots corresponding to the less upper sign are alternately greater and than 3 5 > &c. and putting m= in we have i a = = 0. in + m a a_j_ we have cos(m + a) = + i. and neglecting powers of a above the 188) we find (using the notation explained in Art..398 + a' 3 . (Art.
z .0445 nearly. and the lower to case II.6940 7. The following are the results the approximation is more rapid.9957 i For still may case be used without sensible error. Now hence 1. = 1. mL 18751 473 m m m4 z 3 4. we is equal to 6 x 1. . and the ratio of the interval is therefore a very little less than . 197. sensibly proportional to the squares of the odd numbers.79704. a' = 0. being proportional to the values for the higher tones. in the two cases One end : I.ff exceeds ff by a fraction less than g^. ^ which is sufficiently accurate.0445 of which the first three convergents are T. of the rod with one J (4.8751.Numerical we shall find the value Residts. the upper sign belonging to I. The interval between the fundamental tone and the first upper tone. II.694O\  2 j of which the logarithm is find that this ratio 0.398 in (29) (taking the lower sign in the numerator). fixed and one Both ends fixed or both free..88 nearly. free. 191 of a' by putting m = .77815. 196.+ 0. For the higher tones of the rod with one end fixed. and for all the tones of the rod with both ends fixed or both free.089 an d This gives x The next approximation gives *= 1.8 548 109955 higher tones the formula 7853 2 10. of vibrations. The numbers of m are. and observing that log 6 =0. To find the interval between any two tones we may proceed as in the following example.
and of the same rod with both ends free or fixed.89 diatonic semitones. must be in this case = o. the values of x. C C ></(*) + d" The sign signifies that the actual sound is somewhat that it is somewhat flatter. 27. namely. nearly.106 nearly. those positive roots which roots of the equation t are less than /. Both ends free or both fixed. Thus.) The octave contains 10. so that the interval is a very little less than two octaves f fifth + minor second. II. 23.' ' A the ratio is i r contains > ^ mean semitones.74 diatonic semitones nearly. and the sign tone indicated by the letter. Hence. for (ffc)* = fj. the first upper tone would be flatter than b a by a 1 . the interval is It follows that is and the interval (f f ) a little = two octaves + fifth + (f f ) nearly less than f ths of a diatonic semi. (27). little more than a quarter of a diatonic semitone In this way we find the following to be the first four tones of a rod in the two cases. supposing the fundamental tone in each case to be C. I. since at a and we to determine the position of will take first that of the Referring to equations (26). (See Art.192 Position of Nodes investigated. find also that the ratio of the interval between the fund + We amental tone of a rod with one end fixed. (Compare the table of intervals on p. rod with one end fixed. if the fundamental tone were C. y Z 1 more systematic way of denning a small interval is to assign its ratio to the semitone of the equal temperament. One end fixed and one free. it would be a little flatter than a in the second. Thus the interval (1.' which is the twelfth part of an ' An interval of which octave. 198.yg^ such semitones nearly. is 6 x 1. (Art. we see that = o for all values of /.0445) contains _j T g^445 _o . than the sharper. tone. We shall now shew how the nodes in the several cases.) . and which we may call the mean semitone. and the mean semitone is about 0. if the fundamental tone were C in the first case. 192). or the node distances of the nodes from the fixed end.
i)j ( )* +1 .) ) sin m. cos i a i 4' i> . Consequently. by means of the 4 )j y identities cos0 sin# = y 2. + cos in tan m secm i i cosm i m + sin i Z'TT = cot 2 and (30) omitted) is therefore easily seen to become (indices being cos (mx i (  mx   a( ) cos which is reducible. is 193 This equation (subscript indices being omitted) mx . (30) in which m is a determinate root (m?) of the equation (y(m)cosm = i. b (m^) we must have tan = ( )*' m i = cos IT: tan m i . definitely for increasing values of /. and therefore Now we (21 (i have seen (Art. so that we may put = o being excluded) *<=0i)^(ya. : (31) The equation (30) may be transformed as follows From (31) we have 0"(/7^) = secff^.Position of Nodes investigated. cos m i + cos its sin and therefore sin m i \b (m. where a t is a small positive quantity.according as odd or even. since 8(0^) is necessarily positive../mx\\ (T \j~)) i x o. and sinw^ has the same that is. 194) that i is m i is greater or less than i).  (32) in which diminishes Hence cosm i sign as sin (22* is always negative.
