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# Middle Technical University Electronics Lab.

## Electrical Engineering Technical College 2nd Stage

Electrical Power Technical Engineering Dept. Mohammed D. Altamemi

Experement-2

2-1 Object:

## To know some of diode applications as a rectifier in AC to DC converter. And to

show the characteristics of a half wave rectifier.
2-2 Theory:
The figure (2-1) shows a circuit known as a half wave rectifier. In the positive half
of the voltage cycle, the diode is polarized directly by all the instant voltage which are
bigger than the DC voltage (about 0.7Vfor Si, and 0.3V for Ge). That will produce almost
half of the voltage of sinusoidal wave through the load resistor. To simplify the
explanation, we will use the ideal diode approximation because the source peak voltage is
usually bigger than the diode compensation voltage. The peak value of the rectified
voltage is equal to the peak value of applied voltage. In the negative half of the cycle, the
diode is polarized inversely; not taking into account the leakage current (or inverse
current), the load current drops to 0; this is the reason why the voltage in the load drops
to 0 between 180o and 360o.

## Figure (2-1) half wave rectifier circuit

The more important concepts respects to the half-wave rectifier is that it changes a
voltage with alternating input into a pulsating direct voltage, this is, which is always
positive. In other words, the load current always flows in the same direction; this
conversion AC to DC is referred as rectification. If the drop in the diode is not taken into
Middle Technical University Electronics Lab.
Electrical Engineering Technical College 2nd Stage
Electrical Power Technical Engineering Dept. Mohammed D. Altamemi
account, the average or DC value of the half-wave signal, which is indicated in figures
(2-2) is
Vav (average) = [ Vs (peak)/π] ……………….. (2-1)
This is the direct voltage that would be read in a voltmeter and at which we will
refer to when we talk about the rectified voltage.

Figure (2-2) output voltage wave form of half wave rectifier with average voltage

Another important aspect for the designer is to find out the diode nominal current.
This data indicates the current diode can run. For example, the diode IN4001 (that is use
in this experiment) resists a nominal current Io of 1A.
When the diode is polarized inversely, it does not operate. There is not voltage in
the load. However we should anticipate which the peak inverse voltage would be and
check that the chosen diode is able to resist it.
2-3 Procedure:
Circuit in figure (2-3) shows a half wave rectifier circuit whose operation will be
seen below, you can see the resistor RL= 10 KΩ values. And the number of diode used
(1N4001).

## Figure (2-3) connection of half wave rectifier circuit

Middle Technical University Electronics Lab.
Electrical Engineering Technical College 2nd Stage
Electrical Power Technical Engineering Dept. Mohammed D. Altamemi
1. Connect the circuit shown in figure (2-3).
2. Check the value of R.M.S and peak supplied voltage values in the supply voltage,
and set it to Vpeak = 20 V, or Vrms = 14.14 V in circuit sources.
3. Connect an oscilloscope to show input and output voltage wave forms.
4. Draw input voltage wave form, measure Vpeak, and T for it.
5. Draw output voltage wave form, measure Vpeak, and T for it.
6. Draw the current wave form depending on calculated Vpeak in step 5 and RL.
7. Put the two terminals of channel B of oscilloscope a cross the diode to show diode
voltage wave form, draw Vd, measure T, and Vpeak for it.
2-4 Discussion:
1. Find the average voltage Vav and R.M.S voltage Vrms of load voltage in step 5 in
procedure.
2. Find the average current Iav and R.M.S current Irms of load voltage in step 6 in
procedure.
3. Find the output DC power Pdc, and input AC power (Pac = Irms * Vin rms) of half
wave rectifier, and then find efficiency of the system.
4. If the terminals of diode are reversed in circuit of figure (2-3), how will that effect
on output voltage on load? Draw that.
5. Find the RF of the output voltage wave form in step 5.
6. If the eternal voltage of silicon diode and diode resistor (Vd = 0.7 V, Rdf = 0.3 Ω)
are taken into account, how will that effect on the load voltage in circuit in figure
(2-3)? Draw that.