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Portfolio Project

EDUC 765: Trends and Issues in Instructional Design

By: Pritha Sur

Submitted: 10/19/18
Project Proposal – Module 2

PROJECT TITLE
Basics and Application of Sensory Analysis

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION
XYZ Foods Pvt. Ltd.

XYZ is a Mumbai-based Indian consumer goods company delivering products both in
the foods and cosmetic sector. Established in 2010, it has an average annual turnover
of $5 million. The company's innovative ideas stem from the ideology of being
consumer-centric. The intention of having this sensory evaluation reflects one of its core
values of "seeking support & influencing others beyond the function & organization to
achieve a better outcome without diluting one's accountability".

PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The company intends to roll out savory oats as its new breakfast product in the market
next year. For feedback surveys across the country, two out of four flavors need to be
finalized for bulk production. The R&D team wants to run sensory tests of the savory
oats with their co-workers in the company. The feedback would help the R&D team to
finalize the two flavors. The company also wishes to train some of its employees so that
they can be part of the internal sensory panel. Many employees of other departments
have expressed hesitation to participate as they are unaware of 'sensory tests'. It is
crucial for the participants to know and understand how and what they are expected to
assess based on their senses. A basic course in sensory evaluation and its application
can prepare them to take these tests without any apprehension.

AIM
To provide training to the employees about the basics of sensory evaluation tests.

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TARGET AUDIENCE
The target audience comprises both male and female employees between the age of 18
— 50 years. They are expected to have basic human anatomical knowledge. They may
belong to any of the following departments:
 Quality Assurance
 Human Resource Department
 Marketing
 Accounts
 Information Technology
 Security
 Cafeteria Staff
 Maintenance Staff

DELIVERY OPTIONS
The training will be delivered as an online course and will be available to the employees
through the company website. The employees would be able to access it at any time as
per their convenience. However, course completion is essential before the sensory
analysis. The schedule of the tests will be put up on the website. The course will be a
self-learning basic course designed for beginners. The online delivery will enable the
employees to continue their regular work without putting long hours into the training.

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Front-End Analysis: Instructional Need – Module 3
INSTRUCTIONAL NEED
The company intends to launch savory oats in its breakfast line of products next year.
The company wants to avoid overspending on bulk production of four flavors at this
nascent stage of launch; they want to work toward developing and refining the two most
favored flavors. Therefore, two flavors need to be finalized for bulk production for
feedback surveys across the country. For shortlisting the flavors, the R&D team had
been instructed to rely on the feedback of the coworkers. The R&D team sent out mail
invites to every employee in the company requesting them to appear for sensory
analysis of flavors. 88% of the employees declined the invite stating one or more of the
following reasons:
• don't know about sensory tests
• unavailable beyond office hours
• manager approval needed

The R&D team realized that most of the employees are unaware of the concept of
sensory analysis. It is essential for the employee who participates to know and
understand the expectations of each sensory test is conducted:
• whether they are expected to differentiate between two flavors
• whether they are just expected to describe one specific flavor
• whether they are expected to grade the intensity of one flavor
• whether they are expected to identify the flavor resembling the benchmark flavor

To avoid apprehension, the participant should also know the basic setup and labels
used in various tests. This gap in knowledge and expectations can be met by providing
simple and concise instruction about sensory analysis.

The company also wants to train its coworkers to choose representatives for their
internal sensory test as they will have better responses and understanding of the
developing flavors. However, most employees were either unwilling or unable to spend
extra office hours for the training. Hence, the instruction should be designed such that it
is concise and easily accessible to the learners anywhere beyond office hours.

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Front-End Analysis: Learner Characteristics – Module 3
LEARNER ANALYSIS
Primary Audience
 R&D trainees and interns
 Quality Assurance
 Marketing executives
 Accounts staff
 IT staff

Secondary Audience
 Security personnel
 Maintenance staff
 Cafeteria staff

General Learner Characteristics
 Age: 18 to 50 years
 Gender: 60% Male, 40% Female (Primary audience: 55% Male, 45% Female)
 Work experience: 1 week to 20+ years
 Education: High school diploma through postgraduate degree
 Ethnicity: Although all Indians, employees belong to culturally different states
across India such as Maharashtra, West Bengal, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu,
Odisha, Punjab etc. The employees are a heterogenous mix of the following
faiths: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity.