) 2 ' fm sm(^ . by addition and subtraction. / o c*os /mx i m\i'n\ i f * ^ mn / 2 / 1KX ^2 I /m^m i * TT\ i 4' r ~e~~cos(^^ + p^o. form .cos . above equation then becomes The V2. and thence. by writing x+ instead of x.cos(.m + lir ( ^ +) = o.194 to the . Now let (30') the origin of abscissae be removed to the middle of the axis of the rod. Position of Nodes investigated. sin (22 X 1)X _ e . the distance of a node from the middle point. whilst the sine and cosine of j[ have the same signs as the sine and cosine of (21 (as is i)  evident from (32)). \ I /mx ITT mx ITT\  ~ * 2 . 2 +) y 4 Tt\ ir TT\ e . so that x will now mean . (33) +6m = secwz. Now from equation (31)._ 2 v/ 2 cos(22 i). sin sec/w. which e m 2 ) e cos is . these equations give 2 + 2 = 2V . i) we get (by adding and subtracting = secwsn and since sec m ffi is always negative.sec w. 2 =V/ I /m secw.cos( \ / 2 tir + ) 24' 7T\ 7T^ J  7T\ m ZTT ZTf 1 e (JH 224^ .
' x cos #z. This will easily be found to give / V2. 6 (m^i = tan m t also 2 .  m = t sino^. 199. x __ _ " . .Position of Nodes investigated. / nt: mx . cos . In this case cos i is always positive. and. x (35) which m is a determinate root (m^ of the equation a and = sec (m) m . cos ^ cos^a^ = o.  mx j l . /3 { is a definitely for increasing values of i. 194).)./= o being excluded. </>) we find.x k  tir^ ) /f + + e ^ l) l > i smJo^ _ e ~^l/ + 2. but from (32) it is evident that cos hence the equation becomes /WlX 17T\ .J (cos sin 6 cos (/> (6 + $) + sin (0 . / / COSZTT) = o. V2 /. / \ (34) Another form is obtained from (33) by substituting for m^ under the sine and cosine in the last two terms. ' (e 6 COSZTT) =o.J (sin cos0cos</> . 189) ends are mx cos y mx in ^ / \ . we cos find ITT .J+iv Jsmaj^e \~7 / .cos( ftn. the value (32). (34') To we have find the places of the nodes when both to solve the equation (see Art. )% where small positive quantity. free. 195 Introducing these values in (33).  (36) in which diminishes m and sin/:^. proceeding as in the last Article. and observing the identities . cos (7. (0 + $) + cos (0<>)).J + I v ftnOC 1 7T\ . (Art. x e m. after obvious reductions.
} = v *' tan m 4 Z'TT and i m T * hence (35) becomes Wt JC </2 sin ( ) + l cos : ( tTi 1  ^sm(/m + . t m cos m sin a.0008.0176.J + m. positively) between these numbers and the values of : (2 *'+ i)  > and are as follows a 1 = 0. . we obtain finally. /nttX m{ ZTT\ + . The numerical values of m i in the two cases have already been given. /. in the two cases.1 96 Position of Nodes investigated. _^i^ .) 201. m J.o 1 8 4. = 0.. and. e~ W \j + / cos ITT cos 1/3^ = 0. . x iir\ . It is evident that equation (37) is satisfied by x . the two equations . the positions of the nodes for each value of that is. (For values of i above 3. a 2 = o. there is no significant figure in the first four decimal places. (37') 200. a 3 = 0. b(m.3043.000 1. instead of (34) and (34'). .o when i is even. . in all cases. for each component tone . and that. The equations (34) or (34') and (37) or (37') determine. The values of a { /3 f are the differences (taken . . if x' be a root. the value i = i The values belonging to the fundamental tone in both cases. *". /3 1 /32 /33 = 0.+l sm V/ t. We will first consider the case of the rod free at both ends. transferring the origin of abscissae to the middle point of the axis as before. . TT \ * J = o.0008. (37) . then x' is a root also. of /and + J/give the distances of the x which lie between nodes from the middle point. = 0. which is the simpler of the two. f i p.
