You are on page 1of 12

Mitosis and Meiosis

The process of mitosis
• Mitosis is the process of cell division and contains five different steps.
prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Prophase
• During this stage the identical clones of chromosomes condense and
compact themselves into other parts called sister chromatids. Those
chromatids are merged into the center point called the centromere.
The mitotic spindle is a structure made up of long proteins named
micro tubeles.
Prometaphase and metaphase
In this stage the envelope that protects the nucleus breaks down and
lets the cytoplasm and the nucleus to be together. Kinetochores form
around the centromere. The mitotic spindle elongates away from the
poles and connects to the kinetochores. When the metaphase
happens, the microtubules pull the sister chromatids back and forth
until they line up into a plane this part the equatorial plane, along the
center of the cell.
Anaphase
• During anaphase stage , the sister chromatids are separated
repeatedly at their centromeres. The departed chromosomes are
then pulled by the spindle to opposite poles of the cell. The Anaphase
stage ensures that each individual daughter cell receives an exact
replica set of chromosomes.
The Telophase
• During the last stage the telophase. The nuclear membrane creates
around each set of chromosomes to disconnect the nuclear DNA from
the cytoplasm. The chromosomes begin to uncoil, which makes them
diffuse and less compact. During the duration of telophase, the cell
completes a separate process called cytokinesis. That process splits
the cytoplasm of the parental cell into a pair of daughter cells.

Meiosis
• Meiosis is the process in which the cells divide the chromosomes by
half and makes four gamete cells. This process is indeed necessary to
create egg and sperm cells. These chromosome halves complete
themselves during sexual reproduction. Meiosis starts with a parent
cell that has two copies of its chromosomes. The parent cells go
through a DNA cloning and a nucleus division. The result of this
process is four daughter cells that have half of the chromosomes of
the diploid parent cell meaning its haploid.
Meiosis continued
• Meiosis starts following a round of DNA cloning in cells in the male or
female sex organs. The process is divided into to parts meiosis 1 and
meiosis 2, these divisions both have phases to their processes.
Meiosis 1
• The stages for meiosis 1 is the same as mitosis in the prophase then changes in the next
stage. The start meiotic division, starts with prophase I, during prophase I, the complex
of DNA and protein known as chromatin compacts to form chromosomes. The sets of
cloned chromosomes are named sister chromatids, and they stay joined at a middle
point named the centromere. A large structure called the meiotic spindle also forms
from long proteins called microtubules on each side, or pole, of the cell. In between the
prophase 1 and the metaphase I, the sets of homologous chromosome take shape of
tetrads. In most of the process of meiosis 1 is pretty much the same as mitosis but in
other ways it is very different. Inside the tetrad any set of chromatid arms can overlap
and fuse in a procedure named crossing-over or recombination. This procedure makes it
so there can be different genes. During metaphase 1 the homologous sets of
chromosomes lineup on either side of the equatorial plate. In anaphase 1 the spindle
fibers contract and pull the homologous sets, they all have two chromatids, away from
each other and in the direction each pole of the cell. During telophase 1 the
chromosomes are enclosed in nuclei. The cell now undergoes a process named
cytokinesis that divides the cytoplasm of the original cell into two daughter cells. Every
daughter cell is haploid and has only one set of chromosomes or half the total number of
chromosomes of the original cell.
Meiosis 2
• Meiosis 2 is a mitotic division of every of the haploid cells produced in
meiosis 1. During prophase 2 the chromosomes compact, and a new
set of spindle fibers create. The chromosomes begin moving toward
the center of the cell. During metaphase 2 the centromeres of the
paired chromatids line up with the equatorial plate in the two cells
cells. Then in anaphase 2 the chromosomes depart at the
centromeres. The spindle fibers pull the separated chromosomes
toward each pole of the cell. At last during telophase the
chromosomes are closed inside nuclear membranes. Then Cytokinesis
follows dividing the cytoplasm of the two cells. In the end of meiosis
there are four haploid daughter cells that go on to develop into either
sperm or egg cells
The difference
• There are a couple differences in these two processes and the most
important one is that mitosis is asexual reproduction and meiosis is
sexual reproduction.
Bibliography
• Mitosis: https://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/mitosis-cell-
division-47

• Meiosis:https://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/meiosis-88