Entry Characteristics
 Prerequisite skill and knowledge:
 All learners can read English and/or Hindi.
 All are familiar with the five basic tastes: bitter, salty, sweet, sour, and
umami (savory).
 Most of them are aware of oats and consume them.

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 Attitudinal and motivational characteristics:
 Most of the learners are unaware of the term “sensory test” and are
wary that they will be “judged if they fail the test”.
 Some learners are motivated as they will get to “eat something new”
during office hours.
 Prior experience:
 Learners who have a background in cosmetology, food technology,
and quality assurance are most likely to be familiar with the concept of
“sensory tests”
 Common errors made by novice learners:
 Some learners consume the product too soon to observe the traits of
the product.
 Some learners consume excess product quickly and reach their
sensory threshold early.
 Some learners may get confused and/or distracted with blind and
color-coded labels.

CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS

Orienting Context
 Sensory analysis will enable the learners to objectively analyze food products by
using their senses.
 Learners will be able to isolate and identify desirable characteristics of various
food products.
 Learners who proficiently develop their sensory abilities through repeated tests
will be shortlisted for the company's internal sensory panel and will receive an
honorarium for the same.
 Learners need to understand that sensory evaluation is the scientific and
statistical study of sensory responses, and hence, there will never be a "right or
wrong" option in the tests.

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Instructional Context
 Learners should be able to devote two hours to the entire training module. They
may choose to cover it chapter-wise (approximately 20 minutes each).
 During the training, learners should ensure that they are seated comfortably with
proper lighting and minimum distraction.
 Training modules are accessible through the company website and can be
viewed on laptops, computers, and mobiles. Headphones and earphones can be
used for videos.

Technology Inventory
 Computers
 Laptops
 Mobiles
 Earphones/ Headphones

Transfer Context
 The training will enable the learners to participate in sensory tests confidently
and help the R&D team to shortlist their two proposed flavors.
 Through the training, learners will learn to analyze and compare food products
based on their senses. They can implement it in their daily life to judge the quality
of various food products.
 All department heads (QA, marketing, accounts, IT, HR, security, maintenance,
and cafeteria) are willing to allocate thirty minutes in a week during regular office
hours to employees who will take the test.

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Instructional Impact Based Upon Learner Characteristics
APPLICATION OF LEARNING THEORIES
Based on the principles of andragogy, cognitive load theory, and constructivism, the
instruction will assist the learner to:
 learn new concepts as an extrapolation of their existing knowledge (for example,
understand the significance of various senses in a sensory analysis).
 achieve the performance objectives due to sequentially structured content.
 understand new concepts through a coherent presentation of chunked data
without increasing the cognitive load (for example, types of sensory tests and
their respective scorecards)
 assimilate new knowledge through simulations and do-it-yourself activities (for
example, checking for threshold levels for saltiness)
 evaluate their learning through continuous assessments
 apply sensory tests to evaluate the quality of products in everyday life

APPLICATION OF MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
Based on Keller’s ARCS theory, the instruction intends to:
 gain learner’s attention through inquiry arousal (for example, list the reasons why
a brand of orange juice is your favorite)
 explain the importance, relation, and application of sensory analysis in this
project as well as in day-to-day life
 build their confidence through DIY (do-it-yourself) activities
 provide interactive reinforcements after completion of assessment tests

Expectancy theory is also applied to remind learners that they are a step closer to being
on the internal panel)

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IMPACT OF A DIVERSE AUDIENCE ON INSTRUCTION
The employees belong to culturally diverse states of India. Due to varying cuisines,
learners will have different palate preferences. For example, coconut is a preferred
flavor in southern Indian states (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala) unlike those in northern
states (Punjab and Haryana). Similarly, the threshold of spiciness may vary among
learners. Keeping in mind the religious sentiments, learners should not be coerced into
taking sensory tests or training during the fasting months of Ramadan, Lent, and
Navaratri. Although English is commonly spoken throughout the corporate level, many
employees of the security, cafeteria, and maintenance staff cannot read English. As
Hindi is the national language of India and for general convenience, instruction should
be made available either in both English and Hindi or with subtitles.