the actual numerical values of m i and ft must be introduced. the first term must be negative. and . Hence. For values of i not greater than 3. 200. the values of x will be such as make the first term vanish. 197 the nodes are symmetrically distributed with respect to the middle point. there is . component tones. that is. as might be foreseen a priori] and when t is even. and from this condition it may be shewn (but more easily by making a graphic construction for one or two particular cases) that the number of roots between Thus the J/ and J/. 199). the interval between secutive nodes being .IT 2 n being an integer value . for the higher component tones. that the second term of (37) will %* be insignificant when y is numerically small. which gives . 4 th &c. we get x 1 = i 2n 77Ti' any two con Thus the nodes which are not near the ends are distributed at sensibly equal distances. I. the number of nodes. For greater values of t. it is evident on inspection of the values of ft given in Art. Since the second term of (37) is essentially positive. proximate value derived from the equation ft an ap (see Art.not a small  In the second term we may put for sin fraction. 202. and for nodes not near the ends of the rod. (see Art. or m. and the equation (37) or (37') solved by approximation.x / . will for values of i greater than as follows. &c. that is. is z'+ i. 3. fundamental tone has two nodes. for the 2 nd . a node at the middle point. and for we may proceed The last oc nodes near term of (37') be insignificant when x is positive.Position of Hence Nodes investigated. 205). But the ends. and putting in this equation the approximate (22+ i) for m t .
198 Position of Nodes investigated. if wz tf xi Z7r ** be replaced by its approximate value. and the positions of those near the two ends must be found separately. and therefore m sin ^(3 { = t~ \ since /3 4 is very small. Sj. The numerical results will be given below. For values of i not greater . so that the above expression tends to assume the same form as that given in Art. which can be found by approxiThe values of . (38) and this equation will have a determinate series of positive roots. . v/2 sin x. from the middle point. fy tends rapidly for j to become (ji)ir. the nodes are not symmetrically distributed.r will then be given by the equation mation. nodes in the negative half of the rod are respectively at the same distances from the middle point. and y= X e 4 v ) for increasing values of j. *f or. of And we know that the the nodes towards the positive end. and if in this term we put the approximate value ' 4 the equation 2 becomes * 3 n^ / 2 ' Now let T. It is easily found (by roughly drawing the two curves y= that. / (21+1) IT This formula gives the distances. 2O1 for nodes near the middle. When one end of the rod is fixed. .) 203. (Art.= $ then __ ~ e 4. Hence e the second term of (37') ' becomes mi2. 205. say $ lt 32 . m : ' e~ (the square of being neglected).
nodes not near the ends). then we call 1 . 201). which give approximately (as the corresponding equations Art. odd (being greater than 3) one node (namely.approximately (see (32)). m f ~ = OA or . we may in (34'). . 2 =o. if X tlT . 2. end be reckoned as one) is sensibly For nodes near the free end. and of Art.Position of than Nodes investigated. . since is positive.. if the fixed at the middle of the rod. or. 0$ . 202) sin a. after the numerical values of c^ have been introduced. * But for for greater values of z'. . the equation (34) mation. since m i = (21 i). = so that (34') is in reduced to ITT . the interval between 2/ any two consecutive nodes that is sensibly equal to : > and when i is the middle node. we may the of (34). we then find (in same way as neglect the second term at the end / 2 I I from which it follows that.. cos m = i sin a f . 198) a (m t) = sec m {. 199 or (34') must be solved by approxi3. ti*J*_\ 2) I so that. and for small values of  (that is. and in the second term we may neglect the last term introduce the approximate value of a{ derived from the equations (Art."vr?* we put ZTT mx t we have and if *J * cos + e "4=0. the roots of this equation. near the middle..
