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Script Visuals
Editing tells a story.
Editing puts a story
together. Editing is one
of the most important
part of film making.
Without editing there
would be no film.
Editing is a stage in a
films production when
the story is put I will use the b-role footage in this youtube video
together. It’s an art
form that they don’t
want the viewer to see.
Before editing was
discovered film was a
single shot of something
interesting to the eye
but lacked narrative
therefore people didn’t
believe film had a

The film editor has to

take all of the footage
shot and assemble it
into the movie that the
audience will see. They
determine the rhythm of
individual scenes and
decides when you see
certain camera angles.

The Editor works closely

with the Director. They
make the edit into the
Director's Cut, which
then must be approved by
the Producers, until
they achieve picture
lock or a Fine Cut.

The very earliest

filmmakers were afraid
to edit film shots
together because they
thought that connecting
together different shots
of different things from
different positions,
would simply confuse
audiences and they
wouldn't be able to
follow their stories.
Where it all began.
The Lumiere Brothers
started it all off in
1895. They invented
cinematographe, it was a
three way machine that
recorded, captured and
projected a motion in
In 1901 Edwin S. Porter
showed the industry that
it didn’t have to be a
long clip. He started to
experiment by sticking
different parts of film

D.W Grithins discovered

that you can reflect
emotion through
different angles and the
pace of editing. He was
the first editor. He
invented specific
techniques which
included introducing
narrative to film. He
was also the first man
that used the close up.

Analogue Editing -
Before digital editing
they used Analogue
editing. It involved
cutting down the film
negatives and placing
them in order.
Analogue film editing
was very time-consuming,
and a short clip would
have taken months to
edit. Analogue Editors
would shuffle back and
forth to the frame they
wanted to cut. Then the
film would be put into a
splicer to be cut and
sealed to make a scene.
Digital Editing –
Since the invention of
Computers, digital
editing and filming has
taken over. Editing with
a computer is much
faster and more
efficient and much
easier to use. It is
also a whole lot cheaper
and so this makes it
more available to more

Before the invention of

digital editing, the
film editor would
literally have to cut up
the film and piece it
back together. An editor
would take long strips
of film, cut them
perfectly, and stick
them to other strips
with tape and glue,
creating rolls of film.
They would use a splicer
and thread the film on a
machine with a viewer,
this was the first sign
of editing.
The Great Train Robbery
by Edwin Porter made in
1903 shows how the use
of cutting was used in
early film.

At this point in time

audiences knew nothing
about film and therefore
when it came to watching
this film they were
afraid when they saw
this as they thought the
train was actually
coming towards them.
It was editing that
allowed film to take off
as it allowed the film
to move between any two
shots. For example, a
setting like a train
station to someone's
face, it also allows
shots to be sped up or
slowed down.
According to Charles
Matthau on How Tech Has
Changed Film Making-
The director Robert
Rodriguez is famous for
getting his shooting
done very quickly. He
described his process as
one long day of work,
beginning with shots and
moving into editing all
within the same day.
This is an interview
with famed director
Robert Rodriguez talking
to ABC13 Houston.
Compared to someone like
George Lucas, who spends
quite a bit of time and
budget in post-
production. Digital
effects are created and
added to the shot within
the same program or
group of programs. This
software also allows
editors to work on
entire sections of a
film, easily piecing
scenes together after
the post production
effects are added in.
This interview with
George Lucas is him
discussing the history
and development of
professional digital
filmmaking to the
American film institute.

There are many different

types of editing and it
is used in a way that
changes a clip to make
it better or more
appealing to an
The first way is
cutting, this is a
visual transition
created in editing in
which one shot is
instantly replaced on
screen by another.
Another way is montage
this is when scenes have
an emotional impact, and
visual design are
achieved through the
editing together with
many brief shots. The
shower scene from pyscho
is an example of montage
A third way is to fade
this is a visual
transition between shots
or scenes that appears
on screen as a brief
interval, with no
picture. The editor
fades one shot to black
and then fades in the
next; this is often used
to indicate a change in
time and place.

Sergei M. Eisenstein
This scene from
Eisenstein's Battleship
Potempkin - Odessa Steps
scene is one of the most
famous scenes in movie

It was released in 1925

and it was meant to be
tribute to the early
Russian revolutionaries
and is widely known as a
masterpiece of
international cinema.
Throughout this short
clip from the film it is
clear the constant
parallel editing
throughout which shows
the build up to the pram
falling down the stairs
which the audience are
almost waiting for.

Sergei Eisenstein
celebrated as a pioneer
of film art from the
1920s onwards. He was a
Soviet director and film
theorist. His films were
a change in their style
and content, as he
combined images of huge
graphic force with the
editing of things that
had never been seen
before by anyone in the
industry. Eisenstein
developed Meyerhold's
theory with his own
"montage of attractions"
which was a sequence of
pictures which would
have an emotional effect
on the audience and this
is what they wanted to
achieve by having the
use of montage which was
invented by Eisenstein
and his colleagues in
Soviet film.

Thelma Schoonmaker is an
editor, known for The
Departed (2006), Raging
Bull (1980) and The Wolf
of Wall Street (2013).
She was previously
married to Michael
Powell. She was unable
to work in Hollywood as
she was denied union and
so she ended up working
for Martin Scorsese. He
then asked her to work
on Raging Bull (1980),
she again had deny
because of her lack of
union membership.
However, she believes
that Al Pacino got her
into the union
eventually. To this day,
she does not know what
influence was used to
gain her union

One of the most

successful edited films
was Edgar Wright’s 'Baby
Driver' which was filmed
and edited very
differently to other
Hollywood films. It is
closer to the editing
used in modern music
videos than a film. This
is because the movie is
heavily influenced by
the soundtrack, every
piece of action is built
around the chosen song.
The editor Paul Machliss
edited the movie whilst
on set which is
different from the usual
way of editing a movie
in a studio with a full
editing deck.
Edgar Wright has unique
editing style and
technique where he does
close-up quick-cuts of
action moments. He likes
cutting in action
moments to get through a
sequence and then cut to
the next scene, this
type of editing style
tends to keep the
audience’s attention
throughout the scenes
and sequences, keeping
them entertained and
gets them to continue

A second very
successfully edited film
was Whiplash,
Tom Cross edited this
successful Oscar
awarding musical drama
alongside the director
Damien Chazelle.
At first the director
saw the film as an
action film before it
changed to being a
musical drama. The
musical sequences were
edited to pre-recorded
music for the major
scenes, Damien wanted it
cut at right angles with
one cut answering
another cut, the editing
style represents the
actors state of mind
which was feeling
nervous and false manic
at times.
The director wanted
different cutting
strategies, for example,
he wanted the music
scenes to be like fight
scenes showing violence
and brutality. He
wanted the viewer to
feel the physicality of
practicing and playing,
the life or death stakes
that he remembered
growing up as a
competitive jazz

One of the most

successful music videos
was Peter Gabriel's
video in 1986
Sledgehammer and it was
the most played music
video in the history of
MTV and also the most
awarded at the MTV Video
Music Awards. It won
awards in nine
categories this was:
Video of the Year, Best
Editing, Best Special
Effects, Best Art
Direction, Best Concept
Video, Best Direction in
a Video, Best Male
Video, Best Overall
Performance and Most
Experimental Video. The
stop-motion effects were
created by the Aardman
Animations but
specifically in this
music video the editor
was director and editor
Stephen R. Johnson.
Sledgehammer is one of
the best examples of how
important music videos
had to be to become a
selling pop star in the
1980s. The video itself
uses Claymation,
pixilation, and stop-
motion animation.
Johnson engaged with
British finest stop
motion animators to make