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1. Gypsum is a compound with the chemical formula 𝑪𝒂𝑺𝑶𝟒 .

It is added in cement to
control the setting time of cement. Gypsum otherwise has no effect on the cement
manufacturing.
The cement clinker, when mixed with water undergoes setting rapidly. At times, when the work
site is far away from the mixing plant, there is a time lag due to transportation. During this time,
the cement might set rapidly making it less workable. Thus, the addition of gypsum controls the
setting time of cement and increases its workability.

2. Alite is the compound present in cement which is responsible for the early setting
strength of the cement. It has a common formula 𝑪𝟑 𝑺. Alite is chemically Tricalcium Silicate. It is
one of the major chemical compounds present in the cement. (45-60%).
3. Setting of cement means the formation of strength of cement paste. The cement when
mixed with water forms of a semi plastic mass. The process by which the cement moves from
plastic state to a solid stage is known as setting of cement.
The time required for setting when Vicat needle penetrates only up to 25 mm is known
as initial setting time. Initial setting time should be no less than 30 minutes.
The final setting time is the time when the needle does not penetrate visibly into the
cement mix. Final setting time should be not more than 10 hrs.

4. CSH is Calcium Silicate Hydrate. This is form by the action of cement with water. The
crystals are formed few hours after the reaction of the cement with water. The calcium silicate
hydrate is a not a well defined compound. CSH forms from the reaction of belite and alite with
water. Belite influences the strength of cement in the later phase, while alite determines the
early strength.

2(3𝐶𝑎0 ∙ 𝑆𝑖𝑂2 ) + 𝐻2 𝑂 = 3𝐶𝑎𝑂 ∙ 2𝑆𝑖𝑂2 ∙ 3𝐻2 𝑂 + 3𝐶𝑎(𝑂𝐻)2
2(2𝐶𝑎0 ∙ 𝑆𝑖𝑂2 ) + 4𝐻2 𝑂 = 3𝐶𝑎𝑂 ∙ 2𝑆𝑖𝑂2 ∙ 3𝐻2 𝑂 + 𝐶𝑎(𝑂𝐻)2

5. No. The compressive strength of the concrete cannot be predicted accurately from
mortar cube strength , since the concrete strength is also affected by the aggregate
characteristics, the concrete mixing and the construction procedures.
6. When the amount of water is high: due to high amount of water , some water will still
be left when the concrete hardens. The remaining water will slowly evaporate, leaving some
voids in the concrete block. The presence of voids will reduce the strength of concrete.
The low water-cement ratio leads to higher strength and durability but the problem may
occur while placing the mix (workability). A low water-cement ratio also increases resistance to
weathering , provides good bond between concrete layers and limits volume change due to
compression/expansion.

7. Portland cement is a mixture of calcareous and argillaceous materials. The basic raw
materials used for production of Portland cement are iron oxide, lime silica and alumina and are
made by heating raw materials in a kiln. The homogeneous mixture of raw materials to a
sintering temperature is made.
The major raw material for Portland cement is limestone (𝐶𝑎𝐶𝑂3 ). This is mixed with
clay which contains alumino-silicate.
Some materials like clay, shale , sand, iron ore, bauxite, fly ash and slag are also used in
the manufacture of Portland cement.

8. The typical ratio for normal strength cement concrete is 0.4. The ratio of weight of
water to the weight of cement is 0.4. This means the weight of cement is more than the weight
of water. The strength of the amount of water is decreased, the strength of cement increases
accordingly.

Hydration is the mixing of cement with water. The minimum amount of water to cement
ratio required for hydration is 0.22-0.25 kg of water per kilogram of cement. In such a mix the
amount of water is reduced to minimum. The water is used only for the initial hydration of the
cement particles.

9. The fineness of cement particles is an important property that must be carefully
controlled. Since hydration at the surface of cement particles, the finer the cement particles,
the larger the surface area and the faster the hydration. Therefore, finer material results in a
faster strength development and a greater initial heat of hydration . Increasing fineness beyond
the requirements for a type of cement increases production costs and can be detrimental to the
quality of the concrete.
10. Air entrainers produce tiny air bubbles in the hardened concrete to provide space for
water to expand upon freezing. As moisture within the concrete pore structure freezes, internal
stresses develop. Internal stresses reduce the durability and strength of hardened concrete,
especially when cycles of freeze and thaw are repeated many times. Therefore, air entrainers
help releasing the energy trapped in the concrete during the contraction and expansion cycles
from freezing and heating, reducing the formation of the cracks within concrete.