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Goal and Task Analysis – Module 5
GOAL ANALYSIS
Step 1 - Aim
To provide training to the employees about the basics of sensory evaluation tests.

Step 2 – Set goals for learners
Learners should be able to:
1. Define the term “sensory analysis” and explain its contribution in product
development
2. Identify the characteristics of food products (flavor, aroma, texture, etc.) by using
their senses
3. Describe the characteristics using the sensory analysis word bank
4. List and classify sensory tests as either preference, descriptive, or difference
tests.
5. Explain the purpose and techniques of the following tests belonging to the three
categories:
 Preference tests
o Paired preference test
o Hedonic rating scale
o Preference ranking test
 Descriptive tests
o Descriptive test – one product
o Descriptive test – two products
 Difference test
o Simple difference paired comparison test
o Triangle test
o Duo-trio test
6. Identify if a sensory test is following a consumer-testing (“do you like what you
taste?”) or product-testing (“can this taste better?”) approach.
7. Perform all sensory tests by adhering to the testing approach.

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8. Write their sensory analysis results in the scorecards using the sensory analysis
word bank.
9. Memorize and follow the general guidelines with respect to:
 hygiene
 timings
 equipment
 sample labeling
 bite size
 prior food consumption
10. Improve their sensory skills by regularly attending sensory sessions held by the
R&D team.
11. Perform various sensory tests for flavor analysis of savory oats without any
reference material.
12. Apply the sensory tests in their everyday life for evaluation of consumables and
recipe modifications.

Step 3 - Sort and refine goals
Introduction
1. Define the term “sensory analysis” and understand its contribution in product
development.

Use of sensory perception

2. Identify the characteristics of food products (flavor, aroma, texture, etc.) by using
their senses.
3. Describe the characteristics using the sensory analysis word bank

Types of sensory tests

4. Explain the various types of sensory tests based on their aims, approach,
methods, and scoring.
5. Memorize the general guidelines for all sensory tests with respect to:
 hygiene

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 timings
 equipment
 sample labeling
 bite size
 prior food consumption

Practical application

6. Perform all sensory tests and write their results in the scorecards by adhering to
the testing approach.
7. Improve their sensory skills by regularly attending sensory sessions held by the
R&D team.
8. Perform various sensory tests for flavor analysis of savory oats without any
reference material.
9. Apply the sensory tests in their everyday life for evaluation of consumables and
recipe modifications

Step 4 – Refine goals again

1. Explain sensory analysis emphasizing its contribution to the product development
and consequently in the food industry.
2. Based on sensory perception, describe characteristics of food using appropriate
descriptive words from the sensory analysis word bank.
3. Describe and demonstrate the aims, techniques, and miscellaneous guidelines of
the different types of sensory tests.
4. Encourage learners to participate in the sensory analysis sessions regularly and
make them capable of confidently applying the knowledge at their work (flavor
analysis of savory oats) as well as in their day-to-day life.

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INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL
Facilitate the R&D team to shortlist two flavors by procuring learned participants for
flavor sensory analysis of savory oats. By training to apply different types of sensory
tests to evaluate the characteristics of food, the company aims to seek significant
contribution to product development both as a consumer as well as a manufacturer.

TASK ANALYSIS METHOD
Topical task analysis is used because much of the instruction is essentially cognitive
knowledge and its successful application.

