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1.

Natural
 Natural sand, river rock,
 Quarry rock (crushed)

Manufactured & recycled material

 Pulverized concrete & asphalt
 Steel slugs
 Styrofoam
2. For sieves >1/4 inch openings, number means the size of the opening
For sieves <1/4 inch, the number represents the openings per linear inch.
Number 8 sieve has 8 openings per linear inch or 64 openings per square inch.

3.

4. Bone dry (oven dry)
Air dry (some moisture)
Saturated-surface dry (SSD – the aggregate’s voids are filled with moisture but the main surface
is dry)
Moist (aggregate has moist In excess of SSD condition)

5. Consensus properties:
Coarse : 1.angularity
2. flat and elongated particles
Fine: 1. clay content
2.fine aggregate angularity

6. Fine aggregates use more binder because they have bigger surface area and they absorb more
binder.
7. Large aggregates are more pervious. The bigger the size, the more pores the aggregate will
have. Permeability decreases with the decrease of aggregate’s size.
8. Sand A – rounded particles (good compaction under free fall because of the round shape)
9. Taking SSD mass as Moist mass*

𝐴
a. 𝐺𝑠𝑏 = 𝐵−𝐶 ,

A=dry weight
B=SSD weight
C=submerged weight

666.19
𝐺𝑠𝑏 = = 1.65 (𝑔/𝑐𝑚3)
733.21−329.5

𝑊𝑚𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑡 −𝑊𝑑𝑟𝑦
b. 𝑀𝐶 = ∙ 100%
𝑊𝑑𝑟𝑦
733.21−666.19
𝑀𝐶 = ∙ 100% = 10.06%
666.19

𝐵−𝐴 733.21−666.19
c. A(%) = ∙ 100% = 666.19
∙ 100% = 10.06%
𝐴

𝑉𝑠
10. 𝑉𝑠 % = ∙ 100%
𝑉
𝑉𝑠= Volume of sand
𝑉 =total volume (cylinder)

%Volume of air = 100 - 𝑉𝑠 %
𝑚𝑠 200
𝑉𝑠 = 𝜌𝑠
= 2.8
= 71.42 ml

71.42
𝑉𝑠 % = 100
∙ 100% = 71.42 %

% volume of air = 100 – 71.42 = 28.58%