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You are on page 1of 4

1

n . For example, if a pizza is cut (divided) into 8 equal

slices, each slice is one eighth (

1

8 ) of the pizza; a day is divided into 24

equal hours, so an hour is one twenty-fourth

( 1 )

24

of a day and an inch is

one twelfth (

1

12 ) of a foot. If one works for 8 hours a day, he works eight

twenty-fourth (

8

24 ) of a day. If a hockey stick is 40 inches long, it

measures forty twelfths

(40)

12 of a foot.

� The numbers such as

1

8 ,

1

24 ,

8

24 and

40

12 , in which one integer is written

over the second integer, are called fractions. The center line is called the

fraction bar. The number above the bar is called the numerator, and the

number below the bar is called denominator.

� The denominator of a fraction can never be 0.

� A fraction, such as

1

24 , in which the denominator is greater than

numerator, is known as a proper fraction. Its value is less than one.

� A fraction, such as

40

12 , in which the denominator is less than numerator, is

known as an improper fraction. Its value is greater than one.

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� A fraction, such as,

12

12 in which the denominator is equal to the numerator,

is also known as an improper fraction. But, Its value is one.

� Every fraction can be expressed in decimal form (or as a whole number) by

dividing the number by the denominator.

3 0.3, 3 0.75, 8 1, 48 3, 100 12.5

10 4 8 16 8

= = = = =

� Unlike the examples above, when most fractions are converted to decimals,

the division does not terminate, after 2 or 3 or 4 decimal places; rather it

goes on forever with some set of digits repeating it.

2 0.66666..., 3 0.272727..., 5 0.416666..., 17 1.133333...

3 11 12 15

= = = =

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� To compare two decimals, follow these rules:

o Whichever number has the greater number to the left of the decimal

point is greater: since 11 > 9, 11.0001 > 9.8965 and since 1 > 0,

1.234 > .8. (Recall that if a decimal is written without a number on

left of decimal point, you may assume that a 0 is there, so, .8 =

0.8).

o If the numbers to the left of the decimal point are equal, proceed as

follows:

� If the numbers do not have the same number of digits to the right

of the decimal point, add zeroes to the end of the shorter one to

make them equal in length.

� Now compare the numbers ignoring the decimal point.

� For example, to compare 1.83 and 1.823, add a 0 to the end of

1.83 forming 1.830. Now compare them, thinking of them as whole

numbers without decimal point: since 1830 > 1823, then 1.830

>1.823.

� There are two ways to compare fractions:

o Convert them to decimals by dividing, and use the method already

described to compare these decimals. For example to compare

2

5

and

1

4 , convert them to decimals.

2 0.4

5

= and

1 0.25

4

= . Now, as 0.4

> 0.25,

2

5 >

1

4 .

o Cross multiply the fractions. For example to compare

2

5 and

1

4 ,

cross multiply:

2

5

1

4

Since

2�4>1�5,

then

2

5 >

1

4 .

� While comparing the fractions, if they have same the denominators, the

fraction with the larger numerator is greater. For example

3 2

5 5

> .

� If the fractions have the same numerator, the fraction with the

smaller denominator is greater. For example

3 3

5 10

> .

� Two fractions are called equivalent fractions if both of them have same

decimal value.

� For example,

1 5

2 10

= as both of these are equal to 0.5.

� Another way to check the equivalence of two fractions is to cross-multiply.

If both of the products are same, the fractions are equivalent. For Example,

to compare

2

5 with

6

15 , cross-mul tiply. Since 2�15 = 6�5 , both of the

fractions are equivalent.

� Every fraction can be reduced to lowest terms by dividing the numerator

and denominator by their greatest common divisor (GCD). If the GCD is 1,

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Building Standards in Educational and Professional Testing

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the fraction is already in lowest terms. For example to reduce

10

15 , divide

both numerator and denominator by 5 (which is GCD of 10 and 15). This

will reduce the fraction to

2

3 .

� To multiply two fractions, multiply their numerators and multiply their

denominators. For example

3 4 3 4 12

5 7 5 7 35

�

� = =

� .

� To multiply a number to a fraction, write that number as a fraction whose

denominator is 1. For example

3 7 3 7 3 7 21

5 5 1 51 5

�

� = � = =

� .

� When a problem requires you to find the fraction of a number, multiply that

fraction with the number. For example, to find two fifth (

2

5 ) of 200,

multiply:

2 200 2 200 400

5 5 1

� = � =

80

80

5

=

/ .

� The reciprocal of a fraction

a

b is another fraction

b

a since 1 a b

b a

� =

� To divide one fraction by the other fraction, multiply the reciprocal of

divisor with the dividend. For example,

22 11 22

7 7

� =

2 7

7 11

� 2 2

1

= = .

� To add or subtract the fractions with same denominator, add or subtract

numerators and keep the denominator. For

example

4 1 5 4 1 3

9 9 9 9 9 9

+ = and - = .probability and fumdemental laws

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