for increasing values of/. ' J m. since = / ITT TT approximately. The following numerical results have been given by Seebeck 1 who. . this last Let </>j. Leipzig. e ^+4=0. Wissenschaften. . Math. <j>j be the roots of equation . ^ tends to become (2/+ I)TT.) . 1 In a memoir on the transverse vibrations of rods. 1852. Sachs. (One end fixed and the other free. Classe d. we have r in. Case I. c) 2 .200 Position of Nodes investigated. or. j it ZTT f for increasing values 7T ^ is of/ easily seen that 0j tends to be come (2J i)2 fore the second term of (34'). . however. .*' j V2COS(\ and if I 7 2 / ) we now put the equation is reduced to /V2COS(#) . (Abhandlungen d.) . and therewhich is (see last Article) approximately _j^i mx 1 I 2 is small. and putting i for cos i in the last term. 2O5. Phys. Neglecting it. . /7/lX 1 7T\ m. K. For nodes near the fixed end x is negative. then while. . . Gesellschaft d. has treated the fundamental equations (30) and (35) in a somewhat different manner. 204. 7fl:X ^ I 7T\ Z7T e m.
0944. 0.. so that a= o.Theory of Transverse Vibrations completed.. three and last two nodes.. the term m* d^u ~ which arises from the term d^y 2 in . 0.) Distances of nodes from nearest end I st : tone. at 206. n^ the roots of an equation. last  row in this table must be understood as meaning /th 422 Case may be taken as the distance of the first node from the free end. depending 2 . 0. 13222 > 49820 ' 90007 4* 4*'+2 4/42 +2 ' 4/~ 3. it is necessary to shew how the time during the motion.2261. as no tension.3558.2 that 41. except for the II. in general transcendental. 201 Distances of nodes from the free end. To complete the theory of the a rod.1321. (Both ends free.1321. 179. are determinate constants. and before.  J 9ooo7 41 2 J 4/3  4t 4^ 4Z2 } 4?'. in which the coefficients depend shall consider only the case in which shall also neglect.th I 0. 0. the length of the rod being taken as unity : 2 nd tone. 0. 0.3558. and ui a determinate function of and of n it which satisfies a which n v x differential equation such as .2 The ~.. &c. 2* d 3'd /th 0.9993 4*' 7oi75 42'. 0./+#* sin V)J (42) upon is . is determined ments and velocities of its points. U 13222  2 0. (through m) upon n{ there is We } (8)..5. 3'd 4*h .0944. 4/+2 axis. 49820 .   2 0. it will cases which have been considered.2242.6439. the the time / is of the form transverse vibrations of form of the any by the initial displace be seen that in all the equation to the axis at J'SIC**^* cos in . On reference to Art.10.4999.
Now and velocities >/(*). multiplied by dx. the differential of u i J ~ i dx of which every term vanishes at both limits. 187. With any two to above this simplification we may write equation (8) thus for different roots of the transcendental equation referred : in which p^ p^ are two constants. Theory of Transverse Vibrations completed. on every supposition as to the terminal conditions. . Hence. from (42). where/ (x) and for all values of < J *(*)> is x (x) are functions of which the value given from o to /. depending upon/ being supposed the initial displacements to be given.202 (6'). when / = o. From these equations we have Now if we multiply x = the result is t. this by dx. of which we only require to know that they are different.) It follows therefore that wheny is different from i v (43) Jo but will be a determinate constant. are i d' u du*. we have. introduced by taking account of the angular motion of the transverse sections of the rod. (See Art.i 3 3 . and integrate from ri x = o to [//) for the first two terms of the equation.