TASK ANALYSIS
1. Introduction:
 Definition of sensory analysis
 Brief history of sensory analysis (only examples)
 How will it be useful for the learner in
o Day-to-day life
o Product development
o In the current project: Flavor analysis of savory oats
2. Sensory perception of food characteristics:
 Use of the senses to evaluate
o Appearance through vision (eyes)
o Flavor through gustation (tongue)
o Aroma through olfaction (nose)
o Texture through touch (skin of fingers and tongue)
o Sound through audition (ears)
 Testing and tasting word bank table – List of standard words used to
describe appearance, flavor, aroma, texture, and sound
 Factors affecting sensory measurements
o Psychological factors: The following should be avoided
 Expectation error – Prior knowledge of samples affects
expectation and assessment.

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 Suggestion error – Getting influenced by comments or
noises (“mmm!” or “urrgh!”) from other participants.
 Distraction error – External stimuli (sound, conversation) or
personal preoccupations.
 Halo effect and proximity error – When judging several
characteristics, getting influenced by the rating of one
characteristic and rate others accordingly.
 Habituation – Giving same scores to similar products that
are regularly evaluated
 Order effect – Getting influenced by the score of preceding
characteristics
 Central tendency error – Committed by assessors who want
to avoid extremes and confine their ratings to average
scores.
 Motivation error – Committed by assessors who do not
respect the panel leader or product manufacturer.
o Physiological factors
 Adaptation – Decreased sensitivity due to continued
exposure to stimuli
 Perceptual interactions between stimuli
• Enhancement – presence of one substance increases
perceived intensity of another substance
• Synergy – Intensity of a mixture is more than the
intensity of the sum of individual components
• Suppression - presence of one substance decreases
perceived intensity of another substance
 Physical conditions that can affect sensory performance
• Health and nutritional disorders
• Drugs
• Age
• Stress

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3. Sensory analysis laboratory
 Layout of a sensory testing laboratory
 Panel booth or assessment area
 Supplies provided in the panel booth
 Guidelines to follow while assessing
o Analyze using all senses
o Listen to the supervising panel leader
o Bite size
o Palate cleanser
o Hygiene
o Behavior
4. Types of sensory tests:
 Preference tests
o Purpose: to check if consumer (a) likes a product, (b) prefers one
product over another, or (c) intends to use a product
o Types:
 Paired preference test – Out of two coded samples (A and
B), choose the sample whose characteristics appeal to you
most.
 Hedonic rating scale – On a 9-point scale (1 = dislike
extremely to 9 = like extremely), rate the sample and/or its
specified characteristic.
 Preference ranking test – Rank several given samples in the
order of preference i.e. the most preferred sample as first
rank
 Difference tests
o Purpose: Used to detect, confirm, and describe differences
between samples
o Types:

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 Simple difference paired comparison test: Determine if there
is a difference in a given pair of samples (A and B) and
indicate the same as “Yes” or “No”
 Triangle test: Identify the odd sample from a set of three
samples.
 Duo-trio test: In a pair of samples, identify the one that
resembles/matches a given reference sample.
 Descriptive tests
o Purpose: To describe the perceived sensory characteristics of
products
o Types:
 Descriptive ranking test: Rank foods in order of intensity of a
specific sensory characteristic
 Descriptive rating test: Rate the intensity of pre-selected
characteristics of a sample
5. Approaches of sensory analysis:
 Consumer-oriented testing: To ensure consumer will like and buy a
product
 Product-oriented testing: To modify a product to make it acceptable to
consumer
6. Practical application:
 Self-practice activities
o Taste identification test
o Taste intensity test
o Identification of sensory tests from score cards
 At work
o Ongoing projects
o Upcoming projects
 Outside work
o Rating quality of food
o Recipe modification

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Instructional Objectives – Module 5
TERMINAL OBJECTIVES AND ENABLING OBJECTIVES
 Explain sensory evaluation. (Cognitive)
o Define sensory analysis. (remembering)
o Explain the use of various senses in identifying characteristics of food.
(applying)
o Describe the three types of sensory tests. (understanding)
o Explain the aims, techniques, and expectations of all the three types of
tests. (understanding)
o Describe the schematic layout of a sensory laboratory. (remembering)

