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� When a whole is divided into n equal parts, each part is called one nth of

the whole, written


1
n . For example, if a pizza is cut (divided) into 8 equal
slices, each slice is one eighth (
1
8 ) of the pizza; a day is divided into 24
equal hours, so an hour is one twenty-fourth
( 1 )
24
of a day and an inch is
one twelfth (
1
12 ) of a foot. If one works for 8 hours a day, he works eight
twenty-fourth (
8
24 ) of a day. If a hockey stick is 40 inches long, it
measures forty twelfths
(40)
12 of a foot.
� The numbers such as
1
8 ,
1
24 ,
8
24 and
40
12 , in which one integer is written
over the second integer, are called fractions. The center line is called the
fraction bar. The number above the bar is called the numerator, and the
number below the bar is called denominator.
� The denominator of a fraction can never be 0.
� A fraction, such as
1
24 , in which the denominator is greater than
numerator, is known as a proper fraction. Its value is less than one.
� A fraction, such as
40
12 , in which the denominator is less than numerator, is
known as an improper fraction. Its value is greater than one.
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� A fraction, such as,
12
12 in which the denominator is equal to the numerator,
is also known as an improper fraction. But, Its value is one.
� Every fraction can be expressed in decimal form (or as a whole number) by
dividing the number by the denominator.
3 0.3, 3 0.75, 8 1, 48 3, 100 12.5
10 4 8 16 8
= = = = =
� Unlike the examples above, when most fractions are converted to decimals,
the division does not terminate, after 2 or 3 or 4 decimal places; rather it
goes on forever with some set of digits repeating it.
2 0.66666..., 3 0.272727..., 5 0.416666..., 17 1.133333...
3 11 12 15
= = = =
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� To compare two decimals, follow these rules:
o Whichever number has the greater number to the left of the decimal
point is greater: since 11 > 9, 11.0001 > 9.8965 and since 1 > 0,
1.234 > .8. (Recall that if a decimal is written without a number on
left of decimal point, you may assume that a 0 is there, so, .8 =
0.8).
o If the numbers to the left of the decimal point are equal, proceed as
follows:
� If the numbers do not have the same number of digits to the right
of the decimal point, add zeroes to the end of the shorter one to
make them equal in length.
� Now compare the numbers ignoring the decimal point.
� For example, to compare 1.83 and 1.823, add a 0 to the end of
1.83 forming 1.830. Now compare them, thinking of them as whole
numbers without decimal point: since 1830 > 1823, then 1.830
>1.823.
� There are two ways to compare fractions:
o Convert them to decimals by dividing, and use the method already
described to compare these decimals. For example to compare
2
5
and
1
4 , convert them to decimals.
2 0.4
5
= and
1 0.25
4
= . Now, as 0.4
> 0.25,
2
5 >
1
4 .
o Cross multiply the fractions. For example to compare
2
5 and
1
4 ,
cross multiply:
2
5
1
4
Since
2�4>1�5,
then
2
5 >
1
4 .
� While comparing the fractions, if they have same the denominators, the
fraction with the larger numerator is greater. For example
3 2
5 5
> .
� If the fractions have the same numerator, the fraction with the
smaller denominator is greater. For example
3 3
5 10
> .
� Two fractions are called equivalent fractions if both of them have same
decimal value.
� For example,
1 5
2 10
= as both of these are equal to 0.5.
� Another way to check the equivalence of two fractions is to cross-multiply.
If both of the products are same, the fractions are equivalent. For Example,
to compare
2
5 with
6
15 , cross-mul tiply. Since 2�15 = 6�5 , both of the
fractions are equivalent.
� Every fraction can be reduced to lowest terms by dividing the numerator
and denominator by their greatest common divisor (GCD). If the GCD is 1,
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the fraction is already in lowest terms. For example to reduce
10
15 , divide
both numerator and denominator by 5 (which is GCD of 10 and 15). This
will reduce the fraction to
2
3 .
� To multiply two fractions, multiply their numerators and multiply their
denominators. For example
3 4 3 4 12
5 7 5 7 35

� = =
� .
� To multiply a number to a fraction, write that number as a fraction whose
denominator is 1. For example
3 7 3 7 3 7 21
5 5 1 51 5

� = � = =
� .
� When a problem requires you to find the fraction of a number, multiply that
fraction with the number. For example, to find two fifth (
2
5 ) of 200,
multiply:
2 200 2 200 400
5 5 1
� = � =
80
80
5
=
/ .
� The reciprocal of a fraction
a
b is another fraction
b
a since 1 a b
b a
� =
� To divide one fraction by the other fraction, multiply the reciprocal of
divisor with the dividend. For example,
22 11 22
7 7
� =
2 7
7 11
� 2 2
1
= = .
� To add or subtract the fractions with same denominator, add or subtract
numerators and keep the denominator. For
example
4 1 5 4 1 3
9 9 9 9 9 9
+ = and - = .probability and fumdemental laws