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1. LA test measures the resistance of aggregates against wearing (abrasion).

It is an important
property of concrete in roads and in floor surfaces subjected to heavy traffic.
2. A. More binder in the mix as river gravel has a bigger size and it will not absorb as much binder
as the smaller angular aggregates (more surface).
B. Asphalt will have uneven compaction due to different load dissipation and lack of friction
between particles. Therefore , the asphalt will deform and have lower strength.
C. Asphalt will have lower wear resistance due to the size and shape of the river gravel, which
has less strength and smoother surface.
3. The durability of an asphalt pavement is a function of the air-void content. The lower the air-
voids, the less permeable the mixture becomes. Too high an air-void content provides
passageways through the mix for the entrance of damaging air and water.
Density and void content are directly related. The higher the density, the lower the percentage
of voids in the mix, and vice versa.
4. The volume represented by the difference between SSD and submerged weight of the aggregate
is the BULK VOLUME or the volume of water displaced by the aggregate in a saturated, surface-
dry condition.
5. Apparent specific gravity is greater.
Comparing to apparent, dry bulk specific gravity considers the bulk volume of the aggregate and
that includes the volume of air and water within the permeable voids. (check fraction
denominators of the formulas).

𝜌𝑏 𝑚2 −𝑚1 90−30.5
6. %𝑉 = ∙ 100% = ∙ 100% = ∙ 100% = 48.06%
𝐺𝑠𝑏 ∙𝜌𝑤 𝑉∙𝐺𝑠𝑏 ∙𝜌𝑤 2.650∙0.75∙62.29
7.

sieve
spec target
size A B C 30/30/40 25/25/50 35/30/35 35/35/30 33/33/33
limits gradation
mm
25 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 99
80-
12 90 100 92 100 97.6 98 97.6 97.2 96.36
100
9.5 70-90 80 100 54 84 79.8 80.5 80.6 79.1 78.54
4.75 50-70 60 79 23 51 51 51 52.4 51 50.49
2.36 30-50 40 66 3 29 32.3 31.75 34.15 32.85 32.34
0.6 18-29 23.5 41 1 19 20.2 20 21.3 20.4 20.13
0.3 13-23 18 38 0 8 14.6 13.5 16.1 15.7 15.18
0.15 8-16 12 21 0 14 11.9 12.25 12.25 11.55 11.55
0.075 4-10 7 12 0 9 7.2 7.5 7.35 6.9 6.93

1 1 1
𝐺= 𝑃𝐴 𝑃𝐵 𝑃𝐶 = 0.33 0.33 0.33 = 0.3876
= 2.579
+ + + +
𝐺𝐴 𝐺𝐵 𝐺𝐶 2.744 2.390 2.552 𝑃

= 𝑃𝐴 ∙ 𝑋𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 ∙ 𝑋𝐵 + 𝑃𝐶 ∙ 𝑋𝐶 = 0.33 ∙ 0.4 + 0.33 ∗ 3.1 + 0.33 ∗ 5.4 = 2.937%