 Demonstrate the willingness to perform sensory analysis (Affective)
o Ask questions on the online forum or email them to the R&D team
(analyzing)
o Takes initiatives to do the self-practice activities and provide feedback for
the same. (applying)
o Attends the sensory evaluation sessions (applying)

 Perform a sensory analysis to shortlist the two flavors for bulk production.
(Psychomotor)
o Classify the sensory tests into preference, difference, and descriptive.
(remembering)
o Distinguish between consumer-oriented testing and product-oriented
testing. (evaluating)
o Follow the instructions of the supervising panel leader correctly. (applying)
o Identify tests by reading the scorecards provided. (remembering)
o Write the results of the sensory tests using sensory analysis word bank.
(applying)
o Demonstrate all the above in absence of the supervising panel leader.
(applying)

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Enabling Objectives Matrix – Module 6

Title of the unit/module: Sensory Evaluation

Brief description of target audience: The target audience comprises both male and
female employees between the age of 18 to 50 years. They are expected to have basic
human anatomical knowledge and familiarity with the five basic tastes (bitter, salty,
sweet, sour, and savory). Basic educational qualification ranges from high school
diploma to postgraduate degrees. They belong to different regional ethnicities and
therefore, may have different food habits.

List Terminal Objective Here: Explain sensory evaluation.

List Pre-Instructional Strategy: Pretest

Enabling Level on Bloom’s Learner Activity Delivery Method
Objective Taxonomy (What would (Group
learners do to presentation/lecture,
master this self-paced, or small
objective?) group)
Define sensory Remembering Memorize the Reading, quiz
analysis. definition of
sensory analysis.
Explain the use of Applying Read about the Online self-paced
various senses in different lecture, quiz
identifying characteristics of
characteristics of food, use the
food. sensory analysis
word bank to
describe the
characteristics.
Describe the three Understanding Read about the Online self-paced
types of sensory different types of lecture, quiz
tests. sensory tests
Explain the aims, Understanding Read examples of Readings, small
techniques, and different scenarios groups, quiz
expectations of all of sensory analysis,
the three types of participate in
tests. discussion boards

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Enabling Level on Bloom’s Learner Activity Delivery Method
Objective Taxonomy (What would (Group
learners do to presentation/lecture,
master this self-paced, or small
objective?) group)
Describe the Remembering Memorize the Online self-paced
schematic layout schematic layout lecture, quiz
of a sensory and recall the
laboratory. significance of each
component.

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References

Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles). (n.d.). Retrieved from InstructionalDesign:
http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/andragogy/

Cognitive Load Theory (John Sweller). (n.d.). Retrieved from InstructionalDesign:
http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/cognitive-load/

Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner). (n.d.). Retrieved from InstructionalDesign:
http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/constructivist/

Kemp, S. E., Tracey, H., & Joanne, H. (2009). Sensory Evaluation - A practical
handbook. Wiley-Blackwell.

Mulder, P. (2018). Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. Retrieved from ToolsHero:
https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/theories-of-motivation/vrooms-expectancy-
theory/

Sensory Analysis Teacher's Manual. (2017). Retrieved from PDST:
http://www.pdst.ie/sites/default/files/A4%20Sensory%20Analysis%20Manual.pdf

Watts, B. M., Ylimaki, G. L., Jeffery, L. E., & Elias, L. G. (n.d.). Basic sensory methods
for food evaluation. Retrieved from https://idl-bnc-
idrc.dspacedirect.org/bitstream/handle/10625/2844/IDL-2844.pdf?sequence=1

Zoecklein, B. W. (n.d.). Sensory Analysis - Section 4. Retrieved from
https://www.apps.fst.vt.edu/extension/enology/downloads/wm_issues/Sensory%20Anal
ysis/Sensory%20Analysis%20-%20Section%204.pdf

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