If the rod were in equilibrio under the action of such forces. for other forms.Torsion Vibrations. is the rate of twist in that section with which they ultimately coincide. then. in the . B Torsion Vibrations. and the form of the axis of the j rod at any time /is then given by equation (42). divided by the distance between the two sections. the twist is When uniform. are determined. all the particles which. When uniform. \& 208. whether the twist be uniform or not. when It is in equilibrio. to be twisted by equal and opposite couples applied only in the planes of its ends . if there is no relative displace ment of particles in either of these terminal sections. when the distance between the two sections is diminished indefinitely. it is evident that there will be none in any other transverse section . when the twist is small. 203 and if these equations be multiplied by u^dx. will be in a state of uniform simple twist. more or less approximately. but as they are of the little Such vipractical importance we shall discuss them briefly. Suppose a cylindrical rod. Torsion vibrations may be properly included in general class of lateral vibrations. and the twist may be called simple when the particles in any transverse plane section are not displaced relatively to one another. the rate of twist defined by the angle through which any transverse section is turned relatively to any other. 207. or rather is altered only by a quantity of the second order. Under the action of such forces the rod. whether solid or hollow (as a tube). brations will be produced when a uniform elastic rod is left to itself after undergoing a slight disturbance by forces reducible to couples in planes perpendicular to its axis. Jo Jo u?dx=\ so that AJ. though it In subsist. it would be in a state of torsion or twist . the result (by (43) ) is ri ri tijBA $(x}ujdx. and it is known that the length of the rod remains unaltered. And the limit of this ratio. probable that such a condition cannot be realised in practice except in the case of cylindrical rods. and integrated from x = o to x = /. and the distance between any two sections remains unaltered. follows may what we shall assume the twist that the is form is cylindrical.
if the radius of the cylinder inclination be small compared with its length. the twist may be called small. at any point. if Lpo>dx be the moment of the twisting forces acting on the mass of the slice. Let us consider then an infinitesimal contained between two sections If all at distances x \dx>. in order to maintain the equilibrium of the slice. If. any upon And straight line parallel to the axis. the rate of twist is. o> are the density. lay upon a helix. there are twisting forces acting on the interior matter of the rod. and the differential equation of motion will be obtained from . if the rod were cut there. any transverse section from one end (A ) of the rod. When equilibrium subsists under the action of couples applied only in the planes of the terminal sections. on It is evident the exterior surface. state. 2 S dx* ' ^dx positive being considered which tend to in Hence. and 6 the angular displacement of that section. that a small twist is consistent with a large relative angular displacement of the terminal sections. 209. When this is small where it has its greatest value. proportional to the moment of the couples. will the rate of twist and to the distance be directly proportional to from the axis. 208) and is the rate of twist in a section at the distance x from A . Then doc (Art. and area of section of the rod. besides the terminal couples. for a rod of given material and section. x + \dx from A. the moment of the couple which would have to be applied in the plane of that section in order to maintain equilibrium. would be C > C being a constant which we shall consider more particularly below. it is evident that the moments of these couples must be equal and opposite and it is known from experiment that when the twist is small. the condition of equilibrium will be Lp<&dx\ C dx = o. slice 210. to the axis. to apply in its two faces couples of which the moments are \dx (those couples crease 6). the conditions of equiLet x be the distance of librium are easily found as follows. . where /o. the inclination of a tangent to this helix.204 untwisted will lie Condition of Equilibrium. the rest of the rod were removed. that is. it would be necessary.
as is the case with all ordinary substances. this as usual. since there is no couple in the terminal face. 92. 205 by substituting for Lpadx the sum of the moments of the resistances to acceleration of the particles of the namely. d(*> is slice. it is known that the transverse linear dimensions are contracted. of these propositions is elementary. rod. we cannot . and therefore equally C can be expressed in (Art. and If then we put k for the r the distance of da* from the axis. solid or J hollow. be extended by forces applied uniformly to the surfaces of its ends only. the constant terms of g. //. if. radius of gyration of the area of the section about the axis where of the rod. If a uniform bar. and of another 1 The demonstration it afford space for here. but See Klebsch. 676). and jute the transverse or lateral contraction then. is a constant for a given material. On the supposition that the material of the rod is isotropic (Tail and Thomson. the meaning of which we will now explain. the extensions and contractions being always supposed small. elastic in all directions. and moreover must have a value between o and J. The terminal conditions will be =o at a fixed end. 148). It can be shewn that in the case of a cylindrical.) 211. e r j an element of area of the transverse section. so that /rVa>=#X we for shall have d*B C d*0 dx* the equation of motion to be satisfied at all parts of the rod. the modulus of elasticity constant /x. Let e be the longitudinal extension (see Art. the value of the constant C in the last Article is . (The latter condition is evident if it be observed that at a free end the rate of twist must be o.Isotropic Rod. 2. of any section. 148). 3. and dx = o at a free end. the volume of the bar is increased under the circumstances supposed.
then 212. and for a drawn brass bar in which the longitudinal elasticity differed 1 from the lateral. to be initial circumstances. 1 We We shall A = 00 . et de Phys. and the other end free.so6 Res^dt of Integration. represent arbitrary constants.= \ for glass and brass. 3rd Poggendorf. ITIX /ITtat = ^. where A {. a = z' The period of the th tone is therefore mca se(i). (2) If the end from which then x is measured is fixed. xxiii.1 A i cos sin /=1 2 . merely give the result in two cases. by an interval of which the ratio is T^ 21+ I 4/ /2(if/ut)p\i (V (* (!+)). ) q Now comparing these with the periods of longitudinal vibrations of the same rod under the same terminal conditions. 2 de Ckim. vol. . series. 54. p. (1) If both ends of the rod are free. by reasoning now 213. vol. p. determined by equation a { in each case. since in former 2 (!+)*)/>"<***" need not repeat the process of integrating it is exactly analogous to that which has been applied problems (see Art. so that equation (i) becomes d^Q ~dt* = q dz e (2). Ann. ( + a) N . 369. The jn generally admitted to be illegitimate. we see that the tone of given order produced by torsion vibrations is lower than that of the same order produced by longitudinal vibrations. Wertheim found experimentally 1 /z . Kirchoff 2 found values differing sensibly from this for steel bars. Navier and Poisson. 122) and can offer no difficulty. deduced a priori the value = for all substances. cviii. value of the constant fx is probably different for different substances. and a is defined by the . in case (2).
fjL. the torsion vibrations will When one end be easily produced. or at any rate very difficult. the rod is not cylindrical the friction of a bow (charged Thus the torsion rosin) should be used. if once round the tube not far from its middle. and to observe with sufficient precision the intervals between the tones given by longitudinal and torsion vibrations. and the ends rather lightly and quickly pulled backwards and forwards at right angles to the tube by the two hands. or ^ = \. 214. a piece of stout glass tube. be gently but firmly clamped in a tablevice at its middle. four or five feet long. If this were so. means of determining if it Chladni asserts that this interval is always a fifth. Torsion vibrations may be excited in a cylindrical rod by friction with the same substances as would excite longitudinal vibrations in the same rod. It is impossible however. after winding a piece of broad tape about it at that part to protect it from the vice. for substances in which it is so. were . Hence this constant must be determined by other methods. at and drawing the bow across one of its edges a point distant from the fixed end about a fourth of the length. or rather. 207 would afford an experimental were possible to be assured that the rods used were isotropic. If the value of //. .. and if a wet piece of the same tape be passed Thus.Value of The results of the last Article fj. of the interval would be (f)* =1632. and a small error in the ratio of the interval may evidently produce a considerable error in the value of \L. we must the ratio have 2 (i +/m) = {. vibrations of a rectangular deal rod may be excited by clamping as usual with powdered in a vice at right angles to the rod. to observe with great exactness the interval between the two tones.
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