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Metode

Enumerasi
Budi Marpaung, ST., MT.
Tujuan

1. Mahasiswa mampu prinsip optimasi dalam
operations research.
2. Mahasiswa memahami prinsip Metode
Enumerasi dalam optimasi P.L.
3. Mahasiswa mampu menyelesaikan
masalah PL dengan Metode Enumerasi.

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Prinsip Optimasi dalam P.L.

Initiation
Harus Standar
& Kanonikal
Stopping Y
Stop
Rule..?
N

Generate
Solution
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Inisiasi (1) : Standarisasi

Maks. Z = 3x1 + 2x2
d.k. x1 + 2x2 ≤ 6
2x1 + x2 ≤ 8
-x1 + x2 ≤ 1 Maks. Z =3x1 + 2x2+0x3+0x4+0x5+0x6
x2 ≤ 2 d.k. x1 + 2x2 + x3 =6
x1 ≥ 0; x2 ≥ 0 2x1 + x2 + x4 =8
-x1 + x2 + x5 =1
x2 + x6 = 2
x1; x2 x3; x4; x5; x6 ≥ 0

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Inisiasi (2) : Kanonikalisasi

Maks. Z = 3x1 + 2x2 + 0x3 + 0x4 + 0x5 + 0x6
d.k. x1 + 2x2 + x3 =6
2x1 + x2 + x4 =8
-x1 + x2 + x5 =1
x2 + x6 = 2
x1; x2 x3; x4; x5; x6 ≥ 0

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Contoh Lain Sistem Kanonikal

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 8 …..(1)
3x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x5 = 7 ..…(2)
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0

Program di atas sudah Standar dan Kanonikal

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Bagaimana Bila Belum Kanonikal..?

Lakukan Operasi Pivot
atau Operasi Baris Elementer (OBE)

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Contoh Operasi Pivot atau OBE

• x1 – 2x2 + x3 – 4x4 + 2x5 = 2 Baris 1
• x1 – x2 - x3 - 3x4 - x5 = 4 Baris 2
Operasi Pivot (OBE) :
1. Baris (1) – 2 Baris (2), lalu dikalikan (-1)
2. Baris (2) – Baris (1)

Hasil :
 x1 –3x3 – 2x4 - 4x5 = 6 Baris 1’
 x2 -2x3 + x4 - 3x5 = 2 Baris 2’

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Metode Enumerasi
• Dalam KBBI, Enumerasi = pencacahan satu
per satu
• Mencoba semua kemungkinan solusi

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 8 …..(1)
3x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x5 = 7 ..…(2)
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0

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Inisiasi : Standarisasi

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5 Solusi layak:
d.k. x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 8 …..(1) x1 = x2= x3=0
3x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x5 = 7 ..…(2)
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
x4 = 8
x5 = 7
Z = -1(8) +1(7)=-1

silahkan cari 9 kemungkinan solusi lainnya

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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (1)
Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 =8
3x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x5 = 7
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0

Solusi awal= Iterasi - 1 Optimalkah
solusi ini?
Non-basis: x1 = x2= x3=0
Basis: x4 = 8; x5 = 7
Stopping
Z1 = 5(0)+2(0)+3(0)-1(8) +1(7)=-1 Rule
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (2)
Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 =8
3x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x5 = 7
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0

Jika x1 masuk jadi basis, dengan naik 1 satuan (x2=x3=0)
1 + 2(0)+2(0) + x4 = 8  x4 =7
3(1) + 4(0) + (0) + x5 = 7  x5 =4
Z2 = 5(1)+2(0)+3(0)-1(7)+1(4)=2  ΔZ= Z2 – Z1 = 2-(-1)= +3 > 0

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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (3)
Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 =8
3x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x5 = 7
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Jika x2 masuk jadi basis, dengan naik 1 satuan (x1=x3=0)
0 + 2(1)+2(0) + x4 = 8  x4 =6
3(0) + 4(1) + (0) + x5 = 7  x5 =3
Z2 = 5(0)+2(1)+3(0)-1(6)+1(3)=-1  ΔZ= Z2 – Z1 = -1-(-1)= 0

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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (4)
Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 =8
3x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x5 = 7
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Jika x3 masuk jadi basis, dengan naik 1 satuan (x1=x2=0)
0 + 2(0)+2(1) + x4 = 8  x4 =6
3(0) + 4(0) + (1) + x5 = 7  x5 =6
Z2 = 5(0)+2(0)+3(1)-1(6)+1(6)=3  ΔZ= Z2 – Z1 = 3-(-1)= +4 > 0

x3 masuk jadi basis
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (5)
Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 =8
3x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x5 = 7
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
x3 masuk jadi basis, variabel keluar...?
Jika x3 masuk jadi basis, dengan naik 1 satuan (x1=x2=0)
0 + 2(0)+ 2x3 + x4 = 8  x3 =4
3(0) + 4(0) + x3 + x5 = 7  x3 =7
Min [4;7] = 4  x3 naik 3 satuan, dan x4 keluar dari basis
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (6)
Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 =8
3x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x5 = 7
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Operasi Baris Elementer
Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 1/2x1 + x2 + x3 + 1/2x4 =4
5/2x1 + 3x2 - 1/2x4 + x5 = 3
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (7)

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 1/2x1 + x2 + x3 + 1/2x4 =4
5/2x1 + 3x2 - 1/2x4 + x5 =3
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Solusi Iterasi 2
Non-basis: x1 = x2= x4=0
Basis: x3 = 4; x5 = 3
Z2 = 5(0)+2(0)+3(4)-1(0) +1(3)=+15
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (8)

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 1/2x1 + x2 + x3 + 1/2x4 =4
5/2x1 + 3x2 - 1/2x4 + x5 = 3
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Jika x1 masuk jadi basis, dengan naik 1 satuan (x2=x4=0)
1/2 (1)+ (0) + x3 + 1/2(0) = 4  x3 =7/2
5/2(1) + 3(0) -1/2(0) + x5 = 3  x5 =1/2
Z3 = 5(1)+2(0)+3(7/2)-1(0)+1(1/2)=16
 ΔZ= Z3 – Z2 = 16-(15)= 1 > 0
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (9)

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 1/2x1 + x2 + x3 + 1/2x4 =4
5/2x1 + 3x2 - 1/2x4 + x5 = 3
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Jika x2 masuk jadi basis, dengan naik 1 satuan (x1=x4=0)
1/2 (0)+ 1 + x3 + 1/2(0) = 4  x3 =3
5/2(0) + 3(1) -1/2(0) + x5 = 3  x5 =0
Z3 = 5(0)+2(1)+3(3)-1(0)+1(0)=11
 ΔZ= Z3 – Z2 = 11-(15)= -4 < 0
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (10)

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 1/2x1 + x2 + x3 + 1/2x4 =4
5/2x1 + 3x2 - 1/2x4 + x5 = 3
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Jika x4 masuk jadi basis, dengan naik 1 satuan (x1=x2=0)
1/2 (0)+ 0 + x3 + 1/2(1) = 4  x3 =7/2
5/2(0) + 3(0) -1/2(1) + x5 = 3  x5 =7/2
Z3 = 5(0)+2(0)+3(7/2)-1(1)+1(7/2)=13
 ΔZ= Z3 – Z2 = 13-15 = -2 < 0
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (11)

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 1/2x1 + x2 + x3 + 1/2x4 =4
5/2x1 + 3x2 - 1/2x4 + x5 = 3
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
x1 masuk jadi basis, variabel keluar...?
Jika x1 masuk jadi basis, dengan naik 1 satuan (x2=x4=0)
1/2 (x1)+ (0) + x3 + 1/2(0) = 4  x1 =8
5/2(x1) +3(0) -1/2(0) + x5 = 3  x1 =6/5
Min [8;6/5] = 6/5  x1 naik 6/5 satuan, dan x5 keluar dari basis
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (12)

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 1/2x1 + x2 + x3 + 1/2x4 =4
5/2x1 + 3x2 - 1/2x4 + x5 = 3
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Operasi Baris Elementer
Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 2/5x2 + x3 + 3/5x4 - 1/5x5 = 17/5
x1 + 6/5x2 - 1/5x4 + 2/5x5 = 6/5
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (13)

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 2/5x2 + x3 + 3/5x4 - 1/5x5 = 17/5
x1 + 6/5x2 - 1/5x4 + 2/5x5 = 6/5
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Solusi Iterasi 3
Non-basis: x2 = x4= x5=0
Basis: x3 = 17/5; x1 = 6/5
Z1 = 5(6/5)+2(0)+3(17/5)-1(0) +1(0)=+81/5
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (14)

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 2/5x2 + x3 + 3/5x4 - 1/5x5 = 17/5
x1 + 6/5x2 - 1/5x4 + 2/5x5 = 6/5
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Jika x2 masuk jadi basis, dengan naik 1 satuan (x4=x5=0)
2/5(1) + x3 + 3/5(0) -1/5(0) = 17/5  x3 =3
x1 + 6/5(1) -1/5(0) + 2/5(0) = 6/5  x1 =0
Z4 = 5(0)+2(1)+3(3)-1(0)+1(0)=11
 ΔZ= Z4 – Z3 = 11-(81/5)= -26/5 < 0
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (15)

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 2/5x2 + x3 + 3/5x4 - 1/5x5 = 17/5
x1 + 6/5x2 - 1/5x4 + 2/5x5 = 6/5
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Jika x4 masuk jadi basis, dengan naik 1 satuan (x2=x5=0)
2/5(0) + x3 + 3/5(1) -1/5(0) = 17/5  x3 =14/5
x1 + 6/5(0) -1/5(1) + 2/5(0) = 6/5  x1 =7/5
Z4 = 5(7/5)+2(0)+3(14/5)-1(1)+1(0)=72/5
 ΔZ= Z4 – Z3 = 72/15 - (81/5)= -9/5 < 0
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (16)

Maks Z = 5x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 – x4 + x5
d.k. 2/5x2 + x3 + 3/5x4 - 1/5x5 = 17/5
x1 + 6/5x2 - 1/5x4 + 2/5x5 = 6/5
x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 ≥ 0
Jika x5 masuk jadi basis, dengan naik 1 satuan (x2=x4=0)
2/5(0) + x3 + 3/5(0) -1/5(1) = 17/5  x3 =18/5
x1 + 6/5(0) -1/5(0) + 2/5(1) = 6/5  x1 = 4/5
Z4 = 5(4/5)+2(0)+3(18/5) - 1(0) +1(1)=79/5
 ΔZ= Z4 – Z3 = 79/5-(81/10)= -2/5 < 0
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Metode Enumerasi: Contoh Soal (17)

Semua ΔZ= Z4 – Z3 < 0, maka
solusi sudah optimal

Iterasi 1 Iterasi 2 Iterasi 3
x4 = 8 x3 = 4 x3 = 17/5
x5 = 7 x5 = 3 x1 = 6/5
Z1 = -1 Z2 = 15 Z3 = 81/5

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Kesimpulan/Ringkasan

1. Prinsip optimasi dalam OR terdiri dari tiga
tahap, yaitu initiation, stopping rule, dan
generate solution.
2. Metode Enumerasi menjajaki solusi dari
semua solusi layak.
3. Solusi optimal Metode Grafis sama dengan
Metode Enumerasi.

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Soal Latihan 1
Selesaikan problem berikut menggunakan
Metode Grafis dan Metode Enumerasi, dan
bandingkan hasil keduanya.

Maks Z = x1 + 3 x2
d.k. x1 ≤ 5
x1 + 2x2 ≤ 10
x2 ≤ 4
x1 ≥ 0, x2 ≥ 0
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Soal Latihan 2

Selesaikan problem berikut
menggunakan Metode Enumerasi

Maks Z = x1 + 2x2+ 3x3 + 4x4
d.k. x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + 3x4 ≤ 20
2x1 + x2 + 3x3 + 2x4 ≤ 20
x1, x2, x3, x4 ≥ 0

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Soal Latihan 2

Selesaikan problem berikut menggunakan
Metode Enumerasi

Min Z = 3x1 + x2 + x3 + x4
d.k. 2x1 + 2x2 + x3 =4
3x1 + x2 + x4 = 6
x1, x2, x3, x4 ≥ 0

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SEKIAN

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