# Textiles Calculations

Integrated Design: MATS10250
Lecturer: Dr Bill Sampson Office: C51b, Sackville Street Building Email: w.sampson@manchester.ac.uk

These lecture notes are designed to accompany the slides used in lectures, which you can download from BlackBoard.

Background
Everyone studying this course is concerned with some aspect of textiles. Whether our primary interest is in design, fashion, marketing, textiles technology, management or retailing at some stage we need to make use of numbers to characterise textile materials. We may need to know, for example • • • • how much fabric is needed to manufacture a garment? how much yarn is required to weave a fabric? how close together should yarns be woven to make are fabric of a given weight? how much will it cost to manufacture a fabric or garment?

We will deal with these questions, and some others, as we go through the course. These examples illustrate the learning outcomes for this part of the course. A full statement of the intended learning outcomes can be found on BlackBoard, but we summarise what you should be able to do at the end of the course in the following statement: At the end of these lectures you should be able to use simple calculations to obtain numbers that characterise the structural properties of textile materials. You should also understand what these numbers mean, how they relate to each other and their implications for the cost of textiles materials.

Often. though wool and synthetic staples can be more than 30 cm long. This can be easily observed by taking apart garden string. but we will consider them just to be rods or cylinders that are much longer than they are wide. but its cross-section is now more complex than that of a single rod. or hard twist and • Low twist.and S-twist. With Professor Wortmann. There are two types of twist: • • S-twist Z-twist If a yarn is made by spinning together previously spun yarns. More commonly filaments and staple fibres are converted to yarn before weaving or knitting. natural fibres tend to be short and synthetic fibres tend to be extremely long. The final twisting direction is used to characterise the yarn. but many are. wool and silk. so its diameter is unlikely to be well-defined. As a rule. nylon. are woven out of single filaments called monofilaments. The length of a fibre divided by its width (or diameter) is called its aspect ratio. this involves combining fibres to make a thicker rod-like structure. Spun yarn is made by twisting staple yarns together. you will look at the structure of these fibres.Some terminology In this part of the course. there are exceptions: silk is a natural fibre and a continuous filament. physicists consider a fibre to be an object with aspect ratio 20 or more. flax. or synthetic fibres Examples of natural fibres are cotton. textile fibres typically have much greater aspect ratios. This is often characterised by the terms • High twist.or S-) the amount of twist can be varied. though all can be classified as being either • • natural fibres. also we can make a staple from a synthetic fibre by cutting continuous filament into short lengths. As well as the type of twist (Z. There are two main types of yarn: • • Spun staple yarn Continuous filament yarn. Short staple fibres may only be a centimetre or two long. Examples of synthetic fibres are polyester. particularly industrial textiles. etc. . Spinning yields a continuous yarn. acrylic. then the spinning alternates between Z. some continuous filament yarns are not twisted. We use the following terminology: • • Short fibres are called staple Very long fibres are called continuous filament or just filament Of course. Some textiles. or soft twist Spinning is often used to blending fibres of different types. we will consider the smallest unit of our textile to be a fibre. There are many types of fibres.

We consider first the terminology of weaving and woven fabrics. Just as we have names for the two directions in woven fabrics. Before that lecture. and knitting In weaving. Crosswise yarns are called weft yarns. Wikipedia is always not the most authoritative source of information. the weft yarns turn through 180° so there or no free ends to the yarn at the warp direction edges of the fabric.In this course we will consider two ways of making textiles from yarns: • • weaving. For completeness. yarns are interlaced with each other to form a fabric. we will start to use the terminology we have introduced to identify useful numbers that characterise fibres. fabrics won’t fray at the selvedge. but note that they have a random-like structure of fibres. you should read these notes with a copy of the overheads to hand. we mention a third class of textile called nonwovens. These are called the selvedges. which are either chemically or thermally bonded to each other or entangled so that the fabric holds together. but has quite good entries for most of these terms. we have names for the two directions in knitted fabrics: • • Wales are the vertical columns of stitches Courses are the horizontal rows of stitches In the next lecture. Generally weaving involves interlacing two sets of parallel yarns that are perpendicular (at right angles) to each other: • • Lengthwise yarns are called warp yarns. and weft yarns lie in the weft direction. With each pass of the shuttle through the warp yarns. we will not consider these further in this course. yarns are stitched together in loops. Warp yarns lie in the warp direction of the fabric. yarns and fabrics. We have mentioned that knitted fabrics consist of stitches. whereas in knitting. These stitches are loops of yarn that pass through other loops of yarn. . It is a good idea also to look up the terms we have introduced and that are highlighted in bold and underlined text